Child Welfare Essays (Examples)

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Child Labor Define Child and Labor Separately

Words: 3346 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 803623

Child Labor

Define child and labor separately.

Child labor in the United States has long been a subject of concern. The U.S. enacted strict child labor statutes in 1938 (Labor, 2009), and has continued to enforce that law. However, there remain problems at home in the U.S. And abroad. The United States seeks to enforce the law, but there are times when it is difficult to catch perpetrators of violations. However, the U.S. has trade restrictions against countries that do not have strict enforcement of international standards. This research examines statutes in the United States (including their historic antecedents), what is being done to violators, and how trade is affected by citizen outcry against human rights violators and compliance with international law.

Purpose Statement

Current thinking on human rights dictates that children reach a certain age before they are to be put into the workforce. However, different cultures have different…… [Read More]

References

Browne, M.N., Frondorf, A., Harrison-Spoerl, R., & Krishnan, S. (2004). Universal moral principles and the law: The failure of one-size-fits-all child labor laws. Houston Journal of International Law, 27(1), 1-37.

Bullard, M.G. (2001). Child labor prohibitions are universal, binding, and obligatory law: The evolving state of customary international law concerning the unempowered child laborer. Houston Journal of International Law, 24(1), 139-171.

Cox, K. (1999). The inevitability of nimble fingers? law, development and child labor. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 32(1), 115-146.

Donald, C.G., Ralston, J.D., & Merker, S.L. (2002). Results of opinion surveys related to Kentucky's child labor laws. International Journal of Public Administration, 25(7), 859- 876.
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Child Abuse and Neglect in

Words: 2490 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54056564

ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.

ANALYSIS

The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carter, Janet. (2000). Domestic violence, child abuse, and youth violence: strategies for prevention and early intervention. San Francisco: Family Violence Prevention Fund.

CUPA: Canadian Union of Public Employees. (1997). What we owe to families: a brief on child welfare in Manitoba. Winnipeg: Canadian Union of Public Employees.

CWLA: Child Welfare League of America. (1997). Child abuse and neglect: a look at the States. Washington, D.C: Child Welfare League of America.

Drucker, Philip. M. (October, 1997). "The consequences of Poverty and Child Maltreatment on IQ Scores." The Vincentian Chair of Social Justice Papers. Vincentian Center Faculty Colloquium Presentation, New York.
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Child Abuse Prevention and Intervention

Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17856720

232).

eferences

Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.

Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.

Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.

Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.

Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.

Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…… [Read More]

References

Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.

Bradley, R.H., & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371.

Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.

Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
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Child Abuse According to the

Words: 1536 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41668967

Being a parent isn't easy, offer a helping hand so parents can rest or spend time together. 3) Help yourself. When things pile up take time out so you don't get to the point of feeling overwhelmed or out of control. 4) Don't get frustrated if your baby cries. 5) Get involved, assist in community efforts to develop services to meet the needs of healthy children and families. 6) Promote programs at school to teach children, parents, and teacher's strategies to be safe. 7) Help develop parenting recourses at your local library. 8) Monitor your child's television and video viewing, watching violent behavior can harm children. 9) Volunteer at a local child abuse prevention program. 10) eport suspected abuse or neglect. Education, community involvement and cooperation are significant factors in the effort to prevent children from suffering maltreatment.

eferences

Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). easonable suspicion of child…… [Read More]

References

Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). Reasonable suspicion of child abuse: Finding a common language. Journal of law, medicine & ethics. Vol. 39, Issue 1, 62-69. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=cf7e5f19-4670-42ea-b115-83ef3ac5d27b%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=112

Patton, W.W. (2011). Child protective services -- Histirical overview. State University.com. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from  http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1828/Child-Protective-Services.html 

Ten Ways to Help Prevent Child Abuse. (NDI). Prevent child abuse America. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.preventchildabuse.org/publications/parents/downloads/ten_ways_to_prevent.pdf

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Child maltreatment 2009. U.S. department of health and human services. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm09/cm09.pdf
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Child Abuse and Neglect

Words: 3043 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41442181

Child abuse and neglect is a highly discussed issue in the present day. For a long time now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. There are significant implications from child abuse and neglect in the United States and it is imperative to come up with the necessary ways of dealing with it. The solution is to have a propagating state program that encompasses poor and underprivileged children. There is also need for family programs that educate and teach households on better child treatment and attaining the necessary skills. Such programs should also be expanded to schools to determine their vulnerabilities and needs.

Child abuse and neglect is a highly debated issue in the contemporary. For a lengthy period now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been experientially demonstrated to be linked to an assortment of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after intervention. (2005, May 23). The Free Library. (2005). Retrieved February 03, 2017 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after...-a0133049592

A research study undertaken by McMaster University Medical Facility steered Professor Harriet Macmillan, Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences and Pediatrics showed that children that continue being in their homes subsequent to being abused or neglected by their parents, or are taken back to those homes subsequent to intervention by social service institutions are at a high risk for more abuse or neglect in a period of within three years. The conclusion made from examining 163 families with a long-established history of child abuse or neglect is that there is no intervention confirmed or established to decrease the rise of abuse or neglect when the children who have experienced such harsh conditions remain in the home.

The magazine article is pertinent to my paper as it indicates the recurrence of child abuse and neglect.

Cost of child abuse and neglect takes large toll. (2001, May 10). Columbus Medical Association.
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Child Abuse the Well-Known Attorney

Words: 3228 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44725613

Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.

As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.

Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:

Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…… [Read More]

References

Besharov, Douglas J. Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse: Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect. Washington, D.C. University of Maryland's Welfare Reform Academy, 2000.

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974. 23 November 2006. http://laws.adoption.com/statutes/child-abuse-prevention-and-treatment-act- capta-of-1974.html.

Dershowitz, Alan. M. Contrary to Popular Opinion. New York: Pharos Books, 1992.

Murray, Bridget. Cultural insensitivity leads to unfair penalties. Monitor 30.9, October
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Child Abuse in Adults Some

Words: 2155 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24536863



Director Martin Teicher of the Developmental iophsychiatry Research Program at McLean said that maltreatment in childhood can effect changes in brain function and structure. A child's brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence. His interactions with the environment create effects, which stabilize in puberty and adulthood. These experiences determine how the child will be wired. The four types of cranial abnormalities, which are permanent, are limbic irritability, arrested development of the left hemisphere, deficient integration between the left and the right hemispheres, and increased vermal activity.

The McLean researchers investigated 253 adults in an outpatient mental health clinic. More than half of them reported a history of physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The researchers found that those who were abused as children scored higher in the Limbic System Checklist. The finding provided evidence that abuse in childhood caused electrical impulses when limbic cells communicate. This results in seizures,…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Business Wire (2000). McLean Researchers document brain damage linked to child abuse and neglect. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning. Retrieved on April 16,

2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2000_Dec_14/ai_68013850/?tag=content;col1

Lapp, K.G.; Bosworth, H.B.; Strauss, J.L.; Stechuchak, K.M., et al. (2005). Lifetime

sexual and physical victimization among male veterans with combat-related Post-
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Child Abuse From All Angles

Words: 4974 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44047446

The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.

Sexual Abuse

The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…… [Read More]

References

Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.

Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.

Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childabuse.html

Child Abuse Statistics. Available at http://www.childhelp.org/resources/learning-center/statistics.Internet
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Welfare Indian Children

Words: 1695 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63918195

Indian Welfare Act

There are few things in life as traumatic as losing a child. Unfortunately, this is a phenomenon that plagues humanity on a daily basis. Children are lost in many ways. Some die, some are kidnapped. Others are lost through adoption. For some mothers, adoption is an informed decision made on the basis of what the individual believes is right for her child. However, there is also a phenomenon of adoption that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s, in which mothers were more or less coerced in giving up their children for adoption. In many cases, this coercion also occurred without informed consent, where mothers were asked to sign documents without receiving full disclosure regarding the nature of such documents. This occurred disproportionately among Indian children, many of whom were forcibly removed from their parents during the 1960s and 1970s. This resulted in the Indian Child Welfare Act,…… [Read More]

References

"Indian Child Welfare Act -- Termination Of Parental Rights -- Adoptive Couple V. Baby Girl." Harvard Law Review 127.1 (2013): 368-377. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.

Jacobs, Margaret D. "Remembering The "Forgottern Child": The American Indian Child Welfare crisis Of The 1960S and 1970S. "American Indian Quarterly 37.1/2 (2013): 136-159. Academic Search Premier. Web, 24 Apr. 2014.
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Children the Psychological Affects of

Words: 376 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23891224

Others, however, have argued that children do not become familiar with the new spouse, seeing him or her as a stranger, which might suggest that stress is furthered rather than reduced in these children. According to Jeynes (1998), tension between biological parents can seriously impact the child, as can the fact that new, unstable marriages are likely to end in divorce (p. 25). Because of this tension and stress Jeynes (1998) points out that children can become angry, aggressive, and unhappy (p. 26). Thus, the body of literature regarding the effects of remarriage on children varies widely. One fact, however, remains. Divorce and remarriage causes stress in children, and this stress can explain many of the negative affects that they receive after remarriage. emarriage, in some cases, however, also brings stability, which can explain the positive affects, such as increased academic achievement, that these children exemplified.

eferences

Jeynes, William H.…… [Read More]

References

Jeynes, William H. (1998). A Historical Overview on the Research on the effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children. The School Community Journal. 8(1), 23-30.
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Child With Disability

Words: 2379 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41179199

fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).

Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…… [Read More]

References

Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.

Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm

American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.

Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
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Children and Youth Services

Words: 1523 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46502813

youth transition out of foster care as they "age-out" of the system. This can prove to be a very challenging and difficult phase for young people as they are expected to take on adult responsibilities and make their own way in the world. Whether youth successfully transition from foster care to independent living is multifaceted, and requires detailed investigation in order to illuminate how the foster care system can facilitate change throughout the "aging-out" process.

Keller et al. (2007) utilized person-oriented research methods in order to investigate how well adolescents transition from life as part of the child welfare system to independent living as adults. This research method was chosen for the study in order to appropriate capture and understand the various and diverse ways these youth may be prepared for the transition among a sample that is large and representative of the population of youth aging-out from foster care.…… [Read More]

References

Ahrens, K.R., Dubois, D.L., Richardson, L.P., Fan, M.Y., Lozano, P. (2008). Youth in foster care with adult mentors during adolescence have improved adult outcomes. Pediatrics, 121(2), e246-52.

Keller, T.E., Cusick, G, R., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-84.

Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-93.

Munson, M.R., Smalling, S.E., Spencer, R., Scott, L.D., Tracy, E. (2009). A steady presence in the midst of change: nonkin natural mentors in the lives of older youth exiting foster care. Child and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 527-35.
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Welfare System Welfare Programs Are

Words: 1523 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53734405

Furthermore, it is agreed that those who are working tend to earn low wages, about $7.00 per hour on average, thus making it difficult for them to support their families (Sawhill pp). Another concern is that the poverty rate has not fallen as much as the caseload (Sawhill pp). Fewer poor children are receiving assistance, and the incomes of the poorest one-fifth of single-parent families have continued to fall (Sawhill pp). Many families remain in deep poverty, and according to some reports, requests for emergency assistance have grown (Sawhill pp). Overall, some 700,000 families were significantly worse off in 1999 than their counterparts in 1995 (Sawhill pp).

Since welfare reform was implemented during an unprecedented economic expansion, questions remain about how much of the good news should be attributed to the 1996 law and how much to a strong economy or to the growth of other programs such as the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sawhill, Isabel. (2001, June 22). From Welfare to Work.

Brookings Review. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Sommerfeld, David. (2002, March 01). Race, welfare reform, and nonprofit organizations. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Welfare. Retrieved July 23, 2005 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575466/Welfare.html
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PTSD in Children and it Impacts

Words: 2227 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72431129

Child and PTSD

THE CURSE OF EMOTIONAL TRAUMA

Post-traumatic Disorder

Nature equipped the body with an inherent mechanism to avoid danger or defend oneself against it (NIMH, 2013). ut in some persons, this naturally protective mechanism goes haywire and the reaction to fight or flee remains even in the absence of real danger. This abnormal condition is called post-traumatic disorder (NIMH).

The condition grows out of a horrifying experience of physical violence or threat in the person, a loved one or even a stranger as witnessed by the person who later develops the condition (NIMH, 2013). PTSD was first recognized as a mental and emotional condition among returning war veterans. ut it can also develop from other traumatic experiences, such as rape, torture, beating, captivity, accidents, fires, road accidents or natural disasters (NIMH).

Social Workers and PTSD

The social worker performs a number of professional roles. They act as brokers,…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AACAP (2013). Posttraumatic stress disorder. Number 70, Facts for Families"

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved on October 12,

2014 from http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Posttraumatic_Stress_Disorder_70.aspx

CSC (n.d.). Roles of a social worker. Chadron State College: Nebraska State College
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Child Sexual Abuse

Words: 2076 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20367889

Child Sexual Abuse

According to the oxford advanced learners dictionary, child sexual abuse is the cruel treatment of a minor especially sexually. The case of an offender of child sexual abuse can be categorized into three clusters which comprise of sexual assault which occurs when an adult touches a minor in a manner so as to fulfill his or her sexual desires; the second cluster is sexual exploitation whereby the minor is victimized by the adult for profit, sexual fulfillment or advancement and lastly the third cluster is called sexual grooming which is a social conduct by the offender in which he or she tries to make the minor accept to the advances made.

This paper seeks to primarily analyze child sexual abuse specifically for children under the age of fourteen years. First it will define the problem statement then the effects of child sexual abuse which is followed by…… [Read More]

Work cited

Cynthia Crosson-Tower (2008). Understanding child abuse and neglect, Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Durkin, K.F., and Clifton D.B., (1999), "Propagandizing pederasty: A thematic analysis of the online exculpatory accounts of unrepentant pedophiles" Deviant Behavior

Lascaratos, J, Ascaratos J. And Poulakou-Rebelakou, E (2000), "Child Sexual abuse: Historical cases in the Byzantine Empire (324 -- 1453 A.D.)" Child Abuse & Neglect

Lew, Mike (2004). Victims No Longer: The Classic Guide for Men Recovering from Sexual Child Abuse. Perennial Currents
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Child Abuse in England Using Given Scenario

Words: 2697 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69315184

Child Abuse in England

Initial Information

The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.

esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.

The bruises on Clara's…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Ananova. 2002, UN Urges Government to Outlaw Smacking

2) Allen, N. 1992, Making Sense of the Children act 1989, Longman

3) BBC News. 2002. Dentists Asked to Diagnose Child Abuse, UK

4) -, Church Tackles Child Abuse, England
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Child Clinical Intervention

Words: 4968 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22373768

Child Clinical Intevention

Pat I Child Abuse

Physical abuse of childen occus thoughout evey social stata, although thee may be an inceased incidence among those living in povety. Abuse often occus at moments of geat stess, and the pepetato stikes out in ange at the child. The pepetato may also have been abused as a child and may have poo impulse contol. Because of the elative size and stength diffeence between adults and childen, the abused child can be seveely injued o killed. Abuse fequently occus fom shaking an infant, which causes bleeding ove the bain (subdual hematoma) and is often efeed to as 'shaken baby syndome'. The incidence of child abuse is emakably high and faily accuately epoted. The total abuse ate is 25.2 pe 1000 childen with physical abuse counting fo 5.7 pe 1000, sexual abuse 2.5 pe 1000, emotional abuse 3.4 pe 1000 and neglect accounting fo…… [Read More]

references. Obstetrics & Gynecology 96(4), 511-516

14. Puesche, S. Down Syndrome. The Arc Web site: http://www.thearc.org/faqs/down.html

15. National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse. 1987

16. Shaffer D, Fisher P, Dulcan MK, et al. The NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3): description, acceptability, prevalence rates, and performance in the MECA Study. Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1996; 35(7): 865-77.

17. Wolraich ML, Hannah JN, Baumgaertel A, et al. Examination of DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a county-wide sample. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 1998; 19(3): 162-8.
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Child Called it Understanding Development

Words: 2894 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28438013

This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).

The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…… [Read More]

References

Fraser, C.; Burchell, B. & Hay, D. (2001). Introducing social psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Heffner. (2003). "Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html

Pelzer, D. (1995). A Child Called it. Omaha: Omaha Press.

Springhouse. (1990). "Piaget's Cognitive Stages.' http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm
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Child Abuse How Large Is

Words: 4401 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46242485

The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).

According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:

1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.

2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.

3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.

Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
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Child Sex Tourism Consent in Human Trafficking

Words: 4907 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39655172

Child Sex Tourism

Consent in human trafficking

Child prostitution

Bias in the application of police discretion

Failure to identify the victim in human trafficking

Push and Pull Factors

What theories explain trafficking in India

Measures to control

Prevention measures

Investigations / Prosecutions

India is regarded as the one of the source, transit, and a destination country for the bonded labor and child sex trafficking. The ranking of the country has been Tier 2 W. since 2005 and stayed constant until the 2010. In the year 2011 and 2012 the ranking is Tier 2. The ranking system reflects the compliance ranking of the Trafficking Victim Protection Act (TVPA) standards in the country. The tier one reflects complete compliance with the standards. However the tier two is regarding the countries that are not complying completely with the TVPA but making significant progress in terms of their implementation. The tier 2 W. denoted…… [Read More]

References:

Aronowitz, A.A. (2009). Human Trafficking, Human Misery [Electronic Resource]: The Global Trade in Human Beings. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Bales, K. (2006).Testing a Theory of modern slavery. Available on the net: www. freetheslaves. net.

