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This is because of the constant information on the effects of smoking in relation to health conditions. This stage illustrates on the essence of quitting smoking without the crucial plan by smokers (Aveyard et al., 2008).
During this third stage, it is vital for the individual engaging in smoking behavior to adopt an effective plan towards transforming the behavior. The individual must prepare mental and psychologically for the adoption and implementation of change in order to obtain maximum utilization of the quitting technique. This also entails transformation of other aspects of lifestyles that might pile pressure on the individual in relation to the smoking behavior. In most cases, smokers decide on the quitting dates and mark it on the calendar to aid their quitting process. Other smokers also inform their friends or relatives on the quitting technique and dates to obtain some accountability in the process (Aveyard et al.,…
P Aveyard, L Massey, a Parsons, S Manaseki, C Griffin (2008). The effect of Transtheoretical
Model based interventions on smoking cessation Social Science & Medicine DOI:
Christopher J. Armitage, Madelynne a. Arden (2008). How useful are the stages of change for targeting interventions? Randomized test of a brief intervention to reduce smoking.
Change Theory and Social Change
Domestic violence and abuse is a very severe difficulty, for both the victims and the abusers. There are a number of theories about what makes batterers use abuse on those who are close to them. One outlook is that batterers are toughened criminals who carry out their crimes in a cognizant, deliberate way to attain the supremacy they think men are entitled to. Others consider abuse to be the product of deep psychological and developmental scars, which are not gender particular. Some experts have reached an agreement on a number of universal characteristics amid batterers, they are scheming, calculating, frequently see themselves as victims and think that men have a predetermined right to be in charge of all facets of a relationship (Buddy, 2011).
Domestic Abuse takes place in associations where disagreement is the incessant consequence of authority inequity between the partners and one…
ACA Code of Ethics. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/CodeOfEthics/TP/Home/CT2.aspx
Buddy, T. (2011). Domestic Abuse - Why Do They Do It? Retrieved from http://alcoholism.about.com/cs/abuse/a/990407.htm
Ethical Dilemmas in Domestic Violence. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.novicecounselor.com/2009/03/25/ethical-dilemmas-in-domestic-violence/
Schwarzer, Ralf. (2011). The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). Retrieved from http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~health/hapa.htm
The "bookends" of the model being oganization wok settings and membes is accuate and pagmatic as well.
In the authos' analysis of the conceptual models fo undestanding oganizational change in chapte 8 illustates the depth of his expetise in the academic field and his pagmatism at tanslating theoy into esults. It must have been the most challenging chapte of the book to wite as it moves quickly between the theoetical and the pagmatic. It also shows though examples, both academic and fom actual expeience, just how capicious, even chaotic oganizational change is to manage and make pemanent. Clealy the autho has esevations about the classical Lewin Model of change and povides a thoughtful analysis using D. Edga Schein's models on copoate cultue eseach to moe fully define the thee-step Lewin pocess. What is inteesting about the pogession of the analysis of the Lewin Model is the inclusion of phases of…
references in how Dr. Burke illustrates through analysis of organizations just how critical it is to pay attention to the smaller processes if the larger management change strategy is to be effective.
The Burke-Litwin Model for organizational change is also analyzed from the standpoint of Dr. David McClelland's contributions of individual's propensities for motivation to change. The author navigates the next few chapters well, mixing the theoretical models as a means to show the process-based approaches to making organizational change with the pragmatic lessons learned of a practitioner. He completes this analysis with an assessment of how the individual attributes of each model matter far more than the far-reaching, ore environmentally based ones. In this way he communicates that for lasting change to occur in any organization that has got to be an internalization of the goals and objectives they are based on. Without this there is no lasting change, he seems to be implying through the framework and model analysis completed. These points together then form an excellent foundation for the last chapters of the book that center on transformational leadership. These last chapters also form an excellent capstone series that tie together the best and worst practices of organizational change, the core concepts and frameworks and models, and the strategies for overcoming resistance to change. These chapters were the most prescriptive in how to transform management into leadership in the context of organizational change. They were also interesting to see how Dr. Burke analyses the phases of organizational change an how the practical lessons learned made the process more challenging and daunting that it is often made out to be. Throughout the book there is also the common thread of how chaotic change can be over time and how transformational leaders need to create a resiliency and trust to be effective. These chapters define transformational leadership in those contexts and also provide insights into real-world examples of how the authors' process-centricism has made a different. The use of hybrid models of transformational and transactional leadership also is useful for seeing how rewards are defined and fulfilled.
Organizational change is never a one-and-done proposition, and to make change effective and last, there are more complexities than many theorists and managers list in their advice. This book provides a solid foundation that shows just how chaotic change can be and that situational leadership that can transform and reward is crucial. It also shows that worst practices in organizational change happen when plans are too dogmatically adhered to. The author brings a message of organizational agility and the need to listen and respond to the complexities of change, not try to overcome it with an engineered response. Trust as the catalyst of change and the ability to internalize change is crucial.
Current students struggling to pay tuition say the money should go to more scholarships and oppose the stadium. The conflict begins to grow more heated, and tensions between athletic students on scholarships and poorer students without scholarships grow, as do tension between teams, and faculty who oppose so much money going to a stadium vs. more conservative alumni.
The most common conception of this change process among dialectical scholars is a helical model, in which responsiveness to one dialectical pole, or opposite, creates pressure to attend to the opposite dialectical pole. Over time, a relationship pair cycles back and forth between responsiveness to the opposing demands" (Dialectical theories, 2009, Marriage and Family Encyclopedia). Thus, in the dialectical change model, the change that occurs is a reexamination of the underlying conflicts between different organizational actors. The football stadium comes to symbolize, for some students and faculty, a lack of concern on…
Dialectical theories: Contradictions and Change. (2009). Marriage and Family Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22 Mar, 2009. http://family.jrank.org/pages/391/Dialectical-Theory-Contradictions-Change.html
Kezar, Adrianna. (2001). "Understanding and facilitating change in higher education in the 21st
Century.' ERIC Educational Reports. FindArticles.com. Retrieved 22 Mar, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pric/is_200100/ai_133467957
Lewin’s Change and Force Field Analysis Theories Applied to a Geropsych Unit
Using Lewin’s Change and Force Field Analysis theories to produce a more dedicated Geropsych Unit can be accomplished by putting each theory into practice. First, the goal of the change must be identified, which here is to develop a staff that is dedicated to its work and patients. Then the process can be begun. The first step is to remove the workers from their current state of awareness regarding how things are done. According to Lewin’s change theory, this is the period of “unfreezing” that must occur, wherein the old manner of execution is unfrozen or unfixed in the mind so that the new method can be inserted and learned. In the Geropsych Unit, the key to developing a more dedicated staff is to unfreeze the mind and help the workers to “unlearn” the behaviors that have allowed…
Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and
empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2): 125-143.
Dolansky, M.A., Moore, S.M. (2013). Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN):
The Key is Systems Thinking. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 18(3): Manuscript 1.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence.
Emotion, 1: 232-242.
