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Charter Schools vs. Public Schools
A Critical Analysis
Options for Families
Opportunities for Innovation
High Turnover of the Teachers
Control & Accountability
The given research paper is an attempt to evaluate the merits and demerits of charter schools and public schools in the pursuit of identifying the better schooling system. The document comprises of literature review which helps in identifying the degree of effectiveness of charter schools and also answers of criticisms that have been made on these schools so far. For a beginning teacher, it is important to establish an understanding of differences between charter schools and public schools. Furthermore, in order to be an effective educator, this understanding is of fundamental importance. The research sheds lights on factors diversity, competition, innovation, fiscal viability, control and authority.
"Charter schools vs. public schools" is an old debate in the American education system. There are two…
Alburger, S. (2012), Charter Vs. Public, Retrieved 8 October, 2012 http://techtips.salon.com/charter-vs.-public-20693.html.
Betts, J. & Hill, P.T. (2006), Key issues in studying charter schools and achievement: a review and suggestions for national guidelines, National Charter School Research Project, Retrieved from http://www.econ.ucsd.edu/~jbetts/Pub/A53%20NCSRP_AchievementWhitePaper2006_web.pdf
Booker, K., Gilpatric, S., Gronbor, T. & Jansen, D. (2005). The effect of charter schools on traditional public school students in Texas: are children who stay behind left behind?, Retrieved from http://ncspe.org/publications_files/OP104.pdf
Chen, G.(2009), Charter vs. public schools: Which one is underperforming., Retrieved 8 October, 2012 http://www.publicschoolreview.com/articles/123
Charter Schools and Minorities
An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Charter School Concept to Date
The nation's public schools are struggling to meet the challenges presented by the No Child Left Behind mandates, and charter schools have been suggested as one approach that holds the promise of providing public schools with the tools they need to succeed. According to one authority, "The Charter School concept has the potential to utterly transform public education" (n.p.). Unfortunately, this potential has not been realized to any appreciable degree in many such charter schools to date (Schmerler, 2002). To this end, this paper will provide a review of the relevant and peer-reviewed literature to determine how well charter schools are actually serving and meeting the needs of urban students of color. A comparison of the performance of the charter schools with the performance of public schools in educating students of color will be…
Anderson, L., Adelman, N, Finnigan, K., Cotton, L., Donnelly, M.B., & Price, T. (2002). A
decade of public charter schools: Evaluation of the public charter schools program:
2000 -- 2001 evaluation report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Anderson, L., & Wohlstetter, P. (1994). What can U.S. charter schools learn from England's grant-maintained schools? Phi Delta Kappan, 75(6), 486.
Case Study eview and Development of Questionnaire
There is in existence a plethora of research that has been conducted on the long-term effectiveness of charter schools. Much of the research shines negatively on charter schools and their ability in retaining students on a long-term basis. It appears that these alternatives to public education are, at best, average, however, their performance over the long-term decreases exponentially. This work will review the research that has been completed in relation to charter schools and synthesize the findings in the form of a questionnaire that can be used to gather information from parents, educators, administrators, and community members related to the charter school in Tennessee. This work will present the questions posed in this study and explain the rationale for the development of the specific questions. Finally this work will make provision of methodologies that are used in the research.
National Academy of Science Report on best practices in reading instruction.
Bracey, G.W. (2005). Checking up on charters. Phi Delta Kappan, 86, 7, 554-555
Cooper, H., & Hedges, L.V. (1994). The handbook of research synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Snow, C.E., Burns, S.M., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
One of them is that these schools are not aimed at average children, but at specifically high risk children, who may either be disabled, or may be juvenile delinquents. This means that researchers would not be able to draw fair conclusions form their studies, because the performance levels of these children would be significantly lower than that of other children. (Apples to Apples: An Evaluation of Charter Schools Serving General Student Populations)
However, one method can be used to solve this problem, and this is that of using as a comparison base the test scores of students from a similar background from both the schools. Therefore, in a study conducted to measure the performance levels of students from both public as well as from charter schools, while taking similar populations of students for the study, it was found that, over a one year period form the time of the implementation…
Apples to Apples: An Evaluation of Charter Schools Serving General Student Populations.
Education Working Paper. No: 1.July, 2003. Retrieved From http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/ewp_01.htm Accessed 21 October, 2005
Charter school laws and partnerships, expanding opportunities and resources. April, 2004.
Retrieved From http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/51/12/5112.doc
ithout trying to single out Islamic schools, one can not ignore the madrassas many times are funded by Islamic fundamentalists who are exclusively promoting the narrow ahabist agenda ("Analysis: madrasas," 2010). A Minnesota Charter school is now at the center of a controversy that even has concerned the ACLU about its composition and intolerance. In addition, to make matters worse, issues of teacher accreditation have come up that threaten to compromise the excellence that have made charter schools the alternative choice for many parents ("Madrassa masquerading as," 2009).
In the opinion of this author, it is time to get back to the basics in terms of the charter school movement and return to the core of the H-B oodlawn model. hile a "hippie high" may not be acceptable to conservatives, they need to look at what may be lurking on the sidelines. hile today it might be Islamic fundamentalists, it…
Analysis: madrasas. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saudi/analyses
Charter connection. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.edreform.com/Issues/Charter_Connection
H-b woodlawn. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/H -
Aloe holds these conferences in two specific ways. The one is open to all teachers and students, though it is generally instigated by observing a specific need. In this fashion, she will observe a problem (such as a class in which the teacher is over-riding the interests and intelligence of the students, or a class in which the students are not inspired to pursue their self-directed work) and then determine if it is very limited in scope -- in which case she would confront a specific teacher -- or if it may be indicative of a larger problem. In that latter case, she announces a conference to be held at some upcoming time, and specifically invites those she feels need to attend. The conference then proceeds with her explaining what she has observed and her concern regarding it. The remainder of the conference consists of dialog among those who have…
Charter Schools 2000: Fourth Year Report
This study makes the powerful assumption that the student/teacher ratio in a school correlates to the quality of education enjoyed by the students. Specifically, the lower the student/teacher ratio, the stronger the school is. The study finds the following data:
First, in 1998-99, most charter schools had a slightly lower teacher to student ratio than did all public schools in the 27 charter states (in 1997-98). The median student/teacher ratio for charter schools was 16.0 as compared to 17.2 for all public schools. (Fourth Year, 1)
The disparity between charter and all public schools in the median teacher to student teacher ratio was about two students per teacher at the primary, K-12, and "other" grade levels. The gap was less than one at the elementary, K-8, middle, middle-high, and high school levels. (ibid)
The most extreme disparity between the charter school and the all…
"Fourth-Year Report: 2000." (January 2000) U.S. Government Website.
Retrieved 10 Jan 2005 at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/charter4thyear/b3.html#4
Harvard University. (2004) "Harvard University and National Bureau of Economic
Research: Achievement in Charter Schools and Regular Public Schools in The United States: December 2004. Charter Schools Website. Retrieved 10
This means the schools may not be so different from their public counterparts. The author suggest, for further research, a randomized comparison of charter and public school students in terms of standardized state test performance to provide better insight into the question of what is 'better,' overall, for students.