Devine, A., Bowen, K., Dzuvichu, B., Rungsung, R., & Kermode, M. (2010). Pathways to sex-work in Nagaland, India: implications for HIV prevention and community mobilisation. AIDS care, 22(2), 228-237.

Hall, J.A. (2011). Sex offenders and child sex tourism: The case for passport revocation. Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law, 18(2).
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Children Out of Wedlock There

Words: 1825 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66317941



Conclusion:

In the end, the epidemic of out of wedlock children by professional athletes is a serious concern. These athletes, whether they like it or not, are role models to the youth of today, and as such, they need to be especially concerned with the moral implications of their actions. By using Kantian morality, one easily begins to see that at no point is having an out of wedlock child a moral decision. From conception, when the mother-to-be is used as a means for the ends of sexual gratification, to the lack of consideration for the effects the stress of paternity suits will have on the team in general, to the complete disregard for the child who had no voice in the decision at all and relied on the two parents to make the best decision possible, each step was fraught with immorality.

eferences

Chan, S. "The Confucian Notion of…… [Read More]

References

Chan, S. "The Confucian Notion of Jing." Philosophy East and West 56(2) Apr. 2006: pp. 229-253. Academic OneFile database. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006   http://find.galegroup.com  .

Crane, P. "This Week's SI: An Inside Look." Sports Illustrated. 29 Apr. 1998. Sports Illustrated. December 5, 2006 http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/features/1998/weekly/980504/insidelook.html.

May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005.

Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill, 2006.
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Children's Defense Fund Evaluation Plan

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34478980



The results of all evaluations will be used in a variety of ways to improve the programs currently operated by the Children's Defense Fund and to suggest new areas in which the development of programs would be of assistance to the Fund's overall mission of providing a "strong, effective, independent voice for all the children of America" (CDF 2010). Programs found to be less cost-effective than would be desired will be further analyzed to determine how cost savings might be achieved, with the complete scrapping of certain programs and the creation of new and similarly-targeted programs when necessary. Evaluations will also be used to determine budgeting needs for ongoing project management and implementation, resulting in more accurate projections and thus leading to more focused and more effective fundraising efforts. This leads to another important use for the results of these evaluation that, while not directly related to the specific mission…… [Read More]

Reference

CDF. (2010). Children's Defense Fund. Accessed 11 November 2010.

 http://www.childrensdefense.org/
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Black's Law Dictionary 1991 Child

Words: 5968 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76815004



Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…… [Read More]

References

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School

Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.

Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
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Australian Human Services Child Protective

Words: 1474 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14611252

Although there has been some movement away from the legalistic mode of child protection favored in the 1980s and 1990s, there is still a focus on forensic investigation of child abuse, which does not allow for sufficient between high risk families and low risk families, decreasing the chances that truly at risk children will receive protection, as well as increasing the risk of intervention in functioning families. Currently, Australia is taking a public health approach to child protective services. "In most states child protection services are part of a broader department of human services" (Lamont & Bromfield, 2010).

The dramatic increase in services to children in danger has come with a very high price tag. "Nationally, approximately $2.8 billion was spent on child protection and out-of-home care services in 2010-11, which was an increase of $137.7 million from 2009-10. Of this expenditure, out-of-home care services accounted for the majority (64.9%…… [Read More]

References

Bromfield, L. & Holzer, P. (2008). A national approach for child protection: Project report.

Retrieved March 26, 2013 from New South Wales Government website: http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/docswr/_assets/main/documents/childprotection_report.pdf

Bromfield, L., Holzer, P., Lamont, A., Kovaks, K., Richardson, N., & Scott, D. (2013). How

much does Australia spend on child protection? Retrieved March 27, 2013 from Australian Institute of Family Studies website: http://www.aifs.gov.au/cfca/pubs/factsheets/a142118/index.html
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Programs for Children in the

Words: 3771 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16676278

However, from 2008 the number began to decrease slightly. The rate of increase in the number of children aging out of the United States foster care system from 1998 to 2007 is 71.7%. Whereas the rate declined by 0.71% in the year 2008. In the year 2009, there was again a decline of 0.33%. In the year 2010, the number of children aging out of foster care system declined by 5.4%. It can be concluded from the above figure that there was a significant increase in the number of children aging out of foster care system from the year 1998 to 2007. Whereas, this number started declining from the year 2008 and it is still following a declining trend. (McCoy-oth, DeVoogh & Fletcher, 2011)

Challenges Faced by the youth aging out of Foster Care System

Children who age out of the foster care system generally face many problems in relation…… [Read More]

References

Browne, K. Save the Children, (2009). The risk of harm to young children in institutional care. Retrieved from Save the Children website: http://www.crin.org/docs/The_Risk_of_Harm.pdf

Children's Bureau, Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2012). Foster care statistics 2010. Retrieved from Children's Bureau website: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/foster.pdf

Gardner, D. National Association of Counties (NACo), (2008). Youth aging out of foster care identifying strategies and best practices. Retrieved from National Association of Counties (NACo) website: http://www.dshs.wa.gov/pdf/ca/YouthAgingoutofFoster.pdf

Hancock, B.R. FaithBridge Foster Care, (2009).Changing foster care in America: From crisis to community. Retrieved from FaithBridge Foster Care website: http://www.faithbridgefostercare.org/media/1210/faithbridge_white_paper_042009.pdf
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Diversity and or How Child Abuse in Handled in New York Compared to Other Countries

Words: 3623 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45470755

Diversity and Child Abuse Prevention

Diversity and How Child Abuse in Handled in New York Compared to Other Countries

There is developing debate regarding the suitable combination of programs and polices needed to react to concerns of child abuse and neglect. Child neglect and abuse hold significant effects for prospective health and mental health of a child. As a result, it is imperative to comprehend connections among different forms of maltreatment, family and child factors and connect with the systems for children welfare. The child abuse prevention programs and polices adopted in the New York State are generic and appears to be meant for the majority in the society. The programs are not cultural specific and hence, cannot benefit the minority group in the society. For instance, the Asian immigrants present an increased rate of child abuse. However, according to the Asian culture, worldviews, values and perspectives, suffering is an…… [Read More]

References

Chan, K.L. (2012). Comparison of parent and child reports on child maltreatment in a representative household sample in Hong Kong. Journal of Family Violence, 27 (1), 11-

22.

Fallon, B., Trocme, N., & MacLaurin, B. (2011). Should child protective services respond differently to maltreatment, risk of maltreatment, and risk of harm? Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 236 -- 239.

Fallon, B., Trocme, N., Fluke, J., & Turcotte, D. (2011). Responding to child maltreatment in Canada: Context for international comparisons. Advances in Mental Health, 11 (1), 76-
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Intervention in Child Abuse and

Words: 2291 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73057886

By the 1970s most states had mandatory child abuse reporting laws. These laws aimed at identifying abused children and setting in motion legal procedures to investigate the child's situation and either to provide services for them in their own home or to remove them from their home and place them in a safer environment (Melli, 1998).

Historically, the laws and regulations of the present are the children and grandchildren of the laws that were pioneered in the 1960s and 1970s. Certainly, experience makes any process better and smoother, but essentially, the system of three to four decades ago would have been very similar to today. hat would not have percolated down to teachers, principals and other team personnel yet would have been the knowledge of the new legal system and how to function in it. This uncertainty would have undoubtedly have slowed the intervention as wary professionals move cautiously, balancing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crosson-Tower, Cynthia. (2010). Understanding child abuse and neglect. 8th ed. Upper

Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson-Prentice Hall.

Educators' role in child abuse and neglect prevention. (2010). Retrieved 30 July 2010

from http://www.enotalone.com/article/9974.html
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Foster Children History of Foster

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31558143

One explanation is the fact that mental health services are generally allocated based on the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis, and older children are more likely to meet criteria for specific disorders. Although younger children may exhibit certain symptoms, they are less likely to meet the full criteria for a classified disorder (Fisher 2005). Moreover, the behavior of older foster children may appear to pose more of an immediate threat, either to themselves or to others (Fisher 2005). Even in the general population, risks for violence, juvenile delinquency and other behavioral problems, increase with age, thus in high-risk populations (as defined by factors such as poverty and violence), the risk gradient associated with age increases, therefore the need for services may be the greatest in the short-term among older foster children (Fisher 2005).

In a study published in the January 2005 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fisher, Philip A. (2005 April 01). Developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological functioning in preschool-aged foster children: associations with prior maltreatment and placement history. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. Retrieved June 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Fostering and Foster Care. The Adoption History Project. Retrieved June 30, 2006 at  http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~adoption/topics/fostering.htm 

History of Foster Care. Retrieved June 30, 2006 at http://www.sacbee.com/static/archive/news/projects/foster/timeline.html

Pfeiffer, Steven I. (1997 May 01). Effectiveness of treatment foster care with children and adolescents: a review of outcome studies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved June 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
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Effects of Domestic Violence on Children

Words: 4184 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6389413

Domestic Violence on Children

Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…… [Read More]

References

Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.

Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.

Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
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Women Who Kill Their Children

Words: 2425 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22538701

hen their state of denial lifts, they are often wracked with remorse for what they've done.

The final circumstance that Resnick lists is uncommon but not unheard of among mothers who kill their children: spousal revenge. Though this is rare among women, one recent case that highlights it is the case of an Ontario mother, Elaine Campione, who drowned her two daughters in the bathtub, allegedly to keep her ex-husband from getting custody and to inflict intense suffering upon him. She even made a video only minutes after the murders, asking her ex-husband if he was "happy now" (CTV News 2010).

ith all of these circumstances potentially leading parents, especially mothers, to murder their children, legal prosecution and defense of these cases can be difficult -- at times, heart-wrenching. In the cases of mothers who have killed their children, the great majority of the defenses center around pleas of insanity.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Child Abuse Prevention Network.   http://child-abuse.com/  . Accessed 1 February 2011.

Jones, a. (2009) Women Who Kill. New York: The Feminist Press of the City College of New York.

Meyer, C., Oberman, M. And White, K. (2001). Mothers Who Kill Their Children. New York: NYU Press.

National Council for the Prosecution of Child Abuse. http://www.ndaa.org/ncpca_home.html. Accessed 1 February 2011.
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Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse Rights Suspected

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50273449

Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse

ights: Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse

More than three million reports of child abuse and neglect will be filed in the United States this year (Children's ights 2012). In many states, reporting suspected or alleged child abuse is mandatory in which certain steps must be followed to ensure the immediate safety of the child and the confidentiality and privacy of the accused family. Sadly, at least four children die from abuse or neglect every day -- many in homes that are already known to child welfare agencies, and some in foster care placements made by the child welfare agencies themselves. Moreover, children and their families still have rights that must be honored during an investigation (Big Brothers 2009).

Parent's ights When Investigated

Whenever the department completes an investigation of a child abuse or neglect report, the department must notify the alleged perpetrator(s) of the report…… [Read More]

References

Arizona Department of Economic Security, 2011, Safeguarding rights, Available from: https://www.azdes.gov/main.aspx?menu=154&id=2030 [5 January 2012]

Big Brothers Big Sisters Christchurch, 2009, Dealing with suspected or alleged child abuse policy, http://www.bbbschch.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/dealing-with-suspected-or-alleged-child-abuse-policy.pdf [5 January 2012]

Children's Rights, 2012, Child abuse and neglect, http://www.childrensrights.org/issues-resources/child-abuse-and-neglect / [5 January 2012]

Washington State Department of Social and Health Services, 2003, Parent's guide to child protective services, http://www.dshs.wa.gov/pdf/publications/22-484.pdf [5 January 2012]
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Abused and Exploited Children Child Abuse Is

Words: 1167 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27174022

Abused and Exploited Children

Child abuse is one of the most unfortunate realities of our society. In a world marked by progress, it is sad that there are still many households where young children are being subjected to violence both physical and otherwise. Child abuse is defined as any non-accidental harm or injury to a child caused by an adult. Despite the presence of numerous child protection services and agencies, children are still regularly facing violence at home which may often lead to fatal injuries. Even though child abuse is commonly known and understood as physical abuse, this is not entirely true. Abuse can occur in other forms as well and we shall now discuss some of the more common forms in which child abuse mars our society.

Define the 4 types of abuse and give 4-5 examples of the most common signs/symptoms of that type of abuse.

TYPES OF…… [Read More]

References

Pecora, Peter J, Jensen, Peter S, Romanelli, (2009) Mental Health Services for Children Placed in Foster Care: An Overview of Current Challenges. Child Welfare. Child welfare and well-being. Policy & Practice, Feb, 2009

Shanalingigwa, Abel, O. (2009) Understanding Social and Cultural differences in perceiving child Maltreatment. Accessed online 20th Feb, 2011.
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Foster Children

Words: 8637 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87113745

Foster Children/Foster Care

Issues of a Foster Child

Child Abuse

Families and Children Served through Foster Care

The Policy Framework

This thesis reviews foster care in the United States: the reasons why children fall into the category of children who need to be taken out of their families and placed in care, the numerous emotional and psychological responses of children in foster care, and the psychological and emotional care that is given to children that are placed in foster care. The numerous laws covering foster care institutions and the policies they implement regarding the treatment of children in their care are also discussed. An extensive list of references is also given at the end of the thesis.

Introduction

Everyday more children are born into this world. Yet everyday there is a mother or a father who child is placed in a foster care facility, for many different reasons. Children are…… [Read More]

References

Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. PL. 105-89.

Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980. P.L. 96-272.

Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1994). Sex and America's teenager. New York: Author.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). Planning for children whose parents are dying
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Paternal Rights Versus Children's Welfare

Words: 833 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81873495

Parental Rights and Children's Welfare

Sociological Analysis on Parental Rights vs. Children's Welfare: Structural-Functionalist, Conflict, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives

Studying the structure and dynamics of society entails not only analyzing the elements that comprise it, but also the general or 'bigger picture' of what society is -- that is, analysis of social structure and dynamics must be at the macro and micro levels. Indeed, sociological phenomena are analyzed and studied by social scientists using various theoretical perspectives formulated in order to provide researchers, as well as their audience, a look into the various interpretations that people give to explain specific events or realities experienced by the society and the individual. In the field of sociology, among these theoretical perspectives are the structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist traditions.

A particular example illustrating the discussion above is the analysis of parental rights and children's welfare, considered as an essential sociological phenomenon affecting…… [Read More]

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Parenting Programs Child Abuse Child Abuse

Words: 1277 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31634464

For example, Leventhal (2001) analyzed different intervention methodology and implementation of home-based services aimed at preventing abuse and neglect as well as promoting the health and development of the infant and mother, by specifically looking at the Healthy Families Olds' models.

Kass and colleagues (2003) from Fight Crime: Invest in Kids argue that the cycle of violence can be prevented with intervention methods including parenting education. oberts, Wolman and Harris-Looby (2004, p. 101) state that "teaching students parenting skills may be the most cost-effective way to reduce violent and abusive behaviors and prevent the transfer of violent behaviors from generation to generation." They found that for less than $1,000, Project Baby Care, a parental training program developed for adolescents proved successful in improving parental knowledge and skills and attitudes toward caring for an infant.

Another study (Hughs & Gottlieb, 2004), regarding the effects of the Webster-Stratton parenting program on parenting…… [Read More]

References

Belsky, J. & Vondra, J. (1989), 'Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting', in D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds), Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect, New York: Cambridge University Press, 153-202.

Chalk, R. & King, P.A. (Eds) (1998), Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs, Washington DC: National Academy Press,

Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) (U.S.), Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACF). Child maltreatment 2003. Washington (DC): Government Printing Office; 2005. Website retrieved May 10, 2007 www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm03/index.htm.

Fine, M.J. (1980), Handbook on Parent Education, Academic Press, New York.
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Cycle of Violence With Children

Words: 1968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78123300

Despite these compelling findings, many youth are not routinely assessed for such violence exposure and its ramifications by the educational, child welfare, social service, and juvenile justice systems with which they frequently interact." (2007) This exposure is not only related to outcomes of a negative nature as well as heightened drug use and greater HIV related risk behaviors." (Vioson, 2007) the work of McDowell (2006) entitled: "Caring for Child Victims: Countering the Effects of Domestic Violence" published in the Journal of Specialists in Pediatric Nursing states that children are affected by family violence and that holistic assessment by the nurse is "essential to understanding the stressor of domestic violence." (McDowell, 2006) it is important to understand that less than one-third of domestic violence cases are reported. This author specifically charges the pediatric nurse in having the knowledge and skills necessary to identify childhood trauma from having witnessed family abuse.

Summary…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dalpaiz, C.M. (2006) Breaking Free, Starting Over: Parenting in the Aftermath of Family Violence. Family Therapy Journal Vol. 33 Issue 1 San Diego 2006.

Henry, M.; Szajnberg, N. (2006) My Life is a Longing: Child Abuse and its Adult Sequelae: Results of Brody Longitudinal Study from Birth to age 30" International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. 87, Issue 2.

Hurley (2006) Internalized Other Interviewing of Children Exposed to Violence. Journal of Systematic Therapies. Summer 2006. Vol. 25. Guilford Publications, Inc.