If the need for change is accepted, rationally, then emotionally, then gradually workers will become more willing and open to learn, and to incorporate the change into the organization's standard operating procedures. Individuals are more apt to accept change if, for example, they are convinced that it will improve patient care in the long run, than if the directive is merely dispensed as required because 'management says so.'
The critical aspect of fifth phase of the change process of "learning" is how changes are introduced. Communicating is an essential aspect of 'buy-in' but so is fostering a positive sense within the organization about the proposed changes by 'creating early wins' (Campbell 2008). This will lead to an increase in people's perceived own competence in their new roles. Unfortunately, starting with easier projects is not always feasible, but even if it is not, a Clinical Nurse Leader must be particularly sensitive…
Campbell, Robert James. (2008, January/March). Change management in healthcare.
The Health Care Manager. 27 (1): 23-39
Recklies, Oliver. (2010). Managing change. The Manager. Retrieved February 24, 2010 at http://www.themanager.org/strategy/change_phases.htm
Schuler, a.J. (2003). Overcoming resistance to change. Retrieved February 24, 2010 at http://www.schulersolutions.com/resistance_to_change.html
1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis
The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…
Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.
Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)
Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.
One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of…
Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.
Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.
Bartholomew, K. And L. Horowitz. (1991). "Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 61, No. 2.
Bartholomew, K. And P. Shaver. (1998). In Attachment theory and close relationships. J. Simpson and W. Rholes (Eds.). NY: Guilford Press.
Kotter's and Lewin's models and discusses their roles as diagnostic tools and as implementation agents. It is the nature of organizations to face constant change, whether the source comes from competitive pressures, new opportunities, technological advances or new initiatives and so forth. Both models offer a methodology for effectively managing change.
Kotter's 8-Step Change Model
Change management models help organizations to effect change in a systematic manner while avoiding some of the pitfalls associated with organizational change development. According to John Kotter, organizations frequently make the same mistakes when they try to bring about change; they allow too much complacency or they fail to communicate and so forth (Reynolds, 2009).
Kotter's 8-step change model has been shown to be a powerful and successful method for implementing change. The purpose of Kotter's model is to efficiently and effectively achieve change management. People respond better to change when they are actively involved…
21st Century Leader. (n.d.). Kotter's eight step model of change. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.21stcenturyleader.co.uk/kotter/
Chapman, A. (2010). Change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm
DealTime. (2000). Leading change, or changing leaders? [Review of the book Leading Change]. Retrieved from http://www.dealtime.com/Leading_Change_by_John_P_Kotter/leading-change-or-changing-leaders/RD-990772/reviews
Faucheux, M. (2009). Negotiating the advantages and disadvantages of change management. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from: http://www.brighthub.com/office/project-management/articles/18477.aspx
QUINN's MODEL OF CHANGE
Changes in nursing procedures:
Applying Quinn's theory of change
Change resistance can often be extremely difficult to overcome in a healthcare environment. Given that nurses operate with a great deal of autonomy, they are often suspicious when new initiatives interfere with standard operating procedures that have worked in the past. To change the locality of shift to shift reporting from the break room to the bedroom, a nurse manager must generate staff buy-in so that employees genuinely believe that the change is needed and will make substantive improvements for patients, enough so that any of the inconveniences generated by the change seem warranted. ather than demanding immediate and radical changes, James Brien Quinn "suggests that the most effective strategies of major enterprises tend to emerge step-by-step from an iterative process in which the organization probes the future, experiments, and learns from a series of partial (incremental)…
Barnat, R. (2014). Quinn's incremental model. Strategic Management. Retrieved from:
Pochron, R.S. (2008). Advance Change Theory Revisited: An article critique. Integral Review.
4(2): 125-132. Retrieved from: http://integral-review.org/documents/Pochron,%20Article%20Review,%20Vol.%204%20No.%202.pdf
There would be a small cost to print the posters in each unit, but nothing extravagant. In order to promote the implementation, the department reporting the least amount of needle sticks per month would be given a small reward such as a free department lunch or movie tickets.
The program can be evaluated by the number of needle stick injuries reported. The nurses will have to be trusted to actually report an injury should one occur. If the number is consistently lowered, the plan is successful. Also, if the number of injuries continues to go down then that means that the perception of needle stick injuries is no longer viewed as an injury that is of little importance. Once the nurses adapt to the seriousness that a needle stick injury can cause, they will be more apt to prevent such injuries. This will result in a win-win situation for not…
Alamgir, H., Cvitkovich, Y., Astrakianakis, G., Yu, S. And Yassi, a. (2008). Needlestick and other potential blood and body fluid exposures among healthcare workers in British
Columbia, Canada. American Journal of Infection Control, 36(1), 12-21.
Chelenyane, M., and Endacott, R. (2006). Self reported infection control practices and perceptions of HIV / AIDS risk among emergency department nurses in Botswana. Accident and Emergency Nursing, 14(3), 148-154.
Harris, S.A. And Nicolai, L.A. (2010). Occupational exposures in emergency medical service providers and knowledge of and compliance with universal precautions. American Journal of Infection Control, 38(2), 86-94.
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
A variety of technical and management issues arise during the implementation and operation of any change process. Change management in technology projects is essential to implement and monitor mechanisms to support and control users, business, and technology (Yarberry, 2007). There are different change project modules used at any stage of a project development. These include the change curve, Lewin's change management model, and Beckhard and Harris change model used in the understanding phase. The project-planning phase uses the impact analysis, Burke-Litwin, McKinsey 7s framework, Leavitt's diamond, organization design, and SIPOC diagrams. The implementation stage uses Kotter's 8-step change model, training needs assessment, while the communication change uses stakeholder analysis, stakeholder management, mission statement, and vision statements. In this analysis, the Leavitt's Diamond, the Kotter's 8-step change model, and Leavitt's model for organizational change is concerned with the interdependence of four main factors, including structure, people, technology, and task.…
Aladwani, A.M. (2001). Change Management Strategies for Successful ERP Implementation. Business Process Management Journal 7, 266.
Bruckman, J.C. (2008) Overcoming Resistance to change: Casual Factors, Interventions, and Critical Values. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, Psychology Press 11, 211-219.
Cameron, E. & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management: A Complete Guide to the Models Tools and Techniques of Organizational Change. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page
Davison, R. (2002) Cultural Complications of ERP. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM 45, 109.
Describe at least three internal and external drivers of change for the organization in this simulation.
Internally, organizational changes are driven by three external pressures, as defined by Lewin's along the three-stage model of unfreezing, changing and refreezing employee behaviors. Motivating people during each of these change stages reinforces the acquired behaviors. Unfreezing involves the motivational factor of persuading people to replace the old behaviors and attitude with the preferred behaviors and attitudes by demonstrating the need for change by infusing employees with the knowledge and the confidence that the new behaviors and attitudes are needed to cope with external pressures. (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). hen, refreezing means the new behavior and attitude become integrated into the normal standard operating procedures of the organization. hen, the external pressures of positive reinforcement, modeling and coaching should be used to encourage the desired behaviors continuance. 'Change and constancy are relative…
To implement the above change strategy in response to pressures, the CEO had to weight he current personnel needs, the changing needs of the external environment, the internal demands of the corporate hierarchical structures, and the emotional and economic demands of the employees.
