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Cancer is a disease of the body's cells. Cells in all the tissues and organs of the body constantly grow and divide to swap old and damaged cells and maintain the health of the body. Normally, all cells divide and reproduce themselves in a systematic and controlled manner. In cancer, however, some cells keep dividing without proper control, forming a lump (which is called a tumor). In leukemia, too many white blood cells are formed. Chemotherapy is the use of anti-cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to destroy cancer cells (including leukemia's and lymphomas). There are over 50 different chemotherapy drugs and some are given on their own, but often numerous drugs may be combined (this is known as combination chemotherapy). The type of treatment one are given for ones cancer depends on many things, particularly the type of disease one have, where in the body it started, what the cancer cells…
Martin VR, Walker FE, Goodman M. 1996. Delivery of cancer chemotherapy. In McCorkle R, Grant M, Frank-Stromborg M, Baird SB, eds. Cancer Nursing: A Comprehensive Textbook. Philadelphia, Pa: W.B. Saunders Company.
Yasko JM. 1998. Nursing Management of Symptoms Associated with Chemotherapy. Bala Cynwyd, Pa: Meniscus Health Care Communications.
Completion of Oncology Nursing Society's Chemotherapy and Biotherapy Certification Course (UCHC, 2010, p.2).
(4) Establish a method for initial and continuing evaluation of the competence of those registered nurses authorized to perform standardized procedure functions.
Complete continued chemotherapy administering training and ongoing education
(5) Provide for a method of maintaining a written record of those persons authorized to perform standardized procedure functions.
Completion of the chemotherapy administration check list and return demonstration will be maintained by the HHS Education Department or in their personnel file. A copy of the document action will be given to the N for their file (HHS, 2001, p.8).
(6) Specify the scope of supervision required for performance of standardized procedure functions, for example, immediate supervision by a physician.
No supervision required upon completion of training and educational coursework
(7) Set forth any specialized circumstances under which the registered nurse is to immediately communicate with…
Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). National guidance on the safe administration of chemotherapy. Washington: Department of Health. Web. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.
Louisiana State University Health and Sciences Center of Shreveport. (2008).
Chemotherapy: qualifications to administer and monitor. LSUHCS. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.medcom.lsuhscshreveport.edu/cfdocs / policies/Nurse_TOC.cfm, on 3 October 2011.
Louisiana State University Health and Sciences Center of Shreveport. (2009).
The sample population for the stomach cancer trials included 594 patients that were Her2 positive. It is not known if patients in the stomach cancer trial included both males and females. Exclusionary criteria were not made available for either of the studies. All of the patients were receiving standard chemotherapy treatments, in addition to receiving Herceptin (Pollack, 2009). The sample populations for these studies were large for a clinical trial. Many times, it is difficult to find patients that fit the criteria for inclusion in the study. This was not a problem for these studies. The sample population of the study improves the validity of the study and confidence in the drug to be effective in patients that meet the criteria for administration of Herceptin.
The study design in both cases used a comparative study. One group was the test group and would receive the treatment being tested, in this…
F. Hoffman-L Roche Ltd. (2009). Herceptin (Trastuuzumab). Retrieved June 6, 2009 from http://www.roche.com/products/product-details.htm?type=product&id=102 .
Pollack, A. (2009). Promising Results in Stomach and Breast Cancer Drugs. The New York
Times. May 31. 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/01/business/01drug.html
This has been the traditionally used mode of treatment for non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, but the fact remains that there have not been many clinical trials conducted that would reveal the benefits of CHOP in comparison to various other chemotherapy options for the treatment of CLL, which is a very slowly growing form of cancer and is therefore conversely very difficult to treat and cure because of the fact that all the traditional methods of treatment, whether chemotherapy or radiation, are meant to quickly and rapidly destroy the fast growing cancerous cells. (Cancer Treatment and Prevention)
Curing a patient with the CLL or SLL forms of cancer is considered to be highly unusual, but it is true that these patients will b able to lead productive lives even after 6 to 10 years after the cancer have been diagnosed for them. A patient when he is making the choice of treatment for…
Bischof, Delaloye a. (2003) "The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)" Leuk Lymphoma. Volume: 44 Suppl 4; pp: S29-36
Cancer Treatment and Prevention" Retrieved at http://patient.cancerconsultants.com/treatment.aspx?id=782Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP - complementary considerations. Lymphoma-tion" (2 October, 2004) Retrieved at http://www.lymphomation.org/chemo-CHOP.htm . Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP Patient Information Sheet" Newcastle General Hospital, Northern Center for Cancer treatment. (June, 2005) Retrieved at http://www.newcastle-hospitals.org.uk/v2/PDF/patientleaflets/NCCT/Standard/CHOP.PDFAccessed on 26 December, 2004
Body Surface Area-Based Dosing
Flat- Fixed Dosing vs. Body Surface Area-Based Dosing of Anticancer Drugs in Adults: Does It Make a Difference?
Explain Body-Surface-Area-based dosage
Body Surface Area-based dosing is a critical formula applicable in the calculation of drug doses in the case of two types of patient groups. These two types of patient groups include cancer patient under the aspect of chemotherapy and pediatric patients. DuBois and DuBois derived the formula in the case of 1916 in a research which nine individuals took part (DuBois & DuBois, 1916). It is ideal to note that the average or normal adults have a BSA of about 1.73 m2. It refers to the current standard of care applicable in the determination of the dose of various chemotherapy drugs in relation to the body surface area of the patients on chemotherapy drugs. It is critical to understand that BSA-based dosing is a 'one…
DuBois D, DuBois EF. (1916). A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight were known. Arch Intern Med; 17:863 -- 871.
Boyd E. (1935). The Growth of the Surface Area of the Human Body. Minneapolis:
Gehan EA, George SL. (1970). Estimation of human body surface area from height and weight. Cancer Chemother Rep; 54:225 -- 235.
Scripture CD, Figg WD. (2006). Drug interactions in cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer; 6:546
Ocial Work Practice With Individuals: Engagement Strategies
First I need to get past Mr. Fahza's son in order to get to his father. I need the former's agreement because I need a smooth start. His son agreement would encourage a discussion under the right auspices.
According to The Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) of 1990, Mr. Fahza has the right to be informed about his own clinical condition in order to take a decision about continuing with chemotherapy or going to the hospice and die peacefully. This is the strict approach of the western hemisphere.