Kaplow, J.B.; Saxe, G.N.; Putman, F.W.; Pynoos, R.S.; and Lieberman, a.F. (2006) the Long-Term Consequences of Early Childhood Trauma. A Case Study and Discussion. Psychiatry. New York Winter 2006. Vol. 69. Issue 4.
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Rising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families Children and Homelessness

Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18928610

Rising Poverty and Homelessness

NOT TO E IGNORED

Rising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families, Children and Homelessness

Census ureau (2010) reported that, for the three consecutive years, the number of people living in poverty has been increasing and reached 46.2 million or 15% of the total population. Overall poverty rate for all U.S. families went up from 9.8% in 2007 to 11.7% in 2010. Recession in the late 2007 has strongly cut through all ages, both genders and all race-ethnic groups. ut the most severely affected are young families, headed by adults under 30, with one or more children. This condition is seen to assert long-lasting negative effects of children's cognitive achievement, education, nutrition and physical and mental health as well as social behavior. These developments are likely to have long-term consequences on the nation's economy and social future U.S. Census ureau). ut professionals and parents can buffer these…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aratani, Y. (2009). Homeless children and youth. National Center for Children and Poverty: Columbia University. Retrieved on October 26, 2013 from  http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_888.html 

Ascend (2012). Two generation, one future. The Aspen Institute: Family Economic

Security Program. Retrieved on October 26, 2013 from http://www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/docs/pubs.ascend-Report-022012.pdf

Conrad N. Hilton Foundation (2012). Supporting homeless young children and their parents. The National Center on Family Homelessness: familyhomelessness.org.
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Understanding the Connection Between Child Abuse and Anti-Social Behavior

Words: 6698 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75798499

Abused children develop antisocial behavior that persists through three continuous generations. Such behavior grows out of angry, aggressive parenting and an overall negative home environment, perpetuated by sibling collusion, economic and biological factors. These children exhibit this in preschool by committing at least one antisocial behavior each day in class. As dysfunctional adolescents, their romantic lives and eventual marriages also fail. African-American children suffer from the affliction than Caucasian children. The current level of knowledge and efforts requires effective and efficient mechanisms at home, in school and the community in the crucial formative childhood years.

Understanding the Connection between Child Abuse and the Development of Antisocial Behavior

Abused children eventually become problem adults who are a burden to society.

ecent studies reveal the significance of parenting in the cross-generational transmission of aggressive or problem behavior up to three continuous generations. Stable evidence has long recognized and documented the negative effects…… [Read More]

References

Ary, D.V., Duncan, T.E., Biglan, A., Mitzler, C., & Smolkowski, K (April

1999). Development of Adolescent Problem Behavior. Journal of Abnormal

Child Psychology. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation. Retrieved from the Web July 17, 2004. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0902/is_2_27/ai_55208541

2. Ballard, S. (August 18, 2003).How Your Relationships Affect Your Child. Jet.
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Domestic Violence on Children Studies

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2586369

Each day, thousands of New Yorkers experience violence at the hands of someone they love. But only a fraction of victims know where to get help" (p. 3).

Moreover, many domestic violence victims are coerced by the perpetrators into not testifying against them. In this regard, Glaberson (2011) reports that, "The defendants in domestic violence cases are in constant contact with their victims, and they use various means and methods to try to have the case dropped. Many of them cannot seem to stop themselves from sweet-talking, confessing to, berating and threatening . . . The women they were charged with abusing" (p. 3). Because even abusive relationships can be strong, some women who have experienced domestic violence -- even many times -- may be reluctant to prosecute their spouses or partners. In some cases, domestic violence shelters encourage abused partners to seek formal divorces in order to facilitate the…… [Read More]

References

Duchon-Voyles, a. (2010, October 21). From dangerous home to safe house. The New York

Times. [online] available:   http://www.nytimes.com / 2010/10/24/magazine/24lives-t.html?ref=domesticviolence.

Glaberson, W. (2011, February 25). Abuse suspects, your calls are taped. Speak up. The New

York Times. [online] available:
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Jewish Child and Family Services

Words: 1527 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24097828

Love and non-judgmental acceptance may be the most important things. Yes, money can help a person find a niche in life, but money is insufficient to get a person off the street. Following up later with some of the residents, I discovered that many would have returned to the streets a long time ago, despite their opportunity of free accommodation and food, were it not for the friends and care that they felt in these homes. Many of them, over and again, reiterated the bonds that they had formed one with another and, sometimes, with the staff members themselves. Some, through the staff members, had found support in the external community.

This presence of support was particularly evident in the foster home. There the 'foster parents' seemed to have a reputation for providing unconditional love, and I was greatly struck with the way that some of the residents, particularly the…… [Read More]

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British Social Welfare and Elizabethan

Words: 821 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13539461

Last year, 76 minors were homicide victims."

The child has lost her life and the government is now trying to take actions to revamp the system. Under the new system, Children's Trusts will be set up "at the local level to bring experts - psychologists, social workers, education officials - together, with a local director ultimately accountable."

There may appear to be few similarities between EPL and current social welfare policy but when we closely study their impact, we fail to accept the notion that a lot has changed. EPL was ineffective in controlling child-related problems. Children were subjected to cruel working conditions, they had hardly any proper means of nutrition and overseers probably did not care much about them. The same is true today. While there are protection agencies, social workers and others working for welfare of children, there is little if any improvement in their condition especially in…… [Read More]

REFERENCE:

1. Mark Rice-Oxley, Child-abuse tragedy spurs British overhaul of social services; the government unveiled a plan last week to keep better records on children and streamline the bureaucracy.(WORLD) the Christian Science Monitor; 9/16/2003

2. Bliss (1908), "Elizabethan Poor Laws" pp. 918-920.
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Social Work Assessment of Children and Families

Words: 3531 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61297674

UK Children and Families

Homeless families are generally defined as adults with dependent children who are briefly accommodated by voluntary agency, local authority or housing association hostels in the United Kingdom (Vostanis 2002). They are taken in from a few days or several months, often four to six weeks and generally provided with bread and breakfast. Although this broad definition does not include children who have lost homes and live with friends and relatives, it is estimated that there are 140,000 such displaced families in the UK today. The average family consists of a single mother and at least two children. Trends show that these families become homeless again within a year from being housed by agencies. Domestic violence and harassment from the neighborhood are the most frequent cause behind their homelessness. The volume of homeless refugee families among them has dwindled in the late 90s, mostly confined in the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Harrisona C. et al. (2001). Who is failing abused and neglected children? Archives of Disease in Childhood. http://www.fetalneonatal.com/cgi/content/full/85/4/300

2. Jackson, S (2001). Reducing risk and promoting resilience in vulnerable children. IUC Journal of Social Work, Journal Issue 4. Department of Social Relations and Services: Bemidji State University. http://www.bemidji.msu.edu/sw_journal/issue4/articles/jackson.html

3. Jowell, T et al. (1999). Lone parent families: routes to social inclusion. Gingerbread.  http://www.gingerbread.org.uk/lprtsi.txt 

4. Nixon, P. Family group conference connections: shared problems and joined-up solutions. International Institutes for Restorative Practices. http://iirp.org/library/vt/vt_nixon.html
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Gay Foster Children

Words: 2982 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61783854

homeless and runaway young people is viewed by many authorities as a human rights condition that grows out of poverty and victimization, often right in their family settings, and later, in the street (Farrow 1992) where they are further exposed to violence and other forms of dysfunction..

The International Perspective on the Health Needs of Homeless Youth uses the terms "street children" to refer to those below 18 years old who live through various ways in the streets. The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund or UNICEF estimated that there were between 30 and 170 million street children and youth in the world (Farrow 1992). The UNICEF divided these young people broadly into a larger group and a smaller group, the larger one, consisting of youngsters who engaged in some economic activity in the streets and often returned to their families at night. The smaller group consisted of young people…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Farrow, J.A., ed, et al. (1992). Homeless and Runaway Youth Health and Health Needs. A position paper for the Society of Adolescent Medicine. Journal of Adolescent Health. http://www.adolescenthealth.org/html/homeless.html

Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund. (2004). Youth in the Margins. Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund publications. http://www.lambdalegal.org/cgi-bin/icon/documents/record=899

2002). Getting Down to Basics About LGBT Youth in Foster Care. Mediapolis, Inc. http://www.lambdalegal.org/cgi-bin/iowa/documents/record?record=1027

Lesbian Gay Rights Lobby of Texas. (2003). Fact Sheet on the Proposed Ban on Gay Foster Care in Texas. http://lgrl.org/familycoalition/lib194brochure.pdf
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Is Mother of Five a Child Abuser

Words: 809 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37640095

Abusive Mother

It can be seen that the mother of five, in the book, does not abuse them. Typically, child abuse is about intentional detrimental action or inaction of a care giver towards the children under their (caregiver's) care. Further, abuse is such action or inaction that leads to some form of suffering, injury or death of the vulnerable and dependent child. Child mistreatment takes many forms. It may involve physical abuse, exploitation, sexual abuse, emotional abuse or even neglect. When a parent or caregiver metes physical injury that is non-accidental to a child, then it qualifies as physical abuse. Whereas physical abuse also takes various forms, the following signs are common and can be noticed easily. Therefore, when you see them, you should raise an alarm, or notify authorities.

