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CHILD WELFARE IN REVIEW
Financial Status of Children in Welfare - a review conducted in 9 trials on 2,000 participants to determine if financial support to poor families would improve children's health and welfare did not yield sufficient evidence on the financial benefits of intervention (Lucas, 2008). A study on the effectiveness of recent reforms on the chronic problems of the child welfare system in the United States (Westat 2002) found that fiscal reforms did not necessarily produce desirable outcomes nor did fiscal changes eliminate chronic problems in child welfare (Westat). A survey conducted on the child welfare nonprofits in New York, however, showed that the basic problem they encountered was not the lack of skill in managing finances (Marwell et al. 2012). Rather, it revealed that additional public and private investment would enhance the financial stability of these organizations (Marwell et al.). Westat website is a government…… [Read More]
Nor is she eligible to receive Medicaid, based on her minimum wage income.
This has put the minimum wage earning single parent in a situation where she must devote her minimum wage to food and healthcare, if healthcare is available to her through her job, and, if it is not, she becomes medically uninsured.
TANF now allows states money to.".. spend their share of federal block grant funds ($16.38 billion annually) in any way "reasonably calculated to achieve the purposes of TANF (Hasnan and Morris, 2)." This is an incredibly worrisome aspect of the program, since it would be necessary to challenge on a step-by-step basis the ways in which the states use of the $16.38 billion dollars annually to determine if in fact those monies are being spent in furthering the goals of TANF. This is allowing the states access to monies budgeted to needy families, and there is…… [Read More]
It was public outrage stemming from the fact that an already wealthy celebrity would use child labor to further acquire wealth that caused Ms. Gifford to react. It was a very highly publicized case, and in a journal article appearing in a 1998 edition of Afterimage, journalist ebecca Schreiber commented this way:
Every so often, an event like the Kathy Lee Gifford scandal uncovers the whole line of production, bringing down public scrutiny on each of the links in the chain."(23) the tactical struggle waged through publicity and public relations is a significant site of image politics in the clothing industry, which is fundamentally driven by the production of images, the social value of style and signifying practices of fashion. Visibility is a form of publicity, the precondition to generating political identification, garnering attention and directing public discourse. Such image-based strategies, always partial and supplementary, are continually negotiated and contingent…… [Read More]
The principal tasks that I will be performing in that regard will be: conducting initial interviews in conjunction with assessments of need for services, participating in the team decision-making process to identify the most beneficial interventions, and helping to implement those decisions and facilitate those interventions. In general, my contribution will always be within the conceptual framework of making the most beneficial changes possible for all of the children, families, and communities that I serve and of minimizing any conceivable harm capable of being caused by social work interventions.
3. The Cuyahoga County Department of Children and Family Services believes all families and children should have a voice in the decisions that are made about them. To that end, we utilize the Team Decision-Making approach. Please describe this methodology and its major components.
In principle, the concept of team decision making is designed to increase the effectiveness of department interventions…… [Read More]
A consequence has been the increasingly common act by states and cities of slashing budgets which either eliminate child welfare agency resources or even the agencies themselves. Today, in the anticipated aftermath of the rash of scandals pockmarking the Bush Administration's oversight in this area, many agencies are simply fighting to stay alive. And today, in so many state venues, there is a justified fear of the budget axe. In our current economic times, there is little statewide funding available. Child welfare agencies, their staffs and their resources are especially vulnerable, with budgetary policy today reflecting a sense of recession and an unwillingness to spend in such areas. (Haynes, 1)
This poses an extremely great challenge to the current generation of leaders poised to undo the failures of a decade of infrastructural neglect. President Obama has spoken frankly of the need for more aggressive law enforcement focus on areas such…… [Read More]
Hennepin County Loves Kids
The community agency examined within this document for reflection is the Hennepin County Child Support Agency. This agency is part of a larger entity, the Hennepin County Department of Human Services. The child support agency provides a number of desirable services to help children and families of children who are in need of various forms of aid. The main goal of this agency is to ensure that parents who are not guardians of their children have a formalized means of ensuring they receive the benefits which all children need. These include access to sustainable medical care, nutritious food, and expenses for living. The vast majority of services facilitated by the Child Support Agency achieve these goals.
