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Diane seems to be undergoing many different problems that are present today because of her past. The way she was treated by her family and her husband now has gone to affect her psychologically and emotionally. The combination of post traumatic stress disorder, schizoaffective symptoms and previous satanic ritual abuse is very severe and psychological intervention is greatly required.
One of her presenting complaints is post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) PTSD is a form of anxiety disorder that occurs as an emotional reaction to something that occurred in the patient's life. This trauma could be pain, injury, threat, or death of a loved one. (Valente, 2010) Some common examples of traumatic disorders are natural disasters, military combat or terrorist incidents. It is normal to have an adverse or a stressed response to a traumatic event. Normally, people come to back to their usual state of mind…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Brewin, C. And Holmes, E. (2003). Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical psychology review, 23 (3), pp. 339 -- 376.
Clark, D. And Ehlers, A. (2004). Posstraumatic stress disorders from cognitive theory to therapy. In: Leahy, R. eds. (2004). Contemporary cognitive therapy: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford, pp. 141-160.
Clohessy, S. And Ehlers, A. (1999). PTSD symptoms, response to intrusive memories and coping in ambulance service workers. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38 (3), pp. 251 -- 265.
The plight of Mr. And Mrs. J is troubling as there are many prominent presenting issues at an initial glance at their case. The most striking issue is the lack of affection these two people have for each other. The recent combining of families in this case is also very stark. While the situation is not dire, this relationship appears headed for doom and trouble if certain steps are not taken to remedy the situation.
The most dominant issue in this case appears to be the professional lives of these individuals. The modern family, as represented in this case, places much emphasis on work and career besides family. 60-hour work weeks for Mr. J. doesn't serve his families best emotional interests. The fact that Mrs. J feels she has to work as well also appears to violate God's laws in some antiquated ways. Overall there is a severe…
Brotto, L. (2009). The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Sexual Aversion Disorder. Archive of Sexual Behavior. APA 2009. Retrieved from http://www.obgyn.ubc.ca/SexualHealth/documents/Brotto_DSM_Review_on_Sexual_Aversion_Disorder.pdf
There is an idea of longstanding that humor has power as a curative. The Reader's Digest has long had a section entitled "Laughter: The Best Medicine," reflecting an old saying about this issue. In his book Laugh Again, Charles R. Swindoll approaches this idea from a Christian perspective, recognizing the many ills and sadnesses to which life is subject and finding in humor and laughter the means to overcome these ills and banish these sadnesses.
The author makes his intention clear in the Introduction when he says, "This book is about joy" (11). He wants people to relax more, release tension, and refuse to let negative circumstances dominate their thinking. Swindoll says we can all remember when life was joyful if we think back to our childhood, as he recalls his: "I neither expected much nor needed much. Life was to be enjoyed, not endured, and therefore every…
Swindoll, Charles R. Laugh Again. Dallas: World Publishing, 1992.
Christian Counseling Scenario
What are the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?
In the case of Leon, a 52-year-old man with a dysfunctional childhood who has been unable to experience life in typical fashion, the most prominent presenting issue is definitely the individual's lack of emotional capacity and general apathy, both of which are obviously symptoms of a deeply repressed psychological trauma. The circumstances described in the introduction to Leon's case, wherein his eventually divorced parents both suffered from chemical dependency and addiction, while the father inflicted sever emotional and physical abuse, is extremely typical in terms of being connected to later symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Text evision (DSM-IV T), "diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event that meets specific stipulations and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, D.C.
Christian Counseling Theories
Christian authors present the very unique set of principles and strategies aiming at helping empower individuals going through counseling. Examining Christian literature and theory illustrates clear assumptions that different authors share, yet also pulled out some clear differences as well. For example, Backus and Chapain (2000) present fluidity, while Adams (1986) suggests Scripture. Still, these authors do all show that the word of God is a crucial element to the spiritual healing needed in modern counseling.
Backus and Chapain (2000) present a very simple, that individuals are plagued with discomfort and unhappiness because they think incorrectly. Essentially, when one does not think the proper manner, negative results come from it. Thus, ill-natured thoughts lead to anxiety, unhappiness, and depression, all of which are the main causes for people seeking counseling in a modern context. In order to combat these ill thoughts, Backus and Chapain present when is…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
She references Romans 3: 23, 24: "…(23) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (24) and all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus." (New International Version).
Ultimately, Hendricks informs, the comfort and safety of parents with autistic children must be revealed through "their faith that a sovereign God designed their child and planned all the days of his life before any had yet occurred"; to understand that, she references the words of the Old Testament, Psalm 139: 16: "Your eyes saw my unformed body; all the days ordained for me were written in your book, before one of them came to be…" (New International Version).