However, the researchers seem to be asking the wrong question: if small charter schools are specifically designed to address the needs of underserved students, why not conduct a less randomized, more specific study to see if identified at-risk or gifted students benefit more from charter schools than their counterparts in public schools? Charter schools, even if expanded, are unlikely to replace public institutions. They are a specific solution designed to address unique student needs and should be judged by specific criteria. It is not surprising that smaller schools with more individualized attention, and a need for teachers to prove their school's…
Greene, Jay P., Greg Foster, & Marcus Winters. (2003, July). Apples to apples:
An evaluation of charter schools serving general student populations. Center for Civic Innovation at the Manhattan Institute. Education Working Paper. Retrieved May 22, 2010 at http://www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/ewp_01.pdf
leadership experience involving an ambitious goal.
I have committed a great deal of time and energy increasing parent involvement in the Title 1 school where I currently work. Located in a low-income community, the majority of the school's students and parents suffer from situational poverty. Many parents have a tendency to resist support interventions from the school because, despite socio-economic issues in the community, they wish to retain a feeling of independence and self-reliance.
Our goal focused on increasing parent involvement through experiential methods. We developed a parent resource center which houses computers and reference materials specifically for parents. Individuals and couples can use the center to search for employment. Typically, families are also able to access a variety of online resources that provide them with housing support, medical care, and basic family needs.
Our parent resource center also provides workshops and parenting classes. We focus on adolescent social-emotional development…
Pro Bono esources
How Pro Bono resources can increase proficiency levels in D.C. Charter Schools
Pro-bona volunteer services are classified as the community's help and services provided by the professionals to civil society. According to hode (2008) lawyers are renowned for providing legal aid to the improvised communities. The model for pro-bona volunteers includes donations of financial and services in nature. The professionals dedicate their time, expertise, and resources to facilitate the community development. It is also noted that various large organizations encourage their employees to take part in the pro-bona services. The individual professionals from neighborhood also help the institutions and schools that are not capable of hiring their services on commercial basis.
The availability of the resources and service from various professionals as pro-bona volunteers for public charter schools in DC has also enabled to increase the proficiency of these schools. The professionals have provided required help to…
Cummings, S., & Rhode, D. (2010). Managing Pro Bono: Doing Well by Doing Better. Fordham law review, 78, 10-05.
Duhart, W.L. (2007). A call to the village: retooling public schools. USA: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
Lowe, A., & Lin, M. (2006, October). Steadying the three-legged stool: Authorizers, charter schools, and education service providers. Retrieved from http://www.qualitycharters.org/assets/files/images/stories/publications/Issue_Briefs/IssueBriefNo12_Three-Legged_Stool.pdf?q=images/stories/publications/Issue_Briefs/IssueBriefNo12_Three-Legged_Stool.pdf
Raise DC. (2012). Developing a cradle-to-career partnership. Retrieved from Government of Washington D.C. website: http://dc.gov/DC/DME/Programs/Raise DC - Partnership Summary FINAL.pdf
Choice of Schooling
I think it is important to have a choice of schooling especially, as Bill Moyers points out, the nation lurches towards an oligarchy in which the country’s wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few, while decisions are shaped and made by a small handful of powerful elites. If these people control everything, their agenda will very likely inform the type of schooling that is provided to young people. If parents do not want their children to be educated according to the agenda of the oligarchy, they should have the option of providing alternative schooling, such as homeschooling, charter schools, and so on.
I would personally favor homeschooling because I like to be in control of education myself, but having time for it can be difficult if you are already working full time, so charter schools would be another option. Finding a school that is safe…
Data collection tools that will prove especially useful in the research will include online electronic database search features and both online and hardcopy items published as a matter of public record by the City of Richmond. Analysis of the data retrieved will take place on a qualitative basis, with specific policy features correlated to institutional changes based on past evidence as well as ongoing scholarship and hypotheses.
ryamn, A.; ell, E. & Teevan, J. (2009). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods.…
Bryamn, A.; Bell, E. & Teevan, J. (2009). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is the ability of parents to choose the public school that their children will attend without geographic boundaries and mandates.
Experts continue to debate whether or not school choice ability will force the hand of the public school system to make the desired changes. Some believe that parents having the ability to move their children to the school of their choice will force all schools to improve to compete, while others think it will harm the economically disadvantaged schools with little benefit to the then overcrowded wealthy schools. This paper presents a research proposal that addresses the question of school choice. This might include the choice to choose a different public school, choose to home school, and choose private school or another…
CHESTER E. FINN, JR. & REBECCA L. GAU, New ways of education. Vol. no130, The Public Interest, 01-15-1998.
Gail Russell Chaddock, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, Public schools enter a new world of competition., The Christian Science Monitor, 03-30-1999, pp FEATURES,.
Author not available, As home schooling rises, districts fail to meet needs., USA Today, 08-21-2002, pp 09A.
Author not available, What's so liberal about keeping children in dreadful schools?., The Washington Post, 02-23-2003, pp B08.
Schools in the 21st century are very different from the one-room schoolhouses that once dotted the American landscape. Today a single school can house thousands of students at various grade levels and many schools integrate the latest technologies into their curriculums. With this being understood, it will be interesting to see how school curriculum will change in the future. The purpose of this discussion is to examine how schools will change in the future as it pertains to technology. The discussion will also focus on the introduction of schools as social anchors, that are both moral and purposeful.
Schools of the future
Indeed technology will continue to play a large role in schools of the future. Educators will continue to incorporate technology into the curriculum. According to Caldwell and Hayward (1998) "schooling at the upper secondary level will become more complex and diverse, with multiple providers; combined with advances made…
Briefing paper on Emerging Issues and Best Practices -- Introduction. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.arc.org/gripp/publicEducation/grippPublicEducPg06.html
Florida Virtual School: The Future of Learning? A Forum Brief -- October 18, 2002. American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.aypf.org/forumbriefs/2002/fb101802.htm
Caldwell, B.J., & Hayward, D.K. (1998). The Future of Schools: Lessons from the Reform of Public Education. London: Falmer Press.
Huskey, B.L., & Wiley, R. (1993, August). Using Public Education Campaigns to Build Community Partnerships. Corrections Today, 55, 154+.
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Chicago's School Systems
"CPS recommends closure of four underperforming charter schools" is about the recent determination that four charter schools in the Chicago area will be closed. The reason for shutting down these schools is that they are underperforming, and not adequately serving the students that they are supposed to provide a quality education. Specifically, three of the schools -- Amandla Charter High School, Shabazz/Sizemore Academy Elementary School, and Larry Hawkins High School -- were on the Academic Warning List last year. As such, they were tasked with designing and implementing remediation plans to help their students to perform better. A review of those remediation plans, however, determined that they were not sufficiently implemented during the present school year. Subsequently, Chicago Public Schools has decided to revoke the charter for these institutions. The fourth school, Bronzeville Lighthouse Charter Elementary School, will not get its charter renewed because it has failed…
You have these, I don't.
This paper compares and contrasts the school funding approaches of the state of Illinois and the District of Columbia. It shows that in Illinois there is a far greater problem of how to achieve a more equitable distribution of funds, though the state is currently setting a course to try to make this happen with its evidence-based model funding formula recently passed this year. In DC on the other hand, a foundation formula is used to disperse funds equitably throughout the District and private investment is obtained to help develop programs that can assist in closing the achievement gap. DC is thus better structured and its school funding approach better supported to achieve success over the long run.
Keywords: school funding, dc, Illinois, education
School Funding Investigation:
Comparing and Contrasting Illinois and Washington, D.C.