To make these ends attainable, the agency is active both with guardians, non-guardians, and various facets of the court system to ensure the overall welfare of children (Child Welfare, 2017).…… [Read More]
Ethnic/racial and socioeconomic factors would not be considered. Children would not need referral from any social services agency. This would eliminate the stigmatizing that accompanies enrollment in current programs, including Head Start.
Derezotes, D.M., & Hill, .B. (n.d.). Examining the disproportionate representation of Children of color in the child welfare system. ace Matters Consortium, Casey Family Programs.
Dettlaff, a.J., & ycraft, J.. (2010). Factors contributing to disproportionality in the child welfare system: Views from the legal community. Social Work 55 (3), pp. 213-224.
Guzman, L. (2004). Grandma and grandpa taking care of the kids: Patterns of involvement [Electronic Version]. Child Trends: esearch Brief, 17, 1-8. etrieved December 11, 2010, from www.childtrends.org.
Hill, .B. (2007). An analysis of racial/ethnic disproportionality and disparity at the national, state, and county levels. Casey-CCSP Alliance for acial Equity in Child Welfare.
Kirk, .S., & Griffith, D.P. (2008). Impact of intensive family preservation services on…… [Read More]
Indian Child Welfare Act
History and context of the policy
The Congress enacted the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) in 1978. This Act was a result of a series of deliberations, debates, and hearings to alleviate a terrific crisis of national proportions: the separation of Indian children from their families. The act was implemented due to the high rate of removal of Indian children from their traditional families and homes, primarily their Indian culture. Before its implementation, most Indian children were removed from their Indian families and put in non-Indian homes: presumably, with no Indian culture. The states received payments from the Bureau of Indian Affairs to remove Indian children from their traditional homes and place them with non-Indian homes. In a few cases, the rate of per capita of Indian children in foster homes doubled as compared to the rate for non-Indians. Such a dramatic rate of removing Indian…… [Read More]
Multicultural Child Welfare Resources Paper: Child Welfare
The Native American and Latino Hispanic populations in Minnesota experience disparities that come externally from the child welfare system. Some of them include socioeconomic factors such as limited access to healthcare, education, and corrections, historical trauma for the families, discrimination, and prejudice when interacting with others (DHS, 2010).
The disparities experienced have forced child welfare systems to work in assuring that their experiences are fair and equitable especially in cases where children are involved. The Minnesota Department of Human Services (DHS) is more committed to multicultural child welfare center (MCCWC) development because they are programs that help practitioners and social workers in child welfare services to diversify their purposes in reducing disparities. The information that practitioners and social workers attain from such programs goes a long way in seeing that children have permanency in an attempt to reduce out-of-home care, which is temporary.…… [Read More]
TOUGH LOVE, a Documentary about the Child Welfare System
Directed by Emmy-nominated director, Stephanie Wang, Tough Love depicts the life and struggle of a couple, Patrick (hailing from Seattle) and Hannah (hailing from the city of New York), as they traverse the US child welfare structure’s red tape to reclaim custody over their kids. The two have undergone the trauma of having their children taken away by governmental authorities. The film features vérité-type footage, besides exclusive views of child welfare courts, portraying a personal and intimate record of the couple’s challenges and victory while they tackle prior mistakes and try to assert their eligibility to enjoy another chance at raising their children. All through the course of the movie, the kids’ foster parents are shown, in addition to judges in charge of the case and child welfare specialists who can clearly grasp the working of this complicated system (Stephanie, 2015).…… [Read More]
Family preservation services have been defined as short-term, family-focused services designed to assist families in crisis by improving parenting and family functioning while keeping children safe (Services, N.d.). While it has typically been the case that many social service departments would rely on the foster care system for child safety issues, family preservation services became a popular alternative when it was recognition to be more beneficial for the children who need a safe and stable family environment. It has been realized that separating children from their families, such as is the case when they would enter foster care, can be traumatic for them and leave them with negative consequences that can last indefinitely. Therefore, instead of looking at the child as a sole individual, the family preservation perspective broadens the scope of the welfare to include the entire family unit.
The model for the services is founded on the belief…… [Read More]
Define child and labor separately.
