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Charter School Essays (Examples)

354 results for “Charter School”.


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9 Pages
Essay

Teaching

Charter Schools vs Public Schools a Critical

Words: 3130
Length: 9 Pages
Type: Essay

Charter Schools vs. Public Schools A Critical Analysis Options for Families Diversity Opportunities for Innovation Competition Fiscal Inefficiency High Turnover of the Teachers Control & Accountability The given research…

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10 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Charter Schools Learning Styles

Words: 3861
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Charter Schools and Minorities An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Charter School Concept to Date The nation's public schools are struggling to meet the challenges presented by the…

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13 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Charter Schools Case Study Review and Development

Words: 3552
Length: 13 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Charter Schools Case Study eview and Development of Questionnaire There is in existence a plethora of research that has been conducted on the long-term effectiveness of charter schools. Much…

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5 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Charter School Can Be Defined

Words: 2162
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

One of them is that these schools are not aimed at average children, but at specifically high risk children, who may either be disabled, or may be juvenile delinquents.…

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6 Pages
Essay

Teaching

Charter Schools Wave of the

Words: 1983
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Essay

ithout trying to single out Islamic schools, one can not ignore the madrassas many times are funded by Islamic fundamentalists who are exclusively promoting the narrow ahabist agenda ("Analysis:…

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6 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Charter School Principle This Case

Words: 1856
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Aloe holds these conferences in two specific ways. The one is open to all teachers and students, though it is generally instigated by observing a specific need. In this…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Charter Schools 2000 Fourth Year Report This

Words: 895
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Charter Schools 2000: Fourth Year Report This study makes the powerful assumption that the student/teacher ratio in a school correlates to the quality of education enjoyed by the students.…

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6 Pages
Essay

Teaching

Charter Schools Research Methodology Review

Words: 1914
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Essay

This means the schools may not be so different from their public counterparts. The author suggest, for further research, a randomized comparison of charter and public school students in…

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6 Pages
Essay

Teaching

Charter School Application

Words: 1581
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Essay

leadership experience involving an ambitious goal. I have committed a great deal of time and energy increasing parent involvement in the Title 1 school where I currently work. Located…

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8 Pages
Term Paper

Business - Management

How Pro-Bono Resources Can Increase Proficiency Levels in DC Charter Schools

Words: 2476
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Pro Bono esources How Pro Bono resources can increase proficiency levels in D.C. Charter Schools Pro-bona volunteer services are classified as the community's help and services provided by the…

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2 Pages
Essay

Education

Charter Schools vs Public Schools

Words: 693
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Choice of Schooling I think it is important to have a choice of schooling especially, as Bill Moyers points out, the nation lurches towards an oligarchy in which the…

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1 Pages
Research Proposal

Teaching

Policy Reform Supporting Charter Schools

Words: 381
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

Data collection tools that will prove especially useful in the research will include online electronic database search features and both online and hardcopy items published as a matter of…

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5 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

School Choice Throughout the Nation the American

Words: 1252
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

School Choice Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is…

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8 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Schools in the Future

Words: 2207
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Schools in the 21st century are very different from the one-room schoolhouses that once dotted the American landscape. Today a single school can house thousands of students at various…

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14 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

School Choice Debate The Writer

Words: 3777
Length: 14 Pages
Type: Term Paper

The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to…

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2 Pages
Essay

Film

Schools Districts and Education Boards

Words: 629
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Chicago's School Systems "CPS recommends closure of four underperforming charter schools" is about the recent determination that four charter schools in the Chicago area will be closed. The reason…

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6 Pages
Research Paper

Education

School Funding in Illinois and DC

Words: 1964
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Abstract This paper compares and contrasts the school funding approaches of the state of Illinois and the District of Columbia. It shows that in Illinois there is a far…

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49 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Reforming Urban Schools

Words: 13440
Length: 49 Pages
Type: Term Paper

School Choice Program This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and…

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2 Pages
Thesis

Teaching

School Choice and the Dropout

Words: 717
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Thesis

Her point is to get support for her views, and she did, because three months after she wrote this piece there was a rally at the State Capitol in…

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4 Pages
Essay

Teaching

Law in Schools

Words: 1269
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Trenton School The environment at School1, were I am employed revolves around the many different standards of behavior and conduct. While much of this conduct is derived by local…

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40 Pages
Research Proposal

Teaching

Round School vs A Regular

Words: 10557
Length: 40 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that…

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6 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

American School the Idea of the Culture

Words: 1811
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Term Paper

American School The idea of the culture wars is introduced here, and these culture wars begin to illustrate just how our continued dependence on the dominant Protestant Anglo-American culture…

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15 Pages
Essay

Teaching

Leadership Characteristics That Facilitate School

Words: 5111
Length: 15 Pages
Type: Essay

Those administrators that are able to provide educators with this will more than likely have favorable opinions of the current strategy (from the staff and the public). While those…

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2 Pages
Essay

Education

Half of Public School Children live in Poverty

Words: 700
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Lifting Up Our Children Through Public Schools How to Lift Up Future Generations Renee Moore, a teacher in a very poor Mississippi Delta school, is quoted in Tim alker's…

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2 Pages
Essay

Education

Are American'schools failing RAVITCH

Words: 826
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

American schools failing- RAVITCH In the last two decades, there had been a growing opinion among those in the public policy landscape on the public educational system. They believe…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

America Having the Perfect Schools Has Long

Words: 1243
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

America, having the perfect schools has long been thought to be the panacea of all our nation's social troubles. If only we could teach our children to master America's…

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1 Pages
Research Proposal

Teaching

Working in a High-Needs School

Words: 490
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

I know that I cannot give all of my students the advantages of a stable, high-income, two-parent home, a safe neighborhood, and parental involvement. If educators could do that,…

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15 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Violence at Schools in South

Words: 4378
Length: 15 Pages
Type: Term Paper

..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of…

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3 Pages
Essay

Business - Management

Drafting a Charter for USWA

Words: 765
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

Rules for making decisions The proposal on global issues will be submitted by 15th of the next month and it will contain a title, contain a 500 words explanation…