Sexual abuse occurs when an adult uses a child to satisfy their own sexual desires or fantasies or even leads…… [Read More]

References

Childhelp. (2015, October 23). The Issue of Child Abuse. Retrieved from Child Help: https://www.childhelp.org/child-abuse/

Parent, M. (1996). Turning Stones My Day And Nights With Children At Risk. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace and Company.
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Child Abuse Commonwealth of Australia

Words: 827 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89149657



Department of human services. (2012).What are the effects of child abuse? etrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/children,-families-and-young-people/child-protection/about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse/who-is-likely-to-be-abused-and-what-are-the-effects

It identifies effects such as emotional, physical and psychological problems as well as trauma. The various forms of abuse lead to emotional problems to the child particularly distrust and low self-esteem when they are adults. The children who have been abused are also depicted to be aggressive or self-destructive, they are also more likely to go into drug abuse and even become young offenders.in the long run, adults who were victims of child abuse end up abusing their own children.

Child help. (2013).Immediate effects of child abuse. etrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.childhelp.org/pages/immediate-effects-of-child-abuse

There are some immediate effects from child abuse which are serious especially to infants as depicted in the source above. Serious injuries and fatalities occur in children who are just under 12 months.there are various signs which indicate that a…… [Read More]

References

Child help. (2013).Immediate effects of child abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.childhelp.org/pages/immediate-effects-of-child-abuse childrens.org. (2013). Effects of Child Abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://childrens.org/child/effects-of-child-abuse/

Commonwealth of Australia. (2010). Effects of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.aifs.gov.au/nch/pubs/sheets/rs17/rs17.html

Department of human services. (2012).What are the effects of child abuse? Retrieved June 1, 2013 from   http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/for-individuals/children,-families-and-young-people/child-protection/about-child-abuse/what-is-child-abuse/who-is-likely-to-be-abused-and-what-are-the-effects  

Family Resource Center. (2012). Effects of Child Abuse. Retrieved June 1, 2013 from http://www.frcmo.org/effects.html
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Child Protection States of Japan

Words: 3482 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69519954

Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.

Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

BBC. Merkel in child protection plea. 2007. 7 April 2008. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7166094.stm

Clemons, Steven. "Koizumi Needs Fiscal Shot to Ring Round the World, New America Foundation. Daily Yomiuri." New American Foundation. 2002. 7 Apr 2008. http://www.newamerica.net/publications/articles/2002/koizumi_needs_fiscal_shot_to_ring_round_the_world

Deutche Welle. German Standard of Living in Decline. 2004. 7 April 2008. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,1305105,00.html

Goodman, Roger. Children of the Japanese State: The Changing Role of Child Protection Institutions in Contemporary Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
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Child Han China's One Child

Words: 3495 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66771740



Ethnographic/Social Considerations

Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period being drawn out (Hall, 1987).

The author suggests that a country full of only children will result in children who grow into adults that will be self-centered and less likely to be concerned with the welfare of the country as a whole, and more likely to be concerned with their own personal satisfaction. This goes against the Chinese ideology that it is important to serve the country rather than oneself, and Hall suggests that "a citizenry made up of…… [Read More]

References

Banghan, H.; Johnson, K.; Liyao, W. 1998. "Infant Abandonment in China." Population and Development Review, 24(3):469

Greenhalgh, S. (2003). "Science, modernity and the making of China's one-child policy." Population and Development Review, 29(2):163

Hall, E. (1987). "China's only child: This strict policy is controlling China's population problem, but will only children make unwilling socialists." Psychology Today,

Johnson, D. Gale. 1994. "Effects of institutions and policies on rural population growth with application to China. Population and Development Review 20 (3): 503-531.
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Children Here By Alex Kotlowitz

Words: 819 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8776865

The social workers should have known what was happening by monitoring on a regular basis. Providing job training and daycare for LaJoe, coming to the house every month to talk to her about changing her circumstances and mandating that she attend counseling are all monitoring methods that should have been in place and were not.

If only one change could be made to the social welfare system for the benefit of the families that are on it I would change the case loads of the social workers. Currently social workers have so many cases that there is no way for them to get involved with the families and help them help themselves out of the system. They are barely able to file the reports and deal with the problems that arise. If I could change one thing I would provide enough funding that each social worker only had 30 cases…… [Read More]

Had she been on the reformed system she would have gotten completely off of welfare in a year or two and would have broken the family cycle of dependence on the system.

REFERENCE

Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here: The Story of Two Boys Growing Up in the Other America (Paperback) Anchor; Reissue edition (January 5, 1992)
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Children Fatherless Homes Parenting The Effects

Words: 2533 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39424929

0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).

Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.

Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.

The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.

Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.

According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Effects of Fatherlessness (U.S. Data) [Online]

http://www.massey.ac.nz/~kbirks/gend er/econ/nodad.htm

ANCPR Alliance for Non-Custodial Parents

http://www.ancpr.org/statistics.htm
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Children There Written by Alex Kotlowitz a

Words: 3226 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44780623

Children There

ritten by Alex Kotlowitz, a reporter for the all Street Journal, the book There Are No Children There follows two boys' activities around the Henry Horner Homes, a low-income public housing project in Chicago, Illinois. The book covers the time period from the summer of 1987 through September, 1989, and follows the protagonists, Lafeyette Rivers (nearly 12 years old) and Pharoah Rivers (nine years old). This is not an ordinary American neighborhood. It is a heavy gang area, a war zone where shootings are commonplace, drugs are a catalyst for crime and death seems to lurk around every corner. This paper will review the book chronologically through five chapters then provide a closer critique of LaJoe Rivers, the mother of the protagonists.

The average American comes home from work in the evening, opens a refreshing cold drink, gets comfortable on the couch and turns on the evening news.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bushey, Claire. "Saying goodbye to Henry Horner Homes." Chi-Town Daily News. Retrieved February 15, 2011, from  http://www.chitowndailynews.org .

Grace, Julie. "There Are No Children Here." Time Magazine. Retrieved February 16, 2011,

from http://www.time.com/printout/0,8816,981434,00.html. (1994).

Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here: The Story of Two Boys Growing Up in the Other
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Child in Crisis What Would Your Immediate

Words: 1298 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86771502

child in crisis; what would your immediate response be? For those in the field of social work, the response would be to act without hesitation. The question arises, however, if whether a preventative, community based approach benefits service recipients better than a crisis management approach. The issue of how to best allocate limited resources is but one of the issues facing the field of social work today. Another issue is the exclusion of front line service providers from the decision-making process. Service providers who relate to clients directly have an inside view on what action is needed to bring about positive change; however, life-altering decisions are often made by remote administration unfamiliar with the needs of their clients, resulting in change that often is too little, and occurs too late. Finally, middle level management walks a delicate tightrope in the social work field. Their job of balancing compliance with directives…… [Read More]

References

The Face of Poverty in Lincoln, Nebraska. The Center for People in Need. 2009.

Graham, John. What Makes Social Workers Happy? Edmonton Journal. Retrieved from http://www.edmontonjournal.com/health/What+makes+social+workers+happy/

4587815/story.html

McKenzie, Brad, and Wharf, Brian. Connecting Policy to Practice in the Human Services. Oxford:
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Child Obesity and Fast Food

Words: 755 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84408262

childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors

Previous study: What has the previous study found out?

A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.

Hypothesis:

he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.

Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…… [Read More]

The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.

Source

Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood obesity in America: Linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
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Welfare System Temporary Aid for

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22207850

For the year June 2000 there were 5,780,543 TANF families as against 14,111,992 TANF families during January 1993. (Total TANF ecipients by State)

Graph

The following graph shows the percentage of the U.S. population on Welfare since 1960. As it can be seen that there was a gradual rise from the year 1960 when the program was launched till 1972 after which there was a plateau phase till 1978. It remained range bound from 1979 till 1990 with minor rise and fall. The years 1993 and 1994 was the peak with more than 5.5% of the U.S. population covered under TANF. After 1994, coverage came down sharply from 1996 till 1999 when it was 2.5%. (Statistics: Percentage of U.S. Population on Welfare since 1960)

Percentage of the U.S. Population on Welfare Since 1960 http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/news/stats/uspops.gif

eferences

Action Alert- Ask for a Multiyear TANF Extension with Significant Child Care Funding. etrieved at…… [Read More]

References

Action Alert- Ask for a Multiyear TANF Extension with Significant Child Care Funding. Retrieved at  http://www.results.org/website/article.asp?id=965Accessed  on 12 May, 2005

Administration for Children and Families: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program. Retrieved at http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofa/exsumcl.htm. Accessed on 12 May, 2005

Besharov, Douglas J. The Past and Future of Welfare Reform. Retrieved at  http://www.welfareacademy.org/pubs/welfare/pastandfuture.pdf . Accessed on 12 May, 2005

Gorman, Angie O. Playing the Rules and Still Losing Ground. Retrieved at http://www.americamagazine.org/gettext.cfm?articleTypeID=1&textID=2419&issueID=397Accessed on 12 May, 2005
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Welfare Experience Deparle's American Dream

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43600171



The second issue is the economic disparity between men and women, and the differences in their earning capabilities. Not only are women more likely to be single parents, they are also less likely to be given jobs then men, and are also apt to earn less at these jobs. The fact that even full-time employment in many cases did not provide enough of a living to support a family is a key indicator that something is wrong with society. Welfare is an attempt to address this problem, and even it falls short. This also leads to a feeling of injustice which is definitely felt by many on welfare, and is used to justify continuing payments by certain individuals DeParle mentions. In general, however, the families he depicts are struggling against external practical constraints and the inner struggle and strained energy reserves that this causes, with very real inhibitive effects on…… [Read More]

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Rights of Children

Words: 795 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56813296

Child Rights

Children's Rights

hat are the main debates on equality on the MDGs post 2015, and how is this important for the children's well-being?