Child labor in the United States has long been a subject of concern. The U.S. enacted strict child labor statutes in 1938 (Labor, 2009), and has continued to enforce that law. However, there remain problems at home in the U.S. And abroad. The United States seeks to enforce the law, but there are times when it is difficult to catch perpetrators of violations. However, the U.S. has trade restrictions against countries that do not have strict enforcement of international standards. This research examines statutes in the United States (including their historic antecedents), what is being done to violators, and how trade is affected by citizen outcry against human rights violators and compliance with international law.
Current thinking on human rights dictates that children reach a certain age before they are to be put into the workforce. However, different cultures have different…… [Read More]
ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.
The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…… [Read More]
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.
Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…… [Read More]
Being a parent isn't easy, offer a helping hand so parents can rest or spend time together. 3) Help yourself. When things pile up take time out so you don't get to the point of feeling overwhelmed or out of control. 4) Don't get frustrated if your baby cries. 5) Get involved, assist in community efforts to develop services to meet the needs of healthy children and families. 6) Promote programs at school to teach children, parents, and teacher's strategies to be safe. 7) Help develop parenting recourses at your local library. 8) Monitor your child's television and video viewing, watching violent behavior can harm children. 9) Volunteer at a local child abuse prevention program. 10) eport suspected abuse or neglect. Education, community involvement and cooperation are significant factors in the effort to prevent children from suffering maltreatment.
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). easonable suspicion of child…… [Read More]
Child abuse and neglect is a highly discussed issue in the present day. For a long time now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. There are significant implications from child abuse and neglect in the United States and it is imperative to come up with the necessary ways of dealing with it. The solution is to have a propagating state program that encompasses poor and underprivileged children. There is also need for family programs that educate and teach households on better child treatment and attaining the necessary skills. Such programs should also be expanded to schools to determine their vulnerabilities and needs.
Child abuse and neglect is a highly debated issue in the contemporary. For a lengthy period now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been experientially demonstrated to be linked to an assortment of…… [Read More]
Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.
As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.
Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:
Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…… [Read More]
Director Martin Teicher of the Developmental iophsychiatry Research Program at McLean said that maltreatment in childhood can effect changes in brain function and structure. A child's brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence. His interactions with the environment create effects, which stabilize in puberty and adulthood. These experiences determine how the child will be wired. The four types of cranial abnormalities, which are permanent, are limbic irritability, arrested development of the left hemisphere, deficient integration between the left and the right hemispheres, and increased vermal activity.
The McLean researchers investigated 253 adults in an outpatient mental health clinic. More than half of them reported a history of physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The researchers found that those who were abused as children scored higher in the Limbic System Checklist. The finding provided evidence that abuse in childhood caused electrical impulses when limbic cells communicate. This results in seizures,…… [Read More]
The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.
The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…… [Read More]
Indian Welfare Act
There are few things in life as traumatic as losing a child. Unfortunately, this is a phenomenon that plagues humanity on a daily basis. Children are lost in many ways. Some die, some are kidnapped. Others are lost through adoption. For some mothers, adoption is an informed decision made on the basis of what the individual believes is right for her child. However, there is also a phenomenon of adoption that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s, in which mothers were more or less coerced in giving up their children for adoption. In many cases, this coercion also occurred without informed consent, where mothers were asked to sign documents without receiving full disclosure regarding the nature of such documents. This occurred disproportionately among Indian children, many of whom were forcibly removed from their parents during the 1960s and 1970s. This resulted in the Indian Child Welfare Act,…… [Read More]
Others, however, have argued that children do not become familiar with the new spouse, seeing him or her as a stranger, which might suggest that stress is furthered rather than reduced in these children. According to Jeynes (1998), tension between biological parents can seriously impact the child, as can the fact that new, unstable marriages are likely to end in divorce (p. 25). Because of this tension and stress Jeynes (1998) points out that children can become angry, aggressive, and unhappy (p. 26). Thus, the body of literature regarding the effects of remarriage on children varies widely. One fact, however, remains. Divorce and remarriage causes stress in children, and this stress can explain many of the negative affects that they receive after remarriage. emarriage, in some cases, however, also brings stability, which can explain the positive affects, such as increased academic achievement, that these children exemplified.