What kinds of resistance might the leader expect to see? Identify and explain at least five of these. What strategies might you employ to manage each of these areas of resistance?
According to Kreitner and Kinicki, "Resistance to change is an emotional/behavioral response to the real or imagined threats to an established work routine." (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). Of the authors' ten reasons employees resist change, five reasons that were of particular impact in the scenario were: surprises and fear of the unknown, as when innovative or radically different changes are introduced without warnings, and the natural emotion/tendency for employees is to become fearful. To prevent the spread of invalid rumors, managers must develop communication plans to minimize employees' emotions of fear of the unknown. Secondly, a climate of mistrust can arise when change comes under pretense and deception and employees come to distrust their managers. In an effort to prevent such an undesirable climate of secrecy managers must honestly discussing coming changes. Thirdly, intimidating changes can cause employee to doubt their capabilities. To
An Evaluation of the OD Approach to Change
Change may occur in a number of ways, reflecting practical differences in the way it is implemented as well as the attitudes of management in the implementation. The current fashion in management literature, reflecting the predominant management theories is the utilization of organizational development values, with a softer and more humane approach to change management. This approach may be seen as contrasting significantly with the harder approaches to change management, often argued as the more favourable approach, but it is not always the best approach.
In order to appreciate when the OD approach is beneficial, and harder approach may be more useful it is necessary to examine both models and consider their application. To appreciate the differences a useful approach can be achieved by looking at Beer and Nohria (2000a, p136) model where change is divided into two types; Theory…
As we will see in the case studies, leadership is a decisive factor in the process of diagnosing and in the implementation of changes in the operation of a corporate organisation. IT, HR and corporate work ethics may be excellent. However, without secure and decisive leadership, the best organisational makeovers can fail miserably.
In this part of the essay, this author will illustrate three models and techniques in the change management professional literature for diagnosing organisations. ith regard to this, we will compare and contrast three different diagnostic models/techniques, including the main strengths and weaknesses of each. In this discussion, we will also examine the relationship between each diagnostic model/technique and the organisational development and political approaches to organisational change.
In the first we will consider, a great person and a great organisational management team leads change and the charge, focusing in on areas that needs to be changed.…
Aloini, D., Dulmin, R., & Mininno, M. (2007). Risk management in erp project introduction: Review of the literature. Information & Management, 44, 547 -- 567.
Flamholtz, E.G. (2011). The leadership molecule hypothesis: Implications for entrepreneurial organizations. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 1-24.
Ford, M.W., & Evans, J.R. (2006). The role of follow-up in achieving results from self-assessment processes. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 23, 589-606.
Friedman, B.A. (2007). Globalization implications for human resource management roles. Employment Responsibility Rights Journal, 19, 157 -- 171.
Change Management Scenario
The contemporary business environment is rapidly evolving. Globalization has taken over the organization environment, and with this business is forced to undergo continuous and rapid change driven by increasing stakeholder expectations, new technological advances, and competition that is not only global, but viral (Bendell, 2005). This has resulted in a dramatically different business environment in which the modern business, in order to survive and prosper, is forced to evolve and regularly revise their internal and external business processes. Typically, aggressive and rapid change management systems germinate within the private sector -- only after trial and error, testing, and numerous permutations did they become standard within the public sector organization. This paradigm, however, changed in the late 1990s with a combination of rising client expectations to effectively address major socio-culture, economic, and demographic issues, and change in governmental oversight and minimal requirements pushed management in the public sector…
Home Depot, Inc. (September 29, 2012). The New York Times. Retrieved from:
Aluise, S. (January 19, 2012). Frank Blake Has Brought Home Depot Home. Investorplace.
Com. Retrieved from: http://investorplace.com/2012/01/frank-blake-has-brought-home-depot-home/
Change Is Never Easy
One of the hardest things for any company to accomplish is graceful change. This is true for at least several reasons. The first is that change is psychologically difficult: Letting go of the known for the unknown, even when the unknown is likely to be a good deal better, can seem fraught with numerous perils. The other major reason that change can be so difficult for companies and other large organizations is that group enterprises require a relatively high level of stability and predictability to thrive. Even an organization that is composed of highly skilled, intelligent, and flexible people cannot change as quickly as can a single individual. This is simply too much inertia in the system and too many specific relational dynamics that have to be shifted for change to occur as quickly as can be the case with an individual.
That said, it remains…
However, this research does not stop at the idea that inertia exists as a powerful force in organizations; rather, after acknowledging the power of inertia, the authors moved past this idea (which does not account for the real and successful changes that can and do occur in a number of organizations) to incorporate "theories of organizational learning and innovation not found in the original formulation of structural inertia. The result is a broader model of inertia and momentum in organizations."
In other words, any sophisticated analysis of change must be able to account for the ways in which organizations resist change in the name of stability but also how they are able to overcome this inertia and actually effect change. One of the most important aspects of this piece of research -- and a strength that was in fact exhibited by CMIG -- is that organizations tend to resist change not out of weakness but because stability (which can here be seen as the counterpart to change) is valued by so many different stakeholders:
Hannan and Freeman's (1984) structural inertia theory offers a model of the process of organizational change that includes both internal and external constraints on organizational change. The first part of their argument addressed the probability of organizational change. They argued that organizations exist because they are able to perform with reliability and, if questioned, to account rationally for their actions. Reliability and accountability are high when organizational goals are institutionalized and patterns of organizational activity are routinized, but institutionalization and routinization also generate strong pressures against organizational change. Thus, the very characteristics that give an organization stability also generate resistance to change and reduce the probability of change. The second part of their argument dealt with the effect of organizational change on survival. They argued that because both internal and external stakeholders prefer organizations that exhibit reliable performance and because change disrupts both internal routines and external linkages, organizational change is hazardous. (Amburgey, Kelly, & Barnett, 1993).
According to Liao (2006), "The companies have entered into significant, long-term agreements that give Lenovo customers preferred access to IBM's world-class customer service organization and global financing offerings. This will enable Lenovo to take advantage of IBM's powerful worldwide distribution and sales network. Lenovo's customers are able to count on the entire IBM team - including sales, services and financing - for access to IBM's legendary end-to-end it solutions" (p. 3). In addition, pursuant to IBM's five-year contractual commitment, it will also provide Lenovo with warranty services and provide Lenovo customers with leasing and financing arrangements. According to Liao, "Through this long-term relationship, customers will receive the best products with the lowest total-cost-of-ownership" (2006 p. 3). Among the company's initiatives in this final phase of the change management process were additional efforts to further support their new dual business model. To this end, Lenovo upgraded its technology to work with…
About Lenovo. 2007. Lenovo: United States. [Online]. Available: http://www.lenovo.com/lenovo/us/en/ .
Bass, Bernard M. 1997. "Does the Transactional -- Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries?" American Psychologist, 52(2), 130.
De Angelis, a.P. 2006, Spring. Don't 'dis' Chinese science. Issues in Science and Technology, 22(3), 31.
