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Most courts filter their decisions through very basic factors or criteria (Rajeer, 2011). The parent's mental and physical capacity to raise the child is one. Who the primary caregiver is between the parents is another. Who decides on his social interaction activities, handles an emergency, has better finances, and helps the child accomplish daily tasks are other criteria. A child, especially a young one, is exposed to trauma during the divorce process. Sometimes, the court assigns a psychologist to establish some routine and order for the child to cope. If the child is mature or old enough, the court considers his or her opinion. The father must thoroughly understand the physical and legal custody and their difference. If he gets sole custody, he should be aware that missing child support will not divest him of custody rights. ut any form of misconduct against the child or the mother can be…… [Read More]
The author notes that little research is accorded to children's diminished psychosocial behavior following divorce. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (n=10,061), he examines the associations between divorce and children's outcome and suggests that divorce is associated with diminished psychosocial well-being in children thereby explaining the connection between divorce and lower academic achievement.
The study is useful for my research since it mentions psychosocial factors. Nonetheless, I find author's conclusions shaky for at least three reasons: firstly, author limited his study to children of kindergarten age therefore conclusions cannot be generalized to children of all ages; secondly, many more variables must taken into consideration regarding resulting low academic achievement; thirdly, children's academic level prior to divorce must be considered too.
. Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
I found this article helpful for my…… [Read More]
Being a parent isn't easy, offer a helping hand so parents can rest or spend time together. 3) Help yourself. When things pile up take time out so you don't get to the point of feeling overwhelmed or out of control. 4) Don't get frustrated if your baby cries. 5) Get involved, assist in community efforts to develop services to meet the needs of healthy children and families. 6) Promote programs at school to teach children, parents, and teacher's strategies to be safe. 7) Help develop parenting recourses at your local library. 8) Monitor your child's television and video viewing, watching violent behavior can harm children. 9) Volunteer at a local child abuse prevention program. 10) eport suspected abuse or neglect. Education, community involvement and cooperation are significant factors in the effort to prevent children from suffering maltreatment.
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). easonable suspicion of child…… [Read More]
Children and the Media
Whether or not children should be allowed to watch television or movies is one that elicits great controversy among parents, educators, and child development experts. Some have no problem with exposing children to media, others have distinct criteria to fulfill before allowing children to watch any form of media, and still others strongly advise against exposing children to media at all. The real issue is about the nature and quality of the messages and images that children consume as they watch or listen to media.
I believe there are distinct advantages for children and the potential for positive impact with many shows that are available for children today. Generally, the commercials that are viewed by children during age-appropriate viewing are not harmful in any way, though caregivers will want to be certain that the messages being conveyed match up with their overall philosophy. I also believe…… [Read More]
In the end, the epidemic of out of wedlock children by professional athletes is a serious concern. These athletes, whether they like it or not, are role models to the youth of today, and as such, they need to be especially concerned with the moral implications of their actions. By using Kantian morality, one easily begins to see that at no point is having an out of wedlock child a moral decision. From conception, when the mother-to-be is used as a means for the ends of sexual gratification, to the lack of consideration for the effects the stress of paternity suits will have on the team in general, to the complete disregard for the child who had no voice in the decision at all and relied on the two parents to make the best decision possible, each step was fraught with immorality.
Chan, S. "The Confucian Notion of…… [Read More]
Parental Custody Case
Memorandum for Mother
The issue at hand regards the legal custody of minor child Chastity Bright and whether her mother or father should be her legal custodian.
In the state of Arizona, custody is based on several factors. The wishes of the parents, wishes of the child, child interaction with parents, health of all participants, child's adjustment, parent primarily responsible for care, which parent will allow contact, any duress or coercion attempted, and whether false allegations were raised are to be considered subsequently.
Statement of the Facts
Based on the testimony of the mother, father and minor child, the facts of the case are these. Both the mother and the father want to have primary custody of the child, and the mother has had that custody prior to this trial. The mother has retained promise of a job in another state,…… [Read More]
Standards to esolve Custody Disputes
As society evolves, so do the laws and rules that govern it. Laws and the rules that go along with them are in a constant state of evolution because they may or may not be as pertinent in the present as they were in the past or the views and norms of society may have changed such that they have been made moot. This fact is true for all laws, but takes on a special significance with regard to family law. The modern family is not necessarily a husband, wife, two children, and a dog. It may be comprised of any number of different human components. Unfortunately, it sometimes becomes necessary for families to discontinue their social unit and a divorce becomes necessary. Under these circumstances, it becomes necessary to determine who will care for the children which resided within the family unit after the…… [Read More]
Finally, Boothroyd (2010) suggests that because the authors of PCI do not provide guidance on how parents are defined, the assessment may not be appropriate for families with a parenting structure other than two biological parents. It seems that while the PCI is considered a valid and reliable assessment for some populations, further study should be conducted with a more diverse norming sample.