Jeynes, William H.…… [Read More]
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…… [Read More]
youth transition out of foster care as they "age-out" of the system. This can prove to be a very challenging and difficult phase for young people as they are expected to take on adult responsibilities and make their own way in the world. Whether youth successfully transition from foster care to independent living is multifaceted, and requires detailed investigation in order to illuminate how the foster care system can facilitate change throughout the "aging-out" process.
Keller et al. (2007) utilized person-oriented research methods in order to investigate how well adolescents transition from life as part of the child welfare system to independent living as adults. This research method was chosen for the study in order to appropriate capture and understand the various and diverse ways these youth may be prepared for the transition among a sample that is large and representative of the population of youth aging-out from foster care.…… [Read More]
Furthermore, it is agreed that those who are working tend to earn low wages, about $7.00 per hour on average, thus making it difficult for them to support their families (Sawhill pp). Another concern is that the poverty rate has not fallen as much as the caseload (Sawhill pp). Fewer poor children are receiving assistance, and the incomes of the poorest one-fifth of single-parent families have continued to fall (Sawhill pp). Many families remain in deep poverty, and according to some reports, requests for emergency assistance have grown (Sawhill pp). Overall, some 700,000 families were significantly worse off in 1999 than their counterparts in 1995 (Sawhill pp).
Since welfare reform was implemented during an unprecedented economic expansion, questions remain about how much of the good news should be attributed to the 1996 law and how much to a strong economy or to the growth of other programs such as the…… [Read More]
Child and PTSD
THE CURSE OF EMOTIONAL TRAUMA
Nature equipped the body with an inherent mechanism to avoid danger or defend oneself against it (NIMH, 2013). ut in some persons, this naturally protective mechanism goes haywire and the reaction to fight or flee remains even in the absence of real danger. This abnormal condition is called post-traumatic disorder (NIMH).
The condition grows out of a horrifying experience of physical violence or threat in the person, a loved one or even a stranger as witnessed by the person who later develops the condition (NIMH, 2013). PTSD was first recognized as a mental and emotional condition among returning war veterans. ut it can also develop from other traumatic experiences, such as rape, torture, beating, captivity, accidents, fires, road accidents or natural disasters (NIMH).
Social Workers and PTSD
The social worker performs a number of professional roles. They act as brokers,…… [Read More]
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's…… [Read More]
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…… [Read More]
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…… [Read More]
In the end, the epidemic of out of wedlock children by professional athletes is a serious concern. These athletes, whether they like it or not, are role models to the youth of today, and as such, they need to be especially concerned with the moral implications of their actions. By using Kantian morality, one easily begins to see that at no point is having an out of wedlock child a moral decision. From conception, when the mother-to-be is used as a means for the ends of sexual gratification, to the lack of consideration for the effects the stress of paternity suits will have on the team in general, to the complete disregard for the child who had no voice in the decision at all and relied on the two parents to make the best decision possible, each step was fraught with immorality.
Chan, S. "The Confucian Notion of…… [Read More]
The results of all evaluations will be used in a variety of ways to improve the programs currently operated by the Children's Defense Fund and to suggest new areas in which the development of programs would be of assistance to the Fund's overall mission of providing a "strong, effective, independent voice for all the children of America" (CDF 2010). Programs found to be less cost-effective than would be desired will be further analyzed to determine how cost savings might be achieved, with the complete scrapping of certain programs and the creation of new and similarly-targeted programs when necessary. Evaluations will also be used to determine budgeting needs for ongoing project management and implementation, resulting in more accurate projections and thus leading to more focused and more effective fundraising efforts. This leads to another important use for the results of these evaluation that, while not directly related to the specific mission…… [Read More]
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…… [Read More]
Although there has been some movement away from the legalistic mode of child protection favored in the 1980s and 1990s, there is still a focus on forensic investigation of child abuse, which does not allow for sufficient between high risk families and low risk families, decreasing the chances that truly at risk children will receive protection, as well as increasing the risk of intervention in functioning families. Currently, Australia is taking a public health approach to child protective services. "In most states child protection services are part of a broader department of human services" (Lamont & Bromfield, 2010).