In the eb site Finding Noah a Christian mother explains that if you are a Christian and you are told your child has autism, remember what Jesus said (John 16: 33): "In…
Finding Noah. (2007). Autism in the Christian Family. Retrieved Dec. 23, 2010, from http://findingnoah.org /?page_id=20.
Google Health. (2010). Autism. Retrieved Dec. 22, 2010, from https://health.google.com/health/ref/autism .
Hendrickson, Laura. (2004). Autism Spectrum Disorders. Christian Counseling. Retrieved Dec. 23, 2010, from http://www.christiancounseling.com/en/articles/printview.asp?544 .
Hendrickson, Laura. (2009). Finding Your Child's Way on the Autism Spectrum: Discovering
Finally, learning how to rely on and depend on others can help people rely on and depend on God. The exercise teaches the value of trust and shows that we can depend on other people as well as God.
7. Body Outline: Drawing an outline of the body is a helpful exercise for people who have eating disorders. It can help people recognize that their body image does not match the reality of their physical form. In some cases, drawing the body can bring up strong emotions. For this exercise, drawing the body outline enables participants to explore self-image: the lies we tell ourselves and the negative self-talk we bombard ourselves with throughout our life. We can see how some of these lies were perpetuated by parents, by peers, by the media, and by society. By exploring these lies, we can hopefully begin to see the truth: to see our…
This individual, Mr. White, is going through a severe midlife crisis which is primarily manifested emotionally and economically, and is not uncommon for people in the U.S. after they have reached 40 years of age (Wethington, 2000, p. 85). Mr. White has had immense difficulties with his personal life and professional life. His wife of a few years had divorced him and moved to the other side of the country where she was raising their two daughters with another man. When she incurred legal problems, she required White's presence so the state would not take her daughters away. White currently lives with his ex-wife and their two daughters, who primarily function as his support system. The girls are both within five years old; there is no romance between White and his ex-wife. White's parents are both in their 90's and offer limited support across the country in California,…
Coates, G.W. (1973). Abraham's sacrifice of faith: a from-critical study of Genesis 22. Interpretation. 27( 4), 389-400.
Padley, J. (2011). 'Declare the interpretation': Redacting Daniel in early Bibles for English children. Biblical Interpretation. 19(3), 311-336.
Podmore, S.D. (2011). The sacrifice of silence: Fear and Trembling and the secret of faith. International Journal of Systematic Theology. 14(1), 70-90.
The Bible. New International Version. Retrieved from www.biblegateway.com
Concise Summary of Theory
Christian counseling is usually rooted in both Biblical truths and in psychological research. In Telling Yourself the Truth and How to Help People Change, the authors discuss how to counsel from within a Christian theoretical perspective. Although these two books have different areas of focus, their core messages are the same: change is to be instigated by God and sustained in the light of Christ.
The authors view traditional psychological theories such as psychoanalysis as being helpful as starting points, but no longer relevant from either a scientific or a spiritual perspective. Therefore, Backus & Chapain (2000) and Adams (1986) infuse psychology with Christian concepts. Christian concepts, drawn directly from the Bible and its parables, can help the individual see his or her life in a new and more accurate light.
Specifically, How to Help People Change defines change within a Christian context, whereas Telling…
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Backus, W. & Chapain, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth. Minneapolis: Bethany House.
Review of Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling by McMinnSummaryPart 1In chapters 1 and 2 McMinn explains how one integrates, psychology, theology and spirituality into counseling: the key is to have a spiritual character that reflects the values and principles of Christianity from the inside-out. This is the bedrock for the integration of psychology and theology that follows. Psychology and theology can serve as the framework for the counselor; the spirituality of the counselor must be the animating force that keeps the framework together, relevant, and purposeful. As spirituality is something that one develops over time, it is not something that can be acquired through schoolit is not one receives credentials for developing in the same way one receives a degree in Psychology or Theology.The next most important point is that the field of mental health is not always going to embrace the Christian perspectivebut the Christian counselor must…
ReferencesMcMinn, M. R. (2012).Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian counseling. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc..
Crabb's Biblical Model Of Counseling Comparison And Discussion
Goal of Christian Counseling
The goal of Christian Counseling differs from private practice counseling in many regards. For example, a Christian community offers a counselor a unique set of resources, often comprised of loving and caring individuals for are members of the local congregation. In private practice the resources that a counselor may have to work with can be comparatively limited by contrast. Furthermore, each Christian is called to help others based on their faith. A private practice counselor can be motivated by a plethora of reasons -- some of them are surly genuine and altruistic however others may be for monetary gain or similar ambitions. Thus, the resources that are available and the motivations behind entering counseling represent two initial and fundamental differences.