Funding for schools is a controversial topic for many mainly because of the lack…
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
Her point is to get support for her views, and she did, because three months after she wrote this piece there was a rally at the State Capitol in Austin where 5,000 people called for school choice in front of the Capitol building. Therefore, her words helped people make up their minds and seek action from their legislators. However, she failed to convince the legislators, who did not even address school choice during the 2007 legislative session (Editors). Either this means that the legislators are not listening to the will of the people, or that her rhetoric failed to gain their support.
The media has certainly picked up this issue, and it is an issue all around the country, not just in Texas. The Milwaukee school district has had a voucher system like this for over sixteen years, and it has proven to be a money saving plan for taxpayers,…
Editors. "School Choice Legislation." CEOAustin.org. 2008. 4 May 2009.
Storey, Jamie. "The Dropout Drain: How Dropouts -- Not School Choice -- Take Money From Public Schools." Texas Public Policy Foundation. 2007. 4 May 2009.
The environment at School1, were I am employed revolves around the many different standards of behavior and conduct. While much of this conduct is derived by local customs and habits, the imposing of law and order also significantly contributes to what is and what is not allowed. The purpose of this essay is to explore the relationship with both state and federal laws and School 1. This essay will explore the law and its applications to my school by examining key points and relevant issues related to these interactions.
Background Of Trenton School District
It is important to understand the starting point of this discussion in order to see the bigger influences that state and local governments have on the school district. According to the districts website, the mission of this school district is " All students will graduate with a vision for their futures, motivated to learn…
Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.
esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.
Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…
References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.ericdigests.org
Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at http://www.painevillecityschools.org
Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.
Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.
Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.
The idea of the culture wars is introduced here, and these culture wars begin to illustrate just how our continued dependence on the dominant Protestant Anglo-American culture has formed and influenced America's schools throughout out history. The chapter also introduces the concepts of racism and democracy, and demonstrates how these two opposite ideals often live together in our culture. The "culture wars" grew over the whites perceived "superiority" over other cultures in our country, and eventually, the dominant culture in America became the Protestant Anglo-American culture, and this dominance continues today.
The concept of education in colonial times is discussed in this chapter, along with early education's relationship to religion in the schools. It also shows the differing attitudes people of the times had about children, and how the idea that schools and educational theories could influence national thought was first introduced. The chapter also discusses the social…
Spring, Joel. The American School 1642-2000, 5th edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.
Those administrators that are able to provide educators with this will more than likely have favorable opinions of the current strategy (from the staff and the public). While those administrators that are unable to achieve this objective, will more than likely face possible resistance issues to new ideas that are being presented. This will make creating a change in the educational environment more challenging, as educators will often view what is happening, with a certain degree of skepticism. At the same time, the positive or negative views of the educational values of the administration, will affect the general public. As they will often, view what is happening in a more controversial light that could be played out in the media. The key for effective educational leadership is: to address these issues and then help everyone to see how the new values could improve, the overall quality of education that is…
Charter Schools Program. (2010). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://www2.ed.gov/programs/charter/index.html
High School Drop Out Crisis Continues. (2009). CNN. Retrieved from: http://articles.cnn.com/2009-05-05/us/dropout.rate.study_1_dropouts-enrollment-graduations?_s=PM:U.S.
Jamie Escalante Biography. (2010). Biography.com. Retrieved from: http://www.biography.com/articles/Jaime-Escalante-189368
Leadership Characteristics that Facilitate School Change. (2010). SEDL. Retrieved from: http://www.sedl.org/change/leadership/character.html .
Lifting Up Our Children Through Public Schools
How to Lift Up Future Generations
Renee Moore, a teacher in a very poor Mississippi Delta school, is quoted in Tim alker's article as saying if we truly agree that education is the way out of poverty, " . . . then we need to stop making the schools that serve the poorer children the most impoverished schools" (alker 2013). Moore has a valid point, made even more urgent by the fact that more than half of the students in American public schools " . . . come from low-income families" (Rich 2015). Indeed the majority of students in "21 states are poor," Rich writes in The New York Times.
Hence, this paper proposes working with the federal government, with states, and with private sector corporations to properly fund all public schools, in particular those that serve towns and cities steeped in abject…
Jung, Helen. "11 Things You Need to Know About Betsy DeVos, Secretary of Education."
Cosmopolitan, 7 February 2017, www.cosmopolitan.com. Accessed 17 February, 2017.
Rich, Motoko. "Percentage of Poor Students in Public School Rises." The New York Times,
16 January 2015, www.nytimes.com. Accessed 18 February 2017.
American schools failing- RAVITCH
In the last two decades, there had been a growing opinion among those in the public policy landscape on the public educational system. They believe that public education has suffered a sharp drop in its rankings and is now just ordinary. According to them, the schools are "broken". The teachers and principals are seen as the major causes of this decline due to their low levels of sternness as well as expectations from their students. This challenge can only be solved if the educational institutions are properly monitored with no room allowed for excuses (Kozol, 2013).
The pressure was raised a notch higher in 2002 when the federal testing law; No Child Left ehind, was signed and this law mandated a number of highly important and standard examinations which were aimed at ensuring all students were proficient come 2014. With time, it became clear that this…
Kozol, J. (2013, 09 26). This Is Only a Test. Retrieved from NY Times: http://www.nytimes.com /2013/09/29/books/review/reign-of-error-by-diane-ravitch.html
Ravitch, D. (2011, 09 29). School 'Reform': A Failing Grade. Retrieved from The New York Review of books: http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2011/09/29/school-reform-failing-grade/
Ravitch, D. (2013). Reign of Error: The Hoax of the Privatization Movement and the Danger to America's Public Schools. New York City: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
America, having the perfect schools has long been thought to be the panacea of all our nation's social troubles. If only we could teach our children to master America's social values while still in school, we could produce a population of perfect engineers for our future society. Injustice, racism, poverty, and all the other social illnesses of America would be cured by this new generation of progressive thinkers. The quality of our nation's education system needs to be improved, and President Bush's education reform plan will do just that.
It is obvious that the so-called "progressive" educational approach has failed. The academic knowledge of our children has fallen in comparison to other industrial nations. In an attempt to stem our nation's slide in educational rankings, government expenditures for education have risen dramatically. Every year, billions of taxpayer dollars are poured into the U.S. education system. The government seems to believe…
Digest of Education Statistics, 1991." National Center for Education Statistics. http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2002/digest2001/ch6.asp .
Economic & Social Data Ranking. http://web.hhs.se/personal/suzuki/o-English/UnitedStates.html.
Frase, Larry E, and William Streshly. Top Ten Myths in Education. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2000.
Hirsch, E.D. The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. New York: Doubleday, 1996
I know that I cannot give all of my students the advantages of a stable, high-income, two-parent home, a safe neighborhood, and parental involvement. If educators could do that, then there would not be an education crises in this country. However, I can work to make sure that all children receive the same real opportunities in their educational environment. This means going beyond giving children theoretical access to the same opportunities, and making sure that high-needs children have the same real access to resources and opportunities. If I can play a role in bringing educational equality to disadvantaged children, then I think that I can help make a meaningful difference in the lives of disadvantaged children. Just days ago, the United States experienced an inauguration that was historically significant because a poor, African-American child of a single mother attained the highest office in our nation. Obama would not be President…
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…
Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610
Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Center for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved January 2, 2009, at http://www.cjcp.org.za/
Rules for making decisions
The proposal on global issues will be submitted by 15th of the next month and it will contain a title, contain a 500 words explanation of why the issues should be taken up for discussion by the members, and have at least five sub-questions and sources. For an issue to be taken up for discussion it will have at least 10% of the members vote. Only two issues will be brought up for discussion in a year at the annual meeting. Any affiliation will be permitted by the committee; the chapters will be analyzed by the event committee and then submitted to the speaker, who will then submit them to the managing director for approval. The chapters will only be discussed if they at least have 7 members presenting them and thereafter they will submit the document to the committee to be verified.