Dessler, Gary. 2006. "Expanding into China? What Foreign Employers Should Know about Human Resource Management in China Today." SAM Advanced Management Journal, 71(4), 11.
But later, Aquinas joined the two approaches of philosophy and theology to present a theory of the cosmos. "Reason was no longer conceived as the nemesis of Faith...Aquinas [claimed] that both were paths to a single truth: 'God exists'" (Kreis, 2000). Philosophy and reason in general were no longer seen as hostile to faith.
The Late Middle Ages was characterized by interest in anatomy, as is reflected in the more individuated representations of the human form in art as opposed to the anonymously authored and undefined figures in Gothic churches. Once again, the individual was valued in culture and in life. This was partly the result of economic improvements in agriculture such as crop rotation, the liberation of the peasantry from serfdom and their ties to the land, and the creation of urban centers of trade. "Many members of the nobility across Europe sought greater refinement of life. "Feudal lords…
Kreis, Steven. (2000). "Lecture 2: The Medieval World View." Lectures in Modern European Intellectual History." Last revised 16 Oct 2006. Retrieved 17 Jul 2007 http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture2a.html
Seaman, Gerald. (1996). "Literature and the Middle Time." Essays on Medieval Europe.
Retrieved 17 Jul 2007. http://eawc.evansville.edu/essays/seaman.htm
Waggoner, Ben. (18 Jan 1997). "Medieval and Renaissance Concepts of Evolution and Paleontology." UCMP: Berkeley. Retrieved 17 Jul 2007 http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/medieval.html
Change Cycle in an Organization:
As literature (Anderson 2001, Gelinas 1998, Olson 2001, Smith 1997) refers that process of organizational change starts from establishing a committed leadership through the need for and vision of the change to taking action, supervising the improvement and closing out the change. The basic organization change cycle is as under:
Launching A Committed Leadership:
Here we need to share stories within the organization about the need of change, passion one is having for change and how change helps in past and when change did not work. We need to decide that in any future possible situation who will take a stand? What a leader will do for taking stand? Why a leader needs to take stand?
Smell The Need For Change:
Before making a change we should know very well about some issues which arises questions like what is the current situation. Why do we…
Aderson, Dean And Linda (2001).Byond the change management, advanced strategies for todays transformational leaders.
Life in the United States in 1868 was though different from what it was a century later because racial discrimination was not as severely crippling as it was immediately after the abolition of slavery, still economic growth of blacks accelerated after the introduction of affirmative action and not exactly after the passage of Civil ights Act of 1964. During this period, numerous political, economic and social changes were witnessed but civil rights for blacks a perpetually contentious issue. The status of women, however, improved significantly during this 100-year period, as they became a major part of American workforce and also gained suffrage rights.
Black men and women in 1868 continued to suffer at the hands of a weak proslavery government of Andrew Johnson and tensions between Democrats and epublicans was making life miserable for the blacks. Civil rights were though granted by the Congress, they were not approved…
Roberta Hughes Wright, The Birth of the Montgomery Bus Boycott (Southfield: Charro Press, 1991) 52-53.
Lori Johnson, Forgotten heroes:
Joseph T. Wilson "The Black Phalanx - A History of the Negro Soldiers of the United States," American Publishing Company, 1890
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…
Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management
Executives.18 (4): 108-117.
Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."
Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
In that sense, Wilkoff (1995, as cited by Weick & Quinn, 1999) reports on her attempts to intervene between two companies that had fused together in an unsuccessful mergence. The actors of the various companies persistently disagreed due to cultural differences in mindset, whereupon the consultant, recognizing this, changed her strategy. he began meeting with each actor separately and explaining the other's performance from his or her particular cultural assumptions. In this way, once each had understood the other, could both meet together and the mergence actually become effective. In a similar way, says chein, can change be best implemented when the leader is willing and able to looking into, work with, and attempt to understand other cultural patterns. History is change. Change necessitates working with and understanding the heterogeneity of cultures that constitute the world. A leader who does this becomes flexible to the change dynamic and can best…
Bartunek JM. 1993. The multiple cognitions and conflicts associated with second order organizational change. In Social Psychology in Organizations: Advances in Theory and Research, ed. JK Murnighan, pp. 322. 49. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Beer M, Eisenstat RA, Spector B. 1990. The Critical Path to Corporate Renewal. Boston, MA: Harv. Bus. Sch.
Brand, a. (1990). The Force of Reason: An Introduction to Habermas, London: Allen & Unwin.
Crawford, Amy. "The Swamp Fox." Smithsonian.com. (http://www. smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/biography/fox.html)
The change leader should feel confident about the change if decision criteria are driven by impartial and objective considerations and his position is based on organizational, mission, vision and strategies. Then leader should try to convince all employees on objective and factual grounds while also taking care of their emotional issues. If leaders do not behave well and control their own emotions then employee morale gets affected. "Most executives do a good job of communicating a strong sense of urgency to effect change and move people out of their comfort zones. This often launches a flurry of activities in the right direction to start with. However, sustaining the quality and level of activities is a different ball game. For the abstraction that is called business, it requires more than organizational structure, incentives and job descriptions to have a multitude of people work in a concerted manner towards a common objective…
Lawler III, E. & Mohrman, S.2003,'HR as a Strategic Partner: What Does it Take to Make it Happen?', Human Resource Planning, Vol.26, No.3, p.15+.
Thite, M. 2004, Managing People in the New Economy, Sage Publication, New Delhi.
David, F. (1991). Strategic Management. 3rd Ed. McMillan
Jansen, K. (2000). The Emerging Dynamics of Change: Resistance, Readiness, and Momentum. Human Resource Planning. Vol: 23. Issue: 2.
" Change must therefore be accomplished by the institution of a strong leadership of just a single individual (Kotter,1996,p.25) .In this case, the person was Ghosn. Change however requires a special team of leaders as well as managers who have a common goal that is communicated succinctly by the team leader. Ghosn therefore "walked the talk" since his leadership style which was transformational, brought real change to the organization.
It is important to note that for any organization to succeed, a balance must be struck between leadership and the management. This is because there can never be any form of transformation without a true leader. All successful organizational transformations are only achieved via the right mix of leadership and management.
Baggaley, B. 2006. Using strategic performance measurements to accelerate lean performance. Cost Management (January/February): 36-44
Cloud, C (2010). Epilogue: Change leadership and leadership development. New Directions for Community…
Baggaley, B. 2006. Using strategic performance measurements to accelerate lean performance. Cost Management (January/February): 36-44
Cloud, RC (2010). Epilogue: Change leadership and leadership development. New Directions for Community Colleges; Spring2010, Issue 149, p73-79,
Elving, W, JL (2005) "The role of communication in organisational change," Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 10 Iss: 2, pp.129-13
Kotter, J.P. (1995), "Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail," Harvard Business Review, March-April, 59-67
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
On the part of his fellow scientists, Snow's research was resisted because it was conducted with intellectual 'leaps' of logic in his determination to find the cause, as opposed to Farr's more technical and methodological approach. Farr had the more comprehensive health surveillance program, but Snow's hypothesis and instincts were correct. Snow drew upon past studies involving smallpox, cowpox, and syphilis, to extrapolate parallel examples of how the disease was transmitted, while Farr clung to the airborne model of disease transmission popular at the time even after reviewing such studies. Farr stated that non-living or zymotic material was transmitted through the air, and hence the closer the quarters of the affected, the more apt the material would be transmitted through the air.
The commonly-held belief was that fecalized air and water were the primary conduits of the disease. Farr believed primarily that the transmission was "miasmatic" and the prevalence in…
Human beings are by nature change-resistant and particularly within an organizational context there is anxiety about change, given fears of job losses or simply being unable to adapt. It is essential to convince change agents of the need and urgency for change and also of the congruency of the change with the evolving vision for the company.
A "vision statement should have four elements: a customer orientation, employee focus, organizational competencies, and standards of excellence" ("Changing the game," 2015:3). The change should be demonstrated to enhance all of the organization's capacities, not simply improve its bottom line in the short-term. Having an effective vision statement is necessary for effective change. The Lewin Model of organizational change stresses the need for a three-part adaptation process called unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. In other words, the organization must be temporarily destabilized or unfrozen before it returns to a new…
DiMaggio, M. (2009). The top 10 best (and worst) corporate mergers of all time... or, the good, the bad, and the ugly. Rasmussen. Retrieved from:
McClure, B. (2015). Mergers and acquisitions: Why they can fail. Investopedia. Retrieved from:
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…
Over time, from one second to the next, human behavior constantly changes, contributing to the fact that human behavior, consequently human cognition, constitutes a dynamic process. (Thelen and Smith, 1994). Communication, also a continuous interactive process, serves as the overtime interaction between the human motivated information processing system and the communication message. (Geiger and Reeves, 1993; Lang, 2000; Rafaeli, 1988)
Media multitasking indicates a user will simultaneously experience exposure to content from various media. As an individual possesses only a limited number of cognitive resources, he/she will not be able to process information at the same level of efficiency as media single use. As a result, the continuing, shifting attention results in less effective retrieval of information, as well as, experiencing challenges retrieving, encoding and storing information.
Statement of Problem
Despite contradictory indications from communication and cognitive psychology, younger adults' fill their lives with multitasking around media, as well…
Theory Management Organization Development
Theory and Management of Organization Development
I work for a medium-sized company that provides services to more than 500 clients. The company was founded by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company and has been in operation for more than a decade now. In particular, I work for the IT department of my organization as an IT/network administrator. In essence, my main task is to ensure that different devices across different departments in the organization are connected together to create networks that are not only fast, but also efficient. More so, I am accountable for maintaining the links and solving any issues that might come about with regard to computer networks.
One of the issues perceived within the job realm is compensation handed towards the employees within the IT department. It is imperative to point out that the IT department is well structured and fitted…
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
French, W. L., Bell, C. (1999). Organization Development: Behavioral Science Interventions for Organization Improvement (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
The commonly-cited approach to deal with resistance to change is to "highlight the risks of clinging to the status quo and to be forthright about the uncertainty of the future when introducing employees to the proposed changes, which assumes that employees can rationally predict and understand their interests (Tavares 2009, p.11). Furthermore, employees are often justifiably suspicious of change, given that their personal interests and management interests may not be aligned. The recent series of debacles in the technology sector, the American auto industry, and the financial services industry are all testimony to this fact. Thus finding a true 'change management' approach that is demonstrably effective remains elusive: furthermore, managers often have trouble understanding why certain changes do work. This confusion has shifted theorists' emphasis back to leadership at top -- in other words, the idea that if people won't change, managers must change people. And sometimes "in unusual cases,…
Tavares, T. (2009, September). 'Change management' faces major changes. Canadian HR
Reporter, 22(16), 11. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global.
(Document ID: 1895112551).
Human psychological responses to technology vary. Some persons are instinctively receptive to technology and technological change, while others are resistant to the prospect of innovation. Initially, a technological change is usually viewed solely in terms of its physical components, as if it will be perfectly adopted. However, unless persons can be convinced of its improving aspects upon their daily lives, the full realization of the benefits of the change will be impossible. Additionally, if the technological change is enforced, for example, if a company must adopt a new technology because everyone else in its industry must do so, even if its organizational leadership and management as well as its employees are not eager change their ways, additional time, training, and motivation must be included in the change plan. Thus, it is necessary to 'audit' the human implications of a change in the form of a Human Implications of Technological change…
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…
Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.
Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Even though many sought change, it took many decades for their reform to take hold and of course, like all change there were many set backs along the way. One popular writer of the time quipped that the women of New York City should be paid as street sweepers for each stroll they took. Reform of the era's fashions may have been hard to come by because dress reform was a dangerous topic. The Victorian era was a male dominated culture intent on maintaining the boundaries between the masculine and feminine genders.
The United States in the nineteenth century was a time when abandoning the accepted norms of fashion could provoke violence and ridicule. Even clothing for children was slow to change. Infants were almost habitually dressed in long night gowns and older children in both urban and rural families wore poorly fitted dress like clothes until they could work…
Planned Change in a Department
Change within the Medical surgery department
There are various factors that occasion change within any organization, some may be due to change in the operations of an organization, some due to expansion, relocation, takeovers, mergers, external forces in economies, internal changes in operation modes or even unprecedented needs as unforeseen at the initial stages. This last one seems to be case within the medical surgery unit in our hospital.
The prevailing condition at the moment that needs a change approach that would improve the conditions within the medical surgery unit and the entire hospital in general is the imbalanced ration between the nurses and the surgery patients currently realized within the unit. The prevailing rate is one nurse within the medical surgery unit handling an average of 6-7 patients which has proven to be too high for a single nurse. The other pertinent problem within…
American Nurses Association, (2011). Effects of Nurses Shortage. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://ana.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/workforce/NurseShortageStaffing/NursingShortage/Effects.aspx
Honor Society of Nursing, (2013). Facts on the Nursing Shortage in North America. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://www.nursingsociety.org/Media/Pages/shortage.aspx
Nursing Theories, (2011). Change Theory by Kurt Lewin. Retrieved July 4, 2013 from http://currentnursing.com/ nursing_theory/change_theory.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Organizational Change in the Public Sector
This research proposal explores the feasibility of management in the public Sector as an organizational paradigm and new model in organizational development. The literature review reviews numerous journal articles that explore on the key concepts of change management strategies from a public sector project management perspective. The authors suggest that employee's participation, effective feedback across the board, and empowerment of subordinate staffs is a major step in transforming public organizations. This proposal further hypothesis that establishment of long-term and productivity advantages are crucial throughout the organization.
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Factor 1: Need for change
Factor 2: implement a Plan for change
Factor 3: create political internal environment for Change
Factor 4: Support and Commitment from managers
Factor 5: enhancing External Support
Factor 6: Provide Resources for change
Factor 7: establish Change
Factor 8: ascertain comprehensive Change
Determinants of implementing…
Abramson, Mark A., and Paul R .Lawrence .2001. The Challenge of Transforming
Administration and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision,
50(10), 1843-1860, Review 62: 555-67.
Armenakis, Achilles A ., and Arthur G .Bedeian .1999 .Organizational Change: A Review of Associates.
reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester Drawing learning experiences semester (group case study, relevant change management theory, reflections relevant personal experiences organisational change), reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester.
The world we are living in is always changing. The nature of the business world today is very different than the way it was decades ago. Change is inevitable. This is because, as people are always faced with new problems and as such, come up with new ways of doing things in order to better their lives. The people therefore come up with new technologies to meet this needs. For an organization to remain relevant, it must be flexible enough to change with the changing times. Resisting to the wind of change will make the organization obsolete and lead to their collapsing Zilwa, 2010.
SINGH, M. & WADDELL, D. 2004. E-business innovation and change management, Hershey, Idea Group Publ.
WILLIAMS, A.P.O., DONBSON, P. & WOODWARD, S. 2002. Managing change successfully: using theory and experience to implement change, London, Thomson.
ZILWA, D.D. 2010. Academic units in a complex, changing world adaptation and resistance, Dordrecht, Springer.
Of course, as Medicare beneficiaries increase because of the number of baby boomers, the Medicare program may adjust. However, current hospice figures demonstrate that only about twenty percent of all elderly individuals that die are enrolled in hospice programs.
Implementation and Monitoring
The needs of this new program will require thorough training and once implemented, precise monitoring. "When you approach a problem in the way your work group functions, you're implementing an organizational change. By taking a critical look at your process, and using some theories from organizational design, you can fix the problem -- and change your organization to make quality more likely." (Derby, 1999) The training will be a key because of the potential requirements associated with the Hospice program that may require completely new skill sets for the majority of our staff. The fact is that many of our nurses may not have acquired the necessary skills…
Derby, Esther. (2002). Modeling Organizational Change. Retrieved on February 12, 2005, at http://www.estherderby.com/writings/modeling.htm
Hospice Benefits and Utilization in the Large Employer Market. Ed. Beth Jackson, Teresa Gibson, Joline Staeheli. March 2000. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on February 12, 2005, from http://aspe.os.dhhs.gov/daltcp/Reports/empmkt.htm.
Rubenfeld, M. Gaie, & Scheffer, B.K. (1995). Critical Thinking In Nursing. Philadelphia: JB Lippencott.
Social Security Administration. (1993) "Social security programs in the United States." Social Security Bulletin 12/22/1993.
The organizational change theory which best fits the organizational development and change of military organization is the "Teleological Change Theory." The top management and the leadership of the military realized the need for constant changes and realized the necessity of change in the organizational structures. The individual managers, the Generals in this case, have been instrumental in bringing about this change. Internal decision making and structures are more affected by the organizational change. In a teleological change, leader is right at the centre of the change, process, people and management. Leader is the one who aligns the goals, rewards, processes, expectations, roles and duties. Strategy formulation and implementation is based on the experiences from the ongoing processes. (Marshak, 2005)
It is important to take into account various factors while evaluating the organizational change in military. The size of the military and complexity of operations make it extremely hard to implement…
Murrell K.L. (1999). New Century Organization Development. Organizational Development Journal. Volume 17: No.4.
Marshak, R.J. (2005). Reinventing organizational development: New approaches to change in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
Organizational change plan
Introducing electronic medical records (EM)
Along with expanding health coverage to more Americans, one of the goals of recent federal policy has been the widespread adoption of electronic medical records (EM) by healthcare providers across the nation. "The federal government began providing billions of dollars in incentives to push hospitals and physicians to use electronic medical and billing records" (Abelson, Creswell, & Palmer 2012). Having EMs can be used by providers to gain swift access to comprehensive information about a patient's health history. Some patients forget their history of diagnoses or the medications they are on; sometimes patients must be treated when they are in a mental or physical state where they cannot be forthcoming with information and their friends and families are not nearby. Also, there is the problem of patients attempting to obtain more pharmaceuticals or drugs which they should not be taking. "Electronic…
Abelson, Reed, Julie Creswell, & Griff Palmer. (2012). Medicare bills rise as records turn electronic. The New York Times. Retrieved:
Change theory by Kurt Lewin. (2012). Current Nursing. Retrieved:
http://currentnursing.com/ nursing_theory/change_theory.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Organization Change - Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Change is the only inevitable factor within any organization in the contemporary society. The changes that take place in line with the Human esources as well as the technology are so rapid that to stay relevant, each organization must of necessity keep up-to-date with the changes that are relevant to the organization. However, to have effective change, amid all the challenges that come with the attempt to effect change, there must be leadership that leverages power and is in a position to influence change and manage it to the conclusive end. It should be noted that change is not a destination but a continuous process, hence change management must also be continuous and not static. Changes in organizations take place all the time and each and every day which in most cases are…
Agguire D., et.al (2013). Culture's Role in Enabling Organizational ChangeSurvey Ties
Transformation Success to Deft Handling of Cultural Issues. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.booz.com/global/home/what-we-think/reports-white-papers/article-display/cultures-role-organizational-change
Beakey, D. (2007). Organizational Design and Implementation. Graziadio Business Review:
Graziadio School of Business and Management, Pepperdine University. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://gbr.pepperdine.edu/2010/08/organizational-design-and-implementation/
Applying Change Theory to Nursing Operations
In response to a request from a nurse manager to select a team of nurses to assist in implementing a long-needed change to existing policy, it will be necessary to change the manner in which the nursing staff performs shift-to-shift reporting. At present, nurses report to each other in the break room and the nurse manager has decided that in the next 2 weeks the nursing unit will transition to report being endorsed at the bedside. This paper describes how a project manager should approach this change project using a transformational leadership style to guide the process as well as how Kurt Lewin's change theory can be used support the change implementation process. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning transformational leadership and Lewin's change theory in this context are provided in the conclusion.
Discussion concerning the selected leadership style and…
Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership: Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Transformational leadership: Industrial, military, and educational impact. (1998). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Letvak, S. (2014, September). Overview and summary: Healthy nurses: Perspectives on caring for ourselves. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 19(3), 117-120.
Rosch, E. (2002, Summer). Lewin's field theory as situated action in organizational change. Organization Development Journal, 20(2), 8-11.
The purpose of organizational development and change is to provide sustainable pathways to achievement and success by helping the organization to be more effective at all worker levels as well as at systematic and infrastructural levels. The tools required to enable organization development and change are numerous: they include the relationship-building tools, communication tools, culture-promoting tools, leadership tools, and so on. This paper will describe and discuss the tools needed to make organization development and change possible.
Theory and strategy are two primary tools needed for organization development and change. Theory and strategy provide the support and framework for the change management and culture building process, and they can consist of various approaches to the issue: there theories like appreciative inquiry, experiential learning theory, intentional change theory, and more; there are strategy development techniques that strategic swarming and Three Horizons (Camp, 2012). Theory helps to give a basis of understanding…
Coping Change, people embrace concept. We, part, creatures habit follow daily routines. When change occurs, activities thought patterns disrupted. Describe a situation resistant change identified areas: a.