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5 Pages
Essay

Business - Management

Work Situation Standard Chartered Bank in America

Words: 1708
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Essay

Work Situation Standard Chartered Bank in America Houston, Texas Standard Chartered Bank is a multinational bank with several branches across the world offering different financial services in different regions.…

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4 Pages
Essay

Economics

Accounting a Static Budget Is Defined as

Words: 1158
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Accounting A static budget is defined as a budget that is "planned ahead of time based on the owner's best guess about future actual activity." This type of budget…

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11 Pages
Research Paper

Teaching

Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings

Words: 5238
Length: 11 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings Desecration of Public Education Attack on Public Education Urban Education Public Education: A Democratic Demand Government's Interest in Charter Schools Why Charter…

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26 Pages
Multiple Chapters

Teaching

Policy Reform to Promote the

Words: 7175
Length: 26 Pages
Type: Multiple Chapters

In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Education I Read and Will

Words: 1262
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

By working toward and arriving at a workable and agreeable solution, Tombaugh's principal and teachers together demonstrated the power and effectiveness of collective leadership. Cushman (March 1997) further points…

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10 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Organizational Vision Analysis Doctor of

Words: 2864
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Term Paper

" (2003) IV. VISION and PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS Greene, Forster, and Winters (2003) report that charter schools typically serve disadvantaged populations. "The targeting of charter schools to disadvantaged populations I…

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6 Pages
Thesis

Teaching

Public Administration Policy Reform Supporting

Words: 1747
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Thesis

This system is stated to be flawed as "The school board members have a vested interest in the success of the existing local school system and are reluctant to…

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2 Pages
Discussion Chapter

Teaching

Public Policy Lifecycle

Words: 749
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Discussion Chapter

Maryland Charter Schools Proponents of charter schools insist that they are the solution to America's educational woes and many state legislatures have begun to agree with that assessment. In…

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6 Pages
Term Paper

Leadership

Work Teams Teamwork Has Become

Words: 1884
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Term Paper

In the context of Charters Schools, distributed leadership that connects organizational features (culture, business practices, motivation etc.) provides a greater opportunity for members to learn from one another. An…

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8 Pages
Essay

Teaching

Democratic Education Question No What Are the

Words: 2620
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Essay

Democratic Education Question No. What are the principles of democratic education? How are these principles and values in tension/contradiction with our social construction of children and youth? For example,…

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2 Pages
Research Proposal

Agriculture

Ling Peter Jefferson and the

Words: 621
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

Our palates have become so trained to enjoy this type of artificiality since childhood we can no longer appreciate the real foods themselves. While food preservation might be helpful…

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2 Pages
Essay

Teaching

Solution to the Problems Affecting Leonard Cooper

Words: 522
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

solution to the problems affecting Leonard Cooper Charter School LAN Network collision that slows down the network and interferes with print jobs The problem of network collision is noted…

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4 Pages
Case Study

Management - Theory

Freeman Brown Private System

Words: 1438
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Case Study

Introduction For this particular case study review, we will be analysing the Freeman-Brown Private School (FBPS) Case. The paper will answer questions related to different aspects and decisions made…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Children

Improving American Education Thoughts and

Words: 1376
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

The idea of group study for students that are struggling, however, also ties in with another idea for the improvement of schooling. The students that are performing the best…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Organizations Cross-Sector Alliances Cross-Sectoral Alliances

Words: 1198
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Therefore, when studies are conducted on these offenders, then the relationship between psychiatric co-morbidity and DUI relapses would become clearer. Individuals would also be sent to certain areas to…

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9 Pages
Term Paper

Business - Management

Learning Organization Peter Senge Is

Words: 2376
Length: 9 Pages
Type: Term Paper

This way of thinking and taking action has been evolving over many decades, but it reached its widest audience with the 1990 publication of 'The Fifth Discipline' by Peter…

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3 Pages
Essay

Teaching

Communication and Collaboration Among Stakeholders

Words: 921
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

Principal Paraprofessionals General Education eacher Parents Special Education eacher Student with disabilities Agencies Related Service Specialists School Psychologist Community All Interested Stakeholders All Required Stakeholders Parent-eacher Meetings IEP Meetings…

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5 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

American Education Current State of American Education

Words: 1891
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

American Education Current state of American education In the United States of America, both the public and private schools are liable for the provision of education within the entire…

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1 Pages
Thesis

Teaching

Saba's Viewpoint Farhad Saba's Viewpoint

Words: 438
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Thesis

For instance, online students are generally older and their life experiences make them autonomous, self-directed, and goal- and relevancy-oriented (ortch, 2003; iaz, 2002; ubois, 1996). Thus, these are the…

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20 Pages
Literature Review

Teaching

Perceptions of Elementary Teachers in

Words: 5192
Length: 20 Pages
Type: Literature Review

In fact, as early as the 1989-1990 school years, school-based decision making was implemented in three elementary schools in the Memphis City School System (Smith, Valesky & Horgan, 1991).…

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3 Pages
Thesis

Teaching

Empowerment and Disempowerment How Are

Words: 916
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Thesis

They may not be able to afford new schools, and they may not be able to hire the best teachers in those schools. There is also a growing movement…

