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Chivalry and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
In the medieval world, chivalry was a code of conduct—a principle of behavior—expected of courteous knights, as endlessly expressed by one of the most famous knights of all time, Don Quixote.[footnoteRef:2] In the medieval story Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, chivalry takes center stage in the action, as the plot essentially pivots on what it means to be chivalrous and how chivalry should be embodied. Sir Gawain undergoes a moral test; the Green Knight is a kind of mythical, mystical judge who puts him through the test; and at the end of it, Sir Gawain emerges humbled and conscious of his shortcomings. The tale is a moral one[footnoteRef:3] and this paper will examine how the medieval concept of chivalry is applied in the story and what it means for Sir Gawain personally after he realizes the fullness of his behavior…
Chivalry has been a part of some societies since the Middle Ages. It originally applied to men who became knights and it became their code of conduct that served their lords, their countries and their Church. That code of conduct definitely included some admirable characteristics and definitely excluded some shameful characteristics. Through the centuries, it has evolved and has a lot less to do with fighting. However, many of the values live on and are like Christ.
Extended Definition of Chivalry
"Chivalry" originally comes from an Old French term: chevalerie, which means "horse soldiery" or the cavalry. This is because the idea of chivalry began with Charlemagne's cavalry -- his knights - and meant a code of conduct including bravery, training and service to other people during the European Middle Ages. The idea kept evolving and by the Late Middle Ages it meant a code of behavior more tied to…
By the late thirteenth century he had his own seal. The various officials concerned with the holy infirmary, the infirmary for sick brothers and almsgiving were under his authority. From 1340, the hospitaller was a brother from the tongue of France."(Nicholson, 77) Thus, the knights were mainly warriors who nevertheless had numerous other attributions, such as being actively engaged in charity actions and other social services. Percival's quest for the Holy Grail exemplifies the sublime missions assigned to the most virtuous of knights.
Thus, knighthood can be identified as an important cell in the Middle Ages, with a complex ideology of its own but also with a determinate role in society.
Harper-Bill, Christopher ed. And Ruth Harvey ed. Medieval Knighthood IV: Papers from the Fifth Strawberry Hill Conference 1990. oodbridge: Boydell, 1992
Kaeuper, Richard . Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Harper-Bill, Christopher ed. And Ruth Harvey ed. Medieval Knighthood IV: Papers from the Fifth Strawberry Hill Conference 1990. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1992
Kaeuper, Richard W. Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Nicholson, Helen. The Knights Hospitaller. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2001.
Prestage, Edgar. Chivalry: A Series of Studies to Illustrate Its Historical Significance and Civilizing Influence. London: Kegan Paul, 1968
Chivalry in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
Although Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is considered to be a romantic poem because of its nature and the era in which it was written, it does not represent romance in the traditional sense of courtly love during the medieval times. It is worth mentioning that Sir Gawain and the Green Knight does not substantially represent any of the conventions listed in "The Art of Courtly Love" by Capallanus, but instead focuses on the chivalrous nature of an honorable knight who struggles when his chivalry comes into conflict with his basic need for self-preservation.
This paper will examine Gawain's character, which is clearly very noble, and how this conflict between morality and mortality becomes almost a mockery by the poet by the end of the poem. Through satire, the poet is able to show the reader how even the noblest and…
Abrahms, M.H. ed. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York: Norton and Company. 1986.
This discovery was maliciously divulged by the Cardinal Richelieu, who wanted to bring disgrace to the Queen as his way of scheming against King Louis XIII's leadership in France. Adultery was a practice acknowledged to occur rampantly but done with discretion, because this remains a taboo in 17th century society, wherein the novel was set. That is why the Musketeers deemed it necessary that in order to help the Queen 'save face' from potential embarrassment, they must be able to re-procure the diamonds the Queen had given her lover, which the Cardinal maliciously requested the Queen to wear in a social, public function for the King. As reflected in the novel, the apparent disquiet that this revelation about the Queen's extra-marital affair was explicated by Dumas in the novel: "...the redness of the queen's eyes donated that she had been sleepless or tearful. ut this last circumstance was not striking,…
Collington, T. (2002). "History is not just a thing of the past: The chronotopic transpositions of La Reine Margot." Literature Interpretation Theory, Vol. 13.
Dumas, a. E-text of "The Three Musketeers." Project Gutenberg web site.
Fromkin, D. (2006). "Dumas gastronomique." The New Criterion.
Valiunas, a. (2003). "Dumas among the gods: the three Musketeers and other French fantasies." The American Spectator.
Chaucer's The Knight's Tale
The societies which flourished throughout Europe during the medieval period were built upon a foundation of institutionalized honor known as chivalry. Orders of knighthood were established throughout the region which sought to produce exemplary soldiers and leaders of men. Medieval knights earned membership to this warrior class by defending their nation from external threats while always striving to uphold a personal code of conduct. The concept of chivalry emerged to encompass the entirety of a knighthood's commitment to virtue, at once describing his proficiency on the battlefield, his willingness to protect a woman's honor, and the supreme loyalty he pledged to his liege. A chivalrous knight was expected to demonstrate prowess in the art of combat, honesty and truth in his dealings with others, honorable behavior when confronting his enemies, and freedom from the hold of worldly possessions; displaying a courtly manner while seeking…
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to the Dark Ages. Specifically, the author is asked to define what "Dark Ages" means. Second, the author is asked to ask how this society unwittingly paved the way for a preservation of literature and art from the classical era. In particular, the author is asked to identify how Ireland was instrumental in this re-emergence. Finally, there is to be a summation of the Arthurian legend and how modern ethics is driven in part by this literature and dynamic and a definition of chivalric code is also to be offered.
In terms of history, the Dark Ages is the millennia or so that followed the end of the oman Empire. It refers to the cultural and economic downfall that ostensibly happened in Western Europe after the oman Empire was reduced to…
Fordham. (2013, October 9). Internet History Sourcebooks. FORDHAM.EDU. Retrieved
October 9, 2013, from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/roland-ohag.asp
MLT. (2013, October 9). Code of Chivalry. Medieval Life and Times. Retrieved October
9, 2013, from http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/medieval-knights/code-of-chivalry.htm
Dark ages and the middle ages existed between fifth and fourteenth century. The Dark Ages observed traditional and modern clashes when there was no intellectual growth not only the public but also the kings and rulers of the countries were illiterate. The Roman culture was deteriorating and the intellectual growth in Roman society stopped. The Dark Age prevailed in whole of Europe and. It is stated that the period was a transition between the Roman height and the High Middle Ages. The Latin literature also fell and the progress could not continue. The social and cultural dominancy of the Europe over rest of world could not sustain. The history speaks that the social and demographic richness and achievements converted into social challenges. It was a time of backwardness for the rich as well as poor as compared to the Roman era when literature and literary growth was prevalent.