Discussion of at…
Sacks, J (2007) The Home We Build Together: UK,
Standard Chartered Bank in America Houston, Texas
Standard Chartered Bank is a multinational bank with several branches across the world offering different financial services in different regions. The bank is headquartered in New York City with operations in New Jersey, Florida, Houston Texas and California. The bank has been in operation in the U.S. since 1902 and has been employing thousands of the Americans. Its main focus in the U.S. is whole sale banking where it offers products and services in trade finance, treasury, foreign exchange and interest rate products, cash management, commodity finance and structured import and export financial services (Standard Chartered Bank, 2008).
My position at Standard Chartered Bank as my new company will be the Marketing Manager based in Houston. The job description will be to develop and maintain marketing strategies for the branch. I will be required to conduct market research establish what the…
Jeanne S., Melinda S., Lawrence R., & Robert S., (2012). Stress at Work. Tips to Reduce and Manage Job and Work place Stress. Retrieved May 12th, 2012 from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/work_stress_management.htm
Jennn Fusion and Demand Media, 2012. Motivation & Goal Setting Theory. Retrieved May 12th, 2012 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/motivation-goal-setting-theory-1187.html
Karen C. Kaser & Madeline Johnson, (2011). Removing Communication Barriers Through Course Instruction. Retrieved May 12th, 2012 from http://businesscommunication.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/2011-ABC-10-KASER.pdf
Standard Chartered Bank, (2008). Wholesale Banking. Retrieved May 12th, 2012 from http://www.standardchartered.com/us/fast-facts/en/
A static budget is defined as a budget that is "planned ahead of time based on the owner's best guess about future actual activity." This type of budget is therefore put together for the upcoming time period, and is often based on the data from past time periods, plus or minus different adjustments that management thinks will be necessary. In contrast, a flexible budget is one where the business management can make changes in the midst of an accounting period. Flexible budgeting allows for management to make better decisions on the fly, because the information used in those decisions is kept more up-to-date. Static budgeting relies only on the ability of management to analyze the numbers after the period in order to determine the magnitude and direction of variance, along with the causes of variance. For a flexible budget, management can identify issues with the budget right away, and…
Mueller, D. (2012). Static budget vs. flexible budget. eHow. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_7784641_static-budget-vs.-flexible-budget.html
Bigelow, L. (2012). Static vs. flexible budgets for new businesses. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/static-vs.-flexible-budgets-new-businesses-20879.html
Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings
Desecration of Public Education
Attack on Public Education
Public Education: A Democratic Demand
Government's Interest in Charter Schools
Why Charter System Needs to be Opposed
Division of the Community
Failing Public Schools will Loose Funding to the Charter Schools
Difference between Public and Charter Schools
No Standard Policies
Peer Pressure and Violence
Lack of Extracurricular Activities
Authority and their igid System
Ignorance about Children's Bad Habits
Following measures can be taken to improve public schools
Charter Schools vs. Public Schools
The Basics of Educational Policy: The Pressure for eform in American Education
The Pressure for eform in American Education
Traits of Charter Schools
Why Charter Schools Exist in Urban Settings
Why to Save Public Schools 21
The purpose of this research paper is to decipher the truth about…
Behrman, J.R. (1997). The Social Benefits of Education. London: CIP.
Hassel, B.C. (1999). The Charter School Challenge: Avoiding the Pitfalls, Fulfilling the Promise. Washington: Congress Cataloging.
Lieberman, M. (1993). Public Education: An Autopsy. New York: Congress Cataloging.
Buckley, J., & Buckley, J. (2007). Charter Schools: Hope or Hype? London: Princeton University Press.
In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state House and Senate will give the Board of Education an advising role on charter school applications prior to going before the local school board.
Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts opened Aug. 11, 2010 making it the 10th charter school to open in the state of Virginia since charter schools were allowed to open in 1998. However, if history repeats itself, Patrick Henry will have a bumpy road ahead. Including Patrick Henry only three charter schools are operating currently in the state of Virginia and Patrick Henry is the only one operating in the city of ichmond. At one time there were nine charter schools in Virginia, but most of them closed due to financial reasons. (citation)
According to the…
Lawrence F. Garrison, & Mitchell Holifield. (2005). ARE CHARTER SCHOOLS EFFECTIVE? Planning and Changing, 36(1/2), 90-103. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 877541691).
CHARTER SCHOOLS: LESSONS in SCHOOL REFORM [review of the Charter Schools: Lessons in School Reform. (2005). Harvard Educational Review, 75(3), 341-343. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 920579091).
Victoria Benning. (1998, October 15). Fairfax Studies Charter School Plan; Measure's Guidelines Allow Only Special-Need Applications: [FINAL Edition]. The Washington Post, p. B05. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from ProQuest National Newspapers Premier. (Document ID: 35117762).
Kraft, M. & Furlong, S. (2007). Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives.
By working toward and arriving at a workable and agreeable solution, Tombaugh's principal and teachers together demonstrated the power and effectiveness of collective leadership.
Cushman (March 1997) further points out that in today's changing and increasingly demanding educational environment, with the best, most dedicated faculty often not given much credit for all they accomplish, and with increasing pressure placed on educational leaders and faculty alike due to national standards and emphasis on test score performance nationwide, the traditional school hierarchy of principal as leader and the rest as followers, works far less successfully than in the past. As Cushman states, leadership must instead spring from "reciprocal processes" that help to identify, and work toward, a common purpose. In other words, in today's complex and increasingly demanding educational environment, schools need all the leaders, working together, that they can get. It is also crucial to optimal school success, Cushman adds, that…
Cushman, K. (March 1997). Essential leadership in the school change Process. Horace. 13(4). Retrieved October 4, 2005, at http://www.essentialschools.org/cs/resources/view/ces_res/101.html .
Green, J.P, Forster, G., & Winters, M.A. (July 2003). Apples to apples: An evaluation of charter schools serving general student populations.
Educational working paper No. 1. The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from: http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/ewp_01.htm .
Turnbull, B. (2001). The longitudinal evaluation of school change and performance in Title 1 schools. Policy Studies Associates. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved October 4, 2005, at http://www.policystudies.com/studies/school/lescp.html.
IV. VISION and PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
Greene, Forster, and Winters (2003) report that charter schools typically serve disadvantaged populations. "The targeting of charter schools to disadvantaged populations I so common that many people have come to believe, incorrectly, that all charter schools serve disadvantaged students." (2003) One reason for this is that the "procedures by which new charter schools are created often encourage such targeting." (Greene, Forster, and Winters, 2003) Greene, Forster, and Winters reports case studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Education, one of which included 91 schools and states conclusions that "charter schools are held accountable for their performance...resource limitations are the biggest obstacles facing charter schools." (2003) in another study involving 150 schools and 60 authorizing agencies the U.S. Department of Education states findings that: "...charters learn quickly the best way to satisfy their various constituents is to focus on quality instruction." (Greene, Forster, and…
Elmore, Richard F. (2000) Building a New Structure for School Leadership. Albert Shanker Institute Winter 2000.