The religion of Islam believes in death and resurrection of the body and soul, like Christianity. Islam also teaches about how to prepare for death, when aware that death is imminent. Statistics show that a vast majority of the American male population would want to know about the eventuality of dying because of a fatal illness…
Kagawa-Singer, M., & Backhall, L. (2001). "Negotiating cross-cultural issues at end of life." Journal of American Medical Association, 286(3001), 2993-. Available at: http://ethnomed.org/clinical/end-of-life/Table2.pdf retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014
Koenig B.A., Gates-Williams J. (1995) "Understanding cultural difference in caring for dying patients." West J. Med. Sep 1995; 163(3): 244 -- 249. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1303047/?page=4
Coolen Phyllis R., DNP, MN, RN. (2012)Cultural Relevance in End-of-Life Care. EthnoMed. Available at: https://ethnomed.org/clinical/end-of-life/cultural-relevance-in-end-of-life-care
Rizvi, Sayyid Muhammad. What You Should Do Just Before Death. Islam.org. Available at: http://www.al-islam.org/articles/what-you-should-do-just-before-death-sayyid-muhammad-rizvi
FAMILY POWER AND AUTHORITY INFLUENCES Introduce topic Introduce speakers DEE What affirmative views topic Brad make opposing views. Declares debate open AFFIRMATIVE VIEW OPPOSING VIEW Give equal time members opposing team Facilitate discussion Dee rebuttal Dan ( affirmative rebuttal) Dan rebuttal Dee ( Negative rebuttal) Dee summary (restate proposition significant argument favor change) Dan summary (restate proposition significant argument favor change) (PLS ADDRESS ONLY THE DEE PORTION AND INTRODUCTION -- the AFFIRMATIVE AND REBUTTAL PORTION OF DEE BASED ON SCENERIO BELOWAND MORE IF YOU COULD ADD SPICE TO IT, THANKS)…THE TOPIC IS ABOUT ISLAMIC OR MUSLIM FAMILY WITH CULTURAL DILEMMA.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
We live in a world that is nowadays prone to injustice, social inequality, and cultural discrepancies. Today's debate deals precisely with this type of reality: the reality of a family that was defined by a particular cultural background and has been shaped by another cultural environment.…
Nevertheless, my passion for medicine remained which led to applying to the Technology Institute of Pharmacy at the university. Unfortunately, due to conditions beyond my control, I requested a transfer to the Nursing Institute at the university, yet because of my brother's failing health, I was forced to remain at home to care for him. Things changed in 2001, when I came to the U.S., knowing that I had a much better chance there to fulfill my dreams of becoming a medical specialist. Soon after, I registered at Northern Virginia Community College to major in science and after working full-time to pay for my studies, I am now in my last semester at NVCC, aiming for an Associate in Science which hopefully will open the door to pharmacy school. Overall, by obtaining a pharmacy degree, I could not only help people in the U.S. But also my own people in…
My initial interest in pursuing a degree in the medical field came about when my brother developed a very serious disease. This event prompted me to wonder about his medical future regarding treatment in the form of surgery or chemotherapy, and due to the fact that we were living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, where I was born and raised, the prospects of my brother finding adequate treatment and care for his disease were rather poor. As a result, I decided to create the foundations for a career in medical science. Part of this required that I take the Ethiopian School Living Examination. In 1994, after competing against 167,000 other high school graduates, I received a passing score which made me eligible to attend Addis Ababa University; however, since Ethiopia follows the command economy, I ended up in social sciences rather than in my chosen field of medicine.
Nevertheless, my passion for medicine remained which led to applying to the Technology Institute of Pharmacy at the university. Unfortunately, due to conditions beyond my control, I requested a transfer to the Nursing Institute at the university, yet because of my brother's failing health, I was forced to remain at home to care for him. Things changed in 2001, when I came to the U.S., knowing that I had a much better chance there to fulfill my dreams of becoming a medical specialist. Soon after, I registered at Northern Virginia Community College to major in science and after working full-time to pay for my studies, I am now in my last semester at NVCC, aiming for an Associate in Science which hopefully will open the door to pharmacy school. Overall, by obtaining a pharmacy degree, I could not only help people in the U.S. But also my own people in Ethiopia. While a student at NVCC, I served the Ethiopian Community Development Council by providing outreach services for refugees seeking health assistance.
In conclusion, my personal desire is to expand and enhance my knowledge in the pharmacy field and thus be able to provide my services to communities in the U.S. And abroad, particularly in Ethiopia. Therefore, I am looking forward with much relish to participating in GWU's Sonography Bachelor's Program.
The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…
Corsini, R., Wedding, D. (2011). Current Psychotherapies, 9th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.
Yalom, I. (1989). Love's Executioner & Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Harper
Medicine is designed to treat the sick and the injured. Its function is to either treat a condition or to better severe symptoms from a medical or physical condition. Some medicines, when first introduced, are controversial because of the ingredients that are used. In the modern era, Marinol has become the subject of heated debate over whether or not it should be provided to patients. Despite the fact that it has been proven to help people when other medications have failed, there are still some places where the medication cannot be gotten simply because it contains a synthetic form of a substance which is illegal in most states. Marinol is not made from an illegal material, but a synthetic version which replicates the effects of that illegal substance. The drug Marinol is a brand name of a medication which is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is…
Armentano, P. (2005). Marinol vs. natural plant. NORML.
Institute of Medicine (2002). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.
Loughlin, K. & Generali, J. (2006). The Guide to Off-Label Prescription Drugs. The Philip Lief
Group: Princeton, NJ.
As a new graduate of six months working night shift on a small cancer unit, I am faced with a dilemma. Mr. V has been in and out of the unit several times over the last few months. He has liver cancer and has gone through several episodes of chemotherapy. His wife has been staying with him since his admission. There are two RN's on this unit.
Mr.V recently joined the hospice program. His current admission is for pain control with orders to start a morphine drip to be regulated for pain control.
The only set parameters indicated by hospital policy are to decrease the drip when respirations are less than twelve breaths per minute. Mr. V has requested that the drip be increased several times during my shift. Even though he does not appear to be in any discomfort, I increase the drip. On my final round of…
Strevy, S.S. Myths & facts about pain. RN, 42-45. 1998, February.
C. Junkerman and D. Schiedermayer, Practical Ethics for Students, Interns, and Residents, 2nd Ed, Frederick, MD: University Publishing Group, 1998.
American Nurses Association. Code for Nurses With Interpretive Statements. Kansas City, MO: the Association. 1985.
Strevy, S.S. (1998, February). Myths & facts about pain. RN, 42-45.
treatment using the drug, tamoxifen, and higher mortality rates in females aged over forty years. The peer-reviewed papers employed for this study reveal a dynamic scrutiny of the aforementioned link. Quantitative as well as qualitative research works have been utilized, with a comparison and contrast made of the most apt methodology employed by the researchers. The end goal is ascertaining whether or not it is a risky decision to not adhere to tamoxifen treatment and how much information patients possess with regard to the drug and its effects.
The esearch Question and its Importance
After the diagnosis of her health condition, Ms. Jones is prescribed tamoxifen as medication. For an entire year, Ms. Jones fails to consume this prescribed drug. Upon revisiting the hospital after a year of not complying with this recommended treatment plan, she is told that her cancer has reappeared and is much more lethal than before.…
ANS (2010) Cancer Facts And Figures 2010. American Cancer Society. https://old.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@nho/documents/document/acspc-024113.pdf
Banerjee, S., Saxena, N., Sengupta, K. and Banerjee, S. K. (2003) 17 alpha-estradiol-induced VEGF-A expression in rat pituitary tumor cells is mediated through ER independent but PI3K-Akt dependent signaling pathway. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.300, 209-215.
Banning M (2012). Adherence to adjuvant therapy in post-menopausal breast cancer patients: a review cc_1295 1.10
Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease
In this paper I shall give an overview of Hodgkin's disease while focusing on its physiological effects. Specifically, the paper consists of an overview of the disease, describes how the disease affects the body cells and tissues, and how the treatment attacks the disease and affects the body, besides reviewing the treatments available.
Hodgkin's disease is one of the two (and less severe) types of cancer of the lymphatic system; the other type being non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease is named after the British physician, Thomas Hodgkin, who first discovered the condition in 1832. Hodgkin's disease commonly occurs in young adults (between the ages of 15 to 35) and in older people (over 50-year-olds. However, about 10%-15% of cases have been diagnosed in children below 16 years of age. Statistics also show that more men than women are afflicted by it. ("What are the Key Statistics…
'Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Autologous_Bone_Marrow_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_and_Peripheral_Blood_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Chemotherapy." (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Chemotherapy_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Do We Know What Causes Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_Do_we_know_what_causes_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav=cri
"Hodgkin's Disease." (2000) The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press: New York.
'Hodgkin's disease: Overview" (2004) Oncology Channel Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins / 'How is Hodgkin's Lymphoma and the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas Different?" (2004) Lymphoma Information Network. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.lymphomainfo.net/lymphoma/comparison.html
'How Is Hodgkin's Disease Treated?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_How_Is_Hodgkins_Disease_Treated_20.asp?rnav=cri 'The Lymphatic System." (2004) CancerBACUP. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Cancertype/LymphomaHodgkins/General/Thelymphaticsystem
neoplasm: "abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
benign: noncancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
malignant: cancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
carcinoma: "Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs," ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
sarcoma: "A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
anaplasia: Features of cells which indicate malignancy ("Anaplasia," 2016).