One of the most well-known quotes from Ancient Greece belongs to Heraclitus who said the "Nothing is constant in life but change." People have a natural tendency to resist change as a means of self-preservation and regard it as having most often a negative impact on one's existence. This is particularly true in changes that occur in the professional life or the personal / emotional environment.
Experience has proven that change always opens a new direction in life and a new path to follow. However, there are situations in which all people do not embrace change and their reluctance in fact represents their most important shortfall. I noticed this several months ago at the workplace, when a new informational system was decided to…
Baack, D. (2012). Organizational behavior. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Flexstudy. (n.d.) "Training for a changing workplace" in Complete training course for Managers, available online at http://www.flexstudy.com/catalog/schpdf.cfm?coursenum=95032
Penn University. (2008) "Adapting to change at work. Effectively Navigating the Turmoil of Organizational Changes through Adaptation" in Management Resources. Penn Behavioral Health, available online at http://www.pennbehavioralhealth.com/documents/adapting_to_change.pdf
Time for change.org (2014) "Kotter's theory of change." available online at http://www.changecards.org/change-theory/kotters-theory-of-change/
The technological environment might be the most important environmental factor for organizational development going forwards. In particular, advances in communication have increased the pace at which business operates today. In addition, the increase in communication speed and intensity has resulted in the evolution of the knowledge economy. hen a company's success depends almost wholly on its knowledge base, organizational development becomes critical to the company's success.
This is because organizational development places specific emphasis on the human resources and organizational culture functions. Talent must be attracted, retained and shepherded in order to achieve long-term success in an information economy. Companies that do not have plans in place to help them foster strong organizational development will struggle to meet the requirements of the information economy as they will lose key people, fail to attract talent, or will have cultures that are incongruent with the dynamism in today's economy.
Another important factor…
Kritsonis, a. (2005). Comparison of change theories. International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity. Vol. 8 (1) 1-7/
ODPortal.com website. (2010). Retrieved May 5, 2010 from http://www.odportal.com/
esistance to change in educational institutions is also pegged to the fact that in schools, unlike in a business context, the inter-individual relations are more personal. The school is a friendlier setting and the students and teachers interact without competition and offense. The relationships in an organizational context are more formal and more focused on organizational goals. This difference makes it possible for a relative standardization in economic agents; but in schools, every decision or act is taken personally and feelings are currently involved. In other words, change implementation in schools is more complex as it needs to consider the feelings of the involved parties.
Another interesting aspect Evans reveals is given by the access of schools to resources. While economic agents generate their own profit which is then reinvested in change and improvement agendas, schools -- in their large majority -- do not reveal an ability to generate profits…
Evans, R., Speeches retrieved from Tape 1 - http://media.shu.edu:8080/ramgen/shuworldwide/shu_robert_evans_pt1.rm Robert Evans - Tape 2 - http://media.shu.edu:8080/ramgen/shuworldwide/shu_robert_evans_pt2.rm
Holbeche, L., 2006, Understanding change: theory, implementation and success, Butterworth-Heinemann
Reeves, D.B., 2009, Leading Change in your school: how to conquer myths, build commitment and get results, ASCD
New Hire Orientation Program at Nightingale Home Care Inc. has been designed to implement organizational challenges that are currently present in the local market. Due to internal struggles, turnover rates have been increasing and reducing the quality of service and patient outcomes. It is recommended that a transformational leader be selected and follow Kotter's organization change model to address the issues that are present.
In the past two years, the organization has been experiencing increased turnover rates and losing key clinical staff members (RN's, PT's, and OT's). The competition within the home health community has also led to difficulty in recruiting experienced clinician. This trend has made the ability to maintain operational quality standards difficult and has reduced patient outcomes on a variety of key metrics. The organization has determined the key roles in the organization that the that a New Hire Orientation Project should address and a plan for…
Caldwell, D., Chatman, J., O'Reily, C., Ormiston, M., & Lapiz, M. (2008). Implementing strategic change in a health care system: The importance of leadership and change readiness. Health Care Management Review, 124-133.
Carter, M., Armenakis, A., Feild, H., & Mossholder, K. (2012). Transformational leadership, relationship quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, In Press.
Green, M. (2007). Ohange Management Masterclass. London: Kogan Page.
Klein, T. (2011, January 16). John Kotter's 8 Steps Change Model. Retrieved from A Doctoral Journey: http://teddyklein.blogspot.com/2011/01/john-kotters-8-steps-change-model.html
Organizational Theory and esistance to Change
In this hospital case, the new manager came with rules that he hoped would change the way things were done. He came with a mindset that through strict administration, he would manage to keep the employees focused. His coming in was to replace a retired predecessor who had served there for thirty years. With such many years, the new manager thought the slackening performance at the rural hospital was due to the predecessor's inability to control the staff. This situation has cast his actions into doubt what he had in mind. The scenario shows the weaknesses of intolerant leadership.
The new manager sought to apply change theory to address the issues that he thought were negatively affecting the hospital. Under the change theory, he thought that by having an overhaul of the whole system, he would bring positive progress. It backfired on…
Browning, B. W. (2007). Leadership in Desperate Times: An Analysis of Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage through the Lens of Leadership Theory. Advances in Developing Human Resources vol. 9 no. 2 183-198
Jones, G. R. (2010). Organizational Theory: Text and Cases. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Rogers, R. E. (2012). Organizational Theory. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Organizational Change Management Theory
The organization this document will assess in terms of its readiness for change is Dataversity. It operates within the data management industry. Its primary operations are two-fold. It hosts a website centered upon the education of consumers and businesses for data-driven applications. Also, the company hosts myriad conferences each year. These conferences are also dedicated to data-driven applications and technologies. This organization is a small one. There are only five full-time employees. However, it strongly relies on contractors and their work. The organization has been in existence for the past 10 years. It started off as simply hosting conferences before it branched out to publishing in the way of its internationally renowned web site.
The primary human resources practice employed by Dataversity that could benefit from change is the way that it hires is contractors. Presently, there is a decided dearth of protocol and consistency in…
Jones, S. (2012). Reading, reflection and application in reality. www.nursingreview.co.nz Retrieved from http://www.nursingreview.co.nz/issue/november-2012/Change-management-A-classic-theory-revisited/#.WBJKyPnQfZj
National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (2013). Organizational readiness to change assessment (ORCA) tool. http://www.nccmt.ca/ Retrieved from
The variability in problems faced by the King Edward Hospital NHS Trust during the period in question, instigated a multi-level response in knowledge sharing and inclusion on practice. Kotter's theory relies upon such a method, where strategies are an exercise multi-tiered obligation.
As Kotter points out, the transformation model may not be suitable for organizations that are in pursuit of prompt change, and the series of responsibilities which result from consortium relationships may apply to one or all organizations within the scope of his definition of institutional cultures: 1) Developing Social Construct; 2) Oriented Social Construct; 3) and Pluralistic Social Construct types. Evidence-based practice in healthcare is compatible with Kotter's proposition. Process methodology including the '8-Steps' process in three (3) phases -- 1) Creating Climate for Change, 2) Engaging and Enabling the Organisation, and 3) Implementing and Sustaining the Change -- is illustrated in Figure 1.