Coffman, J.K., Guerin, D.W., & Gottfried, A.W. (2006). eliability and validity of the parent-child relationship inventory (PCI): Evidence from a longitudinal cross-informant investigation. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 209-214. doi:10.1037/1040-35126.96.36.199
Gerard, A.B.Parent-child relationship inventory Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025-1251; ephone [HIDDEN]; FAX [HIDDEN]; Web: www.wpspublish.com. etrieved from http://ezproxy.library.capella.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mmt&AN=TIP07001840&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Heinze, M.C., & Grisso, T. (1996). eview of instruments assessing parenting competencies used in child custody evaluations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 14(3), 293-313. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0798(199622)14:33.0.CO;2-0
Schroeder, V., & Kelley, M. (2009). Associations between family environment,…… [Read More]
The job pays $35,000 per year, which is considerably less John Bright's salary of $125,000 per year.
Chastity Bright has stated that she wants to remain in her current city and live with her father because she does not wish to be separated from her friends at school. She does not want to go to a new school and make new friends.
II. SALLY BIGHT IS UPOOTING CHASTITY BIGHT FOM a STABLE ENVIONMENT WHEE SHE FEELS COMFOTABLE. FUTHEMOE, SHE WILL NOT MAKE ENOUGH MONEY in HE NEW POSITION to POPELY SUPPOT THEI DAUGHTE.
John Bright does not question Sally Bright's parenting skills. What he questions is whether or not she is doing serious emotional damage to their daughter, Chastity by uprooting her from surroundings she has become familiar with. He also worries that Sally will not be able to fully provide for their teenage daughter given the salary of $35,000…… [Read More]
Not all nursery rhymes, folktales, and fables depict 'sweet' stories. The horrific images of women held in captivity in pumpkin shells and starving dogs demonstrate examples of atrocities portrayed in the early stories. Over the years, Mary Goose stories have undergone 'sanitization'. Earlier versions of the stories portrayed a myriad of atrocities. Earlier versions of the rhymes depict gruesomeness of the violence. Domestic violence occurs as a core theme in the old Mary Goose nursery. Wives and daughters suffered the brunt of abuse that included beatings and murder. Early Victorians believed that the rhymes would encourage their daughters to grow and become dutiful and obedient wives.
Nature of domestic violence
The stories present a multifaceted and complex approach to the issue of domestic violence. For example, the story of an old woman who lived in a shoe presents depicts a bizarre meaning of the text that talks about…… [Read More]
The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.
The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…… [Read More]
At the same time, they must demonstrate to the court that they will not be able to abuse their children in the future. If a parent can do this, they will be given custody of their children on a trial basis. Those who engage in this kind of behavior in the future will lose all parental rights and they are going to spend the next several years inside a state correctional facility. These elements are important, because they are showing how this approach will not allow child abuse to occur. Once this takes place, is when parents will think twice about harming their kids.
Clearly, more effective programs must be introduced that will reduce the total number of child abuse cases. This is because the status quo is addressing certain aspects of the problem. While ignoring other areas, that must be dealt with as this can lead to an increase…… [Read More]
youth transition out of foster care as they "age-out" of the system. This can prove to be a very challenging and difficult phase for young people as they are expected to take on adult responsibilities and make their own way in the world. Whether youth successfully transition from foster care to independent living is multifaceted, and requires detailed investigation in order to illuminate how the foster care system can facilitate change throughout the "aging-out" process.
Keller et al. (2007) utilized person-oriented research methods in order to investigate how well adolescents transition from life as part of the child welfare system to independent living as adults. This research method was chosen for the study in order to appropriate capture and understand the various and diverse ways these youth may be prepared for the transition among a sample that is large and representative of the population of youth aging-out from foster care.…… [Read More]
Nine-year-old Afro-Caribbean, Lennox, was referred by professionals and his teacher to the therapist. Those who suggested counseling were worried about the boy's conduct and behavior when at school. As Lennox's previous therapist resigned his job during the summer school-term, the boy was referred once again; by this time, he had reached the age of ten. Lennox was offered twelve months of one-on-one therapy. The problems cited in the original referral for counseling included lack of concentration in studies, attention-seeking behavior at school, persistent unpunctuality to class, and the boy's washed-out look. Another referral by an educator in the year 2009 cited the boy's weak concentration in class, poor social skills apparent in groups, defensive stance, need to remain "in control," lack of self-esteem, and failure to accept responsibility for his conduct. According to both referring educators' behavior rating, they were highly concerned about the boy. When he reached the age…… [Read More]
Family Law Midterm
Instructions: Please respond to each question in essay format. Each question highlights the week in which the subject matter was covered but please do not forget to include the subject matters (and themes) covered in week 2. Also, please include "practice points" wherever practical. Please read each question first before starting to answer. For each question, you should assume that you have told your client that he/she should consult a lawyer but you are giving advice learned from this class.
Each question is worth 25 pts.
We learned about the laws of child support in New York State. You have a client who is 21 years old who has been dating a woman who is also 21 years old. Your client tells you that his girlfriend is pregnant. The couple is not married and do not live together. Your client has mixed emotions…… [Read More]
Among the factors which this article elucidates are necessary to be considered, Hetherington et al. indicate that "the long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se." (Hetherington et al., 303)
From a clinical treatment perspective, the article by Konstam (2009) is particularly useful. This presents the view that for those verging on adulthood who experience the divorce of parents, there is a more sophisticated and thus more complex sense of loss which is difficult to interpret. This is experienced differently than the dissolution of a marriage for young children who may lack the wherewithal to have observed clear warning signs. Here, Konstam suggests that clinical assistance can be a valuable resource for contending with issues…… [Read More]
However, from 2008 the number began to decrease slightly. The rate of increase in the number of children aging out of the United States foster care system from 1998 to 2007 is 71.7%. Whereas the rate declined by 0.71% in the year 2008. In the year 2009, there was again a decline of 0.33%. In the year 2010, the number of children aging out of foster care system declined by 5.4%. It can be concluded from the above figure that there was a significant increase in the number of children aging out of foster care system from the year 1998 to 2007. Whereas, this number started declining from the year 2008 and it is still following a declining trend. (McCoy-oth, DeVoogh & Fletcher, 2011)
Challenges Faced by the youth aging out of Foster Care System
Children who age out of the foster care system generally face many problems in relation…… [Read More]
children actually came to be respected on account of the important role they play in the social order. Society previously believed that parents should be provided with the power to decide what they wanted to do with their children and the Bible actually emphasizes that Abraham was unhesitant about sacrificing his son, thus showing that the child was little more than a tool in his hands. As society progressed children continued to be treated with discrimination and those whose parents were unable to care for them resorted to becoming outcasts constantly in need of basic resources.
Society actually promoted attitudes that directly harmed children and saw the opportunity to exploit their vulnerability. Throughout time children were used as labor and were sexually abused by unscrupulous individuals. hile attitudes change during recent centuries, it was not until an 1838 Pennsylvania court removed children from the custody of their parents that the…… [Read More]
hen their state of denial lifts, they are often wracked with remorse for what they've done.
The final circumstance that Resnick lists is uncommon but not unheard of among mothers who kill their children: spousal revenge. Though this is rare among women, one recent case that highlights it is the case of an Ontario mother, Elaine Campione, who drowned her two daughters in the bathtub, allegedly to keep her ex-husband from getting custody and to inflict intense suffering upon him. She even made a video only minutes after the murders, asking her ex-husband if he was "happy now" (CTV News 2010).
ith all of these circumstances potentially leading parents, especially mothers, to murder their children, legal prosecution and defense of these cases can be difficult -- at times, heart-wrenching. In the cases of mothers who have killed their children, the great majority of the defenses center around pleas of insanity.…… [Read More]
Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse
ights: Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse
More than three million reports of child abuse and neglect will be filed in the United States this year (Children's ights 2012). In many states, reporting suspected or alleged child abuse is mandatory in which certain steps must be followed to ensure the immediate safety of the child and the confidentiality and privacy of the accused family. Sadly, at least four children die from abuse or neglect every day -- many in homes that are already known to child welfare agencies, and some in foster care placements made by the child welfare agencies themselves. Moreover, children and their families still have rights that must be honored during an investigation (Big Brothers 2009).
Parent's ights When Investigated
Whenever the department completes an investigation of a child abuse or neglect report, the department must notify the alleged perpetrator(s) of the report…… [Read More]
deduce the effects of parenting on the process of coping for a child, as parents take divorces or get separated. The data sample includes children aged between 9 to 12 years. These effects are being reviewed by studying the changes induced by intervention in a mother-child relationship quality and discipline (Ve'lez, Wolchik, Tein, & Sandler, 2011).
The article explains that children are more prone to the risk of getting mental health problems if they suffer from psychosocial stressors. In the presence of these stressors, such mental health problems can be avoided if the coping efforts are more active and engaging. Coping efficacy or the belief in one's self of being able to positively negotiate with the effects of emotional traumas and situations also plays a positive part in keeping at bay the development of mental health problems. It is mentioned that several factors can aid in developing an effective coping…… [Read More]
Spousal and Child Abuse
Child and spousal abuse is an intentional act that results in physical and/or emotional or psychological injury on a child or spouse (or partner) by a parent or a mate, respectively (Gelles 2004). In a child, abuse more often takes the form of neglect. Child and spousal abuse and violence are major social concerns today.
The extent that children are abused by their parents or adult caretakers is difficult to measure, although it appears to occur most frequently among lower-income communities and certain ethnic and religious minorities. Abuse of children ranges from physical and emotional abuse and sexual abuse to physical and emotional neglect (Gelles). Effects of physical abuse are varied and visible: unexplained bruises, fractures and burn marks. Emotional abuse destroys the child's sense of security and self-esteem. Sexual abuse includes all acts that expose them to the sexual satisfaction of the parent or adult…… [Read More]
Indian Welfare Act
There are few things in life as traumatic as losing a child. Unfortunately, this is a phenomenon that plagues humanity on a daily basis. Children are lost in many ways. Some die, some are kidnapped. Others are lost through adoption. For some mothers, adoption is an informed decision made on the basis of what the individual believes is right for her child. However, there is also a phenomenon of adoption that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s, in which mothers were more or less coerced in giving up their children for adoption. In many cases, this coercion also occurred without informed consent, where mothers were asked to sign documents without receiving full disclosure regarding the nature of such documents. This occurred disproportionately among Indian children, many of whom were forcibly removed from their parents during the 1960s and 1970s. This resulted in the Indian Child Welfare Act,…… [Read More]
family is separated, a father and mother divorced, and the child left on its own. Who is to take custody of the child? The word custody stolidly describes the upbringing of the child. esearch has shown that most of the children who become delinquents in their pre-teen and teen age are single parented. This paper takes a look at the current research investigating young non-custodial fathers following separation and divorce.
Many researchers, by using a focus group methodology, have found and disputed young fathers' issues related to their children, their ex-partners and the judicial system. The results imply that non-custodial fathers are perplexing to engage, yet in need of attention and assistance.
Single fathers "can 'mother' as well as women" (DeMaris & Greif, 1992, p. 55). By an empirical research Lamb, 1999; Lazar & Guttman, 1998; Thomas & Forehand, 1993 have ascertained that men can be the custodians of a…… [Read More]
Foster Children/Foster Care
Issues of a Foster Child
Families and Children Served through Foster Care
The Policy Framework
This thesis reviews foster care in the United States: the reasons why children fall into the category of children who need to be taken out of their families and placed in care, the numerous emotional and psychological responses of children in foster care, and the psychological and emotional care that is given to children that are placed in foster care. The numerous laws covering foster care institutions and the policies they implement regarding the treatment of children in their care are also discussed. An extensive list of references is also given at the end of the thesis.
Everyday more children are born into this world. Yet everyday there is a mother or a father who child is placed in a foster care facility, for many different reasons. Children are…… [Read More]
In reality, such a parent would have difficulty raising a child on his or her own and the finances that he or she previously invested in providing the child with entertaining activities need to be directed at buying more important resources for the child.
A parent who is no longer in charge of his or her child's life has practically no problems buying a great deal of things for his or her child and thus influences the child in feeling that he or she is not receiving enough attention from the parent holding custody. Children can also be affected by the fact that parents often believe that there is a competition between themselves and their peers concerning who receives the most appreciation from the child.
IV. Children's development
hereas people are well-aware that divorce can be harmful for a large number of children who see their parents getting separated, the…… [Read More]
However, as male children transition into late childhood and adolescence, they tend to withdraw from their mothers and confide much more in their fathers. In fatherless households, the male child often withdraws from the mother in much the same way, but without the option of shifting emotional connection to the father. As a result, fatherless male adolescents exhibit substantially higher rates of delinquency, alcoholism, illegal activity, and perform worse academically (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 226).
The Importance of Fatherhood for Female Children:
In female children, absentee fathers predispose them either to negative expectations or to unrealistic idealized expectations in their dating relationships with men that ultimately increase the likelihood of disappointment and by virtue of multiple mechanisms that undermine those relationships (annon & Southern, 22-3). Typically, females raised without their fathers select emotionally unavailable partners who will allow them to reenact the male abandonment they experienced as children. Alternately, they may…… [Read More]
On the whole, the Academy calls for the abolition of exemption laws and endorses initiatives to educate the public about the medical needs of children (Committee on ioethics)..
While AAP recognizes the importance of religion to people's lives, it also warns physicians and other health care professionals should put the health and welfare of children over religious considerations (Committee on ioethics 1997). It encourages pediatricians to respect parents' decision but not when their religious convictions interfere with medical care necessary to prevent harm, suffering or death. When this happens, pediatricians should seek the authorization of the court to override parental authority. If the threat to a child's life is imminent, the health care practitioner should intervene over parental objections. Securing court authorization should, however, be the last course of action. The health care practitioner should cooperate with the family in applying appropriate palliative care. Even when the securing of court…… [Read More]
Teens may be especially resentful of the way this disrupts their schedules and interferes with school, friendships, work, and other usual activities (Wallerstein, 2000). And further, especially in the case of a needy, now single parent, older children and teens in particular may now face a perceived necessity of their becoming the needy parent's new and often only source of emotional support (Wallerstein). At this same time, the older child or teen's own emotional needs begin to go (and often remain) largely or entirely unmet thereafter by one or both divorced parents (Fagan).
When this occurs, the permanently life-altering; long-term damaging psychological result is often that it effectively truncates childhood or adolescence prematurely and thereby causes older children or teens to feel that they must now act like adults themselves, thus suddenly forcing them to become more independent, self-confident, selfless and self-sufficient than they genuinely feel (Wallerstein). Older children and…… [Read More]
Therefore, extra attention should be given to keeping promises and basic daily routines.
inslow, Emily B.; olchik, Sharlene a.; Sander, Irwin. "Preventive Interventions for Children of Divorce." Psychiatric Times; 2/1/2004; Pp.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
Sirica, Jack. "The Children of Divorce." Newsday; 5/19/1994; Pp.
Pruett, Marsha Kline. "Only God Decides: Young Children's Perceptions of Divorce and the Legal System." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 12/1/1999; Pp.
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Effects of divorce on children." Talk of the Nation:
National Public Radio; 1/31/2002; Pp.
Neuman, Gary M. Helping Your Kids Cope ith Divorce the Sandcastles ay.
Random House Inc. 1999; pp.4, 6.
Lansky, Vicki. Vicki Lansky's Divorce Book for Parents: Helping Your Children
Cope ith Divorce and Its Aftermath. Book Peddlers.1996; Pp. 2.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
inslow, Emily B.; olchik, Sharlene…… [Read More]
divorce affects the personality of Latino children
Family normally indicates to a group of persons directly associated with kinship, wherein the adult members are liable for the care of their children. The kinship involves genetic ties or ties coming out of marriage. Marriage is considered to be a sexual union between two adults, socially recognized and approved. Marriage and therefore the family in western societies are related to monogamy. A major change has emerged in the common structure of family life during the post-war periods. A high proportion of women participated in the paid labor force, which has a direct impact on growth of divorce and considerable numbers of children are forced to reside either in single parent households or with stepfamilies. Cohabitation has progressively become normal in many of the industrial nations. Many other forms of social and sexual relationship are about to flourish in the future. Still marriage…… [Read More]
Each day, thousands of New Yorkers experience violence at the hands of someone they love. But only a fraction of victims know where to get help" (p. 3).
Moreover, many domestic violence victims are coerced by the perpetrators into not testifying against them. In this regard, Glaberson (2011) reports that, "The defendants in domestic violence cases are in constant contact with their victims, and they use various means and methods to try to have the case dropped. Many of them cannot seem to stop themselves from sweet-talking, confessing to, berating and threatening . . . The women they were charged with abusing" (p. 3). Because even abusive relationships can be strong, some women who have experienced domestic violence -- even many times -- may be reluctant to prosecute their spouses or partners. In some cases, domestic violence shelters encourage abused partners to seek formal divorces in order to facilitate the…… [Read More]
Gay Couples and Child Adoption
Adoption by couples of the same sex has recently been legalized in almost 14 countries, however it has been remained illegal in most of countries as debate spins on in several countries as to whether it should be legalized or not. The concern of the opposing side is whether gay couples are able to adequately provide parenthood.
According to a consensus which was arrived at by psychological, medical as well as social communities, children who have been raised by gay parents are also able to adjust well just like children who are raised by heterosexual parents. This conclusion has also been highly accepted within the developmental psychology field, (Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner, 2006). As derived from the available evidence in the field, the Florida's Third Court of Appeal in 2010 was satisfied that this issue was far beyond dispute that it will…… [Read More]
Cases of violent children have become rampant prompting a lot of research and studies directed towards unravelling the reason behind violence, some of which are extreme at such tender ages. The author gives an example of two children who launched a violent attack in their school killing a teacher and four little girls. The motive suggested for one of the child's behavior is that he was jilted by a girl. These two children were only thirteen and eleven years old. This is quite a young age for a child to exhibit such extreme violent behaviors, they were so young yet they killed with a finely honed sense of premeditation. If I was a child psychologist like the author I would definitely be inspired by this event trying to make sure I found out the exact cause of violent behaviors as such in children who are very young. The author…… [Read More]
Of course, the amount of transitions (the amount of divorce in the family) greatly increases the risk for children to settle in satisfying marriages and divorce themselves when young adults.
Protective factors reducing impact of divorce on children
The research question here is whether there are any factors that may be considered that are empirically proved to be able to mitigate the effect of divorce in children.
Within the last decade, researchers have identified various such factors each having a range of associated variables themselves.
1. Competent custodial parents and parenting: One of the best protective factors is the quality of parenting following divorce and the psychological adjustment of the custodial parents. Effective parental behavior such as warmth, nurturing, emotional support, authoritative discipline, and age appropriate behavior demonstrate the best means for providing emotional support for children as compared to parents who are withdrawn, inattentive and provide coercive discipline (Sandler…… [Read More]
Person: Single mom, who lost custody over her children, has sex with multiple male partners, asks for money afterwards, and denies that she is prostitute because she doesn't charge money up front. The mother is hypercritical and unloving and her father has been an absent figure in her life. Her stepfather abused her.
Cognitive self-regulation theory, fashioned by Bandura, believes that human behavior is motivated and regulated by the influence that one has over the self. This self-influence works through three key mechanisms: monitoring one's behavior, causes of one's behavior, and the effects of that behavior; judging one's behavior in contrast to personal standards; and regulating the feelings / moods (affect) of one's conduct / behavior. Higher goals lead to enhanced behavior and this results in a certain mindset. Self-regulation is continuous and never-ending. And is also effectuated by self-reinforcement that result in self-efficacy. It is intentional and…… [Read More]
Couples might do everything that they are required to do and follow all the rules. They will never work if one's personal standpoint with regards to marriage is defective. They need to work on solving their marital issue because they believe in and want to cherish its value. It will never produce the same effect if a couple is seeking out ways to make it seem valuable. A majority of therapists who work on the problems of others might have been divorced themselves and are in the business just for the money. They are just professionals who are certified as a therapist based on their education. They are far from being perfect and can even induce couples to actually go through with divorce when they find themselves hopelessly ineffective in a particular situation. A lot of couples still go for marital therapy even though they are aware of such occurrences.…… [Read More]
TOUGH LOVE, a Documentary about the Child Welfare System
Directed by Emmy-nominated director, Stephanie Wang, Tough Love depicts the life and struggle of a couple, Patrick (hailing from Seattle) and Hannah (hailing from the city of New York), as they traverse the US child welfare structure’s red tape to reclaim custody over their kids. The two have undergone the trauma of having their children taken away by governmental authorities. The film features vérité-type footage, besides exclusive views of child welfare courts, portraying a personal and intimate record of the couple’s challenges and victory while they tackle prior mistakes and try to assert their eligibility to enjoy another chance at raising their children. All through the course of the movie, the kids’ foster parents are shown, in addition to judges in charge of the case and child welfare specialists who can clearly grasp the working of this complicated system (Stephanie, 2015).…… [Read More]
Women are just as capable (and more capable in some areas) as men are, and they should be treated equally in the workplace. In addition, men should take on some of the household duties, and women should have more than simply part-time opportunities open to them. The Canadian economy is facing many threats from overseas, and to devalue women and the contribution they could make is shortchanging Canadian women, and keeping the Canadian economy in a 20th century mentality when it needs to move along, modernize, and look toward the future. Childcare must move into the 21st century, as well, and there should be enough childcare for all the families who need it, at a low cost, so women can truly afford to work outside the home.
Caplin, E. (2003, January/February). Canadian rights for women worldwide. Canadian Speeches, 16, 60+.
Dhruvarajan, V. And Vickers, J. (2002). Gender, race, and…… [Read More]
Impacts of Divorce on Children
a. While divorce can be the lesser of two evils, divorce nonetheless can affect any involved children in many ways.
II. Positive Effects
a. Children feel a sense of relief
b. They are happier if the parents thrive after splitting up
c. Happier but split parents mean happier kids
d. Shared custody can be much better than a volatile household
e. Modeling that leaving a dysfunctional relationship is a good thing
III. Negative Effects
a. Children might act out at school
b. Single parent families can be cash-strapped
c. The effects of the divorce can extend into the child’s adult life
d. The take offense to one parent verbally assaulting the other
e. Stress of some sort is normal and expected
a. Parents should work things out if possible, but some marriages should end if certain lines are cross or attempts…… [Read More]
Studies have shown that the mean maternal age of motherhood has been increasing since 1980, which although may suit many modern careers and life styles, it puts women at a greater risk of declining fertility. The fundamental manifestation of ovarian aging is not just because of a decrease in the number of oocytes, but also because of a decline in its quality. Moreover, women of advanced maternal age are at a greater risk of developing aneuploidy in embryos. This contributes to their inability to bear a child by increasing both implantation loss and pregnancy failure. (Judy et al., 2012)
In Vitro Fertilization, IVF is one of the forms of assisted reproductive technology that enhances the chances of conception. In IVF, ovaries are stimulated to produce mature oocytes which are retrieved transvaginally under sonographic guidance. Oocyte retrieval is normally an outpatient procedure, performed with adequate analgesia. The sperm and…… [Read More]
Of this group. 50% were male, 50% were female, 38% were White, 35% were Black, and 16% were Hispanic. Adoption statistics are difficult to find because reporting is not as complete as it should be. The government spent $2.6 billion dollars to conduct the 1990 Census, but still it under-represented minorities and categorized children as "natural or by adoption" without differentiating, while special laws were implemented to "protect" and separate adoption affected families. In 1995, a "continuous" census (instead of every ten years) was proposed but has not been implemented. Even the government cannot rely on its most often cited broad official "guesstimate" of "5 to 10 million adoptees in the U.S." Private agency or independent adoptions account for more than 80% of adoptions in a state like California, but these are difficult to track, particularly when they cross state and country borders. In addition, no one knows how many…… [Read More]
" Of course the Convention claims that children are a special interest, with the need for special rights, but in the world of public opinion, special interests are too often framed as only benefiting one interest at the expense of others. Acknowledging that the establishment and maintenance of special rights for children is merely the development of further tools for the successful maintenance of an equitable society precludes this pigeonholing, because it frames helping children as a means of helping everyone.
Nonetheless, a potential drawback of using an NGO to work for the rights of the child remains in the fact that focusing on this issue does mean that other specific issues will not be granted the same time and money, but even here one may note that focusing on the rights of the child can actually work towards improving the time and money available for other issues, because once…… [Read More]
(Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1) Limitations of the program were acknowledged after a study reported findings which state: "...there an awareness of hidden areas of trauma that exist in this population, such as, for instance, an awareness that most humanitarian entrant women (between 80% and 100%) have been the victims of rape and the shame associated with this mitigates against disclosure and dealing with the effects of it." (Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1)
Allan, David and afoon, Patrick (2008) Strength to Strength (STS) - a family relationships program for humanitarian entrant families living in Western metropolitan Sydney 24 June 2008. Relationships Australia NSW - Humanitarian Entrants Program. Australian Government - Australian Institute of Family Studies. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/afrc/practice/strength.html
Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services (nd) What we know about achievements of the Early Intervention Parenting Program and Good eginnings Prototypes. Online available at http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8EF9E6-975-438-2EA-7967032ADE85/21961/eipp_factsheet.rtf
Gallegos, Danielle,…… [Read More]
The need to save face does not bring people to the bargaining table, the need to resolve a dispute or issue does (Fisher and Ury, 1991).
Positional bargaining does have advocates. In the case where the parties interests may interfere with their resolving the issues, positional bargaining may be preferred. Issues are deemed to be universal and party specific. Interests are party specific and will vary from case to case. In this matter, the interests include Richard's infidelity and the three ongoing businesses. It may be that in this case, positional bargaining is preferred as the interests will prove to polarizing for the parties to work together (Lax and Sebenius, 1991).
Strategies, Transitions And Progressions During The Mediation
Richard's First Response
Although this subsection is entitled Richard's response, it is really the response of his lawyer. The mediator meets with privately with Richard and his lawyer and explains that the…… [Read More]
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…… [Read More]
Instead, a representative sample is used. The larger the sample the better, obviously, because the larger the sample the less wiggle room there is going to be between the sample looked at and the entire body.
Perhaps another explanation for the margin of error in this study is noted in the abstract of the document, whereby it is acknowledged that they questionnaire looked at forensic psychologists that were retained or secured by the court as well as situations where one of the child custody parties in question retained the forensic psychologist. It is not immediately clear whether that figured into the margin of error because that would certainly affect the motives and even the outcome of the study in general but whether/how much of an impact was had was not immediately made clear.
In short, the margin of error in this study accounts for the fact that only a…… [Read More]
Even so, both outcomes have downsides but a child being saved from further harm due to an abundance of caution is surely the better outcome to most people.
That all being said, the way this study is proving/disproving whether errors have been made is based on DNA evidence being looked at subsequent to the trial being concluded. Technically, just because the collected DNA supposedly rules out a person does not necessarily mean the convicted person is innocent, it just opens up other possibilities a lot of the time. Even so, DNA evidence is usually pretty conclusive and definite unless there is somehow a feasible alternate explanation how the identified DNA got there other than the person being the perpetrator so being Tuesday morning quarterback is not an exact science.
In the end, errors are not usually made in a criminal court setting but other environments that involve forensic psychology…… [Read More]
" In all other cases, out-of-state marriages are valid and accepted everywhere. Even where domestic partnerships are recognized, same-sex couples may not be able to reap any real benefits: "Domestic partnership laws provide even fewer protections than civil unions and can vary dramatically depending on the jurisdiction that enacts the law. In some jurisdictions, domestic partner registries do not confer any rights or responsibilities at all and are simply a registration." (Doering, 2004)
The children of gay parents do not enjoy the same civil protections as children of heterosexual parents. In case of adoption, things may become even more complicated. A gay person who chooses to adopt a child is likely to face many hurdles since the legal system may prejudicially term him/her unfit to raise a child. Another important issue is the prejudice towards adoption by a co-parent. By denying the second parent the right to adopt the child…… [Read More]
Obesity is a significant problem for today's American children. In fact, the NCCC calculates that more than 23 million children and teenagers are overweight. Since 1980, the obesity rate amongst children has more than doubled and amongst children aged 2-5 years almost tripled, whilst it has more than tripled in adolescents aged 12-19 years (Ogden et al., 2008.).
The problems of childhood obesity in children include the following:
Obese children are at a higher risk for asthma
Obese children are more likely to suffer from psychosocial problems, fatty liver, orthopedic-related problems and sleep apnea
Childhood obesity has also corresponded with a rise in with type 2 diabetes, particularly among adolescent minority populations
Obese children are found to be at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and abnormal glucose tolerance
The causes of childhood obesity have been reduced to various…… [Read More]
In fact, the cohabitation option serves a valuable function for many couples, especially where living together allows them to discover possible problem areas in their relationship that would have made marriage a bad idea. If anything, that is preferable to the traditional situation where couples really only begin learning about one another after making the lifelong commitment to a marriage. Finally, Congressman McDonald's point about childbirth out of wedlock ignores the tremendous advantages to children born in stable marriages and suggests that high rates of unwanted pregnancies among unmarried couples somehow negates the benefits of planned pregnancies within marriage.
The Functionalist Perspective Applied to Marriage:
In some respects, there are valid criticisms that justify reevaluating certain aspects of modern marriage, including the unfairness of child custody decisions that favor mothers and financial settlements that obligate married partners who supported the marriage financially to share more of what they earned than…… [Read More]
Some of the characteristics of this country include community policing, a patriarchal family system, the importance of higher education, and the way businesses serve as surrogate families. Asian societies are also "shame-based" rather than "guilt-based" as Western societies are. For example, it is unthinkable to commit a crime in such places because of the shame it would bring upon one's family and the business or corporation with which that family is associated with. (Stevens, 2004, Places with little… section, ¶ 2).
In the book, Comparative criminal justice, Francis J. Pakes (2004) points out that when compatriots become involved in trouble with the law abroad, the news media invariably gains an interest in criminal justice in far-away places. When a case in a foreign country ends, albeit, the increased interest in the criminal justice system of the country at issue with the law in the U.S. dissipates. The media attention to…… [Read More]
Stress and grief can make it hard to reach sensible decisions."
The Issue of Arbitration in Family Law
Family Law frequently involves the lives of children, and includes requirements that continue after the case decision is made. It often requires ongoing contact between parties. In addition, "marital and family law takes place in this heightened emotion atmosphere that is not present in other litigation," West notes. "The Family Law Section's 'Bounds of Advocacy' handbook is proving to be a legal best-seller in Florida, albeit a free one," the Florida Bar New eports. ichard West, immediate past chair of the section, states, "The general thrust of it is that marital and family law is different from other forms of litigation, and it needs to be handled differently."
West contributed to assembling the handbook and works regularly to distribute it. The handbook West distributes consists of a recognition that minimum standards…… [Read More]
Legal Aspects of Professional Psychology
All psychologists are required to follow the ethical guidelines found in the 2002 Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct of the American Psychological Association (APA), commonly known as the Ethics Code. Other important ethical guidelines are found in the 2007 Competing Development Achievement Levels (DALs) of the National Council of Schools and Programs in Professional Psychology (NCSPP) and the Assessment of Competing Benchmarks Work Group of the APA. These ethics codes cover compliance, privacy and confidentiality, assessment, therapy, research and publications, and there are also special guidelines for dealing with children, minorities, culturally diverse populations, forensic psychology and gay and lesbian clients. Both the Ethics Code and state laws require psychologists to maintain the confidentiality of clients and their records, apart from legal requirements to report verified or suspected child abuse or clients who are a danger to others. Psychologists can only provide…… [Read More]
MFT: Psychology of Violence- Domestic Violence, Abuse and Legal Mandates
Violence has been described as any form of aggression that could result in either psychological or physical injury. From the early beginning of the current century, violence has increasingly become a pressing issue for behavioural experts. Despite the increased focus on violence in the last two decades, most of the studies tend to investigate effects on victims or risk factors with only a handful looking into the underlying causes of violence and the psychology behind it. Moreover, spousal battering or domestic violence as it is more commonly known, has received lesser attention despite the increase in such kind of violence. This study aims to investigate the main theories that explain the root causes of violence, distinguish cultural, gender and psychological dimensions of violence and also highlight the treatment and violence prevention methods. Lastly, this paper aims to look into the…… [Read More]
Legal Precedent for a Situation Gone Wrong
Influence of the courts over child custody arrangements in the case of a divorce is low to non-existent. There is a persistent expectation that the parents will come to an agreement about matters related to children, and it is generally not considered beneficial to engage the courts. It is important for disputing married couples to understand that there are three separate issues embedded in a divorce situation: 1) The actual divorce which concludes with a decree absolute; 2) Division of marital assets and financial provision for the spouses and children, which is referred to ancillary relief; and 3) proceedings focused on the custody / residence of children, contact arrangements with non-custodial parent, and so forth[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Terry & Co Solicitors, The Laurels, Shadoxhurst, shford, Kent, TN26 1NL United Kingdom. Retrieved from http://www.terry.co.uk/men_div.html]
Given this tendency of the court for a hands-off response to…… [Read More]
Codes of Conduct
The APA's specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists help establish a good baseline for behavior for forensic psychologists, but states may have more stringent requirements. For example, in the state of Texas, the Texas Administrative Code has a particular chapter devoted to the specific rules of practice governing forensic psychologists. The provisions of that chapter have the force of law and failure to abide by them can not only subject a psychologist to professional censure, but may also impact civil and criminal liability.
The guideline that seems the most challenging to me is one found in the state specific Texas guidelines. Under Texas Administrative Code § 465.18(d)(3), "the role of the psychologist in a child custody forensic engagement is one of a professional expert. The psychologist cannot function as an advocate and must retain impartiality and objectivity, regardless of whether retained by the court or a party to…… [Read More]
The other side of that coin is general competency and ability to do one's. Ignorance of how to do one's job correctly can unfairly or even irreecovactly change the lives of the people that stand to be affected by the work of a forensic psychologist and this would include children, people that have been injured, people that are at risk of violence but no actual violence has yet been proven and so forth. Being precise and adept with exquisite studying habits and attention to detail ia hallmark of any solid forensic psychologist and any of the same that are not on board with that need to find a new calling in life because forensic psychology should never be done half-way or half-you-know-what.
Finally, there is self-interest and this can be exceedingly dangerous. It is well-known that many forensic psychologists are hired by the court and they, as a result, should…… [Read More]
MFT: Psychology of Violence
Types of Abuse Inflicted on Spouses
There are various forms of spousal abuse, but the legal definition of the term is, reckless or deliberate infliction of emotional or physical injury on one's spouse. Spousal abuse penalties and charges are dependent upon whether serious physical damage was inflicted on the spouse, whether the abuse events have been occurring continually, and abuse history of the offender. While domestic violence and spousal abuse are similar, the former incorporates other kinds of relationships as well, including same-sex unions or civil partnership. Spousal abuse can lead to devastating emotional damage as it typically entails spousal domination by means of violence, verbal abuse, intimidation, or threats of bodily maltreatment, causing intense terror, hopelessness, and powerlessness in the other spouse (Attorney, 2015).
An individual is said to be physically abused if he/she suffers deliberate bodily hurt at the hands of another; physical…… [Read More]
Kung San Trial Marriages and U.S. Divorce Rates.
The!Kung San are a hunter-gatherer people that inhabit the Kalahari desert in Africa. They are the ushmen who have managed to live a contented, self-governed life while the rest of the world has sprung up around them in a mass of technology and dysfunction. They live a community life where the economy is based on sharing and "among the first words a child learns are na ("give it to me") and ihn ("take this")" (Shostak 2000:44) giving outsiders the impression of a quaint carefree nomadic life.
Nevertheless there are many similarities shared between Americans and the!Kung San, some of which are as simple as equal love for their children, to the interesting arrangements of a 'trial marriage'. A!Kung trial marriage could be acquainted with people living together before getting married, or cohabiting as part of a condition before marriage, depending on religious…… [Read More]