Q2. Identify the correct name for both benign and malignant tumors in the following locations:
Benign Tumors/Malignant Tumors
Pancreas: Adenoma / Adenocarcinoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)
Fat: Lipoma / Liposarcoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)
Bone: Osteoma / Osteosarcoma ("Tumors…
About immunotherapy. (2016). Chemocare. Retrieved from:
Anaplasia. (2016). USC. Retrieved from:
Etiology of Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer has emerged as the most lethal human cancers. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has termed it an unresolved health problem of the 21st century. The disease presently causes about 30,000 deaths in the U.S. per year (Yarbro et al. 2015). Despite past efforts, conventional interventions like radiation, surgery, chemotherapy and combination of these had minimal success in the course of this aggressive disease. It is imperative to develop an in-depth understanding of the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer to help us effectively diagnose, prevent and treat the disease. Nearly all pancreatic cancer patients experience metastases and die due to the frustrating metabolic effects of their unrestrained growth (Shrikhande et al. 2010). Hence, a crucial requirement for progress is the establishment of effective systemic interventions, can reverse the aggressive biology of the disease.
According to the WHO, pancreatic cancer is the fifth most…
Casil, A. S. (2011). Pancreatic Cancer: Current and Emerging Trends in Detection and Treatment. New York: Rosen Pub.
Gress, T. M. (2010). Molecular Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer. Amsterdam [U.A.: IOS Press.
Hoff, D. D., Evans, D. B., & Hruban, R. H. (2015). Pancreatic Cancer. Sudbury: Mass.
Jeruc, J., Kos, I., & Vodovnik, A. (2012). Pancreatic Cancer: Epidemiology and Risk Factors. International Conference on Diseases of Pancreas, Biliary Tract and Duodenum, 17-19.
A lower-stage cancer is in an early stage and which has a lower chance of cancer spread or metastasis. A low-grade sarcoma is less likely to spread than a high-grade sarcoma (Emory).
This presents 15 members of a family diagnosed with multiple tumors from the submucosa of the small intestines (Trent 2006). This suggests that this type of tumor runs in the family through a germ-line mutation, which affects all the body cells. The origin remained unknown. The chance of a child inheriting the mutant gene in the family was 50/50. Some may not currently have the tumor but each case in the multiple series of tumors is a separate and entire, primary tumor. Any of them can metastasize (Trent).
Surgery removes all or part of the tumor (Emory 2006). If the tumor is small, it is removed with some normal tissue from the affected body part,…
American Cancer Society (2007). How Are soft Tissue Sarcomas Staged? Cancer Reference Information. 2 pages. American Cancer Society: American Cancer Society, Inc. Retrieved on June 27, 2007 at http://cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_3%_How_is_sarcoma_staged_38asp
Demetri, G. (2005). Sarcoma Facts. Sarcoma. Sarcoma.net. Retrieved on June 27, 2007 at http://www.sarcoma.net/facts.htm
Emory Winship Cancer Institute. (2006). Cancer Treatments - What to Expect? Emory Healthcare: Emory University. Retrieved on June 27, 2007 at http://www.emoryhealthcare.org/departments/wci/sarcoma/treatments.html
Understanding Sarcoma and Musculoskeletal Cancers. http://www.emoryhealthcare.org/departments/wci/sarcoma/understanding_sarcoma.html
e. incurable cancer; (2) referral to the Department of Palliative Medicine. The exclusion criteria for the study were: (1) estimated prognosis of less than 1 week; (2) significant cognitive impairment, i.e. unable to provide consent; (3) significant physical impairment, i.e. unable to complete protocol; (4) clinical evidence of dehydration; (5) current/recent (less than 2 weeks) use of antifungal medication. (Davies, railsford and eighton, 2005)
Davies, railsford and eighton (2005) report that the clinical component of the study involved "...completion of a study questionnaire (demographic data and clinical data), completion of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, clinical examination of the oral cavity, measurement of the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate (UWSFR), measurement of the stimulated whole salivary flow rate (SWSFR), and performance of an oral rinse." ( p.698) The study results states that all patients/participants "...had either locally advanced, or metastatic cancer. The prevalence of different cancer diagnoses were: carcinoma breast…
Davies, Andrew N., et al. (2008) Oral Candidosis in Community-Based Patients with Advanced Cancer. Oral Candidosis in Advanced Cancer. Vol. 35, No. 5, May 2008. U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee.
Chang, AM, Molassiotis, A, Chan, CWH, and Lee, IYM (2007) Nursing Management of Oral Mucositis in Cancer Patients. Hong Kong Med J. Vol 13 No 1 Supplement 1 February 2007.
Alred, Michael J. (1991) Oral Health in the Terminally Ill: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Survey. Special Care in Dentistry, Vol 11 No 2, 1991.
Davies, Andrew N., Brailsford, Susan R. And Beighton, David (1991) Oral Candidosis in Patients with Advanced Cancer. Oral Oncology. 15 Sept 2005.
, 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that "cells of tumors with unlimited growth" would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing "suicide genes." It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…
Abaan, O. D and Criss, Wayne E (2002). Gene therapy in human breast cancer. 32
(2002): 283-291 Turkey Journal of Medical Science: Tubitak. Retrieved on April 15,
2010 from http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/medical/issues/sag-02-32-4-1-0204.pdf
Lowery, A.J., et al. (2009). MicroRNA signatures predict oestrogen receptor,
Using MRS chemical composition of the tumor and the metabolite intensities can also be ascertained along with the morphological characterisitcs. Thus MRI provides better information which is useful in grading the tumor. For grade 4 astrocytoma's spectroscopic studies reveal high Cho, high lipid, high lactate and low NAA values. However, the MRI testing is time consuming (40 to 90 minutes) and is problematic for claustrophobic patients. [eMedicine] iopsy of the affected brain tissue will also help in determining the nature of the abnormal tissue growth.
Treatment for astrocytoma includes, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and gluco corticoid medication. Treatment improves the survival rates for patients and the type of treatment depends on the growth and location of the tumor. First grade tumors such as Pilocytic Astrocytomas are easily treated by resection. In most cases removal of the affected part would be sufficient. However, if the location of the tumor makes surgery…
Capodano AM. Nervous system: Astrocytic tumors. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. November 2000. Available at, http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Tumors/AstrocytID5007.html
BTS, "Brain Tumor Facts & Statistics," Accessed Nov 18th 2007, available at http://www.tbts.org/itemDetail.asp?categoryID=384&itemID=16535
Karen T. Barker and Richard S. Houlston, "Overgrowth syndromes: Is dysfunctional P. 13 Kinase signalling a Unifying mechanism," European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 665-670. Available online at, http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v11/n9/full/5201026a.html
Medscape, " a Review of Astrocytoma Models: Molecular pathologies of Astrocytoma," Neurosurgical Focus 8(4), 2000 eMedicine, "Astrocytoma, Brain," Accessed on Noiv 18th 2007, available at http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic60.htm
Contraindications include false sugar readings in diabetic patients. This medication can also cause a black tongue or dark stool.
Irritable bowel syndrome is another gastrointestinal disorder. Irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, is a problem that affects mainly the bowel, which is also called the large intestine. The bowel is the part of the digestive system that makes and stores stool. The word syndrome means a group of symptoms. IBS is a syndrome because it can cause several symptoms. For example, IBS causes cramping, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation. Two medications that are used to treat irritable bowel syndrome are: 1.) laxatives and 2.) antispasmodics. Oral laxatives are medicines taken by mouth to encourage bowel movements to relieve constipation, which is a common symptom of IBS. Side effects include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, cramping, gas, and increased thirst. A contraindication of any laxative is dehydration. Advice to the patient and the patient's…
Chonic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML): Teatment Options
Patients suffeing fom chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) expeience ecuent infections, anemia, and thombocytopenia, signs and symptoms often manageable without pofessional help. Accodingly, patients often failed to seek medical cae until late in the disease couse and would have had a poo pognosis in the 20th centuy. Today, a numbe of effective teatments ae available, including the highly effective kinase inhibito imatinib. Kinase inhibitos suppess the activity of the fusion potein p210BCR-ABL, which is the poduct of a chomosomal tanslocation between chomosomes 9 and 22. Ove half of all CML patients will become symptom fee with the use of kinase inhibitos and live a long and poductive life, but a smalle pecentage will equie moe aggessive and iskie teatment appoaches, among which is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell tansplantation following high dose chemotheapy.
Chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a pogessive disease that impais…
performed by a group of professionals that included: Dr. Xiao-Mei Li (Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing, egistered Nurse), dean and associate professor of the nursing department of Chinese university, Jiao tong University's College of Medicine; Kai-Na Zhou (Master of Science in Nursing, N), assistant researcher in the same department; Professor Dr. Hong Yan (PhD), public health department of same university's College of Medicine; Yin-Ping Zhang (PhD N), Associate Professor at the same department; and Professor Dr. Duo-Lao Wang (PhD) from Medical Statistics department, Faculty of Population Health and Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK. The randomized clinical study was titled "Effects of music therapy on anxiety of patients with breast cancer after radical mastectomy." The Care, Cure and Core model of Hall was used. A clinical trial of 120 women suffering from breast cancer was conducted between March and November 2009, using randomized controlled research design. Half…
Avci, I. A., & Gozum, S. (2009). Comparison of two different educational methods on teachers' knowledge, beliefs and behaviors regarding breast cancer screening. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 13(2), 94-101.
Bruscia, K., Dileo, C., Shultis, C., & Dennery, K. (2009). Expectations of hospitalized cancer and cardiac patients regarding the medical and psychotherapeutic benefits of music therapy. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 36(4), 239-244.
Chen, Y. X., Yang, X. M., Kuang, J. Y., & Han, B. X. (2009). Anxiety and depression status of patients with breast cancer and analysis of the related factors. Journal of Bengbu Medical College, 34(9), 840-842.
Clark, M., Isaacks-Downton, G., Wells, N., Redlin-Frazier, S., Eck, C., Hepworth, J. T., & Chakravarthy, B. (2006). Use of preferred music to reduce emotional distress and symptom activity during radiation therapy. Journal of Music Therapy, 43(3), 247-265.
Health Care Blog:
"Alycia-Care: Peace of Mind…a Sick Child on't Be Denied Health Coverage"
hen Alycia Steinberg found out that her baby girl had cancer, of course as a mother Alycia was very upset and worried for the health and for the life of her daughter Avey. The kind of cancer that little Avey had was also a very serious kind of cancer, leukemia, and so Alycia and her husband worried about two main problems. One, a child that was only two years old, and two, would the insurance company that the family has cover a pre-existing condition?
But because the Obama Administration managed to get the Affordable Care Act through Congress in 2010 -- and now the United States Supreme Court has ruled that the Affordable Care Act is constitutional -- Alycia and her husband can feel safe as far as their daughter's health is concerned because their insurance…
Salcido, Dori. (2012). Alycia-Care: Peace of Mind in Knowing a Sick Child Won't Be Denied
Health Coverage. Healthcare.gov. Retrieved July 7, 2012, from http://www.healthcare.gov .
Care of Cancer:
In the past few years, cancer has developed to become one of the major leading causes of deaths across the globe. The disease can be described as the uncontrolled growth or development of abnormal cells in the body even as cancerous cells are also known as malignant cells. Since cells are the building blocks of humans and other living things, cancer develops out of the normal cells within the body. Generally, the normal cells multiply when needed by the body and die when the body does not need them. When the growth of the cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly, cancer appears to occur. Nonetheless, cancer also appears to happen when cells in the body forget how to die.
Causes of Cancer:
There are various kinds of cancer because the disease can develop in nearly every tissue or organ like…
Barraclough, J. (2002). Integrated Cancer Care. Retrieved from Royal College of Psychiatrists
"Cancer Complications." (n.d.). Info.com. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416
"Cancer Staging." (2010, September 22). National Cancer Institute Factsheet. Retrieved from National Cancer Institute website: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging
Cellular Function and Aging
Tumor Suppression Protein 53 and Effects on Cellular Function and Aging
The concept of aging has many intrinsic and extrinsic factors that act as markers on an individual organism. Ignoring mortality associated with external environmental factors, very few organisms can be said to have cellular immortality with no decrease in cellular function or repeat division in normal diploid cells. Cellular senescence is a normal process that halts cellular division after a set of cycles of replication. Senescent cells can remain completely functional but lose the programmed process of replication. The normal pathway for senescent cells is either aging with metabolic pathways continuing for the cell or programmed cell death which is known as apoptosis that occurs when cellular function changes, a specific lifetime is reached for the cell or the cell is damaged. The multicellular cnidarians known as a Hydra has been shown to have a…
Cappisi, J. (2005) Senescent cells, tumor suppression and organisimal aging: good citizens, bad neighbors. Cell 120 1-10.
Coppe, J.P. Patil, C.K. Rodier, F. Sun, Y. Munoz, D.P. Goldstein, J. Nelson, P.S. Desprez, P. Campisi, J. (2008) Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor. PLOS Biology, 6-12, 2853-2868
Faragher, R.G. (2000) Cell senescence and human aging: where's the link? Biochemical Society Transactions 28 221-226.
Kirkwood, T.B. Austad, S.N. (2000) Why do we age? Nature 408. 233-238.
Therapies Deprive Patients From Conventional Cancer Therapies
Future Ethical Prospective
Do public demand for, and clinicians' tendencies to prescribe novel targeted cancer therapies in a resource starved healthcare system deprive other patients of conventional treatment? If so, can it be justified?
Over the years, there have been several studies which have shown that a small but noteworthy fraction of cancer patients drop one or more conventional cancer treatments and use novel targeted cancer therapies instead. When it comes to recent public demands in healthcare, research into cancer control has addressed issues relevant to novel targeted cancer therapies in a resource starved healthcare system. Disparities have been addressed to a much greater degree than before, with studies of the conventional treatment of cancer especially in our variety of ethnic and socioeconomic settings. Conventional treatment have a greater social impact and the demand for such treatments of many (male and female) of…
Borja-Cacho, D.J.E.H.S.A.K.B.D.J. & V.S.M., 2008. Molecular targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer.. The American Journal of Surgery, 196(3), p. 430.
Garvalov, B.K. & A.T., 2011. Cancer stem cells: A new framework for the design of tumor therapies.. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 89(2), pp. 95-107..
Kim, J.A., 2003. Targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer. The American Journal of Surgery, 186(3), pp. 264-8.
Kundu, S.K. & N.M., 2012. Targeted therapy in head and neck cancer.. Tumor Biology, 33(3), pp. 707-21.
The exchange of the defective gene could be brought about by a process called homologous recombination. One of the first gene therapy experiments, though well intentioned, caused the death of the patient. esearchers at the University of Pennsylvania introduced a normal gene into a boy's body by using the rhino virus as a carrier. The body's immune system attacked this as a pathogen. This led to eventual organ failure and death. Gene therapy projects all over the world were largely abandoned. But more recently, gene therapy is beginning to make a comeback. (ONL, 2009)
Gene therapy has been tested in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is not a treatment that targets amyloid beta proteins or the tangles, but protects the brain cells from destruction. The regenerative properties of skin cells (stem cells) have been used to prevent the brain cells from "withering" away. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans reveal…
http://www.alzforum.org/drg/drc/detail.asp?id=84Alzforum . (2009). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from BBC. (2003). Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from Alzheimer's vaccine 'promising'
ChemoCare. (2005). Taxol. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from http://www.chemocare.com/bio/taxol.asp
Elements4health. (2009). PET Scans Reveal Plaques and Tangles In Alzheimer's Retrieved April 18, 2009, from http://www.elements4health.com/pet-scans-reveal-plaques-and-tangles-in-alzheimers.html
Feng, J.A., Crasto, C.J., & Matsumoto, Y. (1998). Deoxyribose phosphate excision by the N-terminal domain of the polymerase beta: the mechanism revisited. Biochemistry, 37(27), 9605-9611.