Abidi, S.S., 2001. Knowledge management in healthcare: towards 'knowledge-driven' decision-support services. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 63 (1-2), pp. 5-18.
Abidi, .S.S. et al., 2009. Knowledge sharing for pediatric pain management via a Web 2.0 framework. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 150, pp. 287-91.
Abidi, S.S. et al., 2004. Knowledge management in pediatric pain: mapping online expert discussions to medical literature. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 107 (Pt 1), pp. 3-7.
Austin, M.J., 2008. Knowledge management: implications for human service organizations. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 5 (1-2), pp. 361-89.
Organizational esearch and Theory
Change methods are actions that managers undertake to handle change. There are two types, systematic methods and management methods. Management methods are more involving and broader than systematic methods (Al-Haddad & Kotnour, 2015, p. 248). Many writers have come up with various methods of change management, including:
Steps of the Change Models of Kotter and Lewin
a) Kurt Lewin's model has three phases including the unfreezing stage, the actual change and the refreezing stage. Lewin opined that change involves the opinion that there is need for change, acting towards the intended change and making the change a custom. The stages involve the following:
Step 1-Unfreezing: According to Lewin, human beings behave under the influence of a semi-stationary equilibrium that is surrounded by compound forces. Before getting rid of old habits and adopting new ones, there is need to unfreeze/ destabilize the equilibrium. Lewin thought of the…
Al-Haddad, S. &Kotnour, T. (2015). Integrating the organizational change literature: a model for successful change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 28(2), 234-262. Retrieved 12 September 2016 fromhttp://184.108.40.206:8088/2161333/JOCM-11-2013-0215.pdf
Auguste, J. (2013). Applying Kotter's 8-Step Process for Leading Change to the Digital Transformation of an Orthopedic Surgical Practice Group in Toronto, Canada. Journal of Health &Medical Informatics, 4(3). doi:10.4172/2157-7420.1000129. Retrieved 12 September 2016 from http://www.omicsonline.org/applying-kotter-step-process-for-leading-change-to-digital-transformation-of-an-orthopedic-surgical-practice-2157-7420.1000129.pdf
Kritsonis, A. (2005). Comparison of Change Theories. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 8(1),Retrieved 12 September 2016 fromhttp://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Kritsonis,%20Alicia%20Comparison%20of%20Change%20theories%20IJMBA%20V8%20N1%202005.pdf
Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). Forces for and Resistance to Organizational Change. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 27(4),Retrieved 12 September 2016 fromhttp://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Lunenburg,%20Fred%20C.%20Forces%20For%20and%20Resistance%20to%20Change%20NFEASJ%20V27%20N4%202010.pdf
Diagnosing Change at Toyota Company
The organization chosen is the Toyota automobile company. Toyota Company is a global company operating in more than 100 countries in the world. Its market share is approximated to be the second largest, with the company itself being the second largest automobile company in the world. It has an employee base of over two million people, most of which are professional automobile engineers and marketers (Frakes, 2004). . The growth of the company has been attributed to its design of the brand that has met the preference of many beverage-drinking clients in the global market. As a global brand, it has managed to move its products and services from the small local outlets to many other global outlets that aid in distributing the brand in all parts of the world.
At Toyota Company, H is a critical docket that goes all the way to determining…
Burke, W. W. (2010). Organization Change: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Frakes, D. (2004). Mac OS X Power Tools. San Francisco [Calif.: Sybex.
Magee, D. (2008). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons From The World's Greatest Car Company. New York: Portfolio.
Increased customer demand is most important pressure to address at this time in order to maintain a competitive and viable company. Dana Incorporated has been providing their customers for the past years with products of high quality and quantity that satisfies their customer’s expectation. However, due to increase in customer demands for new cars and trucks, there has been increased demand of customers to companies like Toyota, Jeep and Ford. Recently, the increased customer demands are approaching maximum capacity hence exceeding production capacity. Increased customer demand set Dana Incorporated with competition pressure. Currently, increased customer demand for commercial vehicles, off-highway equipment and light truck program has led to an increased sales growth by 10 percent. Increased sales has led to an improvement of satisfaction of customer demand. An increase in customer demand for Dana Incorporated’s products is primarily driven by enhanced acquisition synergies, higher sales levels and ongoing…
Al-Haddad and Kotnour (2015) describe different organizational change types, change enablers and change methods as a means of developing a roadmap for successful organizational change. They stress that there needs to be some flexibility -- a one-size-fits-all approach to change will often lead to failure, as there will typically be some misalignment between the method of change and either the organization's conditions or the objectives of the change program. This paper will examine the prevailing models of organizational change, seeking to understand how the models fit within the study of change and its practical application.
The Kotter model of organizational change is known as the leading change method. This method is an eight-step method, noting that organizational change works best when it is holistic. That is to say, change cannot be implemented only in one part of an organization, because the organization is a whole unit, each component effected…
Al-Haddad, S. & Kotnour, T. (2015) Integrating the organizational change literature: A model for successful change. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol 28 (2) 234-262.
Calegari, M., Sibley, R. & Turner, M. (2015) A roadmap for using Kotter's organizational change model to build faculty engagement in accreditation. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal Vol. 19 (3) 29-41.
Sastry, M. (1997) Problems and paradoxes in a model of punctuated organizational change. Administrative Science Quarterly. Vol. 42 (1997) 237-275.
Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).
Shortfalls of the attachment theory
The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence…
Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lee.html
Klaus, M.H., Kennell, J.H., & Klaus, P.H. (1995). Bonding. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Pickover, S. (2002). Breaking the cycle: A clinical example of disrupting an insecure attachment system. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 358-367.
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…
Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.
Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.
Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.
Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…
Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.
Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.
Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.
-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Using Kotter's 8 steps, the three most significant errors made out of all the change stories presented were: McDonald's failure to create urgency when it implemented its initial menu changes; Kodak's failure to communicate its vision for change; and Fiorina's failure to form a powerful coalition prior to the merger between HP and Compaq Computer Corp. However, it is important to keep in mind that Kotter's approach may not best describe organizational change; its popularity may be more attributable to its usable format than from any evidence that Kotter's approach to change management is superior to competing approaches (Appelbaum et al., 20120).
McDonald's made half-hearted efforts to respond to consumer demands for healthier menu options. However, at that time, it had not seen any reduction in profits because of the perceived lack of nutritional value of its offerings and was not committed to expanding beyond its traditional fast-food repertoire.…
Applebaum, S., Habashy, S., Malo, J., & Shafiq, H. (2012). Back to the future: Revisiting
Kotter's 1996 change model, Journal of Management Development, 31(8), 764-782.
Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill.
Parker, D., Verlinden, A., Nussey, R., Ford, M., & Pathak, R.D. (2013). Critical evaluation of project-based performance management: Change intervention integration, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(4), 407-419.