There are many debatable items and priorities that are associated the ongoing efforts in the 2015 Millennium Development Goals. One of the main priorities is to eradicate poverty. This is no easy task and has been a goal for the group since its origin. However, this issue is important to children in many ways. One particular way to help eradicate poverty is through education; especially the education of young females.

One of the reasons education is especially important for young women is that education is linked to the age at which women marry and have children. In sub-Saharan Africa and in South and est Asia, child marriage affects one in eight girls; one in seven gives birth by the age of 17; education can empower…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rose, P. "The Great Debate." 25 September 2013. Reuters. Online. 30 March 2014.

UNICEF. "The Changing State of Global Poverty." July 2011. UNICEF. Online. 31 March 2014.

United Nations. "Conventions on the Rights of the Child." 2 September 1990. United Nations Human Rights. Online. 31 March 2014.
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Labor Issue of Children

Words: 1478 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86718457

Child Labor

The prevailing child labor practices in the world not only jeopardize the childhood of the children but also adversely effects their cognitive, physical, mental, behavioral and social aspects of life. The child labor practices are followed due to the rate of increased poverty and cultural beliefs which enforces the children to contribute in the house hold income. The lawsuits against the child labor exist but are not applied to the fullest due to the poverty rate and lack of educational and institutional services for the under privileged children. Therefore, the awareness among the parents and adults should be increased about the hazards of child labor on the life of children and families should be provided with adequate support to refrain their dependency on the earnings of their children.

Contents

Child Labor

Causes of Child Labor

Child Labor Statistics

Law Suits against Child Labor

Steps to Eradicate Child Labor…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Grootaert, C., & Kanbur, R. (1995). Child labor: A review. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, (1454).

International Labor Organization (2012).Making progress against child labor. Available from:http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/-ed_norm/-ipec/documents/publication/wcms_221513.pdf

Moehling, C.M. (1999). State child labor laws and the decline of child labor. Explorations in Economic History, 36(1), 72-106.

Shonkoff, J.P., & Phillips, D.A. (2000).From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.
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How Children Cope With Friendship and Death After Reading Charlotte's Web

Words: 3091 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96332978

children cope with friendship and death after reading Charlottes' Web?

Academic esearch:

The book, Charlotte's Web is probably the best selling paperback and is really a story about a farm, and how friendships develop between different animals and how they help each other. In this book, the most important development is the friendship that develops between Wilbur and Charlotte. Wilbur is a pig and Charlotte is a spider which turns out to be the leader of all animals. The book developed as a natural consequence to the author having resided on a farm and seen all the animals in action. In this book, Charlotte ends up saving the pig from slaughter and in practice; the author himself had tried to save a pig and not succeeded. The author has written about many such animals, but this became the most popular.

Animals were dear to the author and though the animals…… [Read More]

References

Children and Grief. American Academy of Child. July, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/grief.htm Accessed on 8 June, 2005

Hartman, Holly. Charlotte's Web. Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/spot/charlotte1.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005

Helping Children Cope with Loss, Death and Grief: Response to a National Tragedy. National Association of School Psychologists. 22 October, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/NEAT/grief.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005

Information for the Media on Childhood Traumatic Grief. The National Child Traumatic Stress. Retrieved from www.nctsnet.org/nccts/asset.do?id=361 Accessed on 8 June, 2005
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Human Services Child and Family Welfare

Words: 508 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86645697

children actually came to be respected on account of the important role they play in the social order. Society previously believed that parents should be provided with the power to decide what they wanted to do with their children and the Bible actually emphasizes that Abraham was unhesitant about sacrificing his son, thus showing that the child was little more than a tool in his hands. As society progressed children continued to be treated with discrimination and those whose parents were unable to care for them resorted to becoming outcasts constantly in need of basic resources.

Society actually promoted attitudes that directly harmed children and saw the opportunity to exploit their vulnerability. Throughout time children were used as labor and were sexually abused by unscrupulous individuals. hile attitudes change during recent centuries, it was not until an 1838 Pennsylvania court removed children from the custody of their parents that the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

"Protecting Children When Families Cannot"
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UK Welfare the Following Review of Current

Words: 5011 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7004083

UK elfare

The following review of current literature is categorized by a number of variables. Statistics and Data initiate the report and is quickly followed up with Policy Literature. From there, an Academic Literature Review focusing on five articles (with corresponding studies and citations) takes place. After the Academic Review comes a Relevant Campaigning Review and a Media Review. Finally, a quick conclusion ties the literature together in a neat little bow.

The charts below provide data that allows researchers to understand exactly how significant the problem is. Chart A (see below) shows the rates of pregnancies in the UK broken down by age. As is evident, since 1990 pregnancy rates for older women have been rising significantly, while the rates for those woman under 29 years of age (including teenagers) have been holding steady, or slightly declining for the most part. Since current public policy was first initiated in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arai, L.; (2003) British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: The limitations of comparisons with other European countries, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 89 -- 102

Bingley, P.J., Douek, I.F., Rogers, C.A. And Gale, E.A.M. (2000) Influence of maternal age at delivery and birth order on risk of Type 1 Diabetes in childhood: Prospective population-based family study, British Medical Journal, Vol. 321, pp 420 -- 424.

Brewer, M.; Ratcliffe, A.; dSmith, S.; (2011) Does welfare reform affect fertility: Evidence from the UK, Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 245 -- 266

Doling, J. & Ford, J.; (2007) A union of homeowners? European Journal of Housing Policy, Vol. 7, pp. 113 -- 127.
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Women and Children Research and

Words: 1196 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75923162

Finally, WIC is the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (ohio.gov, 2011). WIC offers programs to ensure adequate nutrition for low-income women and infants, during and after pregnancy (ohio.gov, 2011). WIC also offers referrals for "prenatal and pediatric" health care through Medicaid (ohio.gov, 2011

Identify the philosophical attitudes and perspectives that have led to either the support or lack of understanding for and marginalizing of this group.

Women have faced many challenges that do not generally apply to men, including violence and abuse, low relative wages, unequal opportunities in the workplace, insufficient prenatal and general health care, and a lack of emotional and financial support for single-parenting. Progress along these lines has sometimes been slow due to discriminatory attitudes against: women in general (sexism, or objectification leads to abuse), women in the workplace, women who have children when unmarried, birth control and abortion, and low-income women.

In…… [Read More]

References

Antonopoulos, R. (2010). Social Protection for Woman. UN Chronicle, 47 (1), 22+.

Bortz, a. (1980). Historical Development of the Social Security Act. Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from ssa.gov: http://www.ssa.gov/history/bortz.html

Hanratty, M. (1994). Social Welfare Programs for Women and Children. In R. Blank, Social Protection vs. Economic Flexibility: Is There a Trade-off? (pp. 301-332). Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press.

ohio.gov. (2011). Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from odh.ohio.gov:   http://www.odh.ohio.gov/odhprograms/ns/wicn/wic1.aspx
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Critique on an International Relations Study on Poverty and Inequality Among Children

Words: 2326 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68900885

Poverty and Inequality Among Children

Studies show that child poverty has been increasing at an alarming rate in the last decade. In 1994, 15.3 million children, or 21.8% of all Americans, were poor (Lichter 1997) and that, although children constituted only 26.7% of the population, 40.1% of all poor persons in the U.S. were children (U.S. ureau of Census 1996 as qtd in Lichter). These rising poverty rates are used by government agencies in determining the criteria for eligibility in social insurance programs and public assistance interventions developed by these government agencies. And, according to these criteria, the economic well-being of American children is on a downtrend, which indicates that tomorrow's adults will be less economically adjusted than adults today and that the future of today's children is materially and psycho-emotionally less promising (Lichter).

