QUINN's MODEL OF CHANGE
Changes in nursing procedures:
Applying Quinn's theory of change
Change resistance can often be extremely difficult to overcome in a healthcare environment. Given that nurses operate with a great deal of autonomy, they are often suspicious when new initiatives interfere with standard operating procedures that have worked in the past. To change the locality of shift to shift reporting from the break room to the bedroom, a nurse manager must generate staff buy-in so that employees genuinely believe that the change is needed and will make substantive improvements for patients, enough so that any of the inconveniences generated by the change seem warranted. Rather than demanding immediate and radical changes, James Brien Quinn "suggests that the most effective strategies of major enterprises tend to emerge step-by-step from an iterative process in which the organization probes the future, experiments, and learns from a series of partial (incremental) commitments rather than through global formulations of total strategies" (Barnat 2014). Quinn argues that incremental change is preferred because this results in improved quality of information dissemination, better organizational awareness, decreased uncertainty and thus improved psychological commitment.
The model of change theory embraced by the organization must be founded in the principles of ACT (Advanced Change Theory) and depart from traditional theories of change. In contrast, the old empirical-rational...
While this is an important component of change, unfortunately rationalism alone will not generate buy-in. People can become very emotionally attached to old ways. Also, there may be personal dynamics within an institution to the leader that cause resistance. The power-coercive strategy suggests that a series of carrots and sticks created by the leadership will generate needed changes (Pochron 2008: 126). Unfortunately, in a healthcare environment, this is often the worst method of generating change, given that nurses will feel dictated to in a negative fashion and as if their expertise is being ignored. Even the normative-reeducative strategy which "assumes people are rationally minded and need to be engaged in the process of change" and depends upon consensus-building is problematic according to the ACT model because it does not focus on the leader as well as the follower (Pochron 2008: 125). The leader must be engaged in an intensely self-reflective process about how he or she brings about the change process and be willing to learn from the needs of his or her followers.
Some of the ten principles of ACT can seem extremely idealistic, such as the need to "create an emergent system" (principle one) or to "develop a vision for the common good" (Pochron 2008:127). This stress upon inspiring and visionary leadership is transformational in nature and may initially seem to be difficult for a nurse-manager to grasp, given the bureaucratic model of leadership required in most organizational contexts in healthcare. Nurse managers…
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