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)
Effects on Bone Marrow
Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…
Atlas of the Body: The Lymphatic System." (1999). American Medical Association. 2 June 2008 http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZG0S6CGJC&sub_at=518 .
Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkin's Disease," Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer, January 1, 2002. 2 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3405200219.html .
Detailed Guide: Hodgkin Disease What Is Hodgkin Disease? American Cancer Society. Revised: 08/30/2007. 2 June 2008 http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1x_What_Is_Hodgkin_Disease.sp?rnav=cri .
Hodgkin's Disease Signs and Symptoms. (1998-2008). 3 June 2008 http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins/symptoms.shtml.
Physically, massage or TT eases muscle tension and improves circulation. In turn, it improves digestion and breathing, enhances mental clarity, and encourages better sleep. TT is particularly useful to terminally ill patients in reducing or mitigating pain to the extent of making prescription painkillers unnecessary. Emotionally, TT or massage is a gentle and compassionate experience for the dying. It reduces the sense of isolation by providing him or her with physical connectedness. It can also re-establish dwindling or lost self-esteem and self-acceptance on account of disease. As a result, it contributes to increased quality of life and a much-needed release of emotions. Medicare as yet does not cover massage therapy for hospice settings but an increasing number of group have been lobbying for its inclusion.
Useful Alternatives to Pain and Discomfort Management
These alternatives have shown to be effective in easing spiritual, emotional and psychological pain that contribute to the…
Aghabati, N et al. (2010). The effect of therapeutic touch on pain and fatigue of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Evidence-based Complementary Alternative
Medicine: PubMed. Retrieved on June 16, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2887328
Catlin, A. (2009). Hospice massage: easing the pain of a life-limiting illness (Part 1).
vol 9 # 3, Massage Today: MPA Media Publications. Retrieved on June 19, 2011
For instance when patients who have lost plenty of blood are brought in a hospital ER room, the clinical officers may actually administer the wrong solutions to patients as they attempt to save their lives Stoker ()
. The volume of the IV fluid to be administered should always be followed with precaution and be based on medical directions of the hospital's protocol as well as the patient's response to the fluid being administered. Another precaution is that all IV fluid bags should always be well labeled since the labels provide important information that is needed during administration of the fluids.
hen administered to the wrong and in appropriate IV fluid solutions, a patient's health may be put at severe risk and other fatalities. This may result to legal and disciplinary action to the medical practitioner. Thus, an IV fluid bag should always be read correctly as they also have…
Biology, American Society for Cell, HighWire Press, and National Institutes of Health . PubMed Central. Molecular Biology of the Cell. American Society for Cell Biology, 2003. Print.
De Vita, V. And Theodore, S. "Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology." Annual advances in oncology 1 (2010). Print.
Galvagno, S.M. Emergency Pathophysiology: Clinical Applications for Prehospital Care. Teton NewMedia, 2003. Print.
Michael, J., and S. Sircar. Fundamentals of Medical Physiology. Thieme, 2010. Print.
patient is a 35-year-old (male?), he was diagnosed with diabetes twenty five years ago at the age of ten years old, he claims that this is hereditary in his family. He has one sister who has Type 2 diabetes and a brother who has type 1 diabetes. He manages his diabetes and other illnesses from home and through a medical clinic; for most of his life he has known he has diabetes and manages to regulate it through insulin shots, glucose tablets as well as through the right nutrition, however he claims that this is difficult and there are most days where he experiences draw backs. Many complications have arisen from his diabetes. This patient was selected because of the certain case he has in regards to his diabetes and other complications which had developed from it. His treatment and management also includes an extensive study. At the young age…
Treating and Coping With Pancreatic Cancer
Although significant progress has been made in diagnosis and treating many types of cancers, one type of cancer that remains highly intractable to treatment is pancreatic cancer. In fact, pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect because symptoms may not occur until the condition is well advanced, and even when it is diagnosed early, patient prognoses are poor. Although pancreatic cancer represents just around 3% of all types of cancers in the United States, the condition is responsible for approximately 7% of all cancer deaths (Key statistics, 2015). This paper provides a description of the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer followed by a discussion concerning the complications and side effects that are associated with the disease. Finally, a description of the methods that are used to lessen the physical and psychological effects of treatment for pancreatic cancer is followed by a summary of the…
Cohen, P. J. (2006, May-June). Medical marijuana, compassionate use, and public policy: Expert opinion or vox populi? The Hastings Center Report, 36(3), 19-23.
Key statistics. (2015). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/pancreaticcancer/detailedguide/pancreatic-cancer-key-statistics .
MacNeil, N. S. (2009, November). Treat depression in cancer patients. Clinical Psychiatry News, 33(11), 64.
Marks. S. & Heinrich, T. (2013, August). Assessing and treating depression in palliative care patients: Antidepressants, psychotherapy can improve dying patients' quality of life. Current Psychiatry, 12(8), 35-41.
Hazardous Waste at Pharmacy
The pharmaceutical business generates some waste that is considered to be hazardous. Some of this waste is in the form of drugs that are dangerous. Up until this point, a lot of the regulations surrounding the handling of these drugs has come from OSHA, and thus the regulations pertain to occupational safety, rather than environmental safety. OSHA has had recommendations for the safe handling of dangerous drugs for at least thirty years. Most hazardous drugs are cytotoxic, but some others are also potentially harmful, among them drugs for chemotherapy (Polovich, 2004).
The current regulations at the federal level are from OSHA and are designed to protect the people who either produce or dispense pharmaceuticals that fall into the hazardous class (Connor & McDiarmmid, 2006). Chemotherapy agents, for example, have been linked to secondary leukemia and other cancers (Polovich, 2004). When OSHA brought in its…
Connor, T. & McDiarmid, M. (2006). Preventing occupational exposures to antineoplastic drugs in health care settings. CA: A cancer journal for clinicians. Vol. 56 (6) 345-365.
EPA.gov (2015). Proposed rule: Management standards for hazardous waste pharmaceuticals. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved April 8, 2016 from Patwary, M., O'Hare, W. & Sarker, M. (2011). Assessment of occupational and environmental safety associated with medical waste disposal in developing countries: A qualitative approach. Safety Science. Vol. 49 (8-9) 1200-1207.
Polovich, M. (2004). Safe handling of hazardous drugs. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved April 8, 2016 from http://www.nursingworld.org/mainmenucategories/anamarketplace/anaperiodicals/ojin/tableofcontents/volume92004/no3sept04/hazardousdrugs.html
ecause of the overall negative side effects, many opponents will argue that despite the positive benefits, the drawbacks of using the drug are severe. (Morrow, 2009) This is the reason why it should remain illegal (because of: these negative side effects). An example of this can be seen with comment from the Institute of Medicine which found, "The most compelling concerns regarding marijuana smoking in HIV / AIDS patients are the possible effects of marijuana on immunity. Reports of opportunistic fungal and bacterial pneumonia in AIDS patients who used marijuana suggest that marijuana smoking either suppresses the immune system or exposes patients to an added burden of pathogens. In summary, patients with preexisting immune deficits due to AIDS should be expected to be vulnerable to serious harm caused by smoking marijuana." ("Top Ten Pros and Cons," 2006)
What this shows is the conflicting opinions, as to if medical marijuana can…
Top Ten Pros and Cons. (2009, May 6). Retrieved March 18, 2010 from Medial Marijuana website: http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000141
Foreman, J. (2009, July 13). Evil Weed or Useful Drug. Retrieved March 19, 2010 from Boston Globe website: http://www.boston.com/news/health/articles/2009/07/13/the_pros_and_cons_of_medical_marijuana/?page=1
General, S. (2007, May 7). Marijuana Pros and Cons. Retrieved March 19, 2010 from Steady Health website: http://www.steadyhealth.com/articles/Marijuana__Pros_and_cons_a67_f0.html
Morrow, a. (2009, April 26). What are the Pros and Cons of Medical Marijuana. Retrieved March 19, 2010 from About.com website: http://dying.about.com/od/symptommanagement/f/med_mj_procon.htm
For this reason, it is important to speak with your doctor about any complementary or alternative therapies you are currently using or considering.