Another difference is that the fundamentals of the counseling practices might be starkly different. Many Christian counselors believe…
Crabb, L., & Crabb, L. (1977). Effective Biblical Counseling. Zondervan.
Johnson, W., Ridley, C., & Nielsen, S. (2000). Religiously Sensitive Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Elegant Solutions and Ethical Risks. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14-20.
Mann, N. (2008). An introduction to cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. Professional Skills, 24-27.
Rogers . (2006). Carl Rogers Info. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://www.carlrogers.info/
Chistian counseling has become an impotant teatment modality fo a gowing numbe of health cae pactitiones and patients acoss the county in ecent yeas. Intoduced duing the ealy 1980s, Chistian counseling advocates integating eligious pactices and beliefs founded on eligious taditions with psychotheapeutic techniques to povide an optimal appoach to helping people cope with a wide ange of pesonal poblems and family issues. The pupose of this study is to povide a citical and systematic eview of the elevant liteatue in geneal and Gay R. Collins's book, Chistian Counseling: A Compehensive Guide (2007) in paticula, concening the oigins and tends in Chistian counseling and how this appoach can be used to povide the timely and essential inteventions that can help people bette cope with pesonal and family poblems. A summay of the eseach and impotant findings concening these issues ae pesented in the study's conclusion.
Table of Contents
references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4), 328-340.
West, W.S. (2004). Spiritual issues in therapy -- Relating experience to practice. Basingstoke:
Wood, G.D. & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-262.
The Interdisciplinary Studies degree offers a student the opportunity to integrate disciplines to develop a broader understanding of areas that can be meaningfully applied one’s career. For example, an Interdisciplinary Studies degree that focuses on Religion and Christian counseling provides a suitable foundation for a counselor seeking to specialize in a work area that incorporates aspects of religion into the fundamentals of counseling. It is similar to a chef who has an understanding of a variety of menus and meals and how to prepare them applying for job as a opposed to a chef who has only practiced preparing one menu item over a course of four years applying for the same job. The chef who shows greater breadth within the type of cuisine that he is expected to produce will be the one who is more attractive to the employer. As McKinney (1991) shows, interdisciplinary studies open more…
Anderson (2000) converses spiritual oppression and how Satan and his fallen angels are in the process of trying to overpower the believers will. He also provides the phases to independence, for example: fake vs. factual, dishonesty vs. truth, resentment vs. tolerance, revolt vs. obedience, arrogance vs. self-effacement, and oppression vs. lack of restrictions. Fake vs. real step show how we need to absorb to recognize God's certainty so we do not fall into Satan's trap. If fall for these tricks of deception then we automatically give up God's truth for what is considered a lie. Dishonesty vs. truth shows that we should battle Satan's trickery with God's reality. If we become deceived then we must do away with any misleading views for the truth that will bring us our liberation.
Bitterness vs. forgiveness is showing us that we do not need to harbor that illness in our hearts because Satan…
A., H.D. (1999). The Anxiety Cure: You Can Find Emotional Tranquility and Wholeness. Thomas Nelson, Inc. .
Adams, E.J. (1986). How to Help People Change: The Four- Step Biblical Process. Grand Rapids: Zondervan .
Anderson, T.N. (1990). The Bondage Breaker: Overcoming Negative Thoughts, Irrational Feelings and Habitual Sins. . Boston: House Publishers, Inc.
Backus, W.C. (1980). Telling Yourself the Truth: Find Your Way Out of Depression, Anxiety, Fear, Anger and Other Common Problems by Applying the Priciples of Misbelief Therapy . Grand Rapids: Bethany Publishing Group.
Weld and Eiksen's "Chistian client's pefeences egading paye as a counseling intevention." This aticle was based on empiical evidence gatheed about the pefeences of Chistians seeking mental health counseling egading the utilization of paye. That evidence was based on a pai of suvey instuments, The Bief Theapist Suvey and The Paye Suvey fo clients. One of the most inteesting aspects of this study is that it consideed the pefeences fo paye utilized in mental health fom both the client and the theapist pespective, as the afoementioned suvey instuments wee espectively tageted to the clients and the suveys. Lagely because of the infomation explained in the liteatue eview that thee was a death of liteatue about the pefeence of how exactly clients wanted paye used in counseling, thee was no hypothesis on the pat of the authos. Howeve, they wee able to select both clients and theapists fom a faily wide…
references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology. 35(4), 328-341.