In his study, Lichter (1997) pointed to the rapid changes in the most fundamental institutions --…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Achs, Gregory and Megan Gallagher. Income Inequality Among America's Children. Urban Institute, 2000. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=309307

2. Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and Inequality Among Children. Annual Reviews, vol 23, 1997. http://links.jstor.org/sici=0360-0572%281997%2923%3C121%APAIAC%E2.0.C)%3B2-L

3. Smeeding, Timothy M, et al. U.S. Poor are Among World's Poorest, Luxembourg Income Study. New York Times, Aug 4, 1995. http://pangaea.org/street_children/nameri/poor.htm

4. Van Hook, Jennifer. Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S., Center for Family and Demographic Research. Migration Policy Institute, 2003. http://www.migrationinformation.com/USfocus/display.cfm?ID=188
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Young Diverse Children Living in Big City

Words: 2600 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26026878

Young Diverse Children Living in ig Cities

This paper will focus on the lives and challenges minority and culturally diverse youths face growing up in major urban city environments, such as Newark, New York, altimore or Seattle. The advent of major metropolitan areas has stimulated a rapidly increasing population of disadvantaged and volatile youths. In today's America, it seems that more and more young people growing up in major cities are subjected to poor socio-economic conditions, which anymore lead to an increased likelihood for violence and life disruption.

Today's youths growing up in major urban cities are often disadvantaged; they lack the self-esteem, confidence and tools necessary to succeed in their later adulthood. I hope through my research to uncover facts related to urban distress among youths. I hope to also explore community organizations that have focused their efforts on improving the conditions prevalent among urban youths. I propose that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Achtyes, Eric. (1998). "Big Problem, Small Band Aid." The Daily. Available: http://archives.thedaily.washington.edu/1998/110298/O5.i-.html

Casey Foundation. (2004). Available:  http://www.aecf.org 

Casey Foundation. Child Trends.

Child Trends. (2004). "Raising Children in Big Cities." Right Start City Trends. Child Trends Kids Count Special Report. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Available:
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Social Marketing Napcan Prevent Child

Words: 2493 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96782281

These "interventions are strategies that target whole communities in order to build public resources and attend to the factors that contribute to child maltreatment" (Holzer et al. 2006 p 3). In NAPCAN's 2006 campaign, the organization was promoting parental education through social marketing. NAPCAN's campaign is directed at individuals in order to bring awareness of how their parenting can negatively impact their children.

SWOT Analysis

Strengths

One of the biggest strengths the campaign boasted was its price tag. The cost effectiveness of social media is a major strength to the overall campaign. Prevention programs are often less likely to be rigorously funded and supported by government agencies and institutions, with most funding coming only for short periods of campaign management (Tomison 1998). As a result, social media serves as an extremely beneficial platform because of its cost effective nature. The cost of the campaign is much less than other forms…… [Read More]

References

Barth, Richard P, 2009. Preventing child abuse and neglect with parent training: Evidence and opportunities. Future of Children, 19(2), 95-119.

Horsfall, Briony, Bromfield, Leah, and McDonald, Myfanwy, 2010. Are social marketing campaigns effective in preventing child abuse and neglect? National Child Protection Clearinghouse Issues, 32(2010), 1-28.

Holzer, Prue J., Higgins, Jenny R., Bromfield, Leah M., Richardson, Nick and Higgins, Daryl, 2006. The effectiveness of parent education and home visiting child maltreatment prevention programs. National Child Abuse Prevention Clearinghouse Issues, 24(Autumn 2006), 1-24.

Kaplan, Andreas M. And Haenlein, Michael, 2010. Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53(2010), 59-68.
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Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared With Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents

Words: 10855 Length: 39 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27647890

Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared with Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents

I Situations Faced by Children of Alcoholic Parent(s)

II ehavior of Children with Alcoholic Parent(s)

II Hypothesis #2

I The Possibility of Developing Alcoholism on ACOA's

II ACOA's have Lower Self-Esteem Compared to Non-ACOA's

Comparing the Differences etween ACOAs and Non-ACOAs in Terms of Social and Intimate Relationships

IV Protective Factors For Resiliency

I Participants

II Instruments

Annotated ibliography

Children of Alcoholics Screening Test

Are You an Alcoholic?

Intimate ond Measure

Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale

Self-Esteem Scale

The family is one of the most important institutions in our society today. It is from our family where we are able to develop ourselves and start the journeys we take in life. Usually, the upbringing of each family member depends on the psychological nature of the other members who are able to provide influence or may have cause effects…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Velleman, R. (2002). The Children of Problem Drinking Parents.

Institute of Health & Medicine, University of Bath.

1996). Children of Alcoholics. Alcohol Health.

Common Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.
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Rising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families Children and Homelessness

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56327093

families are living in poverty. Many of these families are living in such extreme conditions that they cannot afford even such basic needs as food for every meal. Living and growing up in such conditions affects every area of life and ultimately the country as a whole. The escalation of poverty among families create tremendous challenges for children. It can negatively impact a growing child's mental and physical health, for example. Such conditions also affect education. A child suffering from chronic mental or physical conditions related to poverty cannot receive optimal educational opportunities. Ultimately, such a child will not be able to contribute to the economy of the country or arrange his or her own well-being in the world. This, in turn, creates further burdens for the country's welfare system. For this reason, it is important to study the contributing factors to poverty in the country in order to find…… [Read More]

References

Aratani, Y. (2009, Sep.) Homeless Children and Youth: Causes and Consequences. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved from:  http://nccp.org/publications/pub_888.html 

Ascend (2011, March 29). Two Generations, One Future: A Roundtable. Aspen Institute. Retrieved from:  http://ascend.aspeninstitute.org 

The Conrad N. Hilton Foundation. (2012, March). Supporting Homeless Young Children and Their Parents. Retrieved from: http://www.familyhomelessness.org/media/327.pdf

David, DH, Gelberg, L. And Suchman, N.E. (2012, Jan-Feb). Implications of Homelessness for Parenting Young Children: A Preliminary Review from a Developmental Attachment Perspective. Infant Mental Health Journal 33(1). Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3370681/
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Advertising to Children Pediatricians Call

Words: 2778 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77365582

As expected to prove H3, the fourth graders could recall a median of 6 items about the ad while the first graders recalled a median of 4 items.

The ultimate conclusion of the researchers was that children "can recall a reasonable amount of information from a single exposure to a television advertisement and are capable of sharing information accurately" (Maher et al., 2006, p. 30). The authors view their work here as a beginning point for further study. In the conclusion to the article, they suggest that the next step would be to see how much children recall if they were in an unstructured environment and perhaps not paying close attention to the advertisement as the children in this experiment did.

International food advertising, pester power and its effects"

In a British study directed by Laura McDrmott, Terry O'Sullivan, Martine Stead, and Gerard Hastings the power of pestering by children…… [Read More]

References

FTC not sweet on junk-food ads targeting children. (2006, Nov. 7). The Washington

Post, p. A1.

Maher, J, Hu, M. & Kolbe, R. (2006). Children's recall of television ad elements.

Journal of Advertising, 35(1), 23-33.
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Counseling-Children Overprotective Parenting it Is

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79278099

They do not believe in the capability of the growing child to make his or her own decisions. In short, instead of parenting and mothering, they are smothering the child. As children grow up, this fear-centered thinking is imbibed into their personality, making them equally afraid of certain things and experiences. They grow up to be socially incompetent and immature individuals who do not know what to do without their parents and who always fear new experiences.

Letting Go

In this changing world, parents have to adapt their parenting style in order to raise children who can be globally competitive. We do not want them to be labelled as wimps, right? Encouraging our children to experience new things and explore their world is a smart parenting style. Yes, we have the authority over them and we need to establish boundaries, but these limitations should not include all activities that have…… [Read More]

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Healthcare Communications Concerning Children With

Words: 2773 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76792206

(eport of the brain tumor progress review)

Conclusion:

It must be stated at this point that although it is indeed unfortunate that young children may be diagnosed with brain tumors, it is a fact that cannot be avoided. These tumors, which occur in about 1,500 to 2,000 children who are diagnosed with malignancies every year in children in the United States of America can be of various different types, and may occur in anybody. The prognosis for a child is definitely better than for an adult, and this can mean that with the proper treatment, the child can hope to live a long and fulfilling life. This paper is about the necessity of effective communication for a health care professional or a clinician with a child with brain tumor and his parents, and it is important to note that unless there is excellent communication between them, the therapy would in…… [Read More]

References

Bhat, Sundeep R; Goodwin, Tress L, et. al. Profile of Daily Life in Children With Brain Tumors:

An Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life. Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol 23, no 24, August, 2005. pp. 5493-5500.

Cure Search.org, a valuable resource for the childhood cancer journey. http://www.childhoodbraintumor.org/CureSearch.pdf

Deatrick, Janet a; Thibodeaux, Annaka G. Family management style framework: a new tool with potential to assess families who have children with Brain Tumor, Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, Jan-Feb 2006, vol. 23, no.1, pp: 19-27.