Brehaut. E., (1912), "An Encyclopedist of the Dark Ages," Concilio Toletano, Retrieved from:
Hall, F.R., (1980), "CHAUCER AND CHIVALRY," Knight Templar Magazine, pp.28
Knighthood and Chivalry: Heroism, Love, and Honor in "Canterbury Tales" by Geoffrey Chaucer and "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight"
Fourteenth century literature was characteristically based on medieval period, wherein the dominance of Christianity is evident in estern society during that time. Influenced by the image of a knight, who serves as a warrior and man of noble birth, literary works during this period centered on the virtues taught to be important by the Church: love, honor, and chivalry. These are the characteristics that every heroic knight should have: respect for other people and the self, respect for love, and protecting those people who are unable to protect themselves from harm.
These are the traits that readers see in the images of the 'knights' depicted in Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales" and "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." Belonging to the 14th century estern literary period, these works have illustrated how…
E-text of "The Knight's Tale." Available at http://www.literatureclassics.com/etexts/98/89/.
E-text of "The Tale of Sir Thopas." Available at http://www.literatureclassics.com/etexts/98/96/.
Homelessness in America has been a problem for a very long time. The homeless are a vulnerable population therefore something has to be done to make sure that the situation is either controlled or improved. One suggestion I would make is putting the homeless up in a local shelter and tries to re-integrate them back to the society very rapidly. The shelter encourages the people to look out for themselves by requiring that the homeless take part in the upkeep of the shelter if they want to stay. The second suggestion would be enabling these homeless people at these shelters go back to work. Social workers can help the homeless get their birth certificates or proof that they are citizens and a social security card hence they can be bale to get work. These ideas can make the homeless more responsible and hence they can be able to stand out…
Rebecca Bay, (2014). Testing for the Chivalry Hypothesis within the Central Nebraska Drug Court System. University of Nebraska at Kearney. Retrieved July 24,2014 from http://www.lopers.net/student_org/SSRP/papers/pdf/crj_bayr.pdf
How does it illustrate the principles of chivalry?
"The Knight's Tale" is meant to illustrate the medieval ideals of chivalry to the knight's listening audience of fellow pilgrims. In this story of courtly love, two men named Palamon and Arcite are in love with the same woman, Emelye. The two men are great warriors, both imprisoned in a tower after being on the losing side of the conflict between Thebes and Athens. The fact that King Theseus does not kill them shows his noble chivalry. Later, Theseus frees Arcite, on the condition that Arcite leaves Athens forever. Although Palamon is still in prison, he at least can see Emelye every day, as she is Theseus' sister-in-law.
Both knights are miserable at this state of affairs -- Arcite for the loss of his beloved and Palamon for the loss of his freedom. Arcite is so desperate he disguises himself…
Book II: "The Queen of Air and Darkness,"
Morgause raises four boys. She is not a good mother, and she does not give her boys a sense of right and wrong. She often ignores them for days at a time and beats them when they displease her. She acts as if they were pets rather than human beings, to be loved or not at her convenience. But despite this common maltreatment, the boys turn out very differently. Gawaine is the oldest of the boys and in many ways the most normal. He becomes a knight in Arthur's court, fighting for him loyally. The way in which he is affected by his upbringing is his rages. When provoked Gawaine goes into a berserk rage in which he does things he would normally never do. The next child, Agravaine, is probably the least well-adjusted of the four. He…
William Wallace is perhaps one of Scotland's most famous historical figures, but the popular conception of him owes more to Hollywood screenwriters than actual historiography. Adaptations such as 1995's raveheart (itself based on a poem written over a century after Wallace's death) have popularized the figure, but in many cases they have glossed over or even omitted the most noteworthy elements of Wallace's military career by focusing on his role as a charismatic leader, rather than his abilities as a military strategist.
y examining what information is available about Wallace's military exploits, and particularly the attle of Stirling ridge, it will be possible to see how Wallace's successes in the first War of Scottish Independence were the combined result of his knowledge of Scottish terrain and the deployment of unconventional tactics and strategies that played off of the ritish military's own confidence and sense of superiority.
efore discussing the attle…
Azaryahu, Maoz and Kenneth E. Foote. "Historical Space as Narrative Medium: On the Configuration of Spatial Narratives of Time at Historical Sites." GeoJournal 73, no. 3
Barrow, G.W.S. The Kingdom of the Scots. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003.
Cowan, Edward. "William Wallace: The Choice of the Estates" in The Wallace Book .
Jerry's "unfailing impulse of contrition -- a sort of chivalry" struggles against the boy's impulse to be accepted and viewed as a man (3). The lack of father figure in the story underscores Jerry's preoccupation with the group of boys.
The symbolism in "Through the Tunnel" offers a perfect opportunity to explore Freudian theory. In fact, the symbolism emerges like it would in dreams. The titular tunnel is the central image, being an overt representation of the vaginal canal. Moreover, Jerry contemplates the opening of the canal, its vulva, for a long time before entering it. References to the "promontory" of the beach, "strokes," and finally an "explosion" offer phallic imagery too. Jerry is driven to explore the tunnel by a group of boys that he longed for with "a craving that filled his whole body," (5). The longing also suggests homosexuality, which is tempered soon by Jerry's deeper desire…
Like so many of us, he feels that heaven has cursed him. The element of disgrace would mean that he has fallen out of favor with God. He feels that all of his efforts are "bootless" (useless). However, the skylark has risen above this, implying that by remembering his love, he will also rise above it.
This author used the example of heaven because it is universal. We all think about our mortality and want to make sure that our lives have meaning. Without it, we are lost and rudderless. However, like the skylark, love will help us rise above the situation and finally make our way through the troubles of life that we all have.
4) the issue of Jews, Judaism and the character of Shylock are famous and among the most examined aspects of the Merchant of Venice. The raise all sorts of questions about whether or not…
This fear is intensified in the close quarters of prisons. Also, as noted in "Police Control of Juveniles" of Donald J. Black and Albert J. Reiss, Jr. both groups use techniques of fear and intimidation to deal with such a hostile environment. The police use their authority to intimidate prisoners or potential convicts on the street, while convicts use their potential menace and the real or threatened use of violence to assert authority against one another.
The process of "prisonization" and "policization" thus both involve the entry of the individual into a unique subculture, different from those ordinary persons inhabit. Like all human beings, there is a desire for survival, group approval, and esteem, all of which are met, according to the dictates of prison life, by obeying the rules of the social hierarchy. Prisoners are continually watched and monitored for deviant behavior, and these prisoners watch the police to…
Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon
The film, documentaries and the last docudrama are exceptional production pieces by notable directors and producers. Crouching tiger-hidden dragon defies the usual mantra of strength only attributed to men. Jen effectively acts as person having higher morals. The martial arts performance was exceptional, an unusual feature in Hollywood. Islam, the empire of faith is another documentary made on the rise of Islamic empire and the life of Prophet Mohammad having a great impact on establishment of religion. 'Gandhi' also remains an unquestioned production classic that eloquently portrays Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the unquestioned leader of India. The film sheds light on Hinduism as a religion and its faith and dogmas. Lastly, Kundan is a docudrama based on life of Dalai Lama. 'Kundan' might not have justified the stature of Buddhism in history of mankind but the piece of production remains an earnest effort on part of Martin…
Bowker, J. & Bowker, D. (1997). World religions. Dorling Kindersley.
Chan, K. (2004). The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian (Chinese Sword-Fighting Movie): Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Cinema Journal, 43(4), 3-17.
Conze, E. (2004). Buddhism: Its essence and development. Windhorse Publications.
Driver, M.W. & Ray, S. (2004). The medieval hero on screen: representations from Beowulf to Buffy (Vol. 56). McFarland & Company Incorporated Pub.
In "The Secret Life of alter Mitty," Mitty escapes the reality of his manhood with daydreaming. He does this because his wife emasculates him. For Mitty, daydreams are better than dealing with a bothersome wife. Mitty is a real man in his mind as he fantasizes about saving the Navy hydroplane. Mitty is not happy and he argues with his wife over such things as overshoes. He is no doubt a curmudgeon, as we see when he calls the parking lot attendant "damn cocky" (Thurber 1361). Mitty is unlucky in life but we have to wonder how much of this is his fault. Many would look at him and see nothing that resembles a real man. His imagination is his escape, which makes Mitty happy, as he declares himself "undefeated" and "inscrutable" (1364). Mitty might know how to escape his awful world but he is taking a chicken's way out.…
Thurber, James. (1981) "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty." The Norton Anthology of Short
Fiction. New York W.W. Norton and Company. Print.
Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Vol. II. Paul
Lauter, ed. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990. Print.
Crusaders were able to implement feudal states throughout their travels during this period of warfare, many of which have been termed Crusader states and which were erected throughout the Holy Land and in parts of Asia Minor as well as Greece. The most famous of these, of course, was the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which took place in 1099 and reigned until its fall in 1291.
Kingdom of Jerusalem
It should be remembered that for the vast duration of the reign of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, European settlers were widely outnumbered by Franks and Muslims, and only comprised approximately 15 to 25% of the entire population (Kedar 148). The Europeans lived in areas which were both rural as well as urban, and despite attempts to integrate with the surrounding foreigners, they did not infiltrate areas which were predominantly Muslim and which had never had many Christian dwellers (Ellenblu…
knight was "a mounted warrior in the service of his liege-lord." Knights were professional soldiers. They were higher in rank in the cavalry. They wore coat of arms that bore the names of their heritage. They carried the colors of their Lords. (Hopkins, 1990) Their job was protecting the lands that belonged to their Lords and by extension the domain of the king. The rise of knights was associated with a martial meritocracy and an eventual aristo-meritocracy. Those knights who won battles for their masters rose through the hierarchical ranks. They were accorded greater power, lands and servants. The raison d' tre for knights was martial supremacy. Fighting was an often occurrence, because the common person could not defend themselves against an invading foe. In time of danger the people fled to the castle. When not engaged in combat, knights would participate in tournaments to win favors, power, and money.…
Bacon, Leonard. The Song of Roland, Dover Thrift Editions. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2002.
Brault, Gerard J. Early Blazon: Heraldic Terminology in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, with Special Reference to Arthurian Literature. Oxford,: Clarendon Press, 1972.
Gies, Frances. The Knight in History. London: R. Hale, 1986.
Hopkins, Andrea. Knights. 1st American ed. New York: Artabras, 1990.
Aristotelian influence predominated together with the wisdom and learning of other ancient writers, while the former was often used as a framework for intellectual debates which readily expanded both philosophy and other areas of knowledge (Grant 127-131). The European university system was established alongside monasteries as centres for the propagation of knowledge. Scholars like Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon wrote about natural science to a growing audience. While Christianity did not recede as a dogmatic cultural system, it was not entirely determinative. Scholars could explore natural phenomena with an openness to past views, although often the learning acquired was purely rational rather than experimental, and was fused with a biblical worldview. In other words, the renaissance of the twelfth century played an integral part in transmitting scientific methodology within a predominantly religious environment that required thinkers to harmonise science with religion.
Other significant achievements took place in less…
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System
Statistics regarding male and female criminality
Types of cases involving women and men
Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities
Feminists say women should get less jail time
Number of women vs. men arrested
omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time
Death penalty cases
10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women
Leniency of juries on women defendants
Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries
Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children
omen are always given less punishment than men in this area
Reaction of judges towards female defendants
a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators
Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators
In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…
Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568
Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice
Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.
Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.
It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.
The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…
Badiru, Adedeji, Triple C. Model of Project Management: Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Oxon: CRC Press, 2008.
"History of Greece." History World. 5 Jun. 2000. 22 March. 2010.
Hyman, Kavett. "Mesopotamia, A Difficult but Interesting Topic." Social studies 70.3 (1979):
The Cid is a fair and just man, which is part of the knightly image, and he lives a good and just life. He is pious, and he commands respect, as the growth of his forces during his exile indicates. The image of the knight is also extremely brave, especially in battle, and both books hold up this image. The Cid and his men are extremely brave on the battlefield, and they support each other, as well. In one battle, one of his knights loses his horse. Simpson writes, "His lance is broken, but he grasps his sword and smites mightily, now on foot" (Simpson 33). This is one of the enduring images of the knight, that he is brave among all other things, and that he is extremely brave in battle.
Another image of the knight in both books is that they share a camaraderie and sense of working…
Gies, Joseph and Frances. Life in a Medieval Castle. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1974.
The Poem of the Cid. Trans. By Lesley Byrd Simpson. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
No other hero is so frequently mentioned. He is the only person so important that triads are enlarged into tetrads to fit him in. (Ashe 45)
The account that did the most to establish Arthur as a prominent historical figure was the History of the Kings of Britain written in 1135 by Geoffrey of Monmouth, a elsh monk, and the book provides a history of the earliest kings of Britain, some 99 in all, including King Coel, known to us today from the nursery rhyme as Old King Cole. About one-fifth of the book is devoted to Arthur, and Geoffrey provides the first organized version of the story. Many of the elements that would be part of the later tradition were missing, however. Arthur's court is not at Camelot but at a place called Caerlon-on-Usk, or City of Legions. Geoffrey contributed at least three new elements to the existing histories…
Ashe, Geoffrey. "The Arthurian Fact." The Quest for Arthur's Britain, Geoffrey Ashe (ed.). Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, 1987.
Beowulf. Library of the Future CD-Rom, 4th Edition. Irvine: World Library, 1996.
Capellanus, Andreas, the Art of Courtly Love. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. New York: Holt, 1963.
Dark Ages or Early Middle Ages is that historical time period of the Western Europe that came after the collapse of the West oman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries. It ended when the period of the enaissance started in the 15th century. The western civilization adopted a number of its ideas and institutions from the unstable and tumultuous events of the Early Middle Ages. It won't be incorrect to state that the culture in West in fact experienced a revolution in the Middle Age. The most important reason why Middle Age can be considered advancement in the humanities is that its effects influenced the world greatly. The significance of this specific time period "has been increasingly recognized as scholarship based on newly published source material, archaeological findings, and studies of demographics and migration patterns presents more accurate and detailed analyses of events and trends" ("Middle Ages," 2013).
Charles-Edwards, T.M. (2000). Early Christian Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Dawson, C. (2003). The Making of Europe: An Introduction to the History of European Unity. London: The Catholic University of America Press.
Middle Ages from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (n.d.). Questia. Retrieved September 11, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-MiddleAg/middle-ages
Ridyard, S.J. (1999). Chivalry, Knighthood, and War in the Middle Ages. Sewanee, Tenn.: Univ. Of the South Press.
Courtly love is, in general form, a structured form of male / female interaction which was infused with a poetic, heroic, romantic idealism about the virtue of both the man and the woman. The core idea of Courtly Love, as defined by Capellanus, is that the woman (or Lady) should be worshipped, ardently pursued, and intensely desired. She is to receive this attention and devotion not because of an intrinsic beauty and nobility (read: only the members of the upper class were capable of Courtly love), but because she capable of endowing the male with virtue and honor because of and through her acceptance and faith in him. The Lady, then, is to judge her suitor upon the basis of his character, his noble deeds of gentleness and courtesy, his degree of chivalry, not his incidental qualities. In this dynamic, the Lady is obligated through her social responsibility, to accept…
Bennetts, Melissa. "Knightly Prowess and Courtly Love Revealed." Christian Science Monitor. 25 Apr, 1996. v88. i105. pB1 (1).
Capellanus, Andreas. The Art of Courtly Love. John Jay Parry, Translator. New York: Ungar, 1959.
Koenigsberg, Richard A. "Culture and Unconscious Fantasy: Observations on Courtly Love." The Psychoanalytic Review. Spring, 1967. v54. n1. p36(14).
delineation of the research hypotheses. The chapter will conclude with an outline of the remaining chapters.
Relevant Background Information
Increasingly, female offenders and issues associated with their incarceration have been identified as a problem of concern. Evidence suggests that female offenders represent a growing population within the U.S. penal system. Between 1986 and 1991, the number of female inmates in state prisons increased 75% (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994). Between 1981 and 1991, the number of females incarcerated in federal penal institutions also increased by 24%. Since 1980 the population of women inmates has increased by more than 200% (Gabel & Johnston, 1995). Women inmates currently account for 9% of the entire prison population and of this group, 57% are women of color.
The majority of women are arrested for nonviolent crimes. Typical offenses include fraud, use of illegal drugs, and prostitution (Singer, Bussey, Song, & Lunghofer, 1995). Evidence also…
These warriors are unique in that they stand out from the typical images we normally associate with knights and warriors. Soldiers and knights, as well as chivalry were aspects of life that were first examined through Christianity. The fight was not just a fight on this world -- it had an otherworldly aspect to it in that it was also for and about God. These men were energized by this higher calling and people wanted to hear these astonishing stories of defeat in the name of the church. Just like fight was not just fighting, death was not just death. It was all for a higher calling and a higher purpose. Information like this allows us a greater appreciation for cultures different from our own. hat we learn is that even with all of the advancements of technology and education, we are still the same people underneath. e still love…
Davies, Jon. The Christian Warrior in the Twentieth Century. New York: Edwin Mellen Press.
The Song of Roland. Sayers, Dorothy, trans. Baltimore: Penguin Books. 1961.
Sayers, Dorothy. Introduction: The Song of Roland. Sayers, Dorothy, trans. Baltimore: Penguin
In total contrast with these heroes lies the modern hero or better said the modern man defined by his struggle for power. The idea of an individual selling his or her soul to the devil for knowledge is an old motif in Christian folklore, one that is centered upon in Cristopher Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus."
Doctor Faustus, a well-respected German scholar unsatisfied with the traditional forms of knowledge decides he wants to learn to practice magic. He begins his career as a magician summoning Mephastophilis, a devil while Valdes and Cornelius instruct him in the black arts. Despite the devil's warnings about hell Faustus tells the devil to return to his master Lucifer with an offer of Faustus's soul in exchange for twenty-five years of service from Mephistopheles. As the twenty-five years have passed, Faustus begins to dread his impending death and on the final night he is overcome by…
1. The Norton Anthology of English, Norton Topics Outline. 2003-2006. W.W. Norton and Company. On the Internet at http://www.wwnorton.com/nael/middleages/topic_4/welcome.htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
2. The Sixteenth century topics: The Magician, the Heretic and the Playwright: Overview. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 2003-2006. W.W. Norton and Company. On the Internet at http://www.wwnortoncom/nto/16century/topic_1/welcome.htm
3. Jokinen, Aniina. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Luminarium: Anthology of English Literature. November 2006. On the Internet at http://www.luminarium.org/medlit/gawainintro/htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
4. Sera, Joseph. A character analysis of Sir Gawain. Pace University Student Projects on Gawain. November 2006. On the Internet at http://csis.pace.edu/grendel/projs2d/ana/page.htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
Saladin and the Christian Crusaders
Saladin, or Salah al-Din, or Selahedin, was a twelfth century Kurdish Muslim general and warrior from Tikrit, in what is currently northern Iraq. Saladin founded the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt. The Muslim leader was renowned in both the Muslim and Christian worlds because of his leadership and his military prowess. He was also seen as a chivalrous figure who showed mercy during his war against the Christian Crusaders. The image of Saladin developed in his lifetime and persisted long after so that he has remained a heroic figure much revered in both the Islamic world and the Christian world, the latter in spite of the fact that he opposed Western expansion into Islam and fought agasint the West in the Crusades. Still, he is idolized in literaure and art and is often the subject for Western writers as for Islamic writers, though the two groups…
Esposito, John L. Islam: The Straight Path. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Firestone, Reuven. Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Franzius, Enno. History of the Byzantine Empire. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1967.
Lane-Poole, Stanley. Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1898.
Honor Code of Chinese Warriors
The objective of this study is to discuss the honor code of warrior-heroes in Chinese history and to answer to what the honor code consists of and the origin of the honor code. As well, this study will examine how this honor code influenced the intentions, words, and actions of the warriors and how the honor code manifests itself in novels, how and when the codes apply and what competing visions existed in human conduct.
Wuxia is a term in Mandarin that means literally "martial arts chivalry" and is representative of a unique Chinese type of story that is dated back as far as the Tang Dynasty (681-907). Wuxia is defined by stories "that combine wushu (martial arts) tradition with deeds of heroic chivalry perfomed by men and women." (Pollard, 2011, p.1) Wuxia stories are rooted in "early youxia (?
) and cike (?
The Warrior Code (nd) China History Forum. Retrieved from: http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/31149-warrior-spirit-in-china-chinese-warrior-codes/
Hsia, C.T.C.T. Hsia on Chinese Literature. Columbia University Press, 2004 (ISBN 0231129904), pg. 149
Bordahl, Vibeke. Four Masters Of Chinese Storytelling: Full-length Repertoires Of Yangzhou Storytelling On Video. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies; Bilingual edition, 2004 (ISBN 8-7911-1464-0), pg. 166
Guth, Christine. Longfellow's Tattoos: Tourism, Collecting, and Japan. University of Washington Press (2004), p147
Jews in "Ivanhoe"
Sir Walter Scott's novel Ivanhoe makes Jews central to the plot, but it is not an anti-Semitic book. Despite the inclusion of some traditional stereotypes which -- given the largely "antiquarian" nature of Scott's interests (to recall the word he uses) in telling this tale -- are aimed above all else at historical accuracy for the time period of the book and are not intended to be offensive, Scott writes as though some tenet of Christian chivalry entails tolerance and open-mindedness towards the Jewish population in England in the Middle Ages. In this paper I will suggest that a thorough examination of the novel's portrayal of twelfth-century Judaism reveals that Scott is really writing from a deep understanding of what life is like at the margins -- perhaps because he is writing as a Scotsman and as a physically disabled person (Scott famously had a club-foot) --…
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…
Disorder does not descend from Heaven,
It is the spawn of a woman. 10
Contemporaneous with relocating the capital from Edo to Tokyo was the drawing up of the 'Memorandum on Reform of the Imperial Palace' in which Article 1 states that the emperor would 'deign to hear about all political matters' in the front throne room adding that 'women are to be prohibited from entering the front throne room' 11.
Yoshii Tomozane, enior ecretary for Court Affairs peremptorily dismissed all court ladies, after which a rare few were reselected for appointment. In his dairy, he noted: 'this morning, the court ladies were dismissed in their entirety… the power of women already lasting for centuries has been erased in a single day. My delight knows no bounds." 12.
In this way the power of the 'hens' was removed from the 'Enlightened regime' of Meiji rule and suppressed throughout the country.…
Adler, Philip. World Civilizations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson, 2008
De Vos, George & Wagatsuma, Hiroshi, "Value Attitudes Towards Role Behavior of Women in Two Japanese Villages," American Anthropologist, 63, (1961).
Hastings, S.A. "Gender and Sexuality in Modern Japan" a Companion to Japanese History, Blackwell Pub., 2007
Hendry, Joy, Understanding Japanese Society. London: Routledge, 1991.
For some people, beating on drums and meditation is a spiritual way to experience their religion on a higher level, which releases a different understanding.
The Decameron includes a frame story about the plague in Florence in 1348, which can be explained from the following.
AN EPOCH-AKING EVENT in the development of early Italian narrative is the canonization, thanks to the astounding success of Boccaccio Decameron, of the cornice, the framing device. The formula of the novelliere aperto, the loosely structured anthology of stories (such as the Novellino), becomes secondary to that of the novelliere chiuso, in which a meta-story encompasses all others. In contemporary developments within the genre of lyric poetry, the fragmentary collection evolves into the prosimetrum (Dante Trita nuova) and the canzoniere (Petrarch Rime). In order to monitor the progress of literary forms out of the archaic period, one must focus on the development of innovative modes…
Misusing metaphors adds to the comedic value of the sonnet and sets a satirical tone. But when the literary devices change, the tone changes from satire to authentic language. This change in tone and language takes place in the couplet, the last two lines of the sonnet, "And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare/as any she belied with false compare." (lines 13, 14). By abandoning literary devices for sincerity the narrator has concluded his theme; that sincerity and realism is worth more than false comparisons. This is when the method of satire to convey an authentic message becomes effective. When the theme of the sonnet is concluded with sincere language and the audience then understands Shakespeare's use of satire. (Poetry analysis: 'My Mistress' Eyes are nothing like the Sun,' by William Shakespeare).
Don Quixote's quest was about following dreams no matter how foolish they may seem to others. He was an idealist who believed there were no limits in life
Don Quixote is the hero of Don Quixote, the early 17th century novel by Miguel de Cervantes. Quixote is a dreamer and a gentle buffoon, an aging gentleman who sets out from his village of La Mancha to perform acts of chivalry in the name of his grand love Dulcinea. He rides a decrepit horse, Rocinante, and is accompanied by his "squire," the peasant Sancho Panza. Quixote's imagination often gets the better of him; in once famous incident he tilts at windmills, imagining them to be giants. Throughout his many adventures Quixote often seems ridiculous, yet he maintains his staunchly hopeful attitude and belief in chivalry. (the term quixotic now describes anyone who takes on an idealistic or foolish quest against great odds.) the book Don Quixote inspired the 1959 play Man of La Mancha, in which Quixote's quest is summed up in the song "The Impossible Dream." (Don Quixote)
To counter the fast moving armies, some European nobles started fighting on horseback too. Since maintenance of horses was expensive and cavalry training difficult, the feudal lords or kings began to grant land to the mounted warriors called 'knights.' The knights were expected to provide military service to the feudal lords in exchange for the land provided to them. The unwritten 'contract' between the knights and the kings / feudal lords was based on the principles of bravery and loyalty. The knights were men of noble birth and adhered religiously to the chivalric code. Chivalry thrived as long as feudalism flourished and mode of fighting on horseback in armor was relevant. In the 14th century feudalism began to decline and the development of gun-powder made the knight-warriors less relevant. From then onward, chivalry survived only as a set of rituals and fashion amongst the nobility.
To his feudal lord
The French tradition of the Arthurian legends, however, are far less overtly political in their approach to the tales and to Guinevere in particular, and though politics and loyalties are still important elements of these stories the aspects of romance, love, and sexuality are far more prominent. Beginning with the poet Chretien de Troyes, Guinevere began to take on a more active role that at once justifies the feminine and begins to suggest the degradation and un-holiness of the female body and intent. Though Man might still be the more active and potent partner, Woman can corrupt and influence Man, these tales suggest, and the character of Guinevere seems a brand new creation given her immensely increased prominence when compared to all known earlier forms of the legends (Fulton, 3).
Erec and Enide is the tale of one of Arthur's knights and the peasant maid he loves and marries, but…
Bruce, J. Douglas. The Development of Arthurian Romance in Medieval France. The Sewanee Review 13(3)(1905): 319-35.
Chretien de Troyes. Erec and Enide. Accessed 5 June 2012. http://omacl.org/Erec/
Chretien de Troyes. Lancelot or, the Knight of the Cart. Accessed 5 Juen 2012. http://omacl.org/Lancelot/
Fulton, Helen. A Woman's Place. Quondam et Futurus 3(2)(1993): 1-25.
Mario, however, is not so lucky. He finds Bowser, and is forced to do battle with the giant beast until Bowser inadvertently casts himself into the fiery abyss of his own creation. Bowser's downfall is rather ironic: what ultimately ruins his grand designs of Mushroom domination is the structure of the castle that he built himself.
Despite the dissimilarities concerning the identities of their enemies, both Mario and Sir Gawain are victorious because they live up to their reputations as good and honorable heroes. Sir Gawain travels back to Camelot where he is praised by his King and the other Knights of the Round Table. Mario receives an identical homecoming -- he is praised as the conquering hero of the Mushroom realm. Stories, feasts, and games follow in both lands. Eventually in the Mushroom realm, even Bowser is allowed into the noble games and he races alongside Mario is his…
Many women and children live in substandard and marginal conditions in many parts of the world and they need a voice to transmit those conditions and voting power to correct those conditions. Too much masculinity is behind this contagion and chivalry cannot substitute for true justice. Nellie McClung, one of Canada's foremost social activists and its first feminist waged a political battle for Canadian women's rights, specifically the right to vote. In her time, women were not considered persons under the British North American Act but were mere appendages to men. She and the rest of the Famous 5 fought to secure that right and won it. Women's rights and women's movements are expressions of the best instincts of womanhood to serve and help the human race. Women, like men, think and think as dynamically. If women's thoughts are ignored or repressed, evolution is blocked and similarly suppressed.…
"Women who place a low value on themselves make life hard for all women."
"The world has taunted women into marrying."
(Industry Canada 1998)
medieval romance has inspired literature for generations. The magic of the Arthurian romance can be traced to Celtic origins, which adds to it appeal when we look at it through the prism of post-medieval literature. The revival of the medieval romance can be viewed as an opposition against modern and intellectual movement that became vogue in modern Europe. These romances often emphasized the human emotions rather than the human intellect and a return to more classical traditions. Poets and writers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries did not want to feel the oppression from the constraints of their time. Instead, they looked beyond the intellectual to a more mystical and emotional realm. They wanted to achieve another level in their writing -- one that allowed them to stretch their imaginations and their knowledge. The medieval aspects that we find in literature from this era accentuates a different type of thinking…
Carlyle, Thomas. "Past and Present." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. II
New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 157-70.
Carl Woodring, "The Eve of St. Agnes: Overview." Reference Guide to English Literature.
2nd ed. 1991. Gale Resource Database. Site Accessed April 20, 2005.
Horrors of the 14th Century -- Barbara Tuchman's a Distant Mirror turns the image of the quaint, chivalric Middle Ages in Europe into an image of a divided land, in a state of crisis and despair
The rather poetic title A Distant Mirror given by the historian Barbara Tuchman to her landmark work about the 14th century belies the horrors she chronicles, terrors of disease, war, and religious intolerance that were rife in the chaotically governed Europe of this period of time. The subtitle of the book is "The Calamitous 14th Century," and calamitous for almost all of its citizens it was indeed. The century was marked by the plague, internal as well as external wars, and suffered under the control of the church over European political affairs. The misery of disease, the constant turmoil of war, caused the already divided population to be constantly divided. Because of disease and…
Tuchman, Barbara W. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York: Ballantine Books, reissue 1987.
This gave her husband the right to sell any of her property and she was not in a position to object in any way. Religious women with their vows of obedience and poverty really had no reason to get involved in legal matters and were untouched in any way by the legal structure.
idows were the only women who held in legal position in the society. "She (a widow) regained her legal personality, was entitled to a certain share of her husband's holdings and, for the first time in her life, could make independent decisions." Legally, this was the best position for women. It was not without problems especially for wealthy women. These women were frequently intimidated into a second marriage or into relinquishing parts of their holdings. They had no legal recourse against this kind of intimidation in the same way that married women could not object to domestic…
Barber, Richard. The Penguin Guide to Medieval Europe. New York: Penguin
Conway, Stephen. "Silent Voices: Women in the Middle Ages." 1991. http://www.subverbis.com/essays/medievalwomen.rtf .
Delort, Robert. Life in the Middle Ages. Trans. Robert Allen. New York:
The wife's lie is revealed in "Bisclavet" because the inner humanity of the werewolf does shine through, albeit to another man. "This beast understands, feels like a man," says the king. (p.5) Ultimately, the king's friendship, a relationship forged in the male sphere of the hunt with Bisclavet is more meaningful and lasting than that of the marital bond, borne of a lie of concealment, first on the part of the man, then on the part of the woman. After the full truth is revealed and the werewolf becomes human again: "The king ran to hug him tight;/He kissed him a hundred times that day." (p.9) hen he learns that his friend is in fact a man, and also that the truth has set the man free, the king cannot restrain his lover-like affection. For the first time in the werewolf's life, the man has honest relationship that allows him…
De France, Marie. "Bisclavet." Translated by Judith P. Shoaf. 1991-96. [12 Oct 2006] http://web.english.ufl.edu/exemplaria/marie/bisclavret.pdf
De France, Marie. "Lanval." Translated by Judith P. Shoaf. 1991-96. [12 Oct 2006] http://web.english.ufl.edu/exemplaria/marie/lanval.pdf
Baldassarre Castiglione's classic Book of the Courtier was set in the ducal palace at Urbino in the early-16th Century. Because of the Duke's illness, he always went to bed early after supper and his place as head of household and director of the evening festivities was taken by the Duchess Elisabetta Gonzago. This was quite an unusual role for women at the time, since the Duchess and her delegate Lady Emilia set the tone for the entire conservation and chose the topic and the speakers. Almost all of the gentlemen present would have chosen other subjects that they perhaps imagined would have been of more interest to the ladies, such as romantic love, personal and private relationships and the emotions of anger and jealousy so often associated with these. Instead, the Duchess and Lady Emilia seem far more interested in the 'man's world' of politics, diplomacy and military affairs,…
Burke, Peter. The Fortunes of the Courtier: The European Reception of Castiglione's Cortegianno. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996.
Castiglione, Baldassarre. The Book of the Courtier. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1928, 1903.
Pearl Poet's Sir Gawain
The Arthurian Legends are one of the most mysterious of Middle English literature. For many years historians have tried to match King Arthur to one of the Early Kings of Britain, however, all attempts have met without success. It is now generally accepted that King Arthur and the other Knights of the Round table represent a composite of the behaviors and attitudes of people of that time period. The same can be said of the character of Sir Gawain in "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." As social attitudes changed, so do the ideal characteristics that exemplify virtue and purity. The character Sir Gawain appears in many versions of the Arthurian Legends. The characteristics and attitudes of Sir Gawain seem to shoe a shift over time. The most widely accepted version of the character of Sir Gawain is the version that is attributed to the poet…
Abrams, M.H. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1993.
Andrew, Malcolm, and Ronald Waldron, eds. The Poems of the Pearl Manuscript. 2d ed.
London: Arnold, 1982; Gordon, E.V., ed. Pearl. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.
Bishop, Ian. Pearl in Its Setting- A Critical Study of the Structure and Meaning of the Middle English Poem. Oxford: Blackwell, 1968
Mrs. Warrant's Profession: The Intellectual, the Victim, and the Conventional Woman
Mrs. Warren's Profession" by George ernard Shaw was a play written more than a hundred years ago in 1894
The roles that women play in this masterpiece show that Shaw was far ahead of his time in his thoughts about what women should do and be. He presented a new vision of an intellectual, entrepreneurial woman and challenged the conventional roles imposed by society. He also included accounts of women victimized by a capitalist society and defended their rights to take whatever actions they had to in order to changer their circumstances even if that meant prostitution. In fact, Shaw's beliefs are consistent with modern-day feminism with only one exception. Shaw seemed to fear that a woman's independence and choice of a career had to come at the expense of something else, namely love and family. Nonetheless, "Mrs. Warren's…
Goldman, Emma. "The Social Significance of the Modern Drama." International
Society of Political Psychology. 03 May 2003. http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/goldman/socsig/warren.html
Lovinger, "Trinity Rep OffersCcrackling 'Mrs. Warren's Profession'" Standard-Times 30
Knight in History by Frances Gies. Specifically, it will explain the author's purpose and main points in writing the book. "The Knight in History" is a detailed look at how knights functioned in society, how they lived, worked, and added to the economy. These larger than life figures have been romanticized in hundreds of films and books, but Gies attempts to show readers what they really were like, and how the reality differed from the romantic notions of gallant knights in armor roaming the countryside on their trusty steeds. The role of knight was vital in medieval history, Gies' book shows the reader exactly why, and why their role in society should not be ignored.
Author Frances Gies, a respected historian, wrote this book as a chronicle of knighthood and chivalry at a time when there were not many resources available on the realities of knights and their role in…
Gies, Frances. The Knight in History. New York: Harper & Row, 1984.
unter and the unted:
Courtly Love and the Many Faces of the ero
Literature abounds in depictions of the hero.
Solomon, Esther, Gawain, and countless others call to mind tales of strength, valor, and passion. Whether a text's purpose is religious, instructional, or purely a matter of entertainment, a single character stands out. Emotion is often overpowering, as too, are the choices between what is right and what is wrong. Morality plays an equally important role in each of these "superhuman" stories. Frequently, the path of virtue is crossed by the highways of desire. A hero may take the high road, or he may take the low road, but which choice is correct depends upon the specific circumstances of the narrative, and upon the central figure's point-of-view. A bewildering array of problems, impossible tasks, and larger-than-life villains can turn closely-held beliefs inside out, and cause a hero to commit acts…
Heide Estes, "Bertilak Reads Brut: History and the Complications of Sexuality in Sir Gawain and the Green
Knight," Essays in Medieval Studies, 17, 72, Allen J. Frantzen, Ed. Illinois Medieval Association, 2000.
Guinevere Shaw, "Interpretations of Honor in the Medieval Period," URL: http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Hall/1170/medhero.html.
According to Gutek (1995), the church in the medieval period exercised a virtual dominance of formal education through direct or indirect means. During this period, formal education was supervised by clerics though it was not a pre-requisite for practicing religious life or leadership. Since the church has a virtual monopoly over formal education, there were different kinds of educational institutions associated with chivalry, the guilds and the church during the medieval period. Even though access to education was limited during this period, these educational institutions, which were mostly church-related, conducted basic or elementary education. The institutions provided basic/elementary educational functions despite the fact there was relatively vague differentiation between elementary and secondary schools.
The educational institutions associated with the chivalry, the guilds, and the church in the early medieval era were parish, chantry, monastic, and cathedral schools (Gutek, 1995). Parish schools were presided over by a priest and…
The study of physics, optics and biology of the eye contributed to the development of the quadrant and sextant. The Islamic world also created the concept of a library.
The Crusades of the eleventh century brought the learning of the Islamic world to Europe unfortunately this information was acquired by the act of war. The Crusades also increased the flow of trade, bringing new spices, gemstones and foods to Europe. The Crusades marked the beginning of religion as the basis for society. The Pope and the Catholic Church emerged as the leaders of society and religion as the unifying morality.
Rather than a change in politics, a mini-renaissance occurred during Romanesque period. The study of art, science and culture brought about a change in architectural styling and building materials; increased use of rounded arches and barrel vaults emerged at the same time as the use of metal, enamel, ivory, bronze,…
Sherlock Holmes is presently associated with a deerstalker hat, a pipe and a magnifying glass, but few people know that the first description of the character has nothing to do with these items (with the exception of the magnifying glass, which he rarely used in "A Study in Scarlet"). Every popular character, regardless of its importance, is bound to change in appearance over a period of years. This is probably due to the intervention of various factors, such as the public's opinion and trends changing along with the passing of time. The general image of Sherlock Holmes has been gradually influenced by various depictions of the character, as each depiction has provided material for the one after it.
Doyle lived to see his novel adapted to be put in plays and to be transformed into film scripts. The character is part of a great number of books, motion pictures, and…
1. Browning, Gary & Eliason, Eric a. "Crypto-mormons or Pseudo-mormons?," Western Folklore 61.2 (2002)
2. Childers, Joseph W. "Recent Studies in the Nineteenth Century," Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900-38.4 (1998).
3. Doyle, Arthur Conan. (2007). "A Study in Scarlet." Filiquarian Publishing, LLC.
4. Mitchell, Lee. "White Slaves and Purple Sage: Plotting Sex in Zane Grey's West," American Literary History6.2 (1994): 234.
Your answer should be at least five sentences long.
The Legend of Arthur
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty
1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences
Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.
* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to…
Those with issues to overcome are always more heroic. Hector also becomes a hero when, after at first running from Achilles, he eventually stands up to him and dies a heroic death.
The Iliad is primarily a war epic. In your opinion, is the Iliad condemnation of the it could easily be argued that the Illiad glorifies war, as much of the poem is spent portraying the warriors as brave and courageous, even as they go on killing rampages. Warriors are describes as "masters of the battle cry" and "warlike" in glowing epithets. When Achilles originally refused to fight, he is roundly condemned for it by all of the other Greek characters. Even the weapons of war, such as Achilles impenetrable shield, are glorified. But homer is more complicated than simple -- war also brings death, which he describes in great detail. Hector's death is perhaps the most graphic of…
(Chu 58 -- 67) it is also important to note that the film has an emotional / cultural tie, to the director Ann Hui. As a child, she immigrated to Hong Kong. Where, she learned English, as a second language and went through some of the common struggles of immigrants. ("Ann Hui")
Clearly, the film the oat People would highlight a shift that is occurring in the cinema of Hong Kong throughout the 1980's. Where, a variety of different new genres would emerge. This is because audiences felt, that many marital arts films lacked substance. At which point, a shift would occur in the motion picture industry, as a variety of new genres would quickly emerge. The oat People would underscore this shift, by telling a unique story of Vietnamese peasants trying to escape the brutality of the communists (three years after the collapse of South Vietnam). Where, they are…
"Ann Hui." IMDB. 2010. Web. 30 Jun. 2010.< http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0401176/bio >
"Boat People." Answers.com. 2010. Web. 30 Jun. 2010.
"The Boat People." Avistaz. 2010. Web. 30 Jun. 2010
Browne, Nick. " Hong Kong New Wave." New Chinese Cinemas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Troubadours actually represent an example of that change in the social set up that signifies individualistic approach. Troubadours represent the rejection of social locks on the ability of people to be romantically in love. Italian critic Mario Casella also attempted to note the significance of troubadours as a special development of Augustinian Philosophy of individualistic approach. (Silverstein, 122)
The troubadours dealt with varied important subjects like war, politics, personal satire and other subjects, yet the main theme of remained love and affection towards women. Most of the ladies for which the troubadours were sung, were married. Only some exceptional troubadours sang for maiden girls. Thus, the concept of love touched through troubadours was conventional type and it rejected marriage as the major objective of love. Some of the genre of troubadours was very satirical and naughty in essence such as Alba, which is the song that is sung by a…
Chaytor, H.J. The Troubadours. University of Cambridge Press, Cambridge. 1912.
Marisa, Rosa Menocal. Close Encounters in Medieval Provence: Spain's Role in the Birth of Troubadour Poetry, Hispanic Review, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 43-64.
Silverstein, Theodore. Andreas, Plato, and the Arabs: Remarks on Some Recent Accounts
of Courtly Love, Modern Philology, vol. 47, no. 2, Nov., 1949, pp. 117-126.
The predominating media sentiment according to Ransby was that of 'blaming the victim,' or blaming the impoverished residents for being insufficiently prepared for the disaster. Ransby suggests that the fortitude shown by residents, even in the absence of aid, was often considerable, considering their meager resources. Residents were blamed for their poverty, rather than sympathized with.
Ransby's essay made me think critically about the coverage of the event I witnessed: while it was true that many people were praised for going to the afflicted area and helping the victims, I remember far fewer stories praising the resilience of residents. While the 'blame the victim' mentality may have been less in evidence in the coverage I saw than that which was cited by Ransby, I do think that there was a kind of objectification of the victims as a general, faceless representation of extreme poverty that many Americans denied existed within…
Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).
Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.
Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…
Beaver, R. Pierce. "Chondogyo and Korea." Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
Buddhism Today. Buddhism in Korea. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from http://www.buddhismtoday.com . (1997).
Buswell, Robert E., and Lee, Timothy S. Christianity in Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
Thus, we can see that the perils of man seem meaningless in the overall scheme of the world, "hen the wind stops, and, over the heavens / The clouds go, nevertheless, / In their direction," (Stevens 1923). Nature, and the rest of the world will always go on. Death, as well as life itself then seem meaningless.
Faulkner too paints a much more inglorious image of death, especially death on the proving grounds of battle to protect and serve one's country. In "Two Soldiers," a young rural southern Pete Grier leaves his family in the South to join the war, inspired by the patriotism which swept over much of the country at the time. Even the young eight-year-old narrator can see Pete's noble ignorance, yet is caught up in the image of glory it would bring to him and his family. It is within this fantasy the boy tries to…
Faulkner, William. "Two Soldiers." Collected Stories of William Faulkner. Vintage International. 1995.
Stevens, Wallace. "The Death of a Soldier." Harmonium. 1923. Retrieved February 6, 2010 from http://poetry.poetryx.com/poems/5331/
Hard Target, 1993 -- His first Hollywood movie.
Face-off, 1997 -- John Travolta and Nicholas Cage helped create Woo's first real Hollywood blockbuster on the third try.
Mission Impossible 2, 2000 -- Tom Cruise. Pure, unadulterated action and thrills in true Woo style.
Windtalkers, 2002 -- discussed earlier. Critically excellent. Not a big box-office hit.
Red Cliff, 2009 -- his first movie back in Hong Kong after a long stay in Hollywood. Critically, perhaps his best effort ever (Yahoo).
Impact on Asian Cinema
To say that John Woo has had massive influence on Asian filmmaking would be appropriate. His thought-provoking style of making action films with a lot of blood, and yet containing them in a movie that projects humanity, chivalry, and sensitivity was unknown.
He brought dramatic, yet "poetic" action to action films and moral expression to filmmaking in Asia. The meticulous and disciplined narrative style of a…
Ebiri, B. "John Woo on Red Cliff, on Returning to Asia, and Why He's Not a Hustler." 20 November 2009. Nymag.com. 14 December 2009 .
hkfilm.net. "John Woo and the Art of the Action Movie." n.d. hkfilm.net. 14 December 2009 .
msn.com. "John Woo: Biography." 2009. msn.com. 14 December 2009 .
reporters, Tribune. "John Woo." 2009. Chicago Tribune. 14 December 2009 .