We live in a very complex world today. People are often faced with difficulties that seem insurmountable. This complexity is both fortunate and unfortunate. Difficult as life can be, there is an increasing array of potential solutions. Some people find solace at their workplace, with life's difficulties driving them to greater productivity, for example. Others use their misfortune as a platform for helping others in creative ways. For some, however, life becomes so overwhelming that they simply cannot deal with the challenges they face on a daily basis. For such people, it is often helpful to seek the assistance of a counselor. It is for such counselors that author Gary Collins wrote Christian Counseling. His ideas on the nature and core of counseling can stimulate ideas not only about how the counselor can use his or her existing skills to ensure that clients are helped effectively, but also about…
Collins, G. (2007). Christian Counseling: A Comprehensive Guide (Third ed.) Dallas, TX: Thomas Nelson. (63-82)
Martin, A. (2014, Dec. 26). Active Listening Skills. The Counsellors Guide. Retrieved from: http://www.thecounsellorsguide.co.uk/active-listening-skills.html
Mr. H case study
What is the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?
Mr. H has shown a sharp decline in cognitive functioning. He has quit his job without warning and without consulting with his spouse (who is economically as well as emotionally affected by this decision), has shown difficulty remembering basic tasks and words that a man of his education and background should be able to retrieve easily, and is exhibiting signs of disorientation. Despite being an accomplished outdoorsman he has gotten lost while hiking; has difficulty reading; and although he was a science teacher has difficulty doing basic math. He also has trouble performing basic acts of self-care and memory exercises.
Q2. What else do you feel you need to know (or, what might be some areas you may ask about in order to determine what…
Alzheimer's disease: Treatment and drugs. (2013). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from:
Diagnostic criteria for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. (2013). BehaveNet. Retrieved from:
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
Where Will Counseling Take Place?
oundaries for Safety and Security
God's Riches at Christ's Expense
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
This is an overview of the counseling position that I will take when working with clients/parishioners. I realize that this cannot encompass every eventuality that may occur during a counseling session, but it should be comprehensive enough to account for most of the possibilities that present themselves. I acknowledge that this is also the treatise of someone who is going to be practicing as a pastor first and a counselor second, therefore the relationship of a shepherd to his assigned sheep is the most important consideration in all of this. Also, the counseling relationship that a pastor enjoys with a parishioner is not as extensive as that between a patient…
Carlson, Dwight L. 2000. Overcoming hurts and anger. Eugene: Harvest House. ISBN: 0736901965
This book is a real help when dealing with anger. The author gives you steps on how to prevent your anger and deal with past anger in a Christian manner. He gives examples of mishandled anger, biblical principles about anger, and how to handle anger in a Christ-like way.
LaHaye, Tim and Bob Phillips. 2002. Anger is a choice. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. ISBN: 0310242835
" In the process, one learns to see oneself as strong and resilient, courageous, and empowered. Whether the individual can get up and go on and have a happy life after the loss depends on how the person views self
Is he or she a victim or a survivor? A strong person making spiritual progress or weak and debilitated? Whiting & Bradley (2007) argue that there must be an outcome for every loss. Whether the outcome is "reconciliation" or "vulnerability" or "victimization" depends on successful and positive identity reconstruction.
It used to be believed that the grieving individual had to achieve detachment from the person who had died. This was Freud's theory, that "grieving people need to break free from the deceased, let go of the past and reassert their individualism by charting a new course for life.
A healthy grief experience, according to Freud [was] one in which the…
Anderson, R.A. (2006). Immunity and grief. Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, 276, 128.
Briggs, C.A. And Pehrsson, D. (2008). Use of bibliotherapy in the treatment of grief and loss: A guide to current counseling practices. Adultspan Journal, 7 (1), 32-43.
Bush, H.K. (2007). Grief work: After a child dies. The Christian Century, 124 (25), 36-40.
Care of the elderly - bereavement: An essential guide (2006). The Practitioner (June 29), 22-29.
This is why seeking out the advice and counseling of a sex therapist is not only tolerable according to Christian dogma, but could even be seen as essential in many instances. God does not create problems simply so that human beings can sit back and pray that God fixes them -- there are always things that humans can do to improve their situation. We our responsible for feeding ourselves; if we accept that responsibility, God will make sure we do not starve. The same is true of sexual health -- taking an active step to correct or address any sexual problems that might arise invites God's assistance into the problem as well, and can be an opportunity to strengthen faith in God and religion even more.