Charter School Basics (1998) the Charter School Roadmap, September 1998. Online available at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/Roadmap/ch1.html
Greene, Jay P.; Forster, Greg; and Winters, Marcus a. (2003) Apples to Apples: An Evaluation of Charter Schools Serving General Student Populations. Equation Working Paper. Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. July 2003. No. 1. Online available at
This system is stated to be flawed as "The school board members have a vested interest in the success of the existing local school system and are reluctant to introduce a competitor into the marketplace, said charter school supporters." (O'Donoghue, 2010)
Summary and Conclusion
It is very likely that laws will be changed and policy reformed relating to charter schools in the state of Virginia as to do otherwise means to miss the $350 million in funding opportunity for Virginia's school system and it appears highly unlikely that in the present state of the economy that Virginia will be willing to shun this much in educational funding.
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam . (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
raunlich, Christian (2009)…
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam B. (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
Braunlich, Christian (2009) Virginia Needs More Public Schools. Bacon's Rebellion. 18 Jan 2009. Online available at: http://baconsrebellion.com/2009/01/18/virginia-needs-more-charter-schools/
Grimes, Cathy (2010) Virginia Seeks $350 Million in Federal Race to the Top Education Funds. Daily Press.21 Jan 2010. Online available at http://www.dailypress.com/news/dp-local_racetothetop_0122jan22,0,5686858.story
Maryland Charter Schools
Proponents of charter schools insist that they are the solution to America's educational woes and many state legislatures have begun to agree with that assessment. In Maryland, charter schools have become a viable alternative to the public school system which is seen as a lumbering anachronism, no longer able to educate or motivate. This is especially true in Baltimore where the schools are in dire need of reform. But the implementation of a charter school system did not come easily and there is still substantial opposition to the charter schools, mostly from public school educators. The Public Policy Lifecycle of Maryland's charter schools has been a very interesting one.
hile Maryland has continued to make great strides in its educational system, like many states the performance of its graduating students has been subpar. Even among those who attend college there are notable problems. At Baltimore…
Mossburg, M.H. (2011, May 10). Maryland's uneducated high school graduates. The Maryland
Public Policy Institute. Retrieved from:
Maryland Charter School Network. (2011). History of Maryland legislation. Retrieved from:
In the context of Charters Schools, distributed leadership that connects organizational features (culture, business practices, motivation etc.) provides a greater opportunity for members to learn from one another. An increased participation in decision making is another characteristic of effective organizations that may be identified in the organizational structure of Charter Schools USA. An increased participation in decision-making leads to a greater commitment to organizational goals and group strategies are free to develop. Such form of leadership allows the increase in self-determination, and the members may anticipate and respond to the demands of the organization's environment.
Another important issue that makes Charter Schools USA effective is the use of 360 degree appraisal of performance, which involves a group of people who interact with the employee in many different ways and are able to rate his performance. esearch and practice has already proved the effectiveness of the feedback from multiple sources and…
About Charter Schools USA, Retrieved at http://www.charterschoolsusa.com/about.html
Campion, M.A., Medsker, G.J., & Higgs, a.C. (1993). Relations between work group characteristics and effectiveness: Implications for designing effective work groups. Personnel Psychology, 46, 823-850.
Peterson, K. (1995) Critical Issue: Building a Committed Team, Retrieved at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/leadrshp/le200.htm
Leithwood, K., (unavailable year), Educational Leadership, a review of the research, Retrieved from www.temple.edu/Lss/pdf/ReviewOfTheResearchLeithwood.pdf
What are the principles of democratic education? How are these principles and values in tension/contradiction with our social construction of children and youth? For example, what assumptions do we make about teaching, learning and youth that democratic schools challenge? How does "one size fits all" centralized curriculum contribute to what Apple called the "de-skilling of teachers"? What is lost when this approach is adapted, especially when it is combined with the "intensification" of teaching? Explore the contradictions between what we say we want our students to be when they are finished their schooling (engaged, critical thinkers, active contributors and problem solvers) and how we are often educating young people. How does democratic education address this? What are some of the challenges educators who want to introduce democratic principles into their schools face? What are some of the potential rewards? How does democratic education address the notion…
IDEN International Democratic education Network. (2010). Retrieved October 2012, from http://www.idenetwork.org/idec/idec-english.htm
Apple, M.W., & Swalwell, K. (2011). Reviewing Policy: Starting the Wrong Conversations: The Public School Crisis and "Waiting for Superman." Educational Policy, 368-381.
Ayers, W. (1992). The Shifting Grounds of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice . Taylor & Francis, 259-263.
Ayers, W. (1994). Can City Schools be Saved? Educational Leadership, 60.
Our palates have become so trained to enjoy this type of artificiality since childhood we can no longer appreciate the real foods themselves. While food preservation might be helpful in some instances (such as MRE) and in some limited instances such as fortifying cereals with vitamins to guard against malnutrition, numbing our palates to the extent that fast food and processed food becomes addictive has had an undeniably negative impact upon our health in the form of the fast food industry.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Unchartered Territory" pg 136
This essay is more partisan than the others. I want you to each to lead one of the opposing viewpoints readers could express in response to Kolbert on the discussion board. I want you to ask questions about the charter school system and Kolbert's assertions about this particular group of schools. I also want you to question Kolbert's position that the charter school…
solution to the problems affecting Leonard Cooper Charter School LAN
Network collision that slows down the network and interferes with print jobs
The problem of network collision is noted by ouse (2006) to be most common in half duplex Ethernet network. The collision observed at the Leonard Cooper Charter School LAN is most likely caused by the two or more devices (printers and competing workstations on the LAN most certainly) attempting to effectively transmit data at al most an exact same time (such as sending a print job).The Leonard Cooper Charter School LAN therefore detects the collisions of the two or more transmitted packets as then effectively discards them. It is important to note that collisions are perfectly normal occurrences on the Ethernet networks.
For the collisions to be avoided on the Leonard Cooper Charter School LAN, there is a need for the Ethernet to employ Carrier Sense Multiple…
Rouse, M (2006).Collision. Available online at http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/collision
For this particular case study review, we will be analysing the Freeman-Brown Private School (FBPS) Case. The paper will answer questions related to different aspects and decisions made through the school's operational time. To be more precise, the paper will analyse FBPS and its organizational decisions/processes during its closure process.
Usually when an organization has a direct and interactive relationship with its external environment, it is termed as an open system. This entails the organization being co-dependent on the surroundings which could include culture, market, corporate world, industries as well as the end consumers amongst other external structures. Hence feedback and open communication to and from the organization is imperative for its success, in an open system (Griffin, n.d.). The opposite stands true for a closed system however, which is primarily an isolated structure that is not in any way dependent upon the skeleton of its external…
The idea of group study for students that are struggling, however, also ties in with another idea for the improvement of schooling. The students that are performing the best at a particular subject could help organize and operate these study groups, in effect acting as tutors but yet not providing that service in such a way that they would be paid for their services or would work exclusively one-on-one with students that were having difficulty. This could help these struggling students to feel more comfortable and less 'singled out' if they were to work in groups with one or two other struggling students and a student that was performing much better. The help that these students receive in this kind of setting could be very valuable to them and also to the students that were providing the tutoring because those students would gain experience at helping others, which could be…
Therefore, when studies are conducted on these offenders, then the relationship between psychiatric co-morbidity and DUI relapses would become clearer. Individuals would also be sent to certain areas to study the various psychological treatment methods that are generally available to those who are addicted to any substances, and when efforts are made towards co-alliances of these institutions, then the students of the schools would definitely benefit. (Division on Addiction)
It has been stated that the twenty first century will be the 'age of alliances' wherein the collaboration between non-profit organizations and corporations will keep growing in number. The nature of such collaborative alliances would also change, from when it was the traditionally philanthropic, where the donor would benevolently give, and the receiver would receive it gratefully, to where business as well as non-profits and for-profits work together so that they may be able to achieve their mutual goals and contribute…
Austin, James. (30 April, 2001) "Entering the Age of Alliances" Retrieved at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item.jhtml?id=2056&t=nonprofitAccessed on 14 July, 2005
Datnow, Amanda. (2005) "Happy Marriage or Uneasy Alliance? The Relationship between Comprehensive School Reform and State Accountability Systems" Journal of Education for Students placed at Risk. Vol. 10, No. 1, Pages 115-138 Retrieved at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327671espr1001_6?cookieSet=1 . Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Division on Addictions" Retrieved at http://www.divisiononaddictions.org/. Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Malloy, Courtney. L; Hentschke, Guilbert. C; Smith, Joanne. (2004)
This way of thinking and taking action has been evolving over many decades, but it reached its widest audience with the 1990 publication of 'The Fifth Discipline' by Peter Senge." (2003)
The Charter school has a unique opportunity to implement the principles of Peter Senge, and most particularly the principles associated with the 'learning organization' and from a perspective noted in the statement of Senge that it is very unlikely that the "deep systemic problems that afflict our institutions and society..." will find correction until "the ability to honor and integrate theory, personal development and practical results..." has been rediscovered since it is seemingly a lost ability. (Senge, 1997)
Senge states that change may very well involve "returning to an older model of community: traditional societies that gave respect to elders for their wisdom: teachers for their ability to help people grow, and warriors, weavers, and growers for their life…
Five Disciplines: Peter Senge (2008) Value-Based Management 25 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_senge_five_disciplines.html
Larsen, Kai, et al. (1996) the Learning Organization. Leader Values. Online available at http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=186
Senge, P (1990). The Fifth Discipline. New York: Currency Doubleday.
Senge, Peter M. (1997) Communities of Leaders and Learners. Harvard Business Review September-October 1997. 75th Anniversary Edition. Reprint Online.
General Education eacher
Special Education eacher
Student with disabilities
Related Service Specialists
All Interested Stakeholders
All Required Stakeholders
How would your program be designed? Be sure to identify the roles and responsibilities of the various stakeholders.
he special education program in the charter school would be designed as an inclusive model with students with special needs receiving as much of their education as possible in the general education classrooms. his model would be configured in accordance with the federal laws and regulations (Public Law 94-142 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (subsequently amended to Public Law governing the education of students with special needs.
Educators in the charter school are responsible for ensuring that the individual education plans (IEPs) of the students are met and that they receive a quality education that is commensurate with the education that students…
The role of the community is primarily to serve as a resource for social opportunities for the students with disabilities, and to ensure that their organizations provide equitable program models. Moreover, the role of the community will vary across the lifespan of the children with disabilities, just as it does with everyone else. For children with special needs, this means that the community will need to be compliant with federal and state laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, which requires physical and/or structural accommodations in public facilities to ensure access by people with disabilities, and also Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which addresses the provision of accommodations in the workplace. Various agencies provide services to students and the families of students with disabilities. Each agency has its own purpose from which the duties, roles, and responsibilities of its workers are derived. As children with disabilities age, they and their families engage with different agencies depending on the needs and objectives associated with particular phases of their life. The agencies may be educational, regulatory, supportive, or transitional in the way they function. Furthermore, agencies play a strong role in the compliance and quality assurance of educational programs for children and students with disabilities.
2) Reflect on the barriers that you might encounter when collaborating with stakeholders. How would you address these barriers?
A wide variety of perspectives greet the special education teacher who strives to ensure that students with special needs receive their education according to FAPE. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation is n Act of 1973 was enacted to ensure that students with special needs would receive a free and appropriate education (FAPE). It is important to differentiate between barriers that are grounded in ignorance and barriers that represent informed resistance on ideological or practical bases. Stakeholders may resent the idea of supporting students with special needs because of false beliefs they may have or simply because they are not knowledgeable about special education or students with disabilities. Barriers may also be raised when people believe that the effort required of them will simply be too great, or that the students will not be successful regardless of the amount of effort that is provided to them. Barriers of this type are often associated with students who exhibit behavior problems or have severe disabilities. The primary means of dealing with all three of these types of barriers are through education and communication. It is often possible to reduce barriers by encouraging people to give something a trial run rather than making what may seem to be a commitment written in stone.
Current state of American education
In the United States of America, both the public and private schools are liable for the provision of education within the entire nation. In accordance with funding and the full control by the local, state, and federal government, there is universal availability of public schools across the whole nation (Orland, 2011). Empowered by the jurisdictions over school districts, the locally elected school boards are responsible for setting the education policies, funding, employment, teaching, and the formulation of the public schools' curriculum (Frank, 2012). Additionally, the state governments control the standardized tests and educational standards for public school systems. On the other hand, private schools are free to determine their own staffing policies, as well as their curriculum via voluntary accreditation available with the regional independent accreditation authority. Educational statistics reveal that approximately 85% of school age children go to public schools, 10% attend…
David, B.S. (2008). College affordability about future. Burlington: Burlington Free Press.
David, L. (2011). The American education system is in crisis. Retrieved on 30th Sept, 2013 from https://dlshowonline.com/the-american-education-system-is-in-crisis/
Frank, D. (2012). The current state of the U.S. higher education. Top to bottom. The American
Education Journal, 7(3), 45-48.
For instance, online students are generally older and their life experiences make them autonomous, self-directed, and goal- and relevancy-oriented (ortch, 2003; iaz, 2002; ubois, 1996). Thus, these are the types of continuing education students that traditional educational institutions have always served.
In summary, Saba's analysis is flawed. Traditional educational institutions have and will continue to respond to changes in market needs. Currently, the demand for distance education is fueled by many factors, with student autonomy representing one of these benefits that plays best to students who continuing their education.
iaz, .P. (2002, May/June). Online rop Rates Revisited. The Technology Source. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall63/howell63.html
ortch, K.. (2003, April 13-15) "How to get learners to learn." istance Education and Training Council: Report on the ETC 77th Annual Conference. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall63/howell63.html
ubois, J.R. (1996) Going the distance: A national distance learning initiative. Adult Learning. 8(1): 19-21. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall63/howell63.html
Phillips, V. (1998, November 23). Re: Some online…
Dubois, J.R. (1996) Going the distance: A national distance learning initiative. Adult Learning. 8(1): 19-21. http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall63/howell63.html
Phillips, V. (1998, November 23). Re: Some online learning trends-stats? E-mail to Distance Education Online Symposium. http://technologysource.org/article/role_of_the_traditional_research_university_in_the_face_of_the_distance_education_onslaught/
What's behind the Explosive Growth in Distance Learning Education? Distance Learning College Guide. http://www.distance-learning-college-guide.com/distance-learning-education.html
In fact, as early as the 1989-1990 school years, school-based decision making was implemented in three elementary schools in the Memphis City School System (Smith, Valesky & Horgan, 1991). Based on this seminal initiative, improvements were cited in: (a) the coordination provided by the school councils; (b) school-based staff development activities; (c) support and services provided by the district central office; (d) data and reports provided to the individual schools; and (e) the value of the school improvement plans (Smith et al., 1991).
A relevant study of the school-based decision-making process in the State of Tennessee by Etheridge (1990) evaluated the impact of different leadership styles used by school principals on the effectiveness of the school-based decision-making process in seven local school councils in Memphis including their elementary schools following their first 15 months of operation. According to Etheridge, the composition of SBDM councils in Tennessee largely reflects those being…
California State Board of Education Policy #89-01. (2010). California State Board of Education.
Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/ms/po/policy89-01-sep1994.asp .
Contract for excellence. (2009, December 31). New York State Education Department. Retrieved from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/part100/pages/10013.html .
Cowart, C. (2009). The Louisiana awakening: Church as portal for the emergence of a sustainable social reality. Anglican Theological Review, 91(4), 607-609.
They may not be able to afford new schools, and they may not be able to hire the best teachers in those schools.
There is also a growing movement to move administration away from the school district, known as "empowerment." In this movement, the schools take over their own administration with parents, staff, and community members involved in the process. An education expert notes, "Empowerment removes the decision-making processes of a school from the school board members and superintendents. The school's staff members, families of students, community and business representatives, and secondary level students, then make the school's decision-making processes" (Czubaj, 1999, p. 181). There are certain guidelines and parameters that must be met in these empowerment situations, but they have been successful in many parts of the country, leading to improved learning situations for most students.
Along with this empowerment movement, there are other movements which give more empowerment…
Czubaj, C.A. (1999). School empowerment. Education, 120(1), 181.
Jacobson, L. (2008). States eye looser rein on districts. Retrieved 10 Feb. 2009 from the Education Week Web site: http://www.edweek.org/login.html?source=http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2008/03/05/26flex.h27.html&destination=http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2008/03/05/26flex.h27.html&levelId=2100 .
Williams, J. (2007). Revolution from the faculty lounge: The emergence of teacher-led schools and cooperatives. Phi Delta Kappan, 89(3), 210+.
This has to be clearly told to them. The other problem that the parents have to inform the children is regarding the development from a child to an adult, and this does not happen overnight.
At the same time, the child faces changes in the body coming along, and this is especially important for girls in the upper grades. There is also the question of family life, and this has to be introduced by the parents to the children, though there are units of teaching this in schools. Yet, the parents should introduce this subject to the children. This matter had been brought up by the parents some years to the school that they had not been able to tell the children before it was taught in class. Another subject that the parents have to inform the students is regarding current events, and the students are generally aware of it.…
McFadden School of Excellence: Magnet Program." Retrieved at http://www.rcs.k12.tn.us/rcs_web/schools/mcfadden.htm. Accessed on 22 May, 2005
Million, June. "A Win-Win Situation Teaming Up with Your High School." Communicator, PR Primer. December 1999. pp: 5, 7. Retrieved at http://www.naesp.org/ContentLoad.do?contentId=235Accessed on 22 May, 2005
From the Pink Section." December 10, 2001. Vol. 7:15. Retrieved at http://www.larkspurschools.org/nc/pink/Vol7/pink0715.htm . Accessed on 22 May, 2005
If You Don't Know Where You're Going, How Will You Know When You Arrive?" School Team Innovator. September 1996. Retrieved at http://www.nsdc.org/library/publications/innovator/inn9-96rich.cfmAccessed on 22 May, 2005
It should also be designed in a manner that allows teachers and administrators to fulfill their goals with regard to student learning (Webb & Norton, 2002).
Though curriculum is often considered the primary component of an accountability program, for it to be successful it must be considered in conjunction with all the other factors described in this accountability program.
Evaluation Method curriculum and mission is only as good as the outcome it produces. Thus teachers must utilize an evaluation and assessment method that accurately measures student achievement to see whether or not the curriculum and current teaching methods are accomplishing what they set out to. egular or annual student evaluations are necessary to assure the success of any educational program. Along with this is the idea that teacher evaluations may be helpful in analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of an educational program.
Methods for Evaluating Student Performance
When evaluating student…
Charter Friends Annotated Resource Guide for Shaping an Accountability Plan for Your
Charter School." (1998). 3, Novebmer 2004, http://www.charterfriends.org/performance.html
Howenstine School Accountability Plan 2003-2004." 4, November 2004. http://www.edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/howenstine.council/301_goals.htm
Webb, L.D. & Norton, M.S. (2002). "Human Resources Administration: Personnel
(estructuring California's School Finance System) The requirement of funds that the schools necessitate is also a matter of controversy attracting the attention of courts in California. The ACLU filed a writ petition of Williams et al. Vs. State of California et al. emphasizing that the state fails to meet the obligations in providing all students with basic educational necessities.
The local school districts appearing the law suit of ACLU were charged in the Gov. Davis and the state law suit blaming that the accountability goes to the school authorities rather than the state with regard to adequate provisions. These law suits are seen to have profound impact on the ways the schools are financed in California and the authorities and the ways by which the decisions are affected to. (School Finance Overview) It is left for consideration of the problems by a newly appointed state commission. The commission among others…
Guide to California's School Finance System" (March 2004) Retrieved at http://www.ed-data.k12.ca.us/articles/article.asp?title=Guide%20to%20California%20School%20Finance%20SystemAccessed on 26 September, 2004 report from California: Proposition 13" New Tax Revolt Digest. Retrieved at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ii781213.html . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
Bell, Tom. (2004) "Fort Bragg schools feel sting of Proposition 13" Blethen Maine Newspapers. Retrieved at http://news.mainetoday.com/indepth/taxreform/040516taxschools.shtml. Accessed on 26 September, 2004
California's Proposition 13 Debacle: Could this lie in Wisconsin's future?" (March 4, 1997) Retrieved at http://www.weac.org/capitol/march97/prop13.htm . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
California School Finance" Retrieved at http://delmarschools.com/district/business/ca_school_finance.asp . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
oreover, the legislation contains loopholes that exempt some states from complying in some ways and it allows for some practices that distort the test results in some situations. These loopholes and exceptions are themselves impediments to any good science that might come from the testing regimes required (cDermott & Jensen, 2005).
The authors of "Dubious Sovereignty" describe yet another of NCLB's contradictions. The proponents of the law say it protects individual students rights by enforcing a uniform standard for a high quality education across the country. However, the legislation allows the individual states to set up their own standards and create their own tests, and therefore there is not a true uniform standard nationwide (cDermott & Jensen, 2005).
Camille . ayers's article "Public Law 107-110 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Support or Threat to Education as a Fundamental Right?" examines how the law impacts the populations it was…
McDermott and Jensen point out another contradiction in NCLB. The law requires that states and localities enact policies and build curricula based on the evidence of scientific research. While it is a good idea to do so, the legislation itself is not based on any science, nor does it offer any body of good scientific literature to schools and teachers, nor guidelines for selection the kind of good science to use for this purpose. Moreover, the legislation contains loopholes that exempt some states from complying in some ways and it allows for some practices that distort the test results in some situations. These loopholes and exceptions are themselves impediments to any good science that might come from the testing regimes required (McDermott & Jensen, 2005).
The authors of "Dubious Sovereignty" describe yet another of NCLB's contradictions. The proponents of the law say it protects individual students rights by enforcing a uniform standard for a high quality education across the country. However, the legislation allows the individual states to set up their own standards and create their own tests, and therefore there is not a true uniform standard nationwide (McDermott & Jensen, 2005).
Camille M. Mayers's article "Public Law 107-110 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Support or Threat to Education as a Fundamental Right?" examines how the law impacts the populations it was designed to help. Mayer's view of the law is negative. She demonstrates how some states use various methods to discount the test scores of subgroups whose scores can hurt the school's ratings, even though those groups are the supposed beneficiaries of NCLB. The author illustrates how the standardized test required of the law can pose difficulties to students who come from backgrounds where formal English is not spoken or accessed regularly. Still, such students are the ones lagging in achievement. Mayer's research points out that poverty is the greatest factor undermining student success, but NCLB doesn't address that underlining issue.
Chomsky warns of ideological motivations of some scientific paradigms, just as with the aforementioned racial emphasis of early anthropology. Here, Russell espouses a Platonic episteme by enunciating the expectations of behavior between different classes. While Plato philosophized that persons are born with the characteristics fitting of their caste, Russell envisages a society in which "ordinary" men and women are expected to be collectivized and, therefore, devoid of individual expression.
Jean Jacques Rousseau paid his respects to the philosophy of Plato, although he thought it impractical, citing the decayed state of society. This sort of romanticism has been downplayed by the modern scientific establishment, who denounce the noble savage theory of human nature. Humans are not born purely good, modern science maintains. Instead, evolutionary traits are promoted at the biological level, thereby giving rise to how people are. It is not society that corrupts, but rather an interrelationship between…
9. Woolhouse, R.S. (1995) Locke: A Biography. Cambridge University.
10. Pinker, Steven. (2007) the Blank Slate, New York: Penguin Books.
11. Grasha, Anthony. (1989) Teaching Styles. Cambridge University.
Bob Herbert believes America social, economic political issues require discussion change. Select issues Herbert discusses, essay 500 words, explain issue discuss agree diagree Herbert America handle issue.
In his essay "A Fire in the Basement," Bob Herbert talks about his frustrations with the state of the country today. He illuminates particularly that "public schools [are] swarming with students but starved of books and supplies" (qtd. In Graff, Birkenstein, and Durst 396). Herbert's assertion that public education in America is in trouble is correct: The resources are too taxed, the school systems too apathetic, and the students lack motivation. The best way to solve this problem is to take a closer look at how schooling is structured and make drastic reforms both on a commercial and philosophical level.
As it stands now, public education, with all of its downfalls, is still prized by Americans. In a 1999 poll, "more than 70%…
Freeman, Robert. "Competing Models for Public Education: Which Model Is
Best?" Our Schools, Our Selves Summer 2005: 38. Questia. Web. 22 Mar. 2011.
Graff, Gerald, Cathy Birkenstein, and Russel K. Durst. "They Say/I Say": The
Moves that Matter in Academic Writing: with Readings. New York: W.W. Norton, 2009.
Nature of Probable Research
The South Bronx section of New York is among the poorest and most diverse school districts in America. Crime and teenage pregnancy have plagued the primarily Hispanic and Afro-American Bronx community for decades. However, in recent years there has been a concerted effort to curb the dire social conditions and education system. For the purposes of our research we will focus on the efforts to improve the educational system through before school and after school programs.
The probable research will involve studying the effects of before school and after school programs on a low performing middle school in the South Bronx section of New York City. The research will examine the manner in which these programs have been implemented and the students that benefit from the programs. The investigation will also discuss the conditions present in some of the middle schools in the South Bronx…
Worth, Robert. (1999) Guess Who Saved the South Bronx? Big Government. Washington Monthly. Volume: 31. Issue: 4. Page Number: 26.
Zinsmeister, Karl (2002) The insufferable wonder. The American Enterprise. Volume:
13. Issue: 4. Page Number: 4+.
United Federation of Teachers (UFT) is the union that represents teachers in the New York City public schools, which is the largest public school system in the United States. The public school system in New York City serves 1.1 million students in more than 1,800 schools; the system pays 75,000 teachers and operates with a budget of about $24 billion[footnoteRef:1] (NYC Department of Education). The task of running 1,800 schools in a city with five boroughs and approximately 8.337 million residents is enormous, and while the UFT works hard to serve the teachers so they may do the most productive and effective job educating the children, the union is frequently involved in contentious interactions with the City's school officials. This paper covers the activities of the union, the ongoing issues between the City's bureaucracy and the union, the successes and challenges that impact the union, and the problem of anti-unionism…
Anderson, Noel. "Hostile Takeover: Antiunionism and the Neoliberal Politics of Urban
School Reform in New York." Working USA: The Journal of Labor and Society, 1089-7011
Greenhouse, Steven. "For de Blasio, Contract Talks offer Problem." The New York Times.
Although in the long run, this approach will bring all the curriculums together, at the present moment the school is caught between the expeditionary learning curriculum and the curriculum mandates given by the local district and federal government. Thus, a curriculum audit will only reveal the obvious: that there are competing and contradictory curriculums occurring at the school. Unfortunately, at least at this point, a curriculum audit will not do any good as state and federal mandates are controlling.
In general, I agree with the assumptions presented by F.W. English. In today's standardized test-driven school environment, the testing curriculum is driving the written and taught curriculum. Although this results in a form of alignment, it is not the alignment that English has in mind. English does not argue that school's should bring their curriculums into one single curriculum (such as testing), but align the three curriculums so that they work…
English, F.W. (2000): Deciding What to Teach and Test: Designing, Aligning and Auditing the Curriculum. (Millennium Ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA.: Corwin Press, Inc.
Linn, Robert L. And David M. Miller. (2004): Measurement and Assessment in Teaching. New York: Prentice Hall.
Popham, James W. (2003): Test Better, Teach Better: The Instructional Role of Assessment. Baltimore: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
He has been expelled from three school since he began his education and is currently attending junior high school after last attending a small charter school in his community. The shoplifting incident also caused his mother to ask his father to take him back into his home, he has lived with mostly his mother with infrequent visitation from his father, except for a year period where he lived with his father and stepmother and their other children, which ended at age 12 when he tried to vocalize feelings of concern about puberty to his stepmother and she perceived the conversation as deviant and asked that he be returned to his mother.
Justin's anti-social behavior began at birth but has had periods of extremes, beginning with near constant conflict with his mother over mundane requests as well as other general rejections of authority, including an incident of extreme foul language focused…
Greene, R.R. (1999). 5 Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Approach. In Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice (2nd ed., pp. 145-161). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Loeber, R., Farrington, D.P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W.B. (1998). Antisocial Behavior and Mental Health Problems: Explanatory Factors in Childhood and Adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Van Lier, P.A., Vuijk, P., & Crijnen, a.A. (2005). Understanding Mechanisms of Change in the Development of Antisocial Behavior: The Impact of a Universal Intervention. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(5), 521.