The prognosis for Hodgkin lymphoma has shown a gradual improvement over the years and today it is estimated that more than eighty percent of patients with this disease will recover with appropriate treatment. However, a central complicating factor and danger is the high level of toxicity that accompanies conventional treatment. This has also been linked to high levels of stress and anxiety.
While there is no proof that massage therapy can cure to reduce the risk of cancer, there is evidence that it helps alleviate stress and tension that accompany the treatment methods. Coupled with his is the fact that this disease is strongly linked to immune system response and in this regard it has been found that consistent massage therapy, as well as many other…
Ahles T. ( 1999) Massage Therapy for Patients Undergoing Autologous Bone Marrow
Transplantation. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 18(3), 157-163.
Complementary & Alternative Therapies For Leukemia, Lymphoma, Hodgkin's Disease, & Myeloma: No. 8 in a series providing the latest information on blood. Cancers (1999) Retrieved from http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/attachments/National/br_1098117258.pdf
Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612
Proteomics can also lead to a better understanding of foreign biological disease-causing agents. Many infectious bacteria are difficult to eliminate without causing harm to the host organism as well, such as several species of the genus Leishmania for which chemotherapy has long been the only effective treatment (Kumari et al. 2008). Proteomics has led to the development of other drugs that work to inhibit certain protein and protease production processes in the bacteria, leading to their eradication without the harsh and host-harming toxicity of chemotherapy (Kumari et al. 2008). Other forms of chemotherapy specifically targeting specific protease substances have also been developed through an application of proteomics, suggesting still more avenues for research and pharmaceutical development utilizing the chemical knowledge and awareness gained from the study of proteins (Heal et al. 2008). As the substrates of proteases are better understood, methods have been developed to target specific proteases or families…
Heal, W.; Wickramasinghe, S. & Tate, W. (2008). "Activity-Based Chemical Proteomics: Profiling Proteases as Drug Targets." Current drug discovery technologies 5(3), pp. 200-12.
Kumari, S.; Kumar, A.; Samant, M.; Singh, N. & Dube, A. (2008). "Discovery of Novel Vaccine Candidates and Drug Targets Against Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Proteomics and Transcriptomics." Current drug targets 9(11), pp. 938-47.
Golde, T. & Kukar, T. (2009). "Avoiding Unintended Toxicity." Science 324(5927), pp. 603-4.
That is not to say that theory and application cannot be separated into ethical categories. They can be, but those categorizations are always going to be somewhat skewed by the researcher, because no human being is capable of perfect neutrality. To assume that one can research for the sake of purse science really does involve imaging that scientists are not human beings with their own personal motivations. Moreover, this is not an issue that developed in the post-atomic world. Even before the use of the atomic bomb, scientists were motivated by personal motivations that kept them from being completely neutral. Therefore, it might be better to consider the ethics of scientific discovery from a viewpoint that includes the inherent morality of a discovery. For example, chemotherapy could be used as a weapon with very disastrous results, because its side-effects are devastating and can even be fatal. However, chemotherapies are developed…
With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th…
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th 2010, available online at, http://oralcancerfoundation.org/dental/pdf/oral_cavity.pdf
4) Keyvan Nouri, 'Skin Cancer: Oral Cancer', McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007
The study was reported as qualitative and to have been conducted by the 'Australian National Health and Medical Research Council' research study. It is stated as follows of the study: "The nursing insights indicate that an understanding of end-of-life care in hematology needs to be set in a trilogy of overlapping models (labeled functional, evolving, and refractory) that address the complexity of issues associated with professional and hospital culture." (McGrath, 2007)
Findings include the development of a working model focused on enabling the "integration of palliative care into adult hematology. The model is accredited the development of a new language for understanding and fostering the integration of palliative care and hematology." (McGrath, 2007)
One reason that palliative care is so important for hematology patients are necessary provisions of informed consent and other end-of-life issues. That is because many of these issues have to do with factors related to survival and…
Finlay, Ilora (2001) UK Strategies for Palliative Care. JR Soc Med 2001;94. Online available at: http://jrsm.rsmjournals.com/cgi/reprint/94/9/437.pdf
Audrey, Suzanne et al. (2008) What Oncologists Tell Patients About Survival Benefits of Palliative Chemotherapy and Implications for Informed Consent: Qualitative Study. BMJ 2008, 337:a752. Online available at: http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/337/jul31_3/a752
McGrath, Pam D. (2007) Description of an Australian Model for End-of-Life Care in patients with Hematological Malignancies. Oncology Nursing Forum. Vol.43 No.1 2007. Online available at: http://ons.metapress.com/content/w1l1mx43646772k3/
Maganto, Vincente Valentin, Gonzalez, Maite Murillo and Moreno, Maria Valentin (2004) Continuous Care in the Cancer Patient: Palliative Care in the 21st Century. Clinical and Translational Oncology. Vol. 6 No. 7 October 2004.
Consider the case of Mr. a, the irrational quadriplegic who has little movement from the neck down, and lives in a nursing home. He is irrational in his behavior, and often demands very explicit forms of treatment, and then rejects or refuses these treatments or other treatments. He has become violent on occasion, and has created problems between patients and staff. He has been expelled from one nursing home, and may be from another. The home is bound to treat him, as he desires care and chose the nursing home. However, if he harms staff or other patients in any way, the nursing home is bound to provide a safe environment, and Mr. A is a detriment to the health and safety of others. In that case, the facility can refuse treatment for the good of the many, rather than the good of one patient. The author of the article…
Hord, J.D., Rehman, W., Hannon, P., Anderson-Shaw, L. And Schmidt, M.L. (2006). Do parents have the right to refuse standard treatment for their child with favorable-prognosis cancer? Ethical and legal concerns. Retrieved from the Journal of Clinical Oncology Web site: http://jco.ascopubs.org/cgi/content/full/24/34/545417 Oct. 2007.
Richards, E.P. And Rathbun, K.C. (2007). Medical risk management. Retrieved from the Louisiana State University Web site: http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/books/aspen/Aspen-Chapter-9.html17 Oct. 2007.
Silvers, a. (2007). The individual rights of the difficult patient. The Hastings Center Report, 37(2), 13+.
Patients also say they want to awake and conscious when their pain is managed. The issue is that there are not many U.S. physicians and nurses who are certified to extend palliative care. There are only 33 physicians and only 41 nurses for every 10,000 patients (Peres).
The hospice movement has been changing the face of care for people at the end-of-life stage (Radulovic 2004). Hospices have been providing options and choices to these patients for the last three decades. The hospice movement began in the UK but spread to America in response to the need for more compassionate care for the dying and terminally ill. A hospice is not a place but a concept of palliative and support services for the terminally ill to be cared for primarily at home. A home can be the patient's residence or that of a loved one, a long-term care facility. It provides…
Bone, Roger C. Analysis of Indications for Intensive Care Unit Admissions. Chest:. American College of Chest Physicians, December 1993
Earl, C et al. "Rise in Aggressive Treatment." Trends in the Aggressiveness of Cancer Care Near the End of Life. Journal of Clinical Oncology:. Springhouse Corporation, 2007
Peres, Judith. U.S. End-of-Life Gets Passing Grade. Health Care Benchmarks and Quality Improvement: American Health Consultants, Inc., 2003
Radulovic, Jan.W. Trends in Hospice and Palliative Care in the United States and Kansas. Kansas Nurse: Kansas State Nurses Association, 2004
A biopsy of the bone marrow is the only way to be sure that it is leukemia.
Treatments for leukemia can vary depending on the stage, the age of the patient, the type of leukemia, and the advanced or infant stages that it is in, but most leukemia patients do go through a host of treatments that include chemotherapy.
Treatment also depends on the stage that the disease is placed in. Staging is simply a method by which the cancer is categorized for the purpose of developing a treatment plan and for research purposes with regards to cure rates and treatment successes or failures (Leukemia (http://www.emedicinehealth.com/leukemia/article_em.htm).
In most cases of the disease, including Kate's case the treatment of choice is chemotherapy. There is a scene in the novel in which Anna, Kate and their mother are dancing around the kitchen together after shaving their heads so Kate would not…
Leukemia (Accessed 11-11-06)
Signs and Symptoms (accessed 11-12-06)
However, proper treatment may restore fertility. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow at a greater pace due to the increased blood flow and estrogen levels but they usually return to their original size after delivery.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Definition & Cause: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term for infection of the lining of the uterus, the fallopian tubes. It is a very common disease and in the United States alone, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year and more than 100,000 women become infertile as a result of PID (NAID Fact sheet, 2005). It is caused in a majority of cases through sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea but PID-causing bacteria may also cause infection through other means such as during childbirth, abortion, or IUD insertion.
Complications: PID can damage the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, leading to chronic pelvic pain and serious damage…
Carson-DeWitt, R., and Odle, T.G. (2006). "Infertility.." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Third Edition. Jacqueline L. Longe, Editor. 5 vols. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006.
Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility." (2006). American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.asrm.org/Patients/faqs.html
General Infertility FAQ." (2006). The InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID). Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.inciid.org/faq.php?cat=infertility101&id=1
Mallari, B. (2001). "Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome." 3 RX.com. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.3-rx.com/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/default.php
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…
Care of Cancer
In many cases the sooner cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins the better the chances of a person recovering fully. If one develops cancer they can improve the chance of early detection if they have regular medical checkups and do some self-exams. Doctors often find early cancer during a physical exam or when carrying out routine tests even when there were no symptoms presented.
There are several methods that are used to diagnose cancer .with technological advancement these methods are now better as they help in a better understanding of cancer .there are now many diagnostic tools that can be used in cancer detection. Once cancer I suspected a diagnosis is made by pathologists and oncopathologists and imaging radiologists. The common diagnostic methods are;
This test involves a small tissue sample being taken from the area where cancer is suspected using a fine tipped…
Mandal, A.(2010). Cancer Diagnosis.Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cancer-Diagnosis.aspx
American Society of Clinical Oncolog.(2013). Stages of Cancer. Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.cancer.net/all-about-cancer/treating-cancer/stages-cancer
Armstrong, B.(2012).What are the different stages of cancer and what do they mean? Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.cancerinstitute.org.au/patient-support/what-i-need-to-know/about-cancer/what-are-the-different-stages-of-cancer
Info.com.(2013).Cancer complications. Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416
Computers Used by Nurses
The area of interest in nursing informatics are nursing information, nursing data and nursing knowledge. The present state of knowledge related to these phenomena proposes four implications for the development of systems to assist nursing. First, research suggests that experience and knowledge is linked to the quality of nursing assessment, diagnosis or clinical inference, and planning of nursing care, and also that knowledge is task-specific Information technology can provide access to a variety of information resources, such as knowledge bases and decision support systems, to enhance the level of knowledge of the nurse decision-maker. Second, organized patient assessment forms with linkages to knowledge bases of diagnoses have the capability to improve the quality of the patient check up and the accuracy of the diagnosis. Third, studies on planning care have demonstrated the complexity of the task when a number of options are potentially appropriate Model-based decision…
Cornell University. 2012. Retrieved from Medical calculators: http://www-users.med.cornell.edu/~spon/picu/calc/medcalc.htm
Evidence-based medicine_BMJ Journals. Evidence_based Medicine for primary care and internal Medicine . 2012
Nursing Informatics for BSN Nursing students. (n.d.). Retrieved from Data Analysis Nursing Informatics: http://www.nursing-informatics.com/kwantlen/nrsg4120.html
Online journal of nursing informatics. (n.d.). Online journal of nursing informatics .
Government Regulations and Hospice
Government Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Impact of rules on Hospice services
This paper focuses on how government regulations impact hospice. The paper starts off with an introduction to the hospice system that was revived by a nurse, Cecily Saunders, who then went on to become a physician, establishing one of the first modern hospices. The concept of total pain is explained in some detail. The body of the paper then includes the studies that have been conducted on patients and caregivers in hospice systems as well as on people who died after they were diagnosed with terminal illness resulting in death in six months following the prognosis. The overall conclusion that can be drawn here is that while in Japan there is a marked need for improving the Day hospice system, the American hospice industry…
American Medical Directors Association. (n.d.). White Paper on Palliative Care And Hospice In Long-Term Care. Retrieved March 10, 2012, from American Medical Directors Association: http://www.amda.com/governance/whitepapers/palliative_care.cfm
Carlson, M.D., Morrison, R.S., Holford, T.R., & Bradley, E.H. (2007). Hospice Care: What Services Do Patients and Their Families Receive? Health Services Research, 42(4), 1672-1690.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2008). Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Hospice Conditions of Participation; Final Rule. Federal Register, 73(109), 32088-32220.
Christakis, N.A., & Escarce, J. j. (1996). Survival of Medicare patients after enrollment In hospice programs . The New England Journal of Medicine, 172-179.
Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin
a) EFFECTS ON KIDNEYS, HEART AND BRAIN
Cytotoxic metabolites are created when bio-reductive drugs go through a metabolic process because they contribute to curing cancer by lowering oxygen to areas where the cancer affects the body. The local auto regulation process of the body provides the oxygen to all parts of the body where it is needed. The arterioles supplying that tissue for oxygen dilate to supply more oxygen than usual. This happens also in the case of the tumor when it demands more oxygen; it is supplied by the body and anaerobin affects the auto regulation process in all areas as it reduces the blood flow to all organs, except the lungs. It can reduce the oxygen and supply of nutrients to the tumor by up to 99%. Therefore this bio-reductive drug can help in treatment of cancer in modern therapy.
Anti-cancer drugs reduce the cell…
Linda Bren, 2005. Cancer Drugs: weighing the Risks and Benefits. FDA Consumer, 41(1), pp.10+.
Nootropic. Available at: Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nootropic#Vitamins_and_supplements (Accessed at 2 December 2011)
Paual Ravasco, Isabel Monterio-Grillo, Pedro Marques Vidal & Maria Ermelinda Camilio, 2005. Dietary Counseling Improves Patient Outcomes: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(7), pp. 1431-1438.
revolution in understanding genetic contributions to the susceptibility for developing particular diseases and disorders has been the development of the notion of "personalized medicine." The "personalized" connotation of this growing facet in the practice does not refer to individualized treatments as much as it refers to a personalizing of treatments targeted at a specific subset of patients, for example the development of certain drugs that can target specific cancer-causing genes found in patients' tumors. A drug currently being reviewed by the FDA for release is crizotinib, an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor. ALK is believed to be active in several different types of tumors, including about five percent of non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). In patients with advanced NSCLC it has been found that those carrying the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene possess a protein product of this fusion that contains a constitutive kinase activity that…
Bang, Y., Kwak, E.L., Shaw, A.T. et al. (2010). Clinical activity of the oral ALK inhibitor PF- 02341066 in ALK-positive patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28 (18S), 3.
Christensen, J.G., Zou, H.Y., Arango, M.E., Li, Q., Lee, J.H., McDonnell, S.R., Yamazaki, S., Alton, G.R., Mroczkowski, B., & Los G. (2007). Cytoreductive antitumor activity of PF-2341066, a novel inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and c-Met, in experimental models of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Molecular Cancer Therapy, 6, 3314-3322.
Ku, G.Y. & Lima Jopes Jr., G. (2011). EML4-ALK in non-small-cell lung cancer: the breathtaking progress from benchtop to Phase III clinical trial. Therapy, 8(1)55-61.
Kwak, E.L., Bang, Y.J., Camidge, D.R. et al. (2010). Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibition in non-small-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 263(18), 1693- 1703.
Medical Advances in Cancer Treatment Research
This paper discusses the medical advances in cancer treatment research. The writer explores several treatment options and compares them to treatment options of the past. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
There was a time when a diagnosis of cancer meant a death sentence. The word still strikes a chord of fear among the millions each year who are told they have it, but in recent years there have been many advances in medical science that allow many who would have died from the disease to live long and full lives. There are more cancer survivors now than ever before and treatment options continue to be made available.
In the past there were only two options for the treatment of cancer. One could have surgery and one could be given a course of radiation treatments. The surgery was for the purpose…
Myelodysplastic Syndromes, which were previously considered rare, are currently known as some of the most frequently occurring hematological neoplasms, perhaps affecting over 30,000 patients each year within the U.S. The nation's regulatory permission of lenalidomide, azacitidine and decitabine, from 2004 to 2006 appeared to indicate a new age in the improvement of therapy for disease modification for these disorders. However, no indications of drugs being approved for MDS appear to be present in the U.S. for the past 8 years. There are no curative drugs available so far. However, some compounds under development may be approved soon. Consequently, diagnoses of MDS are still quite a heavy load, both on patients and medical care systems (Bejar & Steensma, 2014).
Myelodysplastic Syndromes are a set of distinct disorders of the bone marrow that prevent the victim's bone marrow from producing sufficient fit blood cells. The disorders are often called "failure of…
The symptoms and signs of chronic schistosomiasis are mostly the body's reaction to the eggs retained in the tissues. S. mansoni or S. japonicum can cause mucosal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, focal fibrosis, strictures, fistulas and papillomatuous growths. Ulcerations in the bladder by S. haematobium may bring on dysuria, hematuria, frequent urination, and chronic cystitis. Secondary bacterial infections in the genitor-urinary tract may also develop. S. mansoni can induce persistent Salmonella septicemia. S. haematorium may cause genital disease or infertility. Their eggs can cause fibrosis and cirrhosis, portal or pulmonary hypertension in the liver or transverse myelitis and seizure in the central nervous system (Pearson).
Diagnosis and Treatment
Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through a urine or stool test for parasites (DHPE, 2010;
DPDx, 2010). The Centers for Disease and Control uses a blood test on a sample taken 6-
8 weeks after exposure. It can be cured with praziquantel taken for 1…
DHPE (2010). Schistosomiasis fact sheet. Infectious Facts: Directors of Health Promotion
and Education. Retrieved on November 5, 2010 from http://www.dhpe.org/infect/schisto.html
DPDx (2010). Schistosomiasis. Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/schistosomiasis.htm
Kogulan, P. And Lucey, D.R. (2010). Schistosomiasis. eMedicine Specialties: Infections.
(2009, March). omen's Health Law eekly, 34. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1651848781).
CNSs need skills in mental health. (2009). Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 6. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343051).
Lance Armstrong Foundation. (2009). Official ebsite.
Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livestrong.org/site/c.khLXK1PxHmF/b.2660611/k.BCED/Home.htm
Heyman, Patrick & Sandra olfe. (2001). Neuman's System's Model. University of Florida.
Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/short.htm
Okamura, Masako Shigeto Yamawaki, Tatsuo Akechi, Koji Taniguchi, & Yosuke
Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:
Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest
Medical Library database. (Document ID: 876421851).
Quinlin, Patrick. (2001). Beating cancer with nutrition. Nutrition Times Press.
Pengelly, Michele & Diana Purnell. (2009). An audit of levels of psychological support referrals for cancer patients. Cancer Nursing Practice,…
Agnew, Thelma. (2009). Acting with confidence. Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 18-20.
Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343111).
Baker, Maggie Koerth-Baker. (2008). The power of positive thinking: Truth or myth?
Special to LiveScience. Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livescience.com/health/080829-happy-thoughts.html
However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."
In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus (www.nim.nih.gov) explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…
Harvard Medical School. (2005). Blood test can accurately diagnose heart failure in patients
With kidney dysfunction. Retrieved February 10, 2008, at http://www.hms.harvard.edu .
Harvard Medical School. (2006). Higher Doses of Anemia Drug for Chronic Kidney Disease
Does Not Improve Quality of Life and Increases Risk for Cardiovascular Events. Retrieved February 9, 2008, at
But there will also be situations where clinicians are asked to discuss with a patient whether they want to or should have resuscitation if they have had a cardiac arrest or life-threatening arrhythmia. The potential likelihood for clinical benefit in accordance with the patient's preferences for intervention and its likely outcome, involves careful consideration, as with many other medical decisions, in deciding whether or not to resuscitate a patient who suffers a cardiopulmonary arrest. Therefore, decisions to forego cardiac resuscitation are often difficult.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CP) is a set of specific medical procedures designed to establish circulation and breathing in a patient who's suffered an arrest of both. CP is a supportive therapy, designed to maintain perfusion to vital organs while attempts are made to restore spontaneous breathing and cardiac rhythm (Braddock 2).
The standard of care is to perform CP in the absence of a valid physician's order to…
Braddock, C.H. (1998) Termination of life-sustaining treatment. University of Washington School of Medicine. Seattle: Department of Medical History and Ethics. Retrieved 3/12/07 at http://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/termlife.html .
Frequently asked questions. (2007). The World Federation of Right to Die Societies. Retrieved at http://www.worldrtd.net/faqs/qna/?id=8 .
Guru, V., Verbeek, P.R. And Morrison, L.J. (1999). Response of paramedics to terminally ill patients with cardiac arrest: an ethical dilemma. CMAJ. 61 Nov; 161(10).
Hilz, L.M. (1999). Psychology Terms: Transference and countertransference. Kathy's Mental Health Review. Riverside, CA: Mental Health. Retrieved at http://www.toddlertime.com/mh/terms/countertransference-transference-3.htm .
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…
Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.
Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html
Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.ashtreepublishing.com/bookshop/carolyn-dean.php
Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…
Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/
Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.
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Ethical Issues in Medicine
Ethical Dimensions of esearch Studies
Ethical issues in medicine: Clinical trials and cancer patients.
Clinical trials, in which a treatment or a drug is tested upon human beings, are a vital part of bringing a drug to market. It is essential that the treatment be shown to be safe, effective, and better than existing treatments of similar cost and safety levels. However, when developing a drug for patients who are facing a potentially terminal diagnosis such as cancer patients, the ethics of using clinical trials becomes extremely murky. "To advance the science of medicine and improve the care of patients, we need the objective data that can only be gained from clinical trials, in which outcomes are dispassionately analyzed. But the patients in cancer trials are not data points; they are vulnerable people who often view a clinical trial as perhaps their last hope" (Markman 2003:…
Markman, Maurie. (2003). The needs of science vs. The needs of patients. Cleveland Clinic
Journal Of Medicine, 70. 12. Retrieved: http://ccjm.org/content/70/12/1008.full.pdf
The most common cause of pancreatic cancer is smoking which accounts for 25 -- 30% of cases (urveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program). Other factors include hereditary pancreatic cancers, adults with diabetes of minimum duration two years, hereditary pancreatic, and a history of other family cancers (GUT. Guidelines for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer periampullary and ampullary carcinomas). The Consensus Guidelines of the International Association of Pancreatology advises that patients with a genetic history of pancreatic cancer should be referred to specialist centers where they can receive diagnosis of pancreatic diseases, genetic counseling, and advice on secondary screening (Ulrich et al., 2001).
Most pancreatic cancers (about 90%) originate in the ductal region and are usually discovered when they are locally advanced. They are called ductal adenocarcinoma. Others (80-90%) occur in the head of the gland (GUT). Lymph node metastasis is common as well as…
Doheny, K ( July 2, 2012) Medication Errors Affect Half of Heart Patients WebMD http://www.webmd.com/heart/news/20120702/half-of-heart-patients-make-medication-errors
GUT. Guidelines for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer periampullary and ampullary carcinomas http://gut.bmj.com/content/54/suppl_5/v1.full
Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program. http://seer.cancer.gov/faststats/html/inc_pancreas.html
Neoptolemos JP, Dunn JA, Stocken DD, et al. (2001) Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet;358:1576-85
The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.
P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…
Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long .