This does not even touch upon the procreative aspect of sex, and although sexuality and sex itself is important for more than simple procreative…
Cahill, L. (1996). Sex, gender, and Christian ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
De La Torre, M. (2007). A Lily Among the Thorns: Imagining a New Christian Sexuality. San Francisco: Wiley.
Foster, L. (1984). Religion and sexuality: the Shakers, the Mormons, and the Oneida Community. New York: Oxford University Press.
Grenz, S. (1997). Sexual ethics: An Evangelical perspective. Louisville, KY: Knox.
S/he must therefore implement correction and rehabilitation measures as the courts of the country see fit for the convicted individual. However, the compromise would be the kind of treatment the convicted individual gets from the Christian practitioner. As a person of faith, s/he must recognize also that the person is an individual who might have shown deviant behavior to society, but s/he is nevertheless a person who must be treated equally despite his/her unfortunate circumstance (i.e., incarceration) (McCrudden, 2008:659).
Preservation of human dignity in the face of legal punishment is the compromise that is developed as the Christian practitioner tries to achieve the balance of maintaining criminal justice as both a profession and a vocation. And what about love and forgiveness, which also comes into play as one tries to understand the unfortunate circumstances of other people who are punished by the legal system? Convicted individuals deserve the love and…
Bottoms, A. And J. Tankebe. (2012). "Beyond procedural justice: a dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice." The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Vol. 102, No. 1.
McCrudden, C. (2008). "Human dignity and judicial interpretation of human rights." The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 4.
"Responsibility, rehabilitation, and restoration: a Catholic perspective on crime and criminal justice." United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.usccb.org/issues-and-action/human-life-and-dignity/criminal-justice-restorative-justice/crime-and-criminal-justice.cfm
Biblical quotes/verses. Open Bible Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.openbible.info/
Goal of Christian Counseling
Dr. Larry Crabb sees human problems through two lenses: the first category involves problems that result from "…natural or physical causes" (things the individual has little or no control over). Examples of those kinds of problems include learning disabilities, a chemical imbalance within the person, and other issues that result from "perceptual dysfunctions." Crabb's goal is to fill the basic needs of a person, and under Christian counseling he feels the basic need is for "personal worth," which can be satisfied through two important inputs. One is a kind of "longing for significance" -- that is, the person longs for a purpose, for importance, for a meaningful job that has a positive impact. The other is to have security through being accepted (p. 2).
Part ONE: Goal of Rogerian Theory of Counseling (Client-centered therapy)
The client-centered approach by Rogers is designed to allow the…
Andrews, Linda Wasmer. (2010). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Encyclopedia of Depression.
Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Client-Centered Therapy. About.com Psychology. Retrieved February
18, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com .
This discussion provides an in-depth analysis of the whole situation about Christian counseling. Through the book, Anderson has been able to come up with themes that could come in handy in counseling. Throughout the text, there is general agreement that Christianity is particularly noteworthy in seeking the way forward in the counseling of individuals. Spiritual warfare is one such theme that no single Christian counselor should ignore. An individual is disturbed spiritually, and this is the reason that prompts for prayers. In accordance to the scriptures, prayers are the role of an individual. The obligation of praying is left to the counselor and the individual. Anderson also argues of the seeking of a holistic approach in the treatment of a person. There are different reasons that lead an individual to the edge and force them to seek for counseling. Therefore, the counselor should try to use a method…
Anderson, N.T. (2003). Discipleship counseling. Ventura, Calif: Regal.
Bailey, P.T. (2008). Spiritual warfare: Defeating the forces of darkness. Longwood, Fla.: Xulon
Malony, H.N., & Augsburger, D.W. (2007). Christian counseling: An introduction. Nashville:
Counsultation in the field of counseling is a concept by which a person is able to consult with a counselor in order to develop a better sense of self. There is often a biblical aspect to this type of counseling, but that is not a requirement. People can also be counseled by those who address financial concerns, tax implications, or other types of personal and professional issues. Anytime someone sees a counselor for a counsultation on his or her status in some aspect of life, this type of activity takes place. Often, a counsultation takes place as the first line of defense in treating a mental health issue. A counselor can look over information provided by the patient as well as any past medical history in order to make some determinations about patient care and potential problems. At that time, there can be a counsultation appointment scheduled that will allow…
Belkin, L. (1999, October 31). Parents blaming parents. New York Times Sunday Magazine, p. F61.
Benner, D.G., & Hill, P. C (1999). Baker Encyclopedia of Psychology & Counseling. Grand Rapids.
Boss, P. (1999). