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The founder will purchase the facility, rather than rent it and will pay up to 85,000 for down payment. The costs total up to $587,980 and the expected income is of $705,600, revealing a net profit of $117,620 after the first year of operations. Part of the investment will come from the economies of the founder, the rest remaining to be gathered from bank loans. Contracting bank loans is the most suitable solution at this time as issuing stocks would require additional expenses. Foremost, there would be no guarantee the sum would be raised and the shareholders would get to become involved in the organization's activities. Also, the dividends granted to shareholders are seen as profits and as such taxed by the federal budget; credits on the other hand are seen as debt and are not taxed. As such, even if contracting bank loans does have some limitations, at the…
Stohr, K., December 2, 2002, Day Care in New York, http://www.gothamgazette.com/iotw/daycare/last accessed on July 30, 2008
2000, Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas, U.S. Census Bureau, http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/metro_general/2006/CBSA-EST2006-01.csvlast accessed on July 30, 2008
2001, Daycare Curriculum Possibilities, Pamm's House, http://pammshouse.com/daycarecurrc.htmllast accessed on July 30, 2008
2008, Bureau of Day Care, the City of New York, 2008, last accessed on July 30, 2008
But until these deep societal changes become a reality, improved access to quality 24-hour daycare is essential.
Parents often have to choose between working late and picking up their children from daycare.
Because we live in a country without good family leave, because our nation requires workers to work long and irregular hours, 24-hour childcare is essential
II. Comparison with other nations.
Many European nations like France have more long maternity leave and guaranteed, subsidized child care.
Americans work longer hours and do not have federally guaranteed and subsidized childcare, nor are they likely to get this in the near future.
III. Needs of parents
To staff a 24-hour society, 24-hour daycare is required
Daycare provides children with more consistency than staying with random relatives or family friends.
IV. Benefits of daycare
Daycare increases reading scores.
Daycare improves socialization and makes the transition to school easier.
24-Hour Day Care Trend?" CBS News. 13 Nov 2003. 1 Aug 2007. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/11/12/earlyshow/living/main583299.shtml
Besharov, Douglas. "Economic Benefits of Childcare and Early Childhood Education."
Congressional Testimony. Congressional Quarterly 27 Jun 2007 1 Aug 2007. http://www.knowledgeplex.org/news/571391.html
Bonuses for Having Babies in France." CBS News. 9 Dec. 2006. 1 Aug 2007. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/12/10/eveningnews/main2243958.shtml
This, along with the dichotomies of race, income and education levels influences the attitudes and feelings that each child brings to the facility. Educators need to be sensitive to this.
It is recommended that a thorough investigation be made of the issues facing the various types of children entering the facility. Mothers who work, for example, may do so out of a desire for self-fulfillment, while others may do so out of necessity for earning extra income for the family. Concomitantly, children of single parents may have a different set of problem from those with both parents. These investigations can be done with the help of the parents involved.
From the investigation, profiles can be created of each student, containing information regarding background influences and concomitantly possible interactional problems. The education professional can then group students according to their specific needs in order to optimize the education process for all…
Cotton, Kathleen & Conklin, Nancy Faires. Research on Early Childhood Education. School Improvement Research Series. http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/3/topsyn3.html
Smith, J. "Metropolitan/Nonmetropolitan Variations in Early Childhood Education Programs in the United States" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Rural Sociological Society, Marriott Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California <
ot Available>. 2008-06-26 at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p205645_index.html
Yglesias, Matthew. (2008, July 2). Early Childhood Education is the key to leaving no child behind. Century of the Common Iowan. http://commoniowan.blogspot.com/2008/07/early-childhood-education-is-key-to.html
Parent may then wonder if they are lenient on other policies as well. They may begin to doubt the ability of the childcare facility to provide a safe environment for their children.
The only policy, short of legislation protecting women's jobs for taking care of a sick child, is to adopt a policy that requires each parent to have a back up in case they cannot leave work to pick up the sick child. This parent would have to provide a legal waiver to have this alternate person pick up the child when sick. The care of sick children, who are not seriously ill, is a niche market that could be filled by the childcare provider willing to do so. The policy of having a second backup to care for the child will also be self-reinforcing, as the parent is not likely to wish to inconvenience the other party. However,…
Associated Press. (2008). Ore. Law Prevents Parents fro Getting Fired for Taking Sick Leave. Insurance Journal. January 23, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2008 at http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/west/2008/01/23/86662.htm
Heymann, J., Earle, a., & Penrose, K. (2007). Importance of the Healthy Families Act to the Healthy of American Children. Institute for Health and Social Policy. Issue Brief II, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2008 at http://www.mcgill.ca/files/ihsp/HFAhandoutHeymann.pdf
Heymann, K., Penrose, K., & Earle, a. (2006). Meeting Children's Needs: How Does the United States Measure Up? Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. 52, (2): 189-215
Although the starting of a childcare business is a good idea many people do not understand the effort and the energy that goes into running this type of business.
The Hiring Process
Another particularly difficult task is associated with the hiring of staff members. According to a book entitled the Practical Guide to Quality Childcare preparing for interviews is a vitally important part of finding the right staff. The author asserts that the business owner should write down a list of questions to ask and also take not of the answers that are given by applicants. This process allows the business owner to compare various applicants once the interviews are completed. In addition if the business owner has already hired some staff members it might be of benefit to include these staff members in the interviewing process to hire additional staff. This is important because the business owner will want…
Childcare Business. http://www.ct-clic.com/Newsletters/customer-files/Childcare.pdf
Connell L.H. (2005) the Childcare Answer Book. Sphinx Legal
How to Start a Quality Childcare Business. U.S. Small Business Administration. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:A2RKFL9gbj8J:www.sba.gov/library/pubs/mp-29.pdf+childcare+business&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us
Martinson, C. (2003) Planning, Promoting and Managing Your Childcare Business. Trafford Publishing
The introduction to the chapter emphasizes that there are several reasons to keep accurate financial records, including the legal requirement of filing taxes, the needs of the administrators, and the ways in which it helps keep the business on track. Too methods of accounting are discusses: accrual vs. cash basis. An accrual system counts income and expense when the money is committed. A cash system records income and expense when the money come in or is spent. Both systems will add up to the same totals in the end, but the methods are difference. Small businesses are advised to use a cash basis system because it is simply easier to keep track of. Accrual systems are the standard for larger businesses. The chapter goes on to list what documents are necessary to keep and which can be discarded and how to use these documents in keeping financial records. The basic…
Musicians who purchase these pipes can be expected to play as solo artists, as panpipes are rarely used in orchestral settings. hey are usually too quiet to use otherwise.
he physics of panpipes is based on the concept of the closed tube. Imagine blowing into an old rum bottle. We know that blowing into the bottle correctly creates a tone. Old-time bands often used just this sort of instrument to create rhythm for the fiddler to play off of. he same principal applies to the panpipes. Panpipes are merely closed pipes of various lengths bound together and organized by size. According to the website Sound on Sound, a website devoted to music technology, describes the way air creates the notes thus, "At some point in time, the air at the mouth of the pipe is rarefied, and sucks in the air that the player is blowing across the top." ("Synthesizing…
The physics of panpipes is based on the concept of the closed tube. Imagine blowing into an old rum bottle. We know that blowing into the bottle correctly creates a tone. Old-time bands often used just this sort of instrument to create rhythm for the fiddler to play off of. The same principal applies to the panpipes. Panpipes are merely closed pipes of various lengths bound together and organized by size. According to the website Sound on Sound, a website devoted to music technology, describes the way air creates the notes thus, "At some point in time, the air at the mouth of the pipe is rarefied, and sucks in the air that the player is blowing across the top." ("Synthesizing Pan Pipes") When the player blows air across the entrance to the pipe the pressure forces some of the air inwards. Soon the air is blown outwards by the continued pressure. This is what makes the noise, the wave of air that comes out of the pipes. The length of the pipes can create different tones for the same reason. The amount of air which is moved creates either a tighter wave or a looser wave. Less air will create shorter waves, and thus a higher pitch.
Poscoiu, Costel. "History of Panflute." Pan-flute.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb 2011. .
Reid, Gordon. "Synthesizing Pan Pipes." Sound on Sound. Sound on Sound, 01-008-2003. Web. 14 Feb 2011. .
History Of Child Care
A common refrain heard from parents and policymakers alike today is that "the children are our future," but this refrain is certainly not new. In fact, since time immemorial, humankind has been compelled to make some type of arrangements for child care by people other than parents in order to ensure the survival of the humanity over the eons, a practice that has been more effective at raising healthy and normal children during some periods of history than others. To determine the history and effects of child care services, this paper reviews the relevant primary and secondary literature to provide a background and overview of the issues, followed by a history of child care in general. Finally, an analysis of recent and current trends in child care is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
Al-Khatib, T. (2012, May 11). Parenting lessons from the ancient world. Discovery. Retrieved from http://news.discovery.com/history/parenting-tips-ancient-world-120513.htm .
Beck, R. White House conferences on children: An historical perspective. In The rights of children, Reprint Series No. 9, Harvard Educational Review, Cambridge, MA:
Harvard College, 1974, pp. 88 -- 10.
Brittain, C. & Hunt, D.E. (2004). Helping in child protective services: A competency-based casework handbook. New York: Oxford University Press.
Child Care Center Management
The many aspects that are present within the complicated and difficult task of managing a child development center provide substantial challenges for managers burdened with their successful operation. Directors of these centers play a pivotal role in guiding and leading these places of learning into the right direction. The purpose of this essay is to explore and discuss the varying approaches and methods that important stakeholders within the childcare center environment evaluate the impact of these centers. The essay will examine this topic from several perspectives that include how the children or students evaluate the program, the parents, the professionals, the staff and the director or managers of these centers. This essay will explore how each one of these different viewpoints are represented and impact the overall quality of a childcare center.
As the main focus, and sometimes most overlooked aspect of the childcare center,…
Hearron, P., F. And Hildebrand, V.. (2014) Management of child development centers, 8th Edition, Pearson.
Ross, V. (2014). Two Techniques for Program Evaluation. C
Early childhood development
The early years of a child's life are the most important years since it is at this stage that the motor development takes place the basic skills are acquired. It is also a tricky stage for the parents to take care of the child and successfully see the child develop to the higher levels where they are dependent on self and can reason out their surrounding effectively. The young children that I serve are my best friends throughout the time that I am with them and among them. This is because my philosophy of care for young children and providing conditions necessary for their development is hinged on the empathy and close proximity with the children in order to fully understand their needs, this will also allow me to reduce myself to their levels hence share their challenges and pain and in particular, those who…
IFSO, (2014). Services Coordinator. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://www.ifspweb.org/coordination.html
National Network for Child Care, (2014). Caring for Children with Special needs: The Americans with Disabilities Act. Retrieved October 23, 2014 from http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/nc07.pdf
Jamal a 22-month- toddler home childcare center. He center 2 weeks concerns development. His mother reports pregnancy birth -eventful developed typically. Jamal's mother stayed home 2 weeks ago a full-time clerical job.
To fully assess the challenges Jamal may or may not be facing, he should first be assessed by his pediatrician, to determine if he is developing normally. It is possible that he might be socially inhibited within the context of the day care center, and, as a day care professional it is essential not to worry the mother needlessly by giving her a diagnosis the professional is not equipped to give. Jamal has, after all, only been observed for two weeks by this particular employee. If the pediatrician does not believe that Jamal is progressing as he should, he may refer Jamaal to a developmental psychologist who could further assess Jamal using a standardized instrument such as…
Infant-toddler development, screening and assessment. (2013). Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Retrieved: http://www.zerotothree.org/public-policy/state-community-policy/nitcci/multidisciplinary-consultant-module-2.pdf
Operating costs and future sales may be difficult to predict because there is no history to rely on since the business is not established. The single biggest disadvantage of starting a new business is the unknown. There are many rules, regulations, statutes and taxes that the owner may not be aware of at the time the business is opened. A new business owner may have a product that is not very marketable, or not marketable in the area they picked. There are a lot of risks in establishing a new business, so it is important that thorough research is done before the business is opened.
Buying an Existing Business
There are many benefits to buying an existing business. Start-up time and costs would be less; you may be able to work out an agreement with the seller to purchase the existing equipment and stock. The existing employees may also come…
Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov
DHS - Department of Human Services, http://www.michigan.gov/dhs
Local Initiatives Support Corporation - Education, Children and Youth (2005). "Equipping and Furnishing Early Childhood Facilities." Community Investment Collaborative for Kids Resource Guide.
Michigan Health Department, http://www.mdch.state.mi.us/
Also like Levine, Neuman indicates that other nations have taken such great strides in advancing ECE efforts, in some cases while struggling with other serious issues facing developing countries; as a result, the United States should look to these nations for ways to improve its own educational system (Levine 2005; Neuman 2005).
Unlike Levine, Neuman draws her information from researching the "OECD of early childhood education and care in 20 advanced industrialized countries" (Neuman 2005). She also discusses three main challenges facing these nations in terms of ECE advancement that are particulary relevant to U.S. As well, and the strategies undertaken by these countries to cope with the challenges (Neuman 2005).
The first significant challenge involves coordination and governance of early child care and ECE. Countries have either adopted a divided or integrated approach to the issue, with the integrated approach seemingly better for coordination of effort, efficiency, better teachers…
Levine, M. 2005, 'Take a Giant Step: Investing in Preschool Education in Emerging Nations', Phi Delta Kappan, pp. 196-200.
Neuman, M. 2005, 'Global Early Care and Education: Challenges, Responses and Lessons', Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 188-192.
Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old
Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.
Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.
My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.
The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.
Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…
Alliance for Childhood. "Importance of play." 2 May, 2003 http://www.allianceforchildhood.net/projects/play/index.htm
Bergen, D. Pretend Play and Young Children's Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood, 2001. ERIC,ED458045.
Fisch, S.M., & Truglio, R.T. (2001). "G" is for growing: Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kagan, J. "Child." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar110700 .
Women are just as capable (and more capable in some areas) as men are, and they should be treated equally in the workplace. In addition, men should take on some of the household duties, and women should have more than simply part-time opportunities open to them. The Canadian economy is facing many threats from overseas, and to devalue women and the contribution they could make is shortchanging Canadian women, and keeping the Canadian economy in a 20th century mentality when it needs to move along, modernize, and look toward the future. Childcare must move into the 21st century, as well, and there should be enough childcare for all the families who need it, at a low cost, so women can truly afford to work outside the home.
Caplin, E. (2003, January/February). Canadian rights for women worldwide. Canadian Speeches, 16, 60+.
Dhruvarajan, V. And Vickers, J. (2002). Gender, race, and…
Caplin, E. (2003, January/February). Canadian rights for women worldwide. Canadian Speeches, 16, 60+.
Dhruvarajan, V. And Vickers, J. (2002). Gender, race, and nation: A global perspective.
Fenwick, T. (2004). 8 Gender and the new economy- Enterprise discourses in Canada: implications for workplace learning and education. In Globalizing Education for Work: Comparative Perspectives on Gender and the New Economy, Lakes, R.D. & Carter, P.A. (Eds.) (pp. 131-152). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kainer, J. (2003). Valuation, resistance and women's work: A review essay. Journal of Canadian Studies. 1-9.
Term: Winter, 2014
Age of Child: 6 years old
Date of Observation: February 3, 2014
Time of Observation: 9:00 to 10:00
Place of Observation: Child Care Center
Other People Present in the Observation Setting: 1 teacher, 1 assistants, 15 other children
Development: Appears mostly normal; has some problems with fine motor skills and challenging cognitive skills.
Permission: Permission was granted by the Director of the Child Care Center, the child's teacher and his parents
John was observed unobtrusively from some distance. The observer sat at a desk in the classroom while the teacher and assistant worked with children. The observer did not interact with the child and in fact remained out of the way of the children and teachers for the duration of the observation. The observation included classroom activities such as children writing their names, coloring, and building puzzles. The children then had snacks after which…
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2007). Lev Vygotsy. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from:
Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development
Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…
Duncan, Greg, W. Jean Yeung, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Judith Smith. 1998. "How Much Does Childhood Poverty Affect the Life Chances of Children?" American Sociological Review 63(3): 406 -- 23.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2010. "Childhood Poverty Persistence: Facts and Consequences." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2012. "Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequence." Washington, DC: Urban Institute
Vericker, Tracy, Jennifer Macomber, and Olivia Golden. 2010. "Infants of Depressed Mothers Living in Poverty: Opportunities to Identify and Serve." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's…
1) Ananova. 2002, UN Urges Government to Outlaw Smacking
2) Allen, N. 1992, Making Sense of the Children act 1989, Longman
3) BBC News. 2002. Dentists Asked to Diagnose Child Abuse, UK
4) -, Church Tackles Child Abuse, England
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.
Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, R.H., & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
The Watertown (MA) Family Network creates a community for mothers who may not have anyone to ask questions about their infants and toddlers. As the video's narrator stated, "There are no roadmaps to raising children." With the Network, which is free and provides resources such as a new mom support group, parents do not need to feel as if they are all alone with this rewarding, but challenging, job of raising a child.
Epstein (2009) suggests there are five types of family engagement: childrearing, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, and representing other families. A comprehensive family involvement plan can be developed by choosing several of these types.
In the church-based childcare center where I worked, as with the Watertown Network, staff helped parents who had questions about what they should do at home. This center was in a military community where many young mothers were away from their…
Grisham-Brown, J., Hallam, R., and Brookshire, R. (2006). Using authentic assessment to evidence children's progress toward early learning standards. Early Childhood Education Journal 34(1), pp. 45-51.
Kostelnik, M.J., Soderman, A.K., and Whiren, A.P. (2011). Developmentally appropriate curriculum: Best practices in early childhood education. Boston: Pearson.
Mueller, J. (2011). Authentic assessment toolbox. Retrieved from http://jfmueller.faculty
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
Being a parent isn't easy, offer a helping hand so parents can rest or spend time together. 3) Help yourself. When things pile up take time out so you don't get to the point of feeling overwhelmed or out of control. 4) Don't get frustrated if your baby cries. 5) Get involved, assist in community efforts to develop services to meet the needs of healthy children and families. 6) Promote programs at school to teach children, parents, and teacher's strategies to be safe. 7) Help develop parenting recourses at your local library. 8) Monitor your child's television and video viewing, watching violent behavior can harm children. 9) Volunteer at a local child abuse prevention program. 10) eport suspected abuse or neglect. Education, community involvement and cooperation are significant factors in the effort to prevent children from suffering maltreatment.
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). easonable suspicion of child…
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). Reasonable suspicion of child abuse: Finding a common language. Journal of law, medicine & ethics. Vol. 39, Issue 1, 62-69. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=cf7e5f19-4670-42ea-b115-83ef3ac5d27b%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=112
Patton, W.W. (2011). Child protective services -- Histirical overview. State University.com. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1828/Child-Protective-Services.html
Ten Ways to Help Prevent Child Abuse. (NDI). Prevent child abuse America. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.preventchildabuse.org/publications/parents/downloads/ten_ways_to_prevent.pdf
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Child maltreatment 2009. U.S. department of health and human services. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ programs/cb/pubs/cm09/cm09.pdf
Child abuse and neglect is a highly discussed issue in the present day. For a long time now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. There are significant implications from child abuse and neglect in the United States and it is imperative to come up with the necessary ways of dealing with it. The solution is to have a propagating state program that encompasses poor and underprivileged children. There is also need for family programs that educate and teach households on better child treatment and attaining the necessary skills. Such programs should also be expanded to schools to determine their vulnerabilities and needs.
Child abuse and neglect is a highly debated issue in the contemporary. For a lengthy period now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been experientially demonstrated to be linked to an assortment of…
Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after intervention. (2005, May 23). The Free Library. (2005). Retrieved February 03, 2017 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after...-a0133049592
A research study undertaken by McMaster University Medical Facility steered Professor Harriet Macmillan, Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences and Pediatrics showed that children that continue being in their homes subsequent to being abused or neglected by their parents, or are taken back to those homes subsequent to intervention by social service institutions are at a high risk for more abuse or neglect in a period of within three years. The conclusion made from examining 163 families with a long-established history of child abuse or neglect is that there is no intervention confirmed or established to decrease the rise of abuse or neglect when the children who have experienced such harsh conditions remain in the home.
The magazine article is pertinent to my paper as it indicates the recurrence of child abuse and neglect.
Cost of child abuse and neglect takes large toll. (2001, May 10). Columbus Medical Association.
Children aised by Same-Sex Parents have more Problems than Children aised by Different-Sex or Single Parents
As more and more states legalize same-sex marriages, there is growing concerning among many proponents and critics alike about the effect that these civil unions will have on children. Although many children of same-sex unions are from previous heterosexual unions, adoption is also being used by growing numbers of same-sex partners and new reproductive technologies are providing lesbian couples with the ability to "father" their own children and surrogate mothers are available to gay couples if they have the financial resources. Given the increasing numbers of children who are being raised in same-sex parent households, these are legitimate issues that require further examination to determine if popular thought that children raised by same-sex parents have more problems than children raised by different sex or even single parents. To this end, this paper provides a…
Allen, D.W. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(3), 949-951.
Crowl, A., Ahn, S. & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.
Somerville, M. (2007). Children's human rights and unlinking child-parent biological bonds with adoption, same-sex marriage and new reproductive technologies. Journal of Family
Studies, 13(2), 179-180.
She found that this was true, even when a plan was developed for the division of labor so that it was distributed more evenly between both partners. Gjerdingen's study used a time study analysis similar to that used by Craig. Gjerdingen discussed the possibility that cultural differences could have influenced the results. Cultural differences might have influenced Craig's study in a similar manner, but this factor was not mentioned as a potential limitation of the study either.
New Zealand study supports the potential for cultural bias regarding work related gender differences. Else (1997) addressed the same division of labor issue in New Zealand. They found that the gendered division of labor was prevalent in New Zealand society, with the women's work outside of the home having less importance than the men's as far as "breadwinning" is concerned. Else's study found that men's transfer of "household" wages is still considered payment…
Craig, L. 2006. Children and the revolution: A time-diary analysis of the impact of motherhood on daily workload. Journal of Sociology. 42, p.125.
Else, a. 1997. Having it Both Ways?. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand. 9, pp.16-26
Gjerdingen, D. 2000.
Expectant Parents' Anticipated Changes in Workload After the Birth of Their First Child. Journal of Family Practice. FindArticles.com. 27 Apr. 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0689/is_11_49/ai_68145585
The evidences presented in this regard explain how different studies and research support that obesity can have profound deteriorating psychological effects as well as health effects on children. The changing eating lifestyles leading to increased consumption of fast foods and sodas have contributed greatly in doing so however; children and parents cannot control obesity if it is genetically engineered. Genetics play a role in the bodily structure. If children are obese due to their genetic constitution, reduced consumption of food cannot help however, physical activities such as exercises have greatly shown results in maintaining their weight. Preventive measures can be taken on a broad level to reduce the spread of obesity among children. In this regard, schools can be helpful to plan a balanced diet for children. At lunch, sodas must be banned and replaced with fruit juices or clean water so that children get accustomed to drinking healthy beverages.…
Akhtar-Danesh, N. (2004). Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal, 4-24.
Bagchi, D. (2010). Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. London: Academic.
Butcher, P.M. (2006). Childhood Obesity. The future of Children, 3-18.
Cassell, D.K., & Gleaves, DH (2006). The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating Disorders. New York: Facts on File.
The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.
The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…
Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.
Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.
Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childabuse.html
Child Abuse Statistics. Available at http://www.childhelp.org/resources/learning-center/statistics.Internet
Of course, besides child sponsorship programs, many other programs must be developed in a poor region, programs that address more fundamental issues of poverty. Child sponsorship only does its part in supporting the development of a region, country, and of the international community. It is not the most fundamental form of aid for development, but it does its part, which can be quite significant at the level of a community. Through this method, more and more communities can benefit from the child sponsorship program, in the same time participating in other international aid programs. "Sponsorship is not the only way to help poor people, but it is one important way" (Endersby, 2006).
What made child sponsorship very debated in the past decades is the involvement of specific religious organizations into such programs. This can put some pressure on the child in a specific religious or lifestyle sense, but such practices…
Brehm, Vicky, and Gale, Julie, NGO funding and policy bulletin, Bulletin no.3, November 2000, available at http://danny.oz.au/politics/poverty/child-sponsorship.html ;
Child Sponsorship, Frequently Asked Questions, available at http://www.dontbuyicecream.com/9425.html;
Endersby, Alastair, Sponsoring a child, January 19, 2006, available at http://www.idebate.org/debatabase/topic_details.php?topicID=472;
Preslar, Andy, a Child-Centered Approach to Child Sponsorship, June 2003, available at http://www.ministrywatch.org/mw2.1/F_FullRpt.asp?EIN=362423707 ;
" (National Conference of State Legislatures Forum for State Health Policy Leadership, 2007). However, regardless of state, the applicants have to meet certain qualifications. First, applicants have to be both uninsured and not eligible for Medicaid for other forms of state sponsored insurance. In addition, not all S-CHIP recipients have to be children; states can get waivers to use S-CHIP funds to cover adults. These other recipients are generally adults who are responsible for S-CHIP eligible children, and/or pregnant women. However, "at the end of 2005, four states had waivers to use SCHIP to cover childless adults, and nine states cover unborn children who will be eligible for SCHIP at birth as well as prenatal and childbirth services for the mother of the child." (National Conference of State Legislatures Forum for State Health Policy Leadership, 2007). The fact that states have chosen to do this reaffirms the concept that the…
DeNavas-Walt, C., B. Proctor, and J. Smith. (2007). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2006. Washington: U.S. Census Bureau.
Dubay, L. (2007).
Making sense of recent estimates of eligible but uninsured children.
Retrieved January 28, 2008 from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…
Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.
Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm
American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.
Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
We are essentially powerless to prevent all dysfunctions - but, the mental health and social support structures within communities have the responsibility to do as much as they possibly can to promote healthy family life for all. This support often involves early identification of dysfunctional families, counseling, disruption of negative patterns. The schools, churches, hospitals and any other institution both public and private have a responsibility to reach out and try to help those who are suffering - and often that suffering must be alleviated at the source, the dysfunctional family.
Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant irthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).
Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).
Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk ehaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning…
Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant Birthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).
Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).
Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning Perspectivesq 33.5 (2001): 206(5).
Martin, Don and Maggie Martin. "Understanding Dysfunctional and Functional Family Behaviors for the at-Risk Adolescent." Adolescence 35.140 (2000): 785(4).
Care Partnerships Will Maximize ebecca's Independence?
Care partnerships can help ebecca in many ways, including increasing her independence. ebecca cannot be fully independent, but her independence can be maximized via the use of ancillary services. ebecca also needs psychological and social support services as she is feeling increasingly more pessimistic about her changing condition. Given that, the care partnership should include a support group, individual psychological counseling, as well as family counseling. A support group will help ebecca receive support from others in her situation and will reduce ebecca's social dependence on her family. This way, ebecca can enjoy her sister's company and that of her husband and young children without viewing them as her only source of social support. The group will also help ebecca receive advice related to her medication situation, and the breakdown of communication between her and her husband. egarding that, the psychological counseling will be…
Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).
The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).
Vaccination Efficacy not…
Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:
Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302
Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed
Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
Children are a wonderful source of entertainment. They truly are!
We learn from infancy how to interact socially with each other. When my children were just newborns, they could delight people for hours with their smiles and their giggles. Many parents, I have noticed, put mirrors in the cribs for the babies to make faces at and interact with.
Being twins, my girls would often stare at each other for hours, making faces and laughing at each other. We were very fortunate in that even though they were premature by a month, our girls were both normal weight and came home together within a week of birth. Therefore, they were able to share a crib, and later a bed, during their prime developmental stage. In her article, "The Development of Social Competence in Children," Sherri den states that infant will take part in "social exchanges" by a "reciprocal matching process."…
Oden, Sherri. "The Development of Social Competence in Children." http://ericae.net/edo/ED281610/htm.1987.
Child Care and Mother-Child Interaction in the First 3 Years of Life," NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, Developmental Psychology, Vol. 35, No. 6. APA, 2002
Fields, Roger. "Interaction: The Key to Children's Ministry." The Cold Water Cafe. 2001.
The prevailing child labor practices in the world not only jeopardize the childhood of the children but also adversely effects their cognitive, physical, mental, behavioral and social aspects of life. The child labor practices are followed due to the rate of increased poverty and cultural beliefs which enforces the children to contribute in the house hold income. The lawsuits against the child labor exist but are not applied to the fullest due to the poverty rate and lack of educational and institutional services for the under privileged children. Therefore, the awareness among the parents and adults should be increased about the hazards of child labor on the life of children and families should be provided with adequate support to refrain their dependency on the earnings of their children.
Causes of Child Labor
Child Labor Statistics
Law Suits against Child Labor
Steps to Eradicate Child Labor…
Grootaert, C., & Kanbur, R. (1995). Child labor: A review. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, (1454).
International Labor Organization (2012).Making progress against child labor. Available from:http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/-ed_norm/-ipec/documents/publication/wcms_221513.pdf
Moehling, C.M. (1999). State child labor laws and the decline of child labor. Explorations in Economic History, 36(1), 72-106.
Shonkoff, J.P., & Phillips, D.A. (2000).From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.
The author of this report is to describe and consider the different options that exist when it comes to childcare. Each one will be described and there will then be a recitation of the pros and cons of each approach. Indeed, multiple options exist but there are obviously tradeoffs with each one. The author will proceed as directed and will choose the best one, based on the totality of the options that exist and which one is best. While being a stay-at-home parent is not always possible or practical, it is probably the best overall option for childcare in many situations.
One option that exists when it comes to childcare is a daycare facility. The upsides to this option include that there are typically licensure and background checks for such facilities and there will be plenty of opportunities for socialization and exposure to other people, which is something…
Child and Elder Abuse
Many children and frail elderly people are at risk of being abused largely because their ability to defend themselves is impaired. In the recent past, the media has been awash with many cases of abuse and neglect involving children and the elderly. In this text, I conduct an online research in an attempt to identify and analyze two recent cases of child and elder abuse.
ecently, Alyssia Skinner - a resident of Hernando, was according to ojas (2013) "charged with child neglect, aggravated child abuse with great bodily harm, and torturing and caging a child." This severe case of child neglect and abuse was discovered after detectives visited her home and found a 17-month-old baby living in deplorable conditions. The said baby had been living in a small room which was largely disorganized and had no toys. Further, the room in question had several soiled…
Hollingsworth, H. (2013, February 12). David and Pamela Martin Charged With Child Abuse for Allegedly Handcuffing Teen to Pole. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from the Huffington Post website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/12/david-pamela-martin-child-abuse-handcuff-teen-pole_n_2670898.html
Rojas, J. (2013, February 15). Citrus County Woman Charged With Severely Abusing Toddler. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from Bay News website: http://www.baynews9.com/content/news/baynews9/news/article.html/content/news/articles/bn9/2013/2/15/citrus_county_woman_.html
Starr, R. & Wolfe, D.A. (Eds.). (1991). The Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect: Issues and Research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Both of the children were a bit older, so he was not constantly monitoring their every move. Instead, his attention shifted from watching the girl, who was playing with another set of children, and watching his son, who was also playing in a separate area with another group of children. Periodically however, he was texting on his phone. This texting interrupted his watching the children. The girl would go to him for a couple of minutes at a time, but then she would run off with her friends again. The son did not approach his father again once he was playing with the other kids. The father was however, sitting less than ten feet away from the areas where both of his children were playing.
The father in this case was careful in terms of periodically observing what his children were doing and where they were, but he could have…
Associated Press. (2009). Long-lost children rarely turn up. FoxNews. Retrieved 29 April 2013 from www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,528038,00.html
Gradually, there are lesser desired adoptive kids as society have come to accept single mother who parent their children compared to earlier. The disgrace of giving birth to a child outside marriage has lowered and hence, the bulk of single moms prefer to have their kids with them in place of "relinquishing them" for being adopted. Besides, thanks to advanced technology, "birth control" pills are instantly accessible to the fertile populace, and, as abortion has been legalized, a pregnancy which is unplanned could be stopped. A new dimension to the problem has emerged because of the decrease in the supply of desirable adoptable infants and the rising infertility among Americans. (Infant Adoption is Big Business in America)
It is anticipated that out of every six couples, one couple has problems in conceiving and total infertile couples may number 5.3 million. A lot of adopters who are presently desirous of adoption…
Adoption is big business: Rationalizations for Adoption. http://www.adoption-articles.com/adoption_business.htm
Adoption: The Child Commodities Market is Big Business. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/224728/adoption_the_child_commodities_market.html?page=2
Avery, Rosemary. J. Adoption Policy and Special Needs Children. Auburn. Westport: CT.
Cahn, Naomi R; Hollinger, Joan Heifetz. Families by Law: An Adoption Reader. New York
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
Comment by abina:
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
It is important for pastors and youth pastors to become familiarized with the child abuse laws in the state in which they serve. Many youth pastors encounter child abuse in their service to their church, and there are specific guidelines that should be followed for reporting child abuse. Failure to report child abuse can result in criminal prosecution for the youth pastor (Hammar, 2010). If a youth pastor gains information about a child being abused in their home environment, he/she must follow the proper protocols for reporting child abuse. The youth pastor should also inform the senior pastor about the abuse.
The senior pastor should ensure that the youth pastor contact the local child protective services and report the abuse. The senior pastor should also ensure the church has procedures for handling child abuse that…
Shelley, M. (1985). Well-Intentioned Dragons: Ministering to Problem People in the Church. Waco, TX: Word.
Unknown (1986). Restoring your Spiritual Passion. Nashville, TN:Oliver-Nelson.
Unknown (1992). Under the Predictable Plant: An Exploration in Vocational Holiness. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Child abuse is one of the most dangerous and serious problems confronting society, perhaps because of the helplessness and innocence of the victims. What is particularly bothersome about child abuse is that it occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic groups and in urban and rural communities. Likewise, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes child abuse, making it difficult to ascertain what prevention and treatment methods are most effective. For example, in Sweden, the law prohibits any physical punishment of children, including spanking. By contrast, in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, parents are expected to punish their children by hitting them.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to child abuse. Part II defines child abuse. In Part III, a history of child abuse is offered. Part IV evaluates why child abuse exists according to control theory and anomy theory. In…
Interviews with his parents reveal a disturbing trend. His parents do not seem to want to challenge Christopher in any meaningful way and instead enable his lack of progress. Perhaps out of fear for his tantrums, Christopher's mother makes excuses for her son's behavior. The experiment of homeschooling Christopher has therefore been unproductive because he is not challenged, and therefore is not learning as much as he could be. His social skills have also been hampered by his homeschooling environment, and by the attitudes of his parents. Christopher does not understand certain social conventions. For instance, he will pass gas while talking to people or make a wolf whistle at a female.
Christopher has no real friends his own age. He seems to prefer being around adults due to the extra compassion and attention they show him. Christopher throws temper tantrums when he feels anxious or put on the spot,…
"Asperger's Syndrome." WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/tc/aspergers-syndrome-symptoms
"Cleft Lip and Palate," (2011). Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002046/
In the second phase of the research, testing of the children in various areas related to their attitude towards outdoor play will take place. Appreciation and awareness of the natural world, signs of emerging independence or continuing dependence, and a variety of other variables associated by previous research with outdoor play will be examined. This will also provide some direct insight as to the factors that motivate outdoor play, allowing for further extrapolation. Specifically, plans and procedures for motivating increased outdoor play and more positive attitudes towards/greater appreciations of outdoor play will be recommended based on the findings of the two research phases. From this, the beginnings of a comprehensive view of early childhood attitudes towards outdoor play and the benefits of increasing positive attitudes towards outdoor play will hopefully be established.
The observations made in this research will not provide enough evidence to lead to any entirely conclusive…
Chan, L. & Louie, L. (2003). "The Use of Pedometry to Evaluate the Physical Activity Levels among Preschool Children in Hong Kong." Early childhood development & care 173(1), pp. 97-107.
Kernan, M. & Devine, D. (2010). "Being Confined within? Constructions of the Good Childhood and Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings in Ireland." Children & society 24(5), pp. 371-85.
Maday, G, (2005). "Indoor play systems." Scholastic early childhood today 19(6), pp. 33-4.
Valentine, G. & McKendrick, J. (1997). "Children's outdoor play: Exploring parental concerns about children's safety and the changing nature of childhood." Geoforum 28(2), pp. 219-35.
In addition, the human pronoun "her" is used to refer to the mother penguin, while "it" would have been a more appropriate choice if the author wanted to reinforce the penguins' animal aspects (BBC 3, 8). hile the author does use the term "chick" throughout the book, mixing it with the human-like terms further allow the child reader to grasp the non-fiction elements of the book while still remaining interested and emotionally involved in the story. Evoking sadness in the reader, a photograph shows the mother walking away from her baby. Through the use of these words and illustrations, the fact that the penguins are animals living in a natural home is emphasized, while children are still engaged through the mild human-like qualities that are ascribed to the animals (BBC 3-4).
Thus, a comparison of the personification used in The Cat and the Hat and in Baby Penguins yields great…
BBC. Baby Penguins. New York, Scholastic, 2009.
Dr. Seuss. The Cat in the Hat. New York: Random House, 1957.
ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.
The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…
Carter, Janet. (2000). Domestic violence, child abuse, and youth violence: strategies for prevention and early intervention. San Francisco: Family Violence Prevention Fund.
CUPA: Canadian Union of Public Employees. (1997). What we owe to families: a brief on child welfare in Manitoba. Winnipeg: Canadian Union of Public Employees.
CWLA: Child Welfare League of America. (1997). Child abuse and neglect: a look at the States. Washington, D.C: Child Welfare League of America.
Drucker, Philip. M. (October, 1997). "The consequences of Poverty and Child Maltreatment on IQ Scores." The Vincentian Chair of Social Justice Papers. Vincentian Center Faculty Colloquium Presentation, New York.
Secondly, the kid should be assisted in augmenting their reasoning and by making them know deaths with realistic information. Thirdly, the kid should attain consent to allow him/her do away with old lifestyle and come up with new lifestyle. An example of a long-term effect includes troubles with the internalization of conscience.
Loss at Teenage Years
At this age, for the teenager to finish the duties of psychological loss the adolescent requires to resist parent figures that nevertheless are constantly available. Parent loss will interrupt these duties. Secondly, control matters will continually affect the teenager's behaviors, more so if he/she feels a great part of the resolutions about his life are out of his/her control.
In order to reduce the short-term effects, teenagers are required to feel that they do have rising control over their very own lives. Also, adults should offer them many chances as much as possible in…
1. Bonanno G., Neria Y., Mancini a., Coifman K., Litz B. & Insel B (2007)Is there more to complicated grief than depression and posttraumatic stress disorder? A test of incremental validity. Psychological Medical Journal.116, pp. 342 -- 351
2. Brent, D., Melhem N., Donohoe MB & Walker M. (2009). The Incidence and Cause of Depression in Bereaved Youth 21 Months after the loss of a Parent to Suicide,
Accident, or Sudden Natural Death, Psychological Medical Journal.166, pp.786 -- 794.
3. Hensley P., Slonimski C., Uhlenhuth E. & Clayton P. (2009)Escitalopram: an open-label
Children's Literature - Hardy Boys and Encyclopedia Brown
The Shore oad Mystery
On page 12 of The Shore oad Mystery there is moment of potential stress between brothers Joe and Frank, and their Aunt Gertude, over the boys' bad move of tracking in dirt on mother's freshly vacuumed carpet. In any family, boys (and fathers) especially are prone to forget to take their shoes off (in the winter it's snow and ice; in the spring, summer and fall, it's dirt, mud, and leaves). "Frank and Joe! Look at yourselves!" their aunt barked out. And when Joe compliments his aunt of the aroma of food cooking, she urges him not to "change the subject" (a ploy boys are quite adept at), but soon she sees Joe's skinned arm and bruised forehead and notices Frank's limp (the result of the accident), and her tone changes.
The brothers loved their aunt and knew…
Dixon, Franklin W. The Shore Road Mystery. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.
Sobol, Donald J. Encyclopedia Brown and the Case of the Sleeping Dog. New York:
Delacorte Press, 1998.
Children and the Media
Whether or not children should be allowed to watch television or movies is one that elicits great controversy among parents, educators, and child development experts. Some have no problem with exposing children to media, others have distinct criteria to fulfill before allowing children to watch any form of media, and still others strongly advise against exposing children to media at all. The real issue is about the nature and quality of the messages and images that children consume as they watch or listen to media.
I believe there are distinct advantages for children and the potential for positive impact with many shows that are available for children today. Generally, the commercials that are viewed by children during age-appropriate viewing are not harmful in any way, though caregivers will want to be certain that the messages being conveyed match up with their overall philosophy. I also believe…
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…
Fraser, C.; Burchell, B. & Hay, D. (2001). Introducing social psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Heffner. (2003). "Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html
Pelzer, D. (1995). A Child Called it. Omaha: Omaha Press.
Springhouse. (1990). "Piaget's Cognitive Stages.' http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm
It took them a while to get used to it but eventually, they were able to communicate with softer words and softer tone.
According to systems theory (Titelman, 1998), it was my duty to work on both Dave and his family so that their communication problem is uprooted from its origins. When his parents began to realize the impact of their meaningless arguments on Dave, they set quite a few rules for themselves. These rules included no harsh words or arguments in front of Dave and increased participation in his social & academic life. They realized the importance of their emotional support and gravity of the condition of Dave.
It was important to make Dave feel that he was needed and appreciated for being wonderful just the way he was. His parents also felt the need for a stable atmosphere at home where Dave could share his thoughts, fears and…
Bailey K.D. (1994) Sociology and the new systems theory: toward a theoretical synthesis. USA. Sunny Press.
Beck A.T. (1979) Cognitive Therapy Of Depression. NEWYORK .USA. Guilford press
Clark. D.A., Beck A.T. & Alford B.A. (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. USA. John Wiley and Sons.
Einstein D. (2007) Innovations and Advances in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Australia. Australian Academic Press
The Cook County CDED was formed in 1985 and is a private, non-profit organization supported by foundation and grants, as well as several individual donations annually.
To end disability-related discrimination and injustice through education and increased legal services for individuals and families with disabilities. This is accomplished through legal support and the support of local community families.
To fight for and increase the rights of children with disabilities by changing discriminatory practices, policies and laws.
To educate children, families and education professionals.
To provide assistance to families with disabilities in need.
To offer educational and extracurricular activities for children with disabilities as well as family members.
To increase awareness overall.
The CDED does not believe any individual or family should be denied the right to fair housing or education because of a disability. The CDED Community Center offers a place of solace for children with disabilities and families…
About Us. (n.d.). Children's Defense Fund (CDF): Health Care Coverage for All of America's Children, Ending Child Poverty, Child Advocacy Programs. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.childrensdefense.org/about-us/
Epilepsy Fdn.-Mission Statement. (n.d.). Epilepsy Foundation-Epilepsy Foundation-trusted, reliable information for people with seizures, and their caregivers. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsylegal/
Mission Statement. (n.d.). because a goblin is a terrible thing to waste.. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.goblindefensefund.org/mission.html
Children Should Be equired to ead More
Almost all the parents want their child to be intelligent. Every parent yearns for their child to be well-groomed, brilliant and smart. This is why parents spend a lot of their time in trying to search for the best schools for their children and expect the teachers to be exceptionally outstanding. However, they forget the fact that their own attitudes and habits have a great effect on the personality of a child. Thus, the parents must realize that by making books an essential part of their children's lives, they can heighten the wisdom and learning potential of their child more than a school teacher can help to increase ("Early Moments sharing the gift of reading").
It is not by an accident, brainwave, infection or encouragement that children learn to read. They learn to read when they are taught to do so. eading cannot…
Copperman, Paul. Taking Books to Heart: How to Develop a Love of Reading in Your Child. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1986. 223-226. Web. 4 Nov 2011.
Child Abuse and Neglect
TEATMENT OF PHYSICALLY ABUSIVE FAMILIES
Cognitive behavioral therapy is typically the recommended course of therapy for physically abusive families. Children who reside in such families often experience PTSD as a result of their experiences, and CBT focuses on "re-exposure interventions, education about violence and cognitive restructuring, processing of emotional cues, social problem-solving skills, and parenting interventions" (Vickerman & Margolin 2007). In groups or individually, children are encouraged to re-visit traumatic experiences, talk about them, and to find alternative coping mechanisms to deal with negative emotions. Depending on the nature of the family relationship, family members may also be involved and subjected to individual or family counseling, to enable them to find alternative ways to deal with anger, other than lashing out at other family members.
CBT involves the restructuring of responses, and encouraging those who are aided to think: "I am not responsible for my parents'…
Gaudin, J.M. (1993). Child Neglect: A guide to intervention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved:
Relapse prevention model. (2012). Therapy corner. Retrieved:
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…
Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.
Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.
As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.
Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:
Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…
Besharov, Douglas J. Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse: Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect. Washington, D.C. University of Maryland's Welfare Reform Academy, 2000.
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974. 23 November 2006. http://laws.adoption.com/statutes/child-abuse-prevention-and-treatment-act - capta-of-1974.html.
Dershowitz, Alan. M. Contrary to Popular Opinion. New York: Pharos Books, 1992.
Murray, Bridget. Cultural insensitivity leads to unfair penalties. Monitor 30.9, October
Children with AIDS
The Centers for Disease Control estimate there were 217 children with HIV below the age of 13, in 2010 in the 46 states. The report indicates that seventy-five percent of these were infected prenatal. By the end of 2009, approximately 10,834 people diagnosed with HIV at the age of 13 and below, were living with confidential, long-term name-based HIV reporting. Of the prenatal infections, 63% were from the African/Black community, 22% were Latino/Hispanics, and 13% were whites. The CDC estimates that the number of new children infected will increase by 30%. This is because the number of women giving birth in the U.S., with HIV increase at a rate of 30% in 2006. New York has the highest number of children with AIDS in any area of the U.S., as half of the children diagnosed with HIV / AIDS in the country reside in the…
Holmes, A.M., Ackerman, R.D., Zillich, A.J., Katz, B.P., Downs, S.M., & Inui, T.S. (2008). The Net Fiscal Impact of a Chronic Disease Management Program: Indiana Medicaid. Health Affairs, 27(3), 855-864.
Peters, V.B., M.D., Liu, K., Robinson, L., Dominguez, Kenneth L, M.D., M.P.H., Abrams, E.J., M.D., Gill, B.S., PhD., & Thomas, P.A., M.D. (2008). Trends in perinatal HIV prevention in New York City, 1994-2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1857-64.
Schackman, B.R., Gebo, K.A., Walensky, R.P., Losina, E., Muccio, T., Sax, P.E., Weinstein, M.C., Seage, G.R. III, Moore, R.D., & Freedberg, K.A. (2006). The lifetime cost of current human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States. Medical Care, 44(11), 990-997.
In relationship of his reading comprehension -- Manuel knows how to read at grade level. He really does get the plain indication and can figure out the connotation of a lot of words in the course of context clues. He can effortlessly recapitulate what he has just read and grabbed some of the main ideas as well as extrapolations. His writing needs a lot of work. A lot of the time he leaves out things like prepositions and over uses the imperative regarding creating the words so that they could be plural. For instance -- take the word "children." Manuel will normally just adds an "s" on it so that it can be plural. During other times he does not make certain terms plural. Homonyms are a big issue for Manuel. His language appears to emphasis needs to be on structuring a basis of appropriate sentence structure and sentence syntax.…
Belland, B.G. (2008). A scaffolding framework to support the construction of evidence-based arguments among middle school students. Education Tech Research Dev., 21(9), 79-89.
Bodrova, E. & . (1998). Scaffolding emergent writing in the zone of proximal development. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 21(8), 1-18.
Clay, M.M. (2005, June 6). Literacy lessons designed for individuals: Teaching procedures. NH: Heinemann. Atlanta, Georgia.
Rodgers, E.M. (2004). Interactions that scaffold reading performance. Journal of Literacy Research, 12(7), 23-67.
"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." This adage takes on various meanings according to context -- in the early twenty-first century, it will most likely be used to imply too much seriousness about schoolwork. But in the consideration of children's literature in the nineteenth century, we face the prospect of a society where child labor was actually a fact of life. e are familiar with the stereotypes that still linger on in the collective imagination, of young boys forced to work as chimney-sweeps or girls forced to labor in textile factories. But the simple fact is that between the present day and the emergence of children's literature as a category of its own, largely during the nineteenth century, there has been a widespread reform in labor practices and social mores which has altered the meaning of what "work" might mean for young Jack, or…
Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. Edited with an introduction by Elaine Showalter. New York: Penguin Books, 1989. Print.
Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Edited with an introduction by John Seelye. New York: Penguin Books, 1986. Print.
This view drastically alters the understanding of the situation of the Ugandan abductees, as represented in the documentary Invisible Children. While there are definitely issues of justice at work in the scenario, there is also a fundamental failure within the communities to protect their children from the rebels, and a failure in the relationship with these rebels to help everyone work towards each other's mutual benefice. Though the rebel army is ostensibly attempting to overthrow the Ugandan government, it appears as though many if not most of the rebels' acts of violence are directed towards the poor and underdeveloped populations form which the rebels themselves came, many of them as abducted children themselves -- the majority of them still children, in fact, as few of them live into adulthood and new kidnapped conscripts regularly replenish the troops. An understanding of the true ills at work in the society that produce…
Care work or social work akin with any other human endeavor has a host of different perspectives that are used either in unison or in combination to direct it.
Its dominant perspectives are the following:
This is the view that all systems interact and that when, for instance, one works with a patient one needs to involve the family and community too and take all of the patient "s life into consideration for each impacts the other. The whole works as a holistic whole and, for instance, the child's school can effect the child as much as the child can the teacher and so forth. ystems have interrelated parts, and tend towards equilibrium.
Care workers use this system in a practical way by forging networks between the different ecosystems (for instance between child's school, community, and family) and by drawing ecomaps and genograms for understanding the dynamics of…
OVERVIEW OF THEORIES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR & THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT