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CHILD WELFARE IN REVIEW
Financial Status of Children in Welfare - a review conducted in 9 trials on 2,000 participants to determine if financial support to poor families would improve children's health and welfare did not yield sufficient evidence on the financial benefits of intervention (Lucas, 2008). A study on the effectiveness of recent reforms on the chronic problems of the child welfare system in the United States (Westat 2002) found that fiscal reforms did not necessarily produce desirable outcomes nor did fiscal changes eliminate chronic problems in child welfare (Westat). A survey conducted on the child welfare nonprofits in New York, however, showed that the basic problem they encountered was not the lack of skill in managing finances (Marwell et al. 2012). Rather, it revealed that additional public and private investment would enhance the financial stability of these organizations (Marwell et al.). Westat website is a government…
Ghera, M.M. et al. (2009). The effects of foster care intervention on socially deprived institutionalized children's attention and positive affect: results from the BEIP study.
Vol. 50 # 3 Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry and allied Disciplines: PubMed.
Retrieved on October 25, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19309327
Holt, S. (2008). The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: a review of literature. Vol. 32 Issue 8 Science Direct: Elsevier, pages 797-810
Nor is she eligible to receive Medicaid, based on her minimum wage income.
This has put the minimum wage earning single parent in a situation where she must devote her minimum wage to food and healthcare, if healthcare is available to her through her job, and, if it is not, she becomes medically uninsured.
TANF now allows states money to.".. spend their share of federal block grant funds ($16.38 billion annually) in any way "reasonably calculated to achieve the purposes of TANF (Hasnan and Morris, 2)." This is an incredibly worrisome aspect of the program, since it would be necessary to challenge on a step-by-step basis the ways in which the states use of the $16.38 billion dollars annually to determine if in fact those monies are being spent in furthering the goals of TANF. This is allowing the states access to monies budgeted to needy families, and there is…
Wagner, Arlo, and Margie Hyslop. "Amnesty for Child Support Succeeds." The Washington Times 12 Sept. 2000: 1. Questia. 8 Dec. 2007
It was public outrage stemming from the fact that an already wealthy celebrity would use child labor to further acquire wealth that caused Ms. Gifford to react. It was a very highly publicized case, and in a journal article appearing in a 1998 edition of Afterimage, journalist ebecca Schreiber commented this way:
Every so often, an event like the Kathy Lee Gifford scandal uncovers the whole line of production, bringing down public scrutiny on each of the links in the chain."(23) the tactical struggle waged through publicity and public relations is a significant site of image politics in the clothing industry, which is fundamentally driven by the production of images, the social value of style and signifying practices of fashion. Visibility is a form of publicity, the precondition to generating political identification, garnering attention and directing public discourse. Such image-based strategies, always partial and supplementary, are continually negotiated and contingent…
Basu, K. (1999). International Labor Standards and Child Labor. Challenge, 42(5), 80. Retrieved February 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001312026
Goldstein, a., & Schreiber, R. (1998). Migrating Capital and the Optics of Place: Globalization and Representation. Afterimage, 25(4), 13+. Retrieved February 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001326312 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000518148
The principal tasks that I will be performing in that regard will be: conducting initial interviews in conjunction with assessments of need for services, participating in the team decision-making process to identify the most beneficial interventions, and helping to implement those decisions and facilitate those interventions. In general, my contribution will always be within the conceptual framework of making the most beneficial changes possible for all of the children, families, and communities that I serve and of minimizing any conceivable harm capable of being caused by social work interventions.
3. The Cuyahoga County Department of Children and Family Services believes all families and children should have a voice in the decisions that are made about them. To that end, we utilize the Team Decision-Making approach. Please describe this methodology and its major components.
In principle, the concept of team decision making is designed to increase the effectiveness of department interventions…
A consequence has been the increasingly common act by states and cities of slashing budgets which either eliminate child welfare agency resources or even the agencies themselves. Today, in the anticipated aftermath of the rash of scandals pockmarking the Bush Administration's oversight in this area, many agencies are simply fighting to stay alive. And today, in so many state venues, there is a justified fear of the budget axe. In our current economic times, there is little statewide funding available. Child welfare agencies, their staffs and their resources are especially vulnerable, with budgetary policy today reflecting a sense of recession and an unwillingness to spend in such areas. (Haynes, 1)
This poses an extremely great challenge to the current generation of leaders poised to undo the failures of a decade of infrastructural neglect. President Obama has spoken frankly of the need for more aggressive law enforcement focus on areas such…
Davis-Tanner, T. (2008). President Elect Barack Obama's Stances on Child Welfare. Child Welfare League of America.
Haynes, B. (2009). Child Welfare Advocates Fear Cuts. Las Vegas Review-Journal. Online at http://www.lvrj.com/news/38743519.html
McHugh, D. (2007). UNICEF Ranks U.S., Britain at Bottom in Child Welfare Survey. Washington Post. Online at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/14/AR2007021401397_pf.html
Pear, R. (2004). U.S. Finds Fault in All 50 States' Child Welfare Programs, an d Penalties May Follow. New York Times. Online at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res
Hennepin County Loves Kids
The community agency examined within this document for reflection is the Hennepin County Child Support Agency. This agency is part of a larger entity, the Hennepin County Department of Human Services. The child support agency provides a number of desirable services to help children and families of children who are in need of various forms of aid. The main goal of this agency is to ensure that parents who are not guardians of their children have a formalized means of ensuring they receive the benefits which all children need. These include access to sustainable medical care, nutritious food, and expenses for living. The vast majority of services facilitated by the Child Support Agency achieve these goals.
To make these ends attainable, the agency is active both with guardians, non-guardians, and various facets of the court system to ensure the overall welfare of children (Child Welfare, 2017).…
Child Welfare Information Gateway. Retrieved on September 13, 2017: from https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/outofhome/kinship/
Font, Sarah A. ( 2014). Kinship and Nonrelative Foster Care: The effect of placement type on child well-being. Child Development, Hennepin County. Child support. https://www.hennepin.us/ Retrieved from https://www.hennepin.us/residents/human-services/child-support
Ethnic/racial and socioeconomic factors would not be considered. Children would not need referral from any social services agency. This would eliminate the stigmatizing that accompanies enrollment in current programs, including Head Start.
Derezotes, D.M., & Hill, .B. (n.d.). Examining the disproportionate representation of Children of color in the child welfare system. ace Matters Consortium, Casey Family Programs.
Dettlaff, a.J., & ycraft, J.. (2010). Factors contributing to disproportionality in the child welfare system: Views from the legal community. Social Work 55 (3), pp. 213-224.
Guzman, L. (2004). Grandma and grandpa taking care of the kids: Patterns of involvement [Electronic Version]. Child Trends: esearch Brief, 17, 1-8. etrieved December 11, 2010, from www.childtrends.org.
Hill, .B. (2007). An analysis of racial/ethnic disproportionality and disparity at the national, state, and county levels. Casey-CCSP Alliance for acial Equity in Child Welfare.
Kirk, .S., & Griffith, D.P. (2008). Impact of intensive family preservation services on…
Derezotes, D.M., & Hill, R.B. (n.d.). Examining the disproportionate representation of Children of color in the child welfare system. Race Matters Consortium, Casey Family Programs.
Dettlaff, a.J., & Rycraft, J.R. (2010). Factors contributing to disproportionality in the child welfare system: Views from the legal community. Social Work 55 (3), pp. 213-224.
Guzman, L. (2004). Grandma and grandpa taking care of the kids: Patterns of involvement [Electronic Version]. Child Trends: Research Brief, 17, 1-8. Retrieved December 11, 2010, from www.childtrends.org.
Hill, R.B. (2007). An analysis of racial/ethnic disproportionality and disparity at the national, state, and county levels. Casey-CCSP Alliance for Racial Equity in Child Welfare.
Indian Child Welfare Act
History and context of the policy
The Congress enacted the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) in 1978. This Act was a result of a series of deliberations, debates, and hearings to alleviate a terrific crisis of national proportions: the separation of Indian children from their families. The act was implemented due to the high rate of removal of Indian children from their traditional families and homes, primarily their Indian culture. Before its implementation, most Indian children were removed from their Indian families and put in non-Indian homes: presumably, with no Indian culture. The states received payments from the Bureau of Indian Affairs to remove Indian children from their traditional homes and place them with non-Indian homes. In a few cases, the rate of per capita of Indian children in foster homes doubled as compared to the rate for non-Indians. Such a dramatic rate of removing Indian…
Connors, T. (2011). Our children are sacred: why the Indian Child Welfare Act matters. Judges Journal, ISSN 0047-2972, 2011, Volume 50, Issue 2, p. 33-36,39
Lorie, G. (2001). Reparations and the Indian Child Welfare Act. (Indigenous Peoples). The
Legal Studies Forum, ISSN 0894-5993, 2001, Volume 25, Issue 3-4, p. 619-640
MacEachron, A.E. et al. (1996). Effectiveness of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Social
Multicultural Child Welfare Resources Paper: Child Welfare
The Native American and Latino Hispanic populations in Minnesota experience disparities that come externally from the child welfare system. Some of them include socioeconomic factors such as limited access to healthcare, education, and corrections, historical trauma for the families, discrimination, and prejudice when interacting with others (DHS, 2010).
The disparities experienced have forced child welfare systems to work in assuring that their experiences are fair and equitable especially in cases where children are involved. The Minnesota Department of Human Services (DHS) is more committed to multicultural child welfare center (MCCWC) development because they are programs that help practitioners and social workers in child welfare services to diversify their purposes in reducing disparities. The information that practitioners and social workers attain from such programs goes a long way in seeing that children have permanency in an attempt to reduce out-of-home care, which is temporary.…
AdoptUSKids. (2012). Benefits for children of recruiting Latino foster and adoptive families. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nrcdr.org/_assets/files/NRCRRFAP/resources/latino-tipsheet-packet.pdf
Curry, D., & Barbee, A. P. (2011). Combating disproportionality and disparity in training and Professional Development. In D. K. Green, K. Belanger, R. G. McRoy, & L. Bullard (Eds.), Challenging racial disproportionality in child welfare: Research, policy, and practice (pp. 91–100). Washington, DC: CWLA Press.
Font, S. A., Berger, L. M., & Slack, K. S. (2012). Examining racial disproportionality in child Protective services case decisions. Children and Youth Services Review, 34, 2188-2200.
Langworthy, S., Robertson, L., & Bhakta, S. (2016). Building collaborations across child welfare and education systems.
Minnesota Department of Human Services (DHS). (2010, February). Minnesota child welfare disparities report. Children and Family Services. Retrieved from http://www.mncourts.gov/Documents/0/Public/Childrens_Justice_Initiative/Disparities_-_Minnesota_Child_Welfare_Disparities_Report_%28DHS%29_%28February_2010%29.Pdf
Wisconsin Department of Children and Families. (2016). Frequently asked questions regarding the Wisconsin Indian Child Welfare Act. Retrieved from http://dcf.wisconsin.gov/children/icw/statsadmin/pdf/faq.pdf
TOUGH LOVE, a Documentary about the Child Welfare System
Directed by Emmy-nominated director, Stephanie Wang, Tough Love depicts the life and struggle of a couple, Patrick (hailing from Seattle) and Hannah (hailing from the city of New York), as they traverse the US child welfare structure’s red tape to reclaim custody over their kids. The two have undergone the trauma of having their children taken away by governmental authorities. The film features vérité-type footage, besides exclusive views of child welfare courts, portraying a personal and intimate record of the couple’s challenges and victory while they tackle prior mistakes and try to assert their eligibility to enjoy another chance at raising their children. All through the course of the movie, the kids’ foster parents are shown, in addition to judges in charge of the case and child welfare specialists who can clearly grasp the working of this complicated system (Stephanie, 2015).…
Family preservation services have been defined as short-term, family-focused services designed to assist families in crisis by improving parenting and family functioning while keeping children safe (Services, N.d.). While it has typically been the case that many social service departments would rely on the foster care system for child safety issues, family preservation services became a popular alternative when it was recognition to be more beneficial for the children who need a safe and stable family environment. It has been realized that separating children from their families, such as is the case when they would enter foster care, can be traumatic for them and leave them with negative consequences that can last indefinitely. Therefore, instead of looking at the child as a sole individual, the family preservation perspective broadens the scope of the welfare to include the entire family unit.
The model for the services is founded on the belief…
Define child and labor separately.
Child labor in the United States has long been a subject of concern. The U.S. enacted strict child labor statutes in 1938 (Labor, 2009), and has continued to enforce that law. However, there remain problems at home in the U.S. And abroad. The United States seeks to enforce the law, but there are times when it is difficult to catch perpetrators of violations. However, the U.S. has trade restrictions against countries that do not have strict enforcement of international standards. This research examines statutes in the United States (including their historic antecedents), what is being done to violators, and how trade is affected by citizen outcry against human rights violators and compliance with international law.
Current thinking on human rights dictates that children reach a certain age before they are to be put into the workforce. However, different cultures have different…
Browne, M.N., Frondorf, A., Harrison-Spoerl, R., & Krishnan, S. (2004). Universal moral principles and the law: The failure of one-size-fits-all child labor laws. Houston Journal of International Law, 27(1), 1-37.
Bullard, M.G. (2001). Child labor prohibitions are universal, binding, and obligatory law: The evolving state of customary international law concerning the unempowered child laborer. Houston Journal of International Law, 24(1), 139-171.
Cox, K. (1999). The inevitability of nimble fingers? law, development and child labor. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 32(1), 115-146.
Donald, C.G., Ralston, J.D., & Merker, S.L. (2002). Results of opinion surveys related to Kentucky's child labor laws. International Journal of Public Administration, 25(7), 859- 876.
ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.
The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…
Carter, Janet. (2000). Domestic violence, child abuse, and youth violence: strategies for prevention and early intervention. San Francisco: Family Violence Prevention Fund.
CUPA: Canadian Union of Public Employees. (1997). What we owe to families: a brief on child welfare in Manitoba. Winnipeg: Canadian Union of Public Employees.
CWLA: Child Welfare League of America. (1997). Child abuse and neglect: a look at the States. Washington, D.C: Child Welfare League of America.
Drucker, Philip. M. (October, 1997). "The consequences of Poverty and Child Maltreatment on IQ Scores." The Vincentian Chair of Social Justice Papers. Vincentian Center Faculty Colloquium Presentation, New York.
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.
Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, R.H., & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Being a parent isn't easy, offer a helping hand so parents can rest or spend time together. 3) Help yourself. When things pile up take time out so you don't get to the point of feeling overwhelmed or out of control. 4) Don't get frustrated if your baby cries. 5) Get involved, assist in community efforts to develop services to meet the needs of healthy children and families. 6) Promote programs at school to teach children, parents, and teacher's strategies to be safe. 7) Help develop parenting recourses at your local library. 8) Monitor your child's television and video viewing, watching violent behavior can harm children. 9) Volunteer at a local child abuse prevention program. 10) eport suspected abuse or neglect. Education, community involvement and cooperation are significant factors in the effort to prevent children from suffering maltreatment.
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). easonable suspicion of child…
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). Reasonable suspicion of child abuse: Finding a common language. Journal of law, medicine & ethics. Vol. 39, Issue 1, 62-69. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=cf7e5f19-4670-42ea-b115-83ef3ac5d27b%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=112
Patton, W.W. (2011). Child protective services -- Histirical overview. State University.com. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1828/Child-Protective-Services.html
Ten Ways to Help Prevent Child Abuse. (NDI). Prevent child abuse America. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.preventchildabuse.org/publications/parents/downloads/ten_ways_to_prevent.pdf
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Child maltreatment 2009. U.S. department of health and human services. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm09/cm09.pdf
Child abuse and neglect is a highly discussed issue in the present day. For a long time now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. There are significant implications from child abuse and neglect in the United States and it is imperative to come up with the necessary ways of dealing with it. The solution is to have a propagating state program that encompasses poor and underprivileged children. There is also need for family programs that educate and teach households on better child treatment and attaining the necessary skills. Such programs should also be expanded to schools to determine their vulnerabilities and needs.
Child abuse and neglect is a highly debated issue in the contemporary. For a lengthy period now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been experientially demonstrated to be linked to an assortment of…
Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after intervention. (2005, May 23). The Free Library. (2005). Retrieved February 03, 2017 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after...-a0133049592
A research study undertaken by McMaster University Medical Facility steered Professor Harriet Macmillan, Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences and Pediatrics showed that children that continue being in their homes subsequent to being abused or neglected by their parents, or are taken back to those homes subsequent to intervention by social service institutions are at a high risk for more abuse or neglect in a period of within three years. The conclusion made from examining 163 families with a long-established history of child abuse or neglect is that there is no intervention confirmed or established to decrease the rise of abuse or neglect when the children who have experienced such harsh conditions remain in the home.
The magazine article is pertinent to my paper as it indicates the recurrence of child abuse and neglect.
Cost of child abuse and neglect takes large toll. (2001, May 10). Columbus Medical Association.
Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.
As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.
Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:
Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…
Besharov, Douglas J. Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse: Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect. Washington, D.C. University of Maryland's Welfare Reform Academy, 2000.
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974. 23 November 2006. http://laws.adoption.com/statutes/child-abuse-prevention-and-treatment-act - capta-of-1974.html.
Dershowitz, Alan. M. Contrary to Popular Opinion. New York: Pharos Books, 1992.
Murray, Bridget. Cultural insensitivity leads to unfair penalties. Monitor 30.9, October
Director Martin Teicher of the Developmental iophsychiatry Research Program at McLean said that maltreatment in childhood can effect changes in brain function and structure. A child's brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence. His interactions with the environment create effects, which stabilize in puberty and adulthood. These experiences determine how the child will be wired. The four types of cranial abnormalities, which are permanent, are limbic irritability, arrested development of the left hemisphere, deficient integration between the left and the right hemispheres, and increased vermal activity.
The McLean researchers investigated 253 adults in an outpatient mental health clinic. More than half of them reported a history of physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The researchers found that those who were abused as children scored higher in the Limbic System Checklist. The finding provided evidence that abuse in childhood caused electrical impulses when limbic cells communicate. This results in seizures,…
Business Wire (2000). McLean Researchers document brain damage linked to child abuse and neglect. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning. Retrieved on April 16,
2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2000_Dec_14/ai_68013850/?tag=content;col1
Lapp, K.G.; Bosworth, H.B.; Strauss, J.L.; Stechuchak, K.M., et al. (2005). Lifetime
sexual and physical victimization among male veterans with combat-related Post-
The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.
The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…
Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.
Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.
Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childabuse.html
Child Abuse Statistics. Available at http://www.childhelp.org/resources/learning-center/statistics.Internet
Indian Welfare Act
There are few things in life as traumatic as losing a child. Unfortunately, this is a phenomenon that plagues humanity on a daily basis. Children are lost in many ways. Some die, some are kidnapped. Others are lost through adoption. For some mothers, adoption is an informed decision made on the basis of what the individual believes is right for her child. However, there is also a phenomenon of adoption that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s, in which mothers were more or less coerced in giving up their children for adoption. In many cases, this coercion also occurred without informed consent, where mothers were asked to sign documents without receiving full disclosure regarding the nature of such documents. This occurred disproportionately among Indian children, many of whom were forcibly removed from their parents during the 1960s and 1970s. This resulted in the Indian Child Welfare Act,…
"Indian Child Welfare Act -- Termination Of Parental Rights -- Adoptive Couple V. Baby Girl." Harvard Law Review 127.1 (2013): 368-377. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.
Jacobs, Margaret D. "Remembering The "Forgottern Child": The American Indian Child Welfare crisis Of The 1960S and 1970S. "American Indian Quarterly 37.1/2 (2013): 136-159. Academic Search Premier. Web, 24 Apr. 2014.
Others, however, have argued that children do not become familiar with the new spouse, seeing him or her as a stranger, which might suggest that stress is furthered rather than reduced in these children. According to Jeynes (1998), tension between biological parents can seriously impact the child, as can the fact that new, unstable marriages are likely to end in divorce (p. 25). Because of this tension and stress Jeynes (1998) points out that children can become angry, aggressive, and unhappy (p. 26). Thus, the body of literature regarding the effects of remarriage on children varies widely. One fact, however, remains. Divorce and remarriage causes stress in children, and this stress can explain many of the negative affects that they receive after remarriage. emarriage, in some cases, however, also brings stability, which can explain the positive affects, such as increased academic achievement, that these children exemplified.
Jeynes, William H.…
Jeynes, William H. (1998). A Historical Overview on the Research on the effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children. The School Community Journal. 8(1), 23-30.
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…
Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.
Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm
American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.
Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
youth transition out of foster care as they "age-out" of the system. This can prove to be a very challenging and difficult phase for young people as they are expected to take on adult responsibilities and make their own way in the world. Whether youth successfully transition from foster care to independent living is multifaceted, and requires detailed investigation in order to illuminate how the foster care system can facilitate change throughout the "aging-out" process.
Keller et al. (2007) utilized person-oriented research methods in order to investigate how well adolescents transition from life as part of the child welfare system to independent living as adults. This research method was chosen for the study in order to appropriate capture and understand the various and diverse ways these youth may be prepared for the transition among a sample that is large and representative of the population of youth aging-out from foster care.…
Ahrens, K.R., Dubois, D.L., Richardson, L.P., Fan, M.Y., Lozano, P. (2008). Youth in foster care with adult mentors during adolescence have improved adult outcomes. Pediatrics, 121(2), e246-52.
Keller, T.E., Cusick, G, R., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-84.
Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-93.
Munson, M.R., Smalling, S.E., Spencer, R., Scott, L.D., Tracy, E. (2009). A steady presence in the midst of change: nonkin natural mentors in the lives of older youth exiting foster care. Child and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 527-35.
Furthermore, it is agreed that those who are working tend to earn low wages, about $7.00 per hour on average, thus making it difficult for them to support their families (Sawhill pp). Another concern is that the poverty rate has not fallen as much as the caseload (Sawhill pp). Fewer poor children are receiving assistance, and the incomes of the poorest one-fifth of single-parent families have continued to fall (Sawhill pp). Many families remain in deep poverty, and according to some reports, requests for emergency assistance have grown (Sawhill pp). Overall, some 700,000 families were significantly worse off in 1999 than their counterparts in 1995 (Sawhill pp).
Since welfare reform was implemented during an unprecedented economic expansion, questions remain about how much of the good news should be attributed to the 1996 law and how much to a strong economy or to the growth of other programs such as the…
Sawhill, Isabel. (2001, June 22). From Welfare to Work.
Brookings Review. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Sommerfeld, David. (2002, March 01). Race, welfare reform, and nonprofit organizations. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575466/Welfare.html
Child and PTSD
THE CURSE OF EMOTIONAL TRAUMA
Nature equipped the body with an inherent mechanism to avoid danger or defend oneself against it (NIMH, 2013). ut in some persons, this naturally protective mechanism goes haywire and the reaction to fight or flee remains even in the absence of real danger. This abnormal condition is called post-traumatic disorder (NIMH).
The condition grows out of a horrifying experience of physical violence or threat in the person, a loved one or even a stranger as witnessed by the person who later develops the condition (NIMH, 2013). PTSD was first recognized as a mental and emotional condition among returning war veterans. ut it can also develop from other traumatic experiences, such as rape, torture, beating, captivity, accidents, fires, road accidents or natural disasters (NIMH).
Social Workers and PTSD
The social worker performs a number of professional roles. They act as brokers,…
AACAP (2013). Posttraumatic stress disorder. Number 70, Facts for Families"
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved on October 12,
2014 from http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Posttraumatic_Stress_Disorder_70.aspx
CSC (n.d.). Roles of a social worker. Chadron State College: Nebraska State College
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's…
1) Ananova. 2002, UN Urges Government to Outlaw Smacking
2) Allen, N. 1992, Making Sense of the Children act 1989, Longman
3) BBC News. 2002. Dentists Asked to Diagnose Child Abuse, UK
4) -, Church Tackles Child Abuse, England
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…
Fraser, C.; Burchell, B. & Hay, D. (2001). Introducing social psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Heffner. (2003). "Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html
Pelzer, D. (1995). A Child Called it. Omaha: Omaha Press.
Springhouse. (1990). "Piaget's Cognitive Stages.' http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…
Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.
Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
In the end, the epidemic of out of wedlock children by professional athletes is a serious concern. These athletes, whether they like it or not, are role models to the youth of today, and as such, they need to be especially concerned with the moral implications of their actions. By using Kantian morality, one easily begins to see that at no point is having an out of wedlock child a moral decision. From conception, when the mother-to-be is used as a means for the ends of sexual gratification, to the lack of consideration for the effects the stress of paternity suits will have on the team in general, to the complete disregard for the child who had no voice in the decision at all and relied on the two parents to make the best decision possible, each step was fraught with immorality.
Chan, S. "The Confucian Notion of…
Chan, S. "The Confucian Notion of Jing." Philosophy East and West 56(2) Apr. 2006: pp. 229-253. Academic OneFile database. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006 http://find.galegroup.com .
Crane, P. "This Week's SI: An Inside Look." Sports Illustrated. 29 Apr. 1998. Sports Illustrated. December 5, 2006 http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/features/1998/weekly/980504/insidelook.html.
May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005.
Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill, 2006.
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School
Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.
Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
Although there has been some movement away from the legalistic mode of child protection favored in the 1980s and 1990s, there is still a focus on forensic investigation of child abuse, which does not allow for sufficient between high risk families and low risk families, decreasing the chances that truly at risk children will receive protection, as well as increasing the risk of intervention in functioning families. Currently, Australia is taking a public health approach to child protective services. "In most states child protection services are part of a broader department of human services" (Lamont & Bromfield, 2010).
The dramatic increase in services to children in danger has come with a very high price tag. "Nationally, approximately $2.8 billion was spent on child protection and out-of-home care services in 2010-11, which was an increase of $137.7 million from 2009-10. Of this expenditure, out-of-home care services accounted for the majority (64.9%…
Bromfield, L. & Holzer, P. (2008). A national approach for child protection: Project report.
Retrieved March 26, 2013 from New South Wales Government website: http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/docswr/_assets/main/documents/childprotection_report.pdf
Bromfield, L., Holzer, P., Lamont, A., Kovaks, K., Richardson, N., & Scott, D. (2013). How
much does Australia spend on child protection? Retrieved March 27, 2013 from Australian Institute of Family Studies website: http://www.aifs.gov.au/cfca/pubs/factsheets/a142118/index.html
However, from 2008 the number began to decrease slightly. The rate of increase in the number of children aging out of the United States foster care system from 1998 to 2007 is 71.7%. Whereas the rate declined by 0.71% in the year 2008. In the year 2009, there was again a decline of 0.33%. In the year 2010, the number of children aging out of foster care system declined by 5.4%. It can be concluded from the above figure that there was a significant increase in the number of children aging out of foster care system from the year 1998 to 2007. Whereas, this number started declining from the year 2008 and it is still following a declining trend. (McCoy-oth, DeVoogh & Fletcher, 2011)
Challenges Faced by the youth aging out of Foster Care System
Children who age out of the foster care system generally face many problems in relation…
Browne, K. Save the Children, (2009). The risk of harm to young children in institutional care. Retrieved from Save the Children website: http://www.crin.org/docs/The_Risk_of_Harm.pdf
Children's Bureau, Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2012). Foster care statistics 2010. Retrieved from Children's Bureau website: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/foster.pdf
Gardner, D. National Association of Counties (NACo), (2008). Youth aging out of foster care identifying strategies and best practices. Retrieved from National Association of Counties (NACo) website: http://www.dshs.wa.gov/pdf/ca/YouthAgingoutofFoster.pdf
Hancock, B.R. FaithBridge Foster Care, (2009).Changing foster care in America: From crisis to community. Retrieved from FaithBridge Foster Care website: http://www.faithbridgefostercare.org/media/1210/faithbridge_white_paper_042009.pdf
By the 1970s most states had mandatory child abuse reporting laws. These laws aimed at identifying abused children and setting in motion legal procedures to investigate the child's situation and either to provide services for them in their own home or to remove them from their home and place them in a safer environment (Melli, 1998).
Historically, the laws and regulations of the present are the children and grandchildren of the laws that were pioneered in the 1960s and 1970s. Certainly, experience makes any process better and smoother, but essentially, the system of three to four decades ago would have been very similar to today. hat would not have percolated down to teachers, principals and other team personnel yet would have been the knowledge of the new legal system and how to function in it. This uncertainty would have undoubtedly have slowed the intervention as wary professionals move cautiously, balancing…
Crosson-Tower, Cynthia. (2010). Understanding child abuse and neglect. 8th ed. Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson-Prentice Hall.
Educators' role in child abuse and neglect prevention. (2010). Retrieved 30 July 2010
Domestic Violence on Children
Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…
Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.
Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.
Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
hen their state of denial lifts, they are often wracked with remorse for what they've done.
The final circumstance that Resnick lists is uncommon but not unheard of among mothers who kill their children: spousal revenge. Though this is rare among women, one recent case that highlights it is the case of an Ontario mother, Elaine Campione, who drowned her two daughters in the bathtub, allegedly to keep her ex-husband from getting custody and to inflict intense suffering upon him. She even made a video only minutes after the murders, asking her ex-husband if he was "happy now" (CTV News 2010).
ith all of these circumstances potentially leading parents, especially mothers, to murder their children, legal prosecution and defense of these cases can be difficult -- at times, heart-wrenching. In the cases of mothers who have killed their children, the great majority of the defenses center around pleas of insanity.…
Child Abuse Prevention Network. http://child-abuse.com/ . Accessed 1 February 2011.
Jones, a. (2009) Women Who Kill. New York: The Feminist Press of the City College of New York.
Meyer, C., Oberman, M. And White, K. (2001). Mothers Who Kill Their Children. New York: NYU Press.
National Council for the Prosecution of Child Abuse. http://www.ndaa.org/ncpca_home.html . Accessed 1 February 2011.
Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse
ights: Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse
More than three million reports of child abuse and neglect will be filed in the United States this year (Children's ights 2012). In many states, reporting suspected or alleged child abuse is mandatory in which certain steps must be followed to ensure the immediate safety of the child and the confidentiality and privacy of the accused family. Sadly, at least four children die from abuse or neglect every day -- many in homes that are already known to child welfare agencies, and some in foster care placements made by the child welfare agencies themselves. Moreover, children and their families still have rights that must be honored during an investigation (Big Brothers 2009).
Parent's ights When Investigated
Whenever the department completes an investigation of a child abuse or neglect report, the department must notify the alleged perpetrator(s) of the report…
Arizona Department of Economic Security, 2011, Safeguarding rights, Available from: https://www.azdes.gov/main.aspx?menu=154&id=2030 [5 January 2012]
Big Brothers Big Sisters Christchurch, 2009, Dealing with suspected or alleged child abuse policy, http://www.bbbschch.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/dealing-with-suspected-or-alleged-child-abuse-policy.pdf [5 January 2012]
Children's Rights, 2012, Child abuse and neglect, http://www.childrensrights.org/issues-resources/child-abuse-and-neglect / [5 January 2012]
Washington State Department of Social and Health Services, 2003, Parent's guide to child protective services, http://www.dshs.wa.gov/pdf/publications/22-484.pdf [5 January 2012]
Abused and Exploited Children
Child abuse is one of the most unfortunate realities of our society. In a world marked by progress, it is sad that there are still many households where young children are being subjected to violence both physical and otherwise. Child abuse is defined as any non-accidental harm or injury to a child caused by an adult. Despite the presence of numerous child protection services and agencies, children are still regularly facing violence at home which may often lead to fatal injuries. Even though child abuse is commonly known and understood as physical abuse, this is not entirely true. Abuse can occur in other forms as well and we shall now discuss some of the more common forms in which child abuse mars our society.
Define the 4 types of abuse and give 4-5 examples of the most common signs/symptoms of that type of abuse.
Pecora, Peter J, Jensen, Peter S, Romanelli, (2009) Mental Health Services for Children Placed in Foster Care: An Overview of Current Challenges. Child Welfare. Child welfare and well-being. Policy & Practice, Feb, 2009
Shanalingigwa, Abel, O. (2009) Understanding Social and Cultural differences in perceiving child Maltreatment. Accessed online 20th Feb, 2011.
Parental Rights and Children's Welfare
Sociological Analysis on Parental Rights vs. Children's Welfare: Structural-Functionalist, Conflict, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
Studying the structure and dynamics of society entails not only analyzing the elements that comprise it, but also the general or 'bigger picture' of what society is -- that is, analysis of social structure and dynamics must be at the macro and micro levels. Indeed, sociological phenomena are analyzed and studied by social scientists using various theoretical perspectives formulated in order to provide researchers, as well as their audience, a look into the various interpretations that people give to explain specific events or realities experienced by the society and the individual. In the field of sociology, among these theoretical perspectives are the structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist traditions.
A particular example illustrating the discussion above is the analysis of parental rights and children's welfare, considered as an essential sociological phenomenon affecting…
For example, Leventhal (2001) analyzed different intervention methodology and implementation of home-based services aimed at preventing abuse and neglect as well as promoting the health and development of the infant and mother, by specifically looking at the Healthy Families Olds' models.
Kass and colleagues (2003) from Fight Crime: Invest in Kids argue that the cycle of violence can be prevented with intervention methods including parenting education. oberts, Wolman and Harris-Looby (2004, p. 101) state that "teaching students parenting skills may be the most cost-effective way to reduce violent and abusive behaviors and prevent the transfer of violent behaviors from generation to generation." They found that for less than $1,000, Project Baby Care, a parental training program developed for adolescents proved successful in improving parental knowledge and skills and attitudes toward caring for an infant.
Another study (Hughs & Gottlieb, 2004), regarding the effects of the Webster-Stratton parenting program on parenting…
Belsky, J. & Vondra, J. (1989), 'Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting', in D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds), Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect, New York: Cambridge University Press, 153-202.
Chalk, R. & King, P.A. (Eds) (1998), Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs, Washington DC: National Academy Press,
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) (U.S.), Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACF). Child maltreatment 2003. Washington (DC): Government Printing Office; 2005. Website retrieved May 10, 2007 www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm03/index.htm.
Fine, M.J. (1980), Handbook on Parent Education, Academic Press, New York.
Despite these compelling findings, many youth are not routinely assessed for such violence exposure and its ramifications by the educational, child welfare, social service, and juvenile justice systems with which they frequently interact." (2007) This exposure is not only related to outcomes of a negative nature as well as heightened drug use and greater HIV related risk behaviors." (Vioson, 2007) the work of McDowell (2006) entitled: "Caring for Child Victims: Countering the Effects of Domestic Violence" published in the Journal of Specialists in Pediatric Nursing states that children are affected by family violence and that holistic assessment by the nurse is "essential to understanding the stressor of domestic violence." (McDowell, 2006) it is important to understand that less than one-third of domestic violence cases are reported. This author specifically charges the pediatric nurse in having the knowledge and skills necessary to identify childhood trauma from having witnessed family abuse.
Dalpaiz, C.M. (2006) Breaking Free, Starting Over: Parenting in the Aftermath of Family Violence. Family Therapy Journal Vol. 33 Issue 1 San Diego 2006.
Henry, M.; Szajnberg, N. (2006) My Life is a Longing: Child Abuse and its Adult Sequelae: Results of Brody Longitudinal Study from Birth to age 30" International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. 87, Issue 2.
Hurley (2006) Internalized Other Interviewing of Children Exposed to Violence. Journal of Systematic Therapies. Summer 2006. Vol. 25. Guilford Publications, Inc.
Kaplow, J.B.; Saxe, G.N.; Putman, F.W.; Pynoos, R.S.; and Lieberman, a.F. (2006) the Long-Term Consequences of Early Childhood Trauma. A Case Study and Discussion. Psychiatry. New York Winter 2006. Vol. 69. Issue 4.
Rising Poverty and Homelessness
NOT TO E IGNORED
Rising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families, Children and Homelessness
Census ureau (2010) reported that, for the three consecutive years, the number of people living in poverty has been increasing and reached 46.2 million or 15% of the total population. Overall poverty rate for all U.S. families went up from 9.8% in 2007 to 11.7% in 2010. Recession in the late 2007 has strongly cut through all ages, both genders and all race-ethnic groups. ut the most severely affected are young families, headed by adults under 30, with one or more children. This condition is seen to assert long-lasting negative effects of children's cognitive achievement, education, nutrition and physical and mental health as well as social behavior. These developments are likely to have long-term consequences on the nation's economy and social future U.S. Census ureau). ut professionals and parents can buffer these…
Aratani, Y. (2009). Homeless children and youth. National Center for Children and Poverty: Columbia University. Retrieved on October 26, 2013 from http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_888.html
Ascend (2012). Two generation, one future. The Aspen Institute: Family Economic
Security Program. Retrieved on October 26, 2013 from http://www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/docs/pubs.ascend-Report-022012.pdf
Conrad N. Hilton Foundation (2012). Supporting homeless young children and their parents. The National Center on Family Homelessness: familyhomelessness.org.
Social Policy: Child Abuse and Neglect
One of the essential components of the social work profession is safeguarding children from neglect and abuse. Professionals in this field work towards ensuring that children are protected from abuse and neglect in order to promote their development and growth into healthy, well-being adults. To achieve these goals, social work professionals carry out several initiatives including creating, implementing, and evaluating policy initiatives. The various initiatives adopted by social work professionals are targeted towards lessening child abuse and neglect as well as providing necessary resources and support that enhances children's development and well-being. The development of policy initiatives that target reduction of child abuse and neglect is crucial because policies govern the practices of social work professionals when offering support and resources for promoting children's development and well-being.
Given the significance of policies in helping social workers to lessen child abuse and neglect, several policies…
Each day, thousands of New Yorkers experience violence at the hands of someone they love. But only a fraction of victims know where to get help" (p. 3).
Moreover, many domestic violence victims are coerced by the perpetrators into not testifying against them. In this regard, Glaberson (2011) reports that, "The defendants in domestic violence cases are in constant contact with their victims, and they use various means and methods to try to have the case dropped. Many of them cannot seem to stop themselves from sweet-talking, confessing to, berating and threatening . . . The women they were charged with abusing" (p. 3). Because even abusive relationships can be strong, some women who have experienced domestic violence -- even many times -- may be reluctant to prosecute their spouses or partners. In some cases, domestic violence shelters encourage abused partners to seek formal divorces in order to facilitate the…
Love and non-judgmental acceptance may be the most important things. Yes, money can help a person find a niche in life, but money is insufficient to get a person off the street. Following up later with some of the residents, I discovered that many would have returned to the streets a long time ago, despite their opportunity of free accommodation and food, were it not for the friends and care that they felt in these homes. Many of them, over and again, reiterated the bonds that they had formed one with another and, sometimes, with the staff members themselves. Some, through the staff members, had found support in the external community.
This presence of support was particularly evident in the foster home. There the 'foster parents' seemed to have a reputation for providing unconditional love, and I was greatly struck with the way that some of the residents, particularly the…
Last year, 76 minors were homicide victims."
The child has lost her life and the government is now trying to take actions to revamp the system. Under the new system, Children's Trusts will be set up "at the local level to bring experts - psychologists, social workers, education officials - together, with a local director ultimately accountable."
There may appear to be few similarities between EPL and current social welfare policy but when we closely study their impact, we fail to accept the notion that a lot has changed. EPL was ineffective in controlling child-related problems. Children were subjected to cruel working conditions, they had hardly any proper means of nutrition and overseers probably did not care much about them. The same is true today. While there are protection agencies, social workers and others working for welfare of children, there is little if any improvement in their condition especially in…
1. Mark Rice-Oxley, Child-abuse tragedy spurs British overhaul of social services; the government unveiled a plan last week to keep better records on children and streamline the bureaucracy.(WORLD) the Christian Science Monitor; 9/16/2003
2. Bliss (1908), "Elizabethan Poor Laws" pp. 918-920.
UK Children and Families
Homeless families are generally defined as adults with dependent children who are briefly accommodated by voluntary agency, local authority or housing association hostels in the United Kingdom (Vostanis 2002). They are taken in from a few days or several months, often four to six weeks and generally provided with bread and breakfast. Although this broad definition does not include children who have lost homes and live with friends and relatives, it is estimated that there are 140,000 such displaced families in the UK today. The average family consists of a single mother and at least two children. Trends show that these families become homeless again within a year from being housed by agencies. Domestic violence and harassment from the neighborhood are the most frequent cause behind their homelessness. The volume of homeless refugee families among them has dwindled in the late 90s, mostly confined in the…
1. Harrisona C. et al. (2001). Who is failing abused and neglected children? Archives of Disease in Childhood. http://www.fetalneonatal.com/cgi/content/full/85/4/300
2. Jackson, S (2001). Reducing risk and promoting resilience in vulnerable children. IUC Journal of Social Work, Journal Issue 4. Department of Social Relations and Services: Bemidji State University. http://www.bemidji.msu.edu/sw_journal/issue4/articles/jackson.html
3. Jowell, T et al. (1999). Lone parent families: routes to social inclusion. Gingerbread. http://www.gingerbread.org.uk/lprtsi.txt
4. Nixon, P. Family group conference connections: shared problems and joined-up solutions. International Institutes for Restorative Practices. http://iirp.org/library/vt/vt_nixon.html
Disease Control and Prevention (2016), as many as one out of every four children have experienced some type of abuse: including physical, emotional, or sexual abuse. Exposure to pornography, whether accidental or not, can be harmful to children's psychological or social development. However, coerced exposure to pornography is a more extensive form of abuse that coincides with other types of abuse including psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Coerced child pornography may in fact be one of the most harmful types of child abuse because of the multifaceted nature of the crime. The nationwide prevalence of abuse in the United States is over 700,000 children, with prevalence of death at 2.13 deaths per 100,000 children (CDC, 2016). Child abuse is not just an ethical issue; there are proven consequences of child abuse that have been substantiated by empirical evidence in the scientific literature. Only a few of the harmful effects of…
Child welfare services have a complicated history in America and still today face a continual crisis. On the one hand, foster care requires resources from the state and breaks up families; on the other hand, implementing family preservation plans carries its own risk. This policy reform paper will examine the problem presented by The Family First Prevention Services Act (FFPSA), enacted as part of Public Law (P.L.) 115–123, also known as the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018. It will then provide analysis of the problem from the standpoint of historical, social, economic, and political perspectives. It will then examine the policy, evaluate it and discuss current proposals for reform.
It is recognized that removing children from their families and placing them in foster group home services can be psychologically and emotionally damaging for the child (Ringel et al., 2018). However, leaving children in families where abuse is…
Behrmann, S. (2019). Former DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen says she left post because 'saying no' wasn't enough. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2019/10/22/kirstjen-nielsen-former-dhs-secretary-said-she-left-post-because-saying-no-wasnt-enough/2450196001/
Definitive Contract. (2016). Retrieved from https://govtribe.com/award/federal-contract-award/definitive-contract-hsfe3013c0366
Mallon, G., McHartt-Hess, P. (2013). Child Welfare in the 21st Century. 2nd Edition.Columbia University Press.
O’Connor, S. (2001). Orphan Trains: The Story of Charles Loring Brace and the Children He Saved and Failed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Patwardhan, I., Hurley, K. D., Thompson, R. W., Mason, W. A., & Ringle, J. L. (2017). Child maltreatment as a function of cumulative family risk: Findings from the intensive family preservation program. Child Abuse & Neglect, 70, 92-99.
Reid, P. (2019). DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen speaks for first time since resignation announcement. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/kirstjen-nielsen-resigning-dhs-secretary-expected-to-offer-resignation-today-live-updates-2019-04-07/
Ringel, J. S., Schultz, D., Mendelsohn, J., Holliday, S. B., Sieck, K., Edochie, I., & Davis, L. (2018). Improving child welfare outcomes: balancing investments in prevention and treatment. Rand health quarterly, 7(4).
Wiltz, T. (2018). This New Federal Law Will Change Foster Care As We Know It. Retrieved from https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2018/05/02/this-new-federal-law-will-change-foster-care-as-we-know-it
It can be seen that the mother of five, in the book, does not abuse them. Typically, child abuse is about intentional detrimental action or inaction of a care giver towards the children under their (caregiver's) care. Further, abuse is such action or inaction that leads to some form of suffering, injury or death of the vulnerable and dependent child. Child mistreatment takes many forms. It may involve physical abuse, exploitation, sexual abuse, emotional abuse or even neglect. When a parent or caregiver metes physical injury that is non-accidental to a child, then it qualifies as physical abuse. Whereas physical abuse also takes various forms, the following signs are common and can be noticed easily. Therefore, when you see them, you should raise an alarm, or notify authorities.
Sexual abuse occurs when an adult uses a child to satisfy their own sexual desires or fantasies or even leads…
Childhelp. (2015, October 23). The Issue of Child Abuse. Retrieved from Child Help: https://www.childhelp.org/child-abuse/
Parent, M. (1996). Turning Stones My Day And Nights With Children At Risk. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace and Company.
Department of human services. (2012).What are the effects of child abuse? etrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/children,-families-and-young-people/child-protection/about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse/who-is-likely-to-be-abused-and-what-are-the-effects
It identifies effects such as emotional, physical and psychological problems as well as trauma. The various forms of abuse lead to emotional problems to the child particularly distrust and low self-esteem when they are adults. The children who have been abused are also depicted to be aggressive or self-destructive, they are also more likely to go into drug abuse and even become young offenders.in the long run, adults who were victims of child abuse end up abusing their own children.
Child help. (2013).Immediate effects of child abuse. etrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.childhelp.org/pages/immediate-effects-of-child-abuse
There are some immediate effects from child abuse which are serious especially to infants as depicted in the source above. Serious injuries and fatalities occur in children who are just under 12 months.there are various signs which indicate that a…
Child help. (2013).Immediate effects of child abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.childhelp.org/pages/immediate-effects-of-child-abuse childrens.org. (2013). Effects of Child Abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://childrens.org/child/effects-of-child-abuse/
Commonwealth of Australia. (2010). Effects of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.aifs.gov.au/nch/pubs/sheets/rs17/rs17.html
Department of human services. (2012).What are the effects of child abuse? Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/children,-families-and-young-people/child-protection/about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse/who-is-likely-to-be-abused-and-what-are-the-effects
Family Resource Center. (2012). Effects of Child Abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.frcmo.org/effects.html
Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.
Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…
BBC. Merkel in child protection plea. 2007. 7 April 2008. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7166094.stm
Clemons, Steven. "Koizumi Needs Fiscal Shot to Ring Round the World, New America Foundation. Daily Yomiuri." New American Foundation. 2002. 7 Apr 2008. http://www.newamerica.net/publications/articles/2002/koizumi_needs_fiscal_shot_to_ring_round_the_world
Deutche Welle. German Standard of Living in Decline. 2004. 7 April 2008. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,1305105,00.html
Goodman, Roger. Children of the Japanese State: The Changing Role of Child Protection Institutions in Contemporary Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period being drawn out (Hall, 1987).
The author suggests that a country full of only children will result in children who grow into adults that will be self-centered and less likely to be concerned with the welfare of the country as a whole, and more likely to be concerned with their own personal satisfaction. This goes against the Chinese ideology that it is important to serve the country rather than oneself, and Hall suggests that "a citizenry made up of…
Banghan, H.; Johnson, K.; Liyao, W. 1998. "Infant Abandonment in China." Population and Development Review, 24(3):469
Greenhalgh, S. (2003). "Science, modernity and the making of China's one-child policy." Population and Development Review, 29(2):163
Hall, E. (1987). "China's only child: This strict policy is controlling China's population problem, but will only children make unwilling socialists." Psychology Today,
Johnson, D. Gale. 1994. "Effects of institutions and policies on rural population growth with application to China. Population and Development Review 20 (3): 503-531.
The social workers should have known what was happening by monitoring on a regular basis. Providing job training and daycare for LaJoe, coming to the house every month to talk to her about changing her circumstances and mandating that she attend counseling are all monitoring methods that should have been in place and were not.
If only one change could be made to the social welfare system for the benefit of the families that are on it I would change the case loads of the social workers. Currently social workers have so many cases that there is no way for them to get involved with the families and help them help themselves out of the system. They are barely able to file the reports and deal with the problems that arise. If I could change one thing I would provide enough funding that each social worker only had 30 cases…
Had she been on the reformed system she would have gotten completely off of welfare in a year or two and would have broken the family cycle of dependence on the system.
Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here: The Story of Two Boys Growing Up in the Other America (Paperback) Anchor; Reissue edition (January 5, 1992)
0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).
Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.
Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.
The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.
Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.
According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…
ritten by Alex Kotlowitz, a reporter for the all Street Journal, the book There Are No Children There follows two boys' activities around the Henry Horner Homes, a low-income public housing project in Chicago, Illinois. The book covers the time period from the summer of 1987 through September, 1989, and follows the protagonists, Lafeyette Rivers (nearly 12 years old) and Pharoah Rivers (nine years old). This is not an ordinary American neighborhood. It is a heavy gang area, a war zone where shootings are commonplace, drugs are a catalyst for crime and death seems to lurk around every corner. This paper will review the book chronologically through five chapters then provide a closer critique of LaJoe Rivers, the mother of the protagonists.
The average American comes home from work in the evening, opens a refreshing cold drink, gets comfortable on the couch and turns on the evening news.…
Bushey, Claire. "Saying goodbye to Henry Horner Homes." Chi-Town Daily News. Retrieved February 15, 2011, from http://www.chitowndailynews.org .
Grace, Julie. "There Are No Children Here." Time Magazine. Retrieved February 16, 2011,
from http://www.time.com/printout/0,8816,981434,00.html . (1994).
Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here: The Story of Two Boys Growing Up in the Other
child in crisis; what would your immediate response be? For those in the field of social work, the response would be to act without hesitation. The question arises, however, if whether a preventative, community based approach benefits service recipients better than a crisis management approach. The issue of how to best allocate limited resources is but one of the issues facing the field of social work today. Another issue is the exclusion of front line service providers from the decision-making process. Service providers who relate to clients directly have an inside view on what action is needed to bring about positive change; however, life-altering decisions are often made by remote administration unfamiliar with the needs of their clients, resulting in change that often is too little, and occurs too late. Finally, middle level management walks a delicate tightrope in the social work field. Their job of balancing compliance with directives…
The Face of Poverty in Lincoln, Nebraska. The Center for People in Need. 2009.
Graham, John. What Makes Social Workers Happy? Edmonton Journal. Retrieved from http://www.edmontonjournal.com/health/What+makes+social+workers+happy/
McKenzie, Brad, and Wharf, Brian. Connecting Policy to Practice in the Human Services. Oxford:
childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors
Previous study: What has the previous study found out?
A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.
he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.
Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…
The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.
Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood obesity in America: Linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
For the year June 2000 there were 5,780,543 TANF families as against 14,111,992 TANF families during January 1993. (Total TANF ecipients by State)
The following graph shows the percentage of the U.S. population on Welfare since 1960. As it can be seen that there was a gradual rise from the year 1960 when the program was launched till 1972 after which there was a plateau phase till 1978. It remained range bound from 1979 till 1990 with minor rise and fall. The years 1993 and 1994 was the peak with more than 5.5% of the U.S. population covered under TANF. After 1994, coverage came down sharply from 1996 till 1999 when it was 2.5%. (Statistics: Percentage of U.S. Population on Welfare since 1960)
Percentage of the U.S. Population on Welfare Since 1960 http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/news/stats/uspops.gif
Action Alert- Ask for a Multiyear TANF Extension with Significant Child Care Funding. etrieved at…
Action Alert- Ask for a Multiyear TANF Extension with Significant Child Care Funding. Retrieved at http://www.results.org/website/article.asp?id=965Accessed on 12 May, 2005
Administration for Children and Families: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program. Retrieved at http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofa/exsumcl.htm . Accessed on 12 May, 2005
Besharov, Douglas J. The Past and Future of Welfare Reform. Retrieved at http://www.welfareacademy.org/pubs/welfare/pastandfuture.pdf . Accessed on 12 May, 2005
Gorman, Angie O. Playing the Rules and Still Losing Ground. Retrieved at http://www.americamagazine.org/gettext.cfm?articleTypeID=1&textID=2419&issueID=397Accessed on 12 May, 2005
The second issue is the economic disparity between men and women, and the differences in their earning capabilities. Not only are women more likely to be single parents, they are also less likely to be given jobs then men, and are also apt to earn less at these jobs. The fact that even full-time employment in many cases did not provide enough of a living to support a family is a key indicator that something is wrong with society. Welfare is an attempt to address this problem, and even it falls short. This also leads to a feeling of injustice which is definitely felt by many on welfare, and is used to justify continuing payments by certain individuals DeParle mentions. In general, however, the families he depicts are struggling against external practical constraints and the inner struggle and strained energy reserves that this causes, with very real inhibitive effects on…
hat are the main debates on equality on the MDGs post 2015, and how is this important for the children's well-being?
There are many debatable items and priorities that are associated the ongoing efforts in the 2015 Millennium Development Goals. One of the main priorities is to eradicate poverty. This is no easy task and has been a goal for the group since its origin. However, this issue is important to children in many ways. One particular way to help eradicate poverty is through education; especially the education of young females.
One of the reasons education is especially important for young women is that education is linked to the age at which women marry and have children. In sub-Saharan Africa and in South and est Asia, child marriage affects one in eight girls; one in seven gives birth by the age of 17; education can empower…
Rose, P. "The Great Debate." 25 September 2013. Reuters. Online. 30 March 2014.
UNICEF. "The Changing State of Global Poverty." July 2011. UNICEF. Online. 31 March 2014.
United Nations. "Conventions on the Rights of the Child." 2 September 1990. United Nations Human Rights. Online. 31 March 2014.