The dramatic increase in services to children in danger has come with a very high price tag. "Nationally, approximately $2.8 billion was spent on child protection and out-of-home care services in 2010-11, which was an increase of $137.7 million from 2009-10. Of this expenditure, out-of-home care services accounted for the majority (64.9%…… [Read More]
However, from 2008 the number began to decrease slightly. The rate of increase in the number of children aging out of the United States foster care system from 1998 to 2007 is 71.7%. Whereas the rate declined by 0.71% in the year 2008. In the year 2009, there was again a decline of 0.33%. In the year 2010, the number of children aging out of foster care system declined by 5.4%. It can be concluded from the above figure that there was a significant increase in the number of children aging out of foster care system from the year 1998 to 2007. Whereas, this number started declining from the year 2008 and it is still following a declining trend. (McCoy-oth, DeVoogh & Fletcher, 2011)
Challenges Faced by the youth aging out of Foster Care System
Children who age out of the foster care system generally face many problems in relation…… [Read More]
By the 1970s most states had mandatory child abuse reporting laws. These laws aimed at identifying abused children and setting in motion legal procedures to investigate the child's situation and either to provide services for them in their own home or to remove them from their home and place them in a safer environment (Melli, 1998).
Historically, the laws and regulations of the present are the children and grandchildren of the laws that were pioneered in the 1960s and 1970s. Certainly, experience makes any process better and smoother, but essentially, the system of three to four decades ago would have been very similar to today. hat would not have percolated down to teachers, principals and other team personnel yet would have been the knowledge of the new legal system and how to function in it. This uncertainty would have undoubtedly have slowed the intervention as wary professionals move cautiously, balancing…… [Read More]
One explanation is the fact that mental health services are generally allocated based on the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis, and older children are more likely to meet criteria for specific disorders. Although younger children may exhibit certain symptoms, they are less likely to meet the full criteria for a classified disorder (Fisher 2005). Moreover, the behavior of older foster children may appear to pose more of an immediate threat, either to themselves or to others (Fisher 2005). Even in the general population, risks for violence, juvenile delinquency and other behavioral problems, increase with age, thus in high-risk populations (as defined by factors such as poverty and violence), the risk gradient associated with age increases, therefore the need for services may be the greatest in the short-term among older foster children (Fisher 2005).
In a study published in the January 2005 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of…… [Read More]
Domestic Violence on Children
Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…… [Read More]
hen their state of denial lifts, they are often wracked with remorse for what they've done.
The final circumstance that Resnick lists is uncommon but not unheard of among mothers who kill their children: spousal revenge. Though this is rare among women, one recent case that highlights it is the case of an Ontario mother, Elaine Campione, who drowned her two daughters in the bathtub, allegedly to keep her ex-husband from getting custody and to inflict intense suffering upon him. She even made a video only minutes after the murders, asking her ex-husband if he was "happy now" (CTV News 2010).
ith all of these circumstances potentially leading parents, especially mothers, to murder their children, legal prosecution and defense of these cases can be difficult -- at times, heart-wrenching. In the cases of mothers who have killed their children, the great majority of the defenses center around pleas of insanity.…… [Read More]
Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse
ights: Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse
More than three million reports of child abuse and neglect will be filed in the United States this year (Children's ights 2012). In many states, reporting suspected or alleged child abuse is mandatory in which certain steps must be followed to ensure the immediate safety of the child and the confidentiality and privacy of the accused family. Sadly, at least four children die from abuse or neglect every day -- many in homes that are already known to child welfare agencies, and some in foster care placements made by the child welfare agencies themselves. Moreover, children and their families still have rights that must be honored during an investigation (Big Brothers 2009).
Parent's ights When Investigated
Whenever the department completes an investigation of a child abuse or neglect report, the department must notify the alleged perpetrator(s) of the report…… [Read More]
Abused and Exploited Children
Child abuse is one of the most unfortunate realities of our society. In a world marked by progress, it is sad that there are still many households where young children are being subjected to violence both physical and otherwise. Child abuse is defined as any non-accidental harm or injury to a child caused by an adult. Despite the presence of numerous child protection services and agencies, children are still regularly facing violence at home which may often lead to fatal injuries. Even though child abuse is commonly known and understood as physical abuse, this is not entirely true. Abuse can occur in other forms as well and we shall now discuss some of the more common forms in which child abuse mars our society.
Define the 4 types of abuse and give 4-5 examples of the most common signs/symptoms of that type of abuse.
TYPES OF…… [Read More]
Foster Children/Foster Care
Issues of a Foster Child
Families and Children Served through Foster Care
The Policy Framework
This thesis reviews foster care in the United States: the reasons why children fall into the category of children who need to be taken out of their families and placed in care, the numerous emotional and psychological responses of children in foster care, and the psychological and emotional care that is given to children that are placed in foster care. The numerous laws covering foster care institutions and the policies they implement regarding the treatment of children in their care are also discussed. An extensive list of references is also given at the end of the thesis.
Everyday more children are born into this world. Yet everyday there is a mother or a father who child is placed in a foster care facility, for many different reasons. Children are…… [Read More]
Parental Rights and Children's Welfare
Sociological Analysis on Parental Rights vs. Children's Welfare: Structural-Functionalist, Conflict, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
Studying the structure and dynamics of society entails not only analyzing the elements that comprise it, but also the general or 'bigger picture' of what society is -- that is, analysis of social structure and dynamics must be at the macro and micro levels. Indeed, sociological phenomena are analyzed and studied by social scientists using various theoretical perspectives formulated in order to provide researchers, as well as their audience, a look into the various interpretations that people give to explain specific events or realities experienced by the society and the individual. In the field of sociology, among these theoretical perspectives are the structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist traditions.
A particular example illustrating the discussion above is the analysis of parental rights and children's welfare, considered as an essential sociological phenomenon affecting…… [Read More]
For example, Leventhal (2001) analyzed different intervention methodology and implementation of home-based services aimed at preventing abuse and neglect as well as promoting the health and development of the infant and mother, by specifically looking at the Healthy Families Olds' models.
Kass and colleagues (2003) from Fight Crime: Invest in Kids argue that the cycle of violence can be prevented with intervention methods including parenting education. oberts, Wolman and Harris-Looby (2004, p. 101) state that "teaching students parenting skills may be the most cost-effective way to reduce violent and abusive behaviors and prevent the transfer of violent behaviors from generation to generation." They found that for less than $1,000, Project Baby Care, a parental training program developed for adolescents proved successful in improving parental knowledge and skills and attitudes toward caring for an infant.
Another study (Hughs & Gottlieb, 2004), regarding the effects of the Webster-Stratton parenting program on parenting…… [Read More]
Despite these compelling findings, many youth are not routinely assessed for such violence exposure and its ramifications by the educational, child welfare, social service, and juvenile justice systems with which they frequently interact." (2007) This exposure is not only related to outcomes of a negative nature as well as heightened drug use and greater HIV related risk behaviors." (Vioson, 2007) the work of McDowell (2006) entitled: "Caring for Child Victims: Countering the Effects of Domestic Violence" published in the Journal of Specialists in Pediatric Nursing states that children are affected by family violence and that holistic assessment by the nurse is "essential to understanding the stressor of domestic violence." (McDowell, 2006) it is important to understand that less than one-third of domestic violence cases are reported. This author specifically charges the pediatric nurse in having the knowledge and skills necessary to identify childhood trauma from having witnessed family abuse.
Summary…… [Read More]
Rising Poverty and Homelessness
NOT TO E IGNORED
Rising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families, Children and Homelessness
Census ureau (2010) reported that, for the three consecutive years, the number of people living in poverty has been increasing and reached 46.2 million or 15% of the total population. Overall poverty rate for all U.S. families went up from 9.8% in 2007 to 11.7% in 2010. Recession in the late 2007 has strongly cut through all ages, both genders and all race-ethnic groups. ut the most severely affected are young families, headed by adults under 30, with one or more children. This condition is seen to assert long-lasting negative effects of children's cognitive achievement, education, nutrition and physical and mental health as well as social behavior. These developments are likely to have long-term consequences on the nation's economy and social future U.S. Census ureau). ut professionals and parents can buffer these…… [Read More]
Social Policy: Child Abuse and Neglect
One of the essential components of the social work profession is safeguarding children from neglect and abuse. Professionals in this field work towards ensuring that children are protected from abuse and neglect in order to promote their development and growth into healthy, well-being adults. To achieve these goals, social work professionals carry out several initiatives including creating, implementing, and evaluating policy initiatives. The various initiatives adopted by social work professionals are targeted towards lessening child abuse and neglect as well as providing necessary resources and support that enhances children's development and well-being. The development of policy initiatives that target reduction of child abuse and neglect is crucial because policies govern the practices of social work professionals when offering support and resources for promoting children's development and well-being.
Given the significance of policies in helping social workers to lessen child abuse and neglect, several policies…… [Read More]
Each day, thousands of New Yorkers experience violence at the hands of someone they love. But only a fraction of victims know where to get help" (p. 3).
Moreover, many domestic violence victims are coerced by the perpetrators into not testifying against them. In this regard, Glaberson (2011) reports that, "The defendants in domestic violence cases are in constant contact with their victims, and they use various means and methods to try to have the case dropped. Many of them cannot seem to stop themselves from sweet-talking, confessing to, berating and threatening . . . The women they were charged with abusing" (p. 3). Because even abusive relationships can be strong, some women who have experienced domestic violence -- even many times -- may be reluctant to prosecute their spouses or partners. In some cases, domestic violence shelters encourage abused partners to seek formal divorces in order to facilitate the…… [Read More]
Love and non-judgmental acceptance may be the most important things. Yes, money can help a person find a niche in life, but money is insufficient to get a person off the street. Following up later with some of the residents, I discovered that many would have returned to the streets a long time ago, despite their opportunity of free accommodation and food, were it not for the friends and care that they felt in these homes. Many of them, over and again, reiterated the bonds that they had formed one with another and, sometimes, with the staff members themselves. Some, through the staff members, had found support in the external community.
This presence of support was particularly evident in the foster home. There the 'foster parents' seemed to have a reputation for providing unconditional love, and I was greatly struck with the way that some of the residents, particularly the…… [Read More]
Last year, 76 minors were homicide victims."
The child has lost her life and the government is now trying to take actions to revamp the system. Under the new system, Children's Trusts will be set up "at the local level to bring experts - psychologists, social workers, education officials - together, with a local director ultimately accountable."
There may appear to be few similarities between EPL and current social welfare policy but when we closely study their impact, we fail to accept the notion that a lot has changed. EPL was ineffective in controlling child-related problems. Children were subjected to cruel working conditions, they had hardly any proper means of nutrition and overseers probably did not care much about them. The same is true today. While there are protection agencies, social workers and others working for welfare of children, there is little if any improvement in their condition especially in…… [Read More]
UK Children and Families
Homeless families are generally defined as adults with dependent children who are briefly accommodated by voluntary agency, local authority or housing association hostels in the United Kingdom (Vostanis 2002). They are taken in from a few days or several months, often four to six weeks and generally provided with bread and breakfast. Although this broad definition does not include children who have lost homes and live with friends and relatives, it is estimated that there are 140,000 such displaced families in the UK today. The average family consists of a single mother and at least two children. Trends show that these families become homeless again within a year from being housed by agencies. Domestic violence and harassment from the neighborhood are the most frequent cause behind their homelessness. The volume of homeless refugee families among them has dwindled in the late 90s, mostly confined in the…… [Read More]
Disease Control and Prevention (2016), as many as one out of every four children have experienced some type of abuse: including physical, emotional, or sexual abuse. Exposure to pornography, whether accidental or not, can be harmful to children's psychological or social development. However, coerced exposure to pornography is a more extensive form of abuse that coincides with other types of abuse including psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Coerced child pornography may in fact be one of the most harmful types of child abuse because of the multifaceted nature of the crime. The nationwide prevalence of abuse in the United States is over 700,000 children, with prevalence of death at 2.13 deaths per 100,000 children (CDC, 2016). Child abuse is not just an ethical issue; there are proven consequences of child abuse that have been substantiated by empirical evidence in the scientific literature. Only a few of the harmful effects of…… [Read More]
homeless and runaway young people is viewed by many authorities as a human rights condition that grows out of poverty and victimization, often right in their family settings, and later, in the street (Farrow 1992) where they are further exposed to violence and other forms of dysfunction..