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16 Pages
Essay

Education

Understanding the issue of truancy

Words: 11759
Length: 16 Pages
Type: Essay

…[…… parts of this paper are missing, click here to view or download the entire document ]…EffectivePoliciesandProceduresCanAffectTruancyate50PoliciesandproceduresperceivedbyschoolleaderstoreducetruancyinapubliccharterschoolAlixDesulmeB.A(St.ThomasUniversity)2004M.S(St.ThomasUniversity)2006AProposalPresentedinPartialFulfillmentOftheequirementsfortheDegreeofDoctorofEducationUniversityofNewEnglandOctober15,2017Chapter1IntroductionStudenttruancyisagrowingproblemintheUnitedStates.Overthelasttwentyyearsthetruancyrateshavegrownnationwidewiththehighestratesininnercities(Jacob&Lovett,2017).esearchindicatesthatstudenttruancyleadstopotentialsociallydeviantbehaviorinadulthood(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Manystudentswhoareabsentforprolongedperiodsaremorelikelytoperformpoorlyacademically,riskingfailureinclassesandfacingdisciplinaryaction.Characteristicsofschoolswithhightruancyratesareuseofonlypunitivetruancyprograms,lackofalternativestudyoptionsforsuspendedstudents,andlackofcounselingandtutoring(Bye,2010).Thereareschoolsthathavebeendoingwellinmaintaininglowtruancyrates,however.Thoseschoolsgivestudentstheoptionfortutoring,allowdistancelearningforsuspendedstudents,andtakeonamixtureofpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasures(Duarte&Hatch,2014).Withanationalrankingof764andaFloridarankingof66,CharterSecondarySchoolisconsideredoneofthebesthighschoolsinthestateregardingstudentattendanceratesandoverallschoolparticipation.Theschoolhasalowtruancyamongminoritystudents,whichisanotableanddistinctivequality,makingitananomalyinthesurroundingarea.Suchaqualitywillbeanalyzedindepthinthispaperalongwiththevariouspossiblereasonsforthestudentswillingnesstoattendclassregularlyandwhatmethodsareemployedbyschoolstafftokeeptheschoolenvironmentpositivebecausetruancyratesaresolowcomparedtootherschoolsintheareaandnationwide.Firstestablishedin2005,CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShoreisapubliccharterschoolbuiltontheBarryUniversityCampus,sittingon5acresofproperty.ItisinMiamiShore,anareaofFlorida.Thecurrentenrollmentnumberstandsat599andthecampustypeissuburban.TheschoolmascotaretheHawks.ateAasacollegepreparatoryschool,theschoolholdsamunicipalcharterviaVillageofMiamiShoresthatservesstudentsfromgrades6-12(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Initsearlyhistory,CharterSecondarySchoolwasoriginallyamiddleschoolestablishedin1997underthename,MiamiShores/BarryUniversityCharterSchool.ThenineportablestructuresthatcomprisedtheschoolservedasanalternativeforMiamiShorestudentsthatwouldotherwiseattendHoraceMannMiddleSchool(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).However,after8years,theschoolsecuredmorefundingandin2005,renamedtheschool.TheschoolgainedapermanentstructurethankstothedonationsgivenbythecitizensofMiamiShoresandadditionalfundsfromtheNorthDadeMedicalFoundation.DCSdrawsfundsfromtwoseparatestreams.OnepartofthefundingcomesfromabondissueapprovedbyVillageresidentsandalargetwo-yeargrantgivenbytheNorthDadeMedicalFoundationforFY2006and2007.DCSraisestheremainderofitsoperatingexpensesfromthestatethroughitsFTEfunding(asetamountforeachstudentintheclassroomperday)andthroughthecollectionofstudentfeesforsuchthingsasmaterialsandtrips(CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShores,2007).Theschoolhas31full-timeteachersforastudentpopulationof598studentsthatreflectaratiooflessthan20studentsperteacher(19:1)(USNEWS,2017).Thepercentageofeconomicallydisadvantagedstudentsliesat33%withminorityenrollmentof83%.AlthoughclassattendanceishighandthepercentageofstudentswhotestedforAPexamsat81%,thepercentageofstudentswhopasstheAPexamsis47%,orlessthanhalf.EnglishandMathematicproficiencylevelslieat70%and68%respectively,whichisabovethedistrictandnationwideaverage(USNEWS,2017).WithaCollegeeadinessIndexof48.8,theschoolhasroomforimprovement.Whilestudentsearnaveragetestscores,overall,studentswhoattendDoctorsperformbetterthanstudentsatotherschoolsinitsdistrict.ThedistrictaverageforEnglishproficiencyis50%andMathematicproficiencyat37%.Thedistrictaverageforcollegereadinessisat44.7andthisisoutof113schoolsand113,242students(USNEWS,2017).Withagraduationrateof98%,CharterSecondarySchoolofMiamiShoreshasalotgoingforitregardingpositiveaspectsandstudentinterest.UnderstandingtheeasonsforTruancyThereareseveralreasonsfortruancyandtheyareoftencomplexandvaried.Somepertaintoanegativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblems,tonameafew.Anegativeschoolenvironmentcancauseproblemsforstudentswishingtolearn.UnlikeCharterSecondarySchool,classroomsacrosstheMiamioftenhavelargeclassroomsforexample,makingitdifficultforstudentstopayattentioninclassandreceiveattentionnecessaryforunderstandingthecurriculum(Losen,2015).Ifforexample,astudenthasquestionsorneedsexamplesforaspecificassignmentinclass,theteachermaynothavethetimeorpatiencetodealwiththatstudentwhenheorshemustdealwith29otherstudentsallneedingthesamelevelofattention.Manyschoolsacrossthecountryhavestrictpoliciesregardingdisruptivestudentbehaviorthatcouldlandastudentundersuspensionoreven,expulsion.Severalfactorscouldcausedisruptivebehavioramongstudents(Losen,2015).Onecommonreasonispoverty.highlevelsofpovertyhaveanegativeeffectonschoolbehavior.Thisisattributedlargelytothechronicandacutestressexperiencedbystudentslivinginpoverty.Theexposureisassociatedwithexternalizingbehaviorsthataredisruptiveinschoolsettings(Hutcheson,2014,p.1).Studentsfacingpovertymaybepartofanunstablehousehold.Theymayendureproblematicandabusiveparents,andhavetodealwithlackofresources.Thesestudentsneedachanceeverynowandthentolearnfromtheirmistakesandreceivethehelpandresourcesthatcouldmakeapositivedifferenceintheirlives.Instead,theyaresuspendedorexpelledandnotgivenachancetoimprove.Highratesofsuspensioncanlendtoahigherrateoftruancy.ThebifactorstructurereflectedageneralfactorofProblemsinBehavioralEngagementandtwogroupfactors:ProblemsinSocialEngagementandProblemsinAcademicEngagement(Barghausetal.,2016,p.154).esearchersnotestudentsoftenmaynothaveproblemsacademically,butinsteadsocially.Theymaynotfeelcomfortableengagingwithotherstudentsduetofearofjudgementorinabilitytoproperlysocialize.Providingstudentswiththetoolstobothengagesociallyandacademicallycanallowforahigherpercentageofacademic-basedpositiveoutcomes.Studentinterestmayalsoplayakeyroleintruancy(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017).Thisisbecausesuspensionsandexpulsionsmayimpactstudentinterestinanegativeway.Whenstudentsreceivesuspensions,theyhavenoaccesstotheschoolwork.Whenthesuspensionends,dependingonhowlongthetimeoutofschoolwas,theymayhaveincreaseddifficultycatchingupwiththeclass.Ifthereisnooptiontocompleteschoolwork,andtheycannotgotoschoolorcontacttheteacherforassignments,itmayputthesekindsofstudentsatanautomaticdisadvantage.Thisisespeciallythecaseiftheyhaveahardtimeacademicallyalready.Tofallbehindinschoolworkwhenthestudenthasexperiencedlowgradescouldsetbackastudentandcouldendupinhavingfailuresinclasses.Byexploringincentivetheoryofmotivationandresearchshowingtheconnectionbetweenexpulsion/suspension,interest,andtruancy,thehopeistoofferclarityinwhytruancyratesarehighandwhatcanbedonetocounteractit.Theseproblems:negativeschoolenvironment,studentbehavior,familyeconomicstatus,mentalhealthproblem(Dronkers,Veerman,&Pong,2017)(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-obinson,&Winters,2014)mustbeaddressedfortruancyprogramstobeeffective.Thescopeoftheproblemsassociatedwithtruancyislarge.Forthepurposeofthisstudy,thespecificfocuswillbeschool-basedpoliciesandproceduresthatmaymitigateorreducetruancy.Withoutapropersynthesisofthereasonssurroundingtheproblem,therewillbelimitedunderstandingabouthowtoapproachthestudy.Therefore,itisimportanttostatethescopeofproblemtodefinethefocusandimprovethequalityofthestudy.StatementoftheProblemTruancyratesintheUnitedStatesareagrowingproblem(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014).Whetherastudentisabsentduetoasuspensionorbecausetheywillinglychoosetobeabsent,theproblemhasbecomeworthyofresearchandpossibleintervention.Truancyratesarehigherinschoolswithlowsocio-economicstatus(Dembo,Wareham,Schmeidler,Briones-obinson,&Winters,2014).Theproblemaddressedbythestudyis:Educationalleadersmayhaveimplementedpoliciesandproceduresinpubliccharterschools,butdocumentationaboutwhicharemosteffectiveandwhytheyareislargelyabsent.Currentpolicieshaveenabledhighertruancyratesduetothezero-toleranceaspectthatenablesharsherandstricterpunishmentofstudentbehavior.Sincethe1990s,implementationofzerotolerancepoliciesinschoolshasledtoincreaseduseofschoolsuspensionandexpulsionasdisciplinarytechniquesforstudentswithvaryingdegreesofinfractions(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenstudentsaresuspended,orexpelledfortheirbehavior,theymayhaveatoughertimecatchingupinschoolandsucceedingintheiracademicendeavors.Thiscanleadtootherproblemsdownthelineasstudentsmatureandbecomeadults.esearchsuggeststheexperienceofsuspensionofexpulsioncouldleadtoillegalbehaviorthatisassociatedwithacriminalrecord.Beingsuspendedorexpelledfromschoolincreasedthelikelihoodofarrestinthatsamemonthandthiseffectwasstrongeramongyouthwhodidnothaveahistoryofbehaviorproblemsandwhenyouthassociatedwithlessdelinquentpeers(Monahan,VanDerhei,Bechtold,&Cauffman,2014,p.1110).Whenschoolsexpelandsuspendstudents,addingtothetruancyratesoftheschool,negativebehaviorsmayincrease.Thezerotolerancepoliciesofschoolshavebecomethemaincauseforconcerninthesegrowingcasesofsuspensionandexpulsion.Therefore,policiesneedtobechangedtoaddressthisproblem.Todoso,onemustexamineschoolslikeCharterSecondarySchooltodeterminewhatstepstotaketomakeapositivechange.Althoughtruancydoesnotdirectlyleadtocrime,itoftenhasahighcorrelation.PurposeoftheStudyThepurposeofthestudyistounderstandschoolleadersperspectivesaboutwhethereffectivepoliciesandproceduresreducetruancyandimprovestudentattendance.ByinterviewingkeystaffinCharterSecondarySchool,apubliccharterschoolwithlowtruancylevels,informationoneffectivepoliciesandprocedurescanbegathered.Thesefindingsmayprovideabetterunderstandingofwhatschoolleadersinotherschoolscandotoimprovetruancy.Attendanceplaysalargepartinfacingsuspensionandperformingwellacademically.esearchabouttruancyreductionsuggestsstudentswithmoreattendanceoptionsmaybeabletoovercomedifficultiesthatcontributetotruancy.Effectiveschoolpoliciesthatimproveattendancemaycontainprocessesandoptionsthatprovidesuchsupportandvariability.Withoutunderstandingsuchaspects,littlehelpcouldbegeneratedandimplementedtohelpstudentsinneedandhelpthemavoidhightruancyrates.Thisareaofresearchwillbeexploredintheinterviewsectionandresults.CharterSecondarySchoolhasbetterattendanceandbetteracademicperformancecomparedtoalltheotherschoolsinthedistrict(onaverage).Furthermore,mostofthestudentsareminorityornon-white.Thisschoolisaperfectstartingpointforinvestigationintoeffectiveschoolpolicies.Alookintoothersuccessfulschoolsshouldprovideameasureofeffectivenessneededtounderstandbetterwhatstrategiescanimproveattendance.Itcanalsoshowhowotherschoolshandlethingslikeminoritymajorityandlocationofschoollikeanurban,rural,orsuburbansetting.esearchQuestions1.Whatmaybethecauseoftruancyinstudents?2.Howdoesincentivetheoryplayaroleinunderstandingschooltruancy?3.Whataretheeffectsofpunitiveornon-punitivetruancyprogramsonstudents?4.Whataresuccessfultruancyprogramsdoingthathasledtoreductionintruancy?5.Whyaresometruancyprogramsunsuccessfulatreducingtruancy?Theresearchneedstodelveintounderstandingthereasonsbehindtruancy.Fortheretobesolutionstothenationwidetruancyproblem,researchmustbedirectedtowardsevidencethatexplainsmotivationsbehindtruancybehaviorandwhataspectsoftruancyprogramshelpeliminatesuchbehavior.Bydevelopingaclearideaofschooltruancyandwhystudentsbecometruant,thehopeistodevelopevidence-basedpracticesthatreduceschooltruancyinstudents.Amyriadofschoolprogramsexistsfortruancy,buttherealityis,notmanyareeffective.QualitativeStudiesandInterviewsThestudyisaqualitativeonethatfocusesontheuseofinterviewstocollectqualitativedata.Theinterviewhastodaybecomeoneofthemostwidespreadknowledge-producingpracticesacrossthehumanandsocialsciencesingeneralandincriticalpsychologymorespecifically(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).Interviewscanrangefromformalinterviewsorinformalinterviews.Theycanbedoneface-to-face,overthephone,orovertheinternet.Formalinterviewshaveastructuretothemwheretheresearcherasksaquestionandtheparticipantanswers.However,ininformalinterviews,therecanbediscussionanddoesnothavetosticktothequestionsasked.Mostqualitativeinterviewshavesomestructuretothemandarelabeled,semi-structured.Mostqualitativeinterviews,however,aresemi-structured.Inasemi-structuredinterview,theresearcherprovidessomestructurebasedonherresearchinterestsandinterviewguidebutworksflexiblywiththeguideandallowsroomfortherespondentsmorespontaneousdescriptionsandnarratives(Brinkmann,2014,p.1008).ThereisaneedtounderstandfromthestafforschoolleadersperspectivesthatworkatCharterSecondarySchoolwhythepoliciesattheschoolwork.Tounderstandwhatimprovementshavebeenmadeandwhatkindofschoolenvironmentsuchpoliciespromote,thiscangiveagoodpictureofwhatisbeingdonetoachievepositiveoutcomesforthestudentpopulationattending.Similarstudiesusinginterviewshavegatheredasignificantamountofinsightfulinformationthatallowsfortheabilitytoanswerimportantquestions.Usingfixedeffectsregressionsandcontrollingfortruancypeergroupeffects,weobservethattruancy(measuredasbothadiscretedummyvariableandacontinuouscountmeasure)positivelycorrelatestoearlyschoolleaving.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Thepoliciessurroundingtruancyprogramsandhowacademicstaffreactallowforthemesdiscoveredthroughtheinterviewprocesstothenbecomparedtothemesfoundintheliteraturereviewtoseeifthereisauniversalthemeorconceptbeingappliedthatleadstosuccessfulacademicperformancebystudentsandgoodattendancerecords.Itisimportanttoallowstudentsandstafferstogivetheiropinionsaswellasenablediscussionofwhatcausedthepositiveornegativeopinion.Thiswillallowforeasieranalysisofresponses.Conceptualframework:OrganizationalstructuresandleadersvisionTheideathattruancyisacomplexproblemallowsforfocusonthevariousnarrativesincorporatedinattemptsatunderstandingandresolvingtheproblem.Somanydifferentavenuespointtopotentialsolutions,however,experiencedenotesnegativeorpositiveoutcomes.Therefore,theleadersvisonoftheselectedschoolandofsuccessfultruancyprograms,willallowforascopeofwhatmaybevaluabletowardsreductionofstudenttruancyrates.Withintheconceptualframeworkliesthetheoreticalframework,incentiveandmotivation.Animportanttheorythatwillbeexploredinthispaperistheincentivetheoryofmotivation.peoplearepulledtowardsbehaviorsthatofferpositiveincentivesandpushedawayfrombehaviorsassociatedwithnegativeincentives.Theincentivetheorysuggeststhatpeoplearemotivatedtodothingsbecauseofexternalrewards(ehman&Haider,2013,p.141).Ifstudentsareincentivizedtoattendclassbyreceivingareward,thismaybeacrucialpartmissinginschoolswithhightruancyratesandmayexplainthedownwardspiralofsomestudentswhentheyarepunishedseverelyforbeingabsent.CharterSecondarySchoolhasnon-academicawardsthattheygiveouttostudentswhoarerespectfulandhavegoodattendancerecords.Thesecouldbeincentivesforstudentstocontinueattendingclass.Theschoolsattendanceprocedureisstrict,butallowsforevaluationofthereasonsbehindastudentsabsence.Suchconsiderationforastudentallowsforroomforthestudenttoresolvehisorherproblemsandcontinuegoingtoschool.Onerule,isthatifastudentmissesanxamountofdays,theywillhavethesameamountofdaystomakeuptheassignment.Althoughthismaybedifficulttoaccomplish,itdoesleavesomewiggleroomforstudents,thusincreasingtheirmotivationtocontinuefollowingtherulesoftheschool.AssumptionsThemainassumptionthatguidesthisstudyisthattruancypoliciesandproceduresarethecornerstoneforreductionintruancyrates.Otherassumptionsincludethenotionthathigherratesoftruancyleadtopooreracademicperformance.Whenstudentsfailtoattendclassvoluntarily,theyputthemselvesatgreaterriskofperformingpoorlyinschool.Thiscanhappenduetotheirinabilitytokeepupinschoolandlackofmotivationtocompleteassignments.Theymaybeunwillingtoattendschoolduetomentalhealthproblems,anunstablehomelife,orphysicalhealthconditions.Anotherassumptionisthatstudentslivinginpovertyandminoritystudentsmayhaveamoredifficulttimewithschoolduetoaturbulenthomelifeanddealingwithinstitutionalizedracism.Althoughthisisnotatopicthatwillbecoveredin-depthinthispaper,itisimportanttorecognizethedifficultiesthatcomefromlackofresourcesandpotentiallybeingaminority,andseehowthatcouldaffecttruancyrates.Thiscouldlendtocreationandimplementationofevenmoreeffectiveschoolpoliciesthatcanultimatelyreducetruancyratesandmaintainthemlowinthefuture.LimitationsThestudywillbelimitedtoonepubliccharterschool.theDoctorsChartersSchool.Thisisbecauseoftheneedtounderstandwhattheschooldoesandthencomparethatinformationtoothersuccessfulschools.Anotherlimitationisthenumberofpeopletointerviewforthestudy.Becausetheinterviewisqualitativeandin-person,notmanypeoplecanandwillbeavailabletoanswerquestions.ThestudyisalsolimitedtotheschoolswithintheUnitedStates.TheliteraturereviewwillonlyexaminehowAmericanschoolshandletruancyandpolicesthateitherdecreaseorincreasetruancyrates.Thefinallimitationisparents.Althoughparentalopinionmaybehelpful,itwouldbebettertoleavetheinterviewstostudentsandstafferswithparentsgivingpermissiontothestudenttospeak.Nootherlimitationsarenoted.ScopeoftheStudyThestudyisqualitative,andwilluseinterviewswithschoolstafftocollectdata.InterviewtranscriptswillbeanalyzedtoidentifyunderlyingthemesfromrespondentsoftheCharterSecondarySchool.Byaskingquestionsthehopeistounderstandwhateffectivepoliciesareinplacethatallowsforbetterattendanceratesthanotherschoolsinthedistrict.Interestingly,theschoolalsofaresbetterregardingacademicscoresandhasahighgraduationrate.Iflocationplaysapart(itisinasuburbanarea),thisshouldbeexploredviatheinterviewquestionstogainabetterunderstandingofallaspectsofeffectivepolicywithintheschool.Theliteraturereviewprovidesafoundation,theinterviewsprovidethedata.Asidefromthequalitativeinterviews,theliteraturereviewwillserveasacomparativeguidetonotonlybasesomeofthequestions,butalsocomparethedatagarneredfromtheinterviews.Ifothersuccessfulschoolshavesimilarpoliciesinplace,thiscouldserveasapotentialstandardthatcanappliednationallytohelpdecreasetruancyinallschoolsthroughoutthecountry.Theliteraturereviewwillalsoservetoprovideexamplesofpoliciesinschoolwithhightruancyratestoseewhatshouldnotbedone.Theresultswillalsobediscussedwithinthecontextofpotentialmodificationthatcanbemadetohelpimproveattendanceratesandacademicsuccessofstudentsevenfurther.Ultimately,itisimportanttoacknowledgewhatCharterSecondarySchoolhastoofferandseewhetherthatcanserveasagaugeforotherschoolsinthedistrict,anymaybe,inthecountry.Althoughthequalitativestudyissmall,onlyincludingsixstudentsandfourstaffmembersfromtheschool,itmayprovidethekindofinsightthatcannotbegatheredelsewhere.Useofdatabasesavailabletohighlightnationwidetruancyratesmayalsobeused,againasacomparativetool.SignificanceThestudycanbeanimportantstepinlearningwhatisworkableforschoolsaimedatreducingtruancyamongstudentsandwhatisnot.Furthermore,findingsmayleadtothisschoolandothersstandardizingeffectiveprogramsandpolicies.PublicschoolsacrosstheUnitedStatesneedtoknowthattheycanhavetheknowledgetoimprovetheirstudentpopulationsacademicprogressandattendance.First,however,theyneedtoseetheinformationthatprovescertainpolicyimplementationsworkandareworththetime,money,andeffort.Likeevidence-basedpracticeinnursing,staffneedtoseeevidenceofpoliciesthathavealreadybeenenabledandimplementedthathaveledtothesuccessofstudentsandtheimprovedratesofattendance.WhileithelpsseeingthestatisticsofasuccessfulschoollikeCharterSecondarySchool,itisevenmoresignificantifschoolsseethestepsittooktoreachthatlevelofsuccess.Thenthatcollectedinformationcanbecomparedtootherschoolsastoidentifywhatcoreprinciplesandactionshavebeenusedtoachievesuchapositiveresult.Growthandpositiveoutcomescanonlycomefromtestedandapprovedpractices.Theconceptualframeworkwillworkasaguidetoseeandunderstandifassumptionsandhypothesescanbeprovenordisprovenviacomparisonandanalysis.esearchersneedtocontinuetheirpursuitofinformationandanalysistoofferpotentialguidelinesanddirectionsforschoolsthatneedit.ThegrowingproblemoftruancyintheUnitedStatesrequiresathoughtfulandconsiderateassessmentofongoingissues.Theseissueswillcontinuetoremainprevalentunlessactionistaken.Actioncannotbetakenunlessthereissoundresearchandevidencebehindit.Lastly,studiesliketheonehereoffersananchorpointtoinvestigateotheraspectsofschoollife,schoolenvironment,andstudentbehavioralproblems.Ifstudentshaveproblemsduetostruggleswithsexuality,genderidentity,orevenpoliticalaffiliation,thiscouldalsobeinvestigatedinfuturestudies.Theresultscouldthenbeusedtospearheadchangesinpoliciesinthenearfuture,leadingtocontinueprogressiontowardsasafeandpositiveschoolenvironment.DefinitionofTermsThetermsutilizedinthisstudyaredetailedbelow.TruancyWhenastudentstaysawayfromschoolwithoutasufficientreason;canbealsolabeledasabsenteeism.Dayssuspendedmaybeincludedintruancyrates.CharterSchool(intheUnitedStates)apubliclyfundedindependentschoolestablishedbycommunitygroups,parents,orteachersunderthetermsofacharterwithnational/localauthority.ExpulsionMeaningpermanentwithdrawing/exclusion,whenastudentisbannedorremovedfromaschoolsystem/universityduetoconsistentviolationsofaninstitution\\\'srules.However,itcanalsobeforasingleoffenseoffittingharshnessinextremecases.Suspensionegardingschools,suspension(a.k.a.temporaryexclusion)isanobligatoryleavegiventoastudentasamethodofpenaltythatcanlastanywherefromasingledaytoaslongasseveralweeks,whereastudentcannotattendschoolorstepfootinsidetheschool(Kaufman&Kaufman,2013).ConclusionInconclusion,truancyratesareagrowingprobleminUnitedStatesschools.CharterSecondarySchoolisoneschoolthataimstoreducetruancyratesandhavedonesoaccordingtorecentstatistics.ByexploringCharterSecondarySchoolsschoolpoliciesandotherschoolpoliciesthatincreaseordecreasetruancyratesinFloridathestudyhopestounderstandwhatmaycausetruancyinschoolsandwhatreducesit.Ifbetterandimprovedhandlingofstudentissuesisthesolutiontotruancy,itneedstobeexplored.Thenextsectionisaliteraturereview.TheliteraturereviewwillfocusonimportantpoliciesalreadyinplaceinotherschoolsandhowthesepoliciescouldbesimilarordifferenttoCharterSecondarySchoolalongwiththenegativeeffectsofhightruancyratesandthecauseoftheseratesinschools.Thenextsectionallowsonetoseethroughrecentliterature,thesignificanceoftruancyandhowitconnectsschoolmeasureswithstudentbehavior.Someschoolstakepunitivemeasurestowardstruancy,otherstakenon-punitive,andstillmoretakeamixtureofboth.Whyaresuchmeasuresadopted?Theaimistounderstandthisandwhystudentsaretruant.Thereareseveralfactorsthatcanbeatplayfromenvironmenttomentalhealth,andsoforth.Theliteraturereviewwillbringintocontextmoreoftheseaspects.Withsomanyschoolsthroughoutthecountryexperiencinghightruancyrates,whatdoesCharterSecondarySchooldothatenableshighattendanceamongitsstudentpopulation?Whatpolicieshastheschooladoptedtosupportapositiveenvironmentthatmotivatesstudentstoattendschoolandlearn?Chapter2Literatureeviewoadmap:Thisliteraturereviewwillfocusonseveralkeytopicsbecausemanyreasonscontributetotruancy.Theseare:addressingschooltruancy,school-basedprograms,punitive/non-punitivetruancyprograms,studentandfamilycharacteristics,parentalengagement,tacklingtheschooltruancyproblem,typesofprogramslikeschool-basedprograms,problemswithcurrenttruancyprograms,characteristicsofsuccessfultruancyprograms,andtheoreticalframework:IncentiveTheoryofMotivation.Thehopeistoilluminatethewaytowardsunderstandingtheproblemofschooltruancyandwaystoreduceit.(IcantincludenaturaldisastersasIfeelthatisitsowntopicandtooextensivetojustbrieflycover.)Introduction:AddressingSchoolTruancyStudenttruancyhasbecomeamajorissueschoolstrytotackle.Therefore,toimprovetruancytheneedarisestoresearchandcultivateworthwhilestrategiestoreducenegativebehaviorsthatleadtotruancy.However,thereisalsoaneedtounderstandwhystudentsaretruantinthefirstplace.Povertyandnegativeschoolenvironmentareissuesthathaveraisedconcernforthelikelihoodoftruancyinstudents.Thissectionhopestoilluminatetheissueofstudenttruancy.Itbecomesdifficulttoidentifythecostsofbenefitsofvariousmeasures.Thosethatfallintothepunitivedisciplineisnecessarybecausetraditionalistviewsbelieveadherencetorulesleadstopositiveoutcomes.Thoseinthecampofnonpunitivedisciplinedesiretodemonstratehowgivingstudentsoptionscanleadtobetterresultsnotjustintruancyrates,butthepersonalgrowthofthestudent.Withallthestrategiesandmethodsavailable,itcanbedifficultforschoolleadstodeterminewhatmixtureofpunitiveandnonpunitivedisciplinewillwork.Thedesireistoshowthesuccessofprogramsand/orschoolsthathaveenabledareductionintruancyratesaswellaspoliciesineffectthatincreasetruancyratestodemonstratehowtoimprovestudenttruancy.School-basedProgramsAsidefromcreatingastrongerconnectiontocommunity,anotherwayschoolscanandhavehelpeddecreasetruancyratesisthroughtruancyreporting.Truancyreportingallowsstudentstobeassessedtoseeiftheyarehigh-risk.Becausetruancycanhaveaprofoundlynegativeeffectonstudentsinthelongterm,schoolshavebegunbecomingmorestringentontruancyreporting.Atruanthasa3.4percentagepointshigherriskofleavingschoolwithoutaqualification(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Theresearchersnotethatbecausetruancyreportingallowsforbetterassessmentofat-riskyouth,itcanprovideameansofidentifyingpotentialproblemswithstudentearlyon.Thismakestruancyreportingapreventativemeasure.Suchapreventativemeasureappearstohavepositiveeffectsonstudentsatrisk..Theideaisstraightforward:ifstudentsarebettermonitoredwithrespecttotruancy,schoolscanidentifymoreeasilystudentsatrisk.Theresultsindicatethatimprovedtruancyreportingsignificantlyreducesschooldropoutby5percentagepoints(DeWitte&Csillag,2012,p.549).Tojumpstarttheprocessofhelpingstudents,schoolsmustfigureoutwaystohelpstudentsconnecttotheircommunity.Then,apreventativemeasureusedtohelpidentifyat-riskyouth,sotheycanhaveinterventionsthatcanleadtopositiveeducationaloutcomes(DeWitte&Csillag,2012).Schoolsliketheoneusedforthisstudyandthoselikeit,alreadyhaveinplacearobusttruancyreportingprotocol.Theruleswithinthisprotocolshowthatstudentscannotbeabsentmorethanafewdaysortheschoolwillbeinvolvedandwillcontactthestudentshousehold.Moreresearchshouldbededicatedtohowpreventativemeasurescanexpandtoincludeotherwaystoassessforat-riskbehavior.Thiscanincludelatenessforclass,missedhomeworkassignments,andsoforth.Ifthiscanbedone,thismayfurtherallowforagreaterassessmentofpotentialtruancyproblemsinthefuture.Applyingresearchtopracticeispopularinhealthcare,perhapsitcanalsobecomepopularineducationasmoreinformationcomesoutonhotbuttontopicslikestudenttruancy.PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancycanbeseenthroughtheintroductionofthird-partypolicinginschools.Third-partypolicingisanapproachtocrimepreventionandcontrolinvolvingthepolicepartneringwithorganizationsorindividualstopreventorreducecrimeproblems(Nitschke,Mazerolle,&Bennett,2014,p.5211).elyingonavailablecriminal,regulatory,orcivillawsandrules(legallevers)thatallowthirdpartiestotakeaccountability,partially,forcontrolofcrime,itcreatesanenvironmentwhereapprehensionofproblemstudentsisfeasible.Thismayhelpschoolsdealwiththegrowingdelinquencyinstudents,butmayalsomakeiteasierforstudentstobecomepartofthecriminaljusticesystematanearlyage.Punitivemeasurescanalsobecostlier.Thisisbecausepunitivemeasureslikeexpulsionorsuspensioncanfurtherincreasethelikelihoodofstudentsbeingtruantandperformingpoorlyacademically(Shelton,2014).Studentsmustbeguidedtowardsapositiveoutcomeandthatmeansreducingthebeliefthatpunitivemeasureswillkeepstudentsfrombeingtruant.Althoughshort-termresultsmayindicatereduction,thelong-termeffectscouldbemorenegativeandlong-lasting(Shelton,2014).Sheltonmentionedthatstudentswhofacepunitivemeasuresmayhaveahigherchanceofcommittingcrimesversusthosewhofacednon-punitivemeasures.Whilesomeresearchsuggestspolice-interventionregardingtruancycanhelpstudentsinthatparentsaremoreawareofwhathappenstothem,therearestillmanyfactorstoconsiderinrelationtoefficacy.Forexample,police-interventionmayleadtohigherparentalawareness,butalsoincreasedpotentialfortruantstudentstoendupinthejuvenilecriminaljusticesystem(Mazerolle,Bennett,Antrobus,&Eggins,2017).Amixtureofbothpunitiveandnon-punitivemeasuresmaybemostbeneficialintacklingtheproblemoftruancy.Non-PunitivePunitivemeasuresfortruancyhavetheirplaceinschools.However,researchshowsnon-punitivemeasuresarealsousefulandofferachanceforstudentstoimproveandremovesomeofthestigmaattachedtopastmistakes.Successfulprotocolsintegrateflexibilityintostandardmethodstohelptheschool,family,andstudent.Suchprogramsunderstandindividualstudentsneedsanddowhateverisessentialtoassistthefamilyandstudentinvolvedintruancy(Mallett,2015).OnestudyinAustraliaaimedtounderstandtruancyandtheeffectsoftruancytogenerateprogramsthatallowedforeffectivemeasuresatreducingtruancyratesamongstudents(Taylor,Gray,&Stanton,2016).Thisshowsthatwithproperresearch,non-punitiveoptionsarefeasible.However,theymustbedoneinconjunctionwithsignificantresearchthatallowsabetterunderstandingoftheneedsofstudentswhoparticipateintruancy.Theexpectationisthatnon-punitivemeasuresaremoreeffectivethanpunitivemeasures.However,ifthereisnosignificantdifference,non-punitivemeasuresmustbeassessedforefficacy.Haight,Chapman,Hendron,Loftis,&Kearney(2014),demonstratedhownon-punitivemeasureslikeatruancyprogrammaynotworkifakeyprocessisnotimplemented.Meaning,ifthereisnoskill-buildingaspecttotheprogramliketutoring,thechancefortruancytodecreasedeclines.StudentCharacteristicsTruancycanhavealastingimpactonthelifeofastudent.Schooldropouthasbeenextensivelystudiedintheliteratureasacorrelateofnegativelifeoutcomes.Aprecursortoschooldropoutistruancy,theunexcusedorillegitimatestudentabsencefromschool(ocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Studentsmaybeabsentortruantduetoamultitudeofreasons.esearchersidentifiedthroughafewexaminedstudies,thatstudentswhoareoftenmoretruantthanothers,maybemoreinvolvedincrime.Suchinvolvementpointstothenegativecorrelationoftruancyandlaterlifeoutcomeslikedelinquencyandcrime.Theresearchersalsostatetruancycanleadtoproblemdrinking.esultsindicatethattruancyhaslong-lastingassociationswithnegativelifeoutcomes,especiallyfornon-violentcrimeandproblemdrinking(ocque,Jennings,Piquero,Ozkan,&Farrington,2016,p.592).Ifaddictiveorcriminalbehaviorleadstotruancyandtruancycanfurtherleadtoaddictiveorcriminalbehavior,itseemsacyclethatjustfeedsitselfwithnegativeoverallbehavior.Thisisimportanttoknowbecausestudentsexperiencingaddictionproblemsorbecominginvolvedindelinquentbehaviorcanreceivehelptonotonlykeepthemfromengaginginsuchriskyactionswhilealsopositivelycontributingtoreductionintruancyrates.Essentially,thenotionthatfortheretobeareductionintruancyrates,schoolsmusthelpstudentsdealwiththenegativebehaviorstheyareengagingin,outsideofschool.Thesenegativebehaviorscouldcomebecauseofnegativeexperiences.Frombullyingtopooracademicperformance,studentsoftenexperiencestressthatcouldbedetrimentaltotheiracademicsuccess.Birkett,ussell,&Corliss,(2014)observetherolesexual-orientationdisparitieshaveonstudentsinrelationtoacademicachievementandtruancy.Throughtheutilizationofpoolinformation,theyidentifiedbeingpartoftheLGBTgroupaffectedratesoftruancyandacademicperformance.LGBT-identifiedyouthsreportedsignificantlyelevatedoddsoftruancyandlowgrades(oddsratios?=?1.63.2;allP?

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