The International Perspective on the Health Needs of Homeless Youth uses the terms "street children" to refer to those below 18 years old who live through various ways in the streets. The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund or UNICEF estimated that there were between 30 and 170 million street children and youth in the world (Farrow 1992). The UNICEF divided these young people broadly into a larger group and a smaller group, the larger one, consisting of youngsters who engaged in some economic activity in the streets and often returned to their families at night. The smaller group consisted of young people…… [Read More]
It can be seen that the mother of five, in the book, does not abuse them. Typically, child abuse is about intentional detrimental action or inaction of a care giver towards the children under their (caregiver's) care. Further, abuse is such action or inaction that leads to some form of suffering, injury or death of the vulnerable and dependent child. Child mistreatment takes many forms. It may involve physical abuse, exploitation, sexual abuse, emotional abuse or even neglect. When a parent or caregiver metes physical injury that is non-accidental to a child, then it qualifies as physical abuse. Whereas physical abuse also takes various forms, the following signs are common and can be noticed easily. Therefore, when you see them, you should raise an alarm, or notify authorities.
Sexual abuse occurs when an adult uses a child to satisfy their own sexual desires or fantasies or even leads…… [Read More]
Department of human services. (2012).What are the effects of child abuse? etrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/children,-families-and-young-people/child-protection/about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse/who-is-likely-to-be-abused-and-what-are-the-effects
It identifies effects such as emotional, physical and psychological problems as well as trauma. The various forms of abuse lead to emotional problems to the child particularly distrust and low self-esteem when they are adults. The children who have been abused are also depicted to be aggressive or self-destructive, they are also more likely to go into drug abuse and even become young offenders.in the long run, adults who were victims of child abuse end up abusing their own children.
Child help. (2013).Immediate effects of child abuse. etrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.childhelp.org/pages/immediate-effects-of-child-abuse
There are some immediate effects from child abuse which are serious especially to infants as depicted in the source above. Serious injuries and fatalities occur in children who are just under 12 months.there are various signs which indicate that a…… [Read More]
Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.
Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…… [Read More]
Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period being drawn out (Hall, 1987).
The author suggests that a country full of only children will result in children who grow into adults that will be self-centered and less likely to be concerned with the welfare of the country as a whole, and more likely to be concerned with their own personal satisfaction. This goes against the Chinese ideology that it is important to serve the country rather than oneself, and Hall suggests that "a citizenry made up of…… [Read More]
The social workers should have known what was happening by monitoring on a regular basis. Providing job training and daycare for LaJoe, coming to the house every month to talk to her about changing her circumstances and mandating that she attend counseling are all monitoring methods that should have been in place and were not.
If only one change could be made to the social welfare system for the benefit of the families that are on it I would change the case loads of the social workers. Currently social workers have so many cases that there is no way for them to get involved with the families and help them help themselves out of the system. They are barely able to file the reports and deal with the problems that arise. If I could change one thing I would provide enough funding that each social worker only had 30 cases…… [Read More]
0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).
Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.
Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.
The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.
Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.
According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…… [Read More]
ritten by Alex Kotlowitz, a reporter for the all Street Journal, the book There Are No Children There follows two boys' activities around the Henry Horner Homes, a low-income public housing project in Chicago, Illinois. The book covers the time period from the summer of 1987 through September, 1989, and follows the protagonists, Lafeyette Rivers (nearly 12 years old) and Pharoah Rivers (nine years old). This is not an ordinary American neighborhood. It is a heavy gang area, a war zone where shootings are commonplace, drugs are a catalyst for crime and death seems to lurk around every corner. This paper will review the book chronologically through five chapters then provide a closer critique of LaJoe Rivers, the mother of the protagonists.
The average American comes home from work in the evening, opens a refreshing cold drink, gets comfortable on the couch and turns on the evening news.…… [Read More]
child in crisis; what would your immediate response be? For those in the field of social work, the response would be to act without hesitation. The question arises, however, if whether a preventative, community based approach benefits service recipients better than a crisis management approach. The issue of how to best allocate limited resources is but one of the issues facing the field of social work today. Another issue is the exclusion of front line service providers from the decision-making process. Service providers who relate to clients directly have an inside view on what action is needed to bring about positive change; however, life-altering decisions are often made by remote administration unfamiliar with the needs of their clients, resulting in change that often is too little, and occurs too late. Finally, middle level management walks a delicate tightrope in the social work field. Their job of balancing compliance with directives…… [Read More]
childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors
Previous study: What has the previous study found out?
A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.
he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.
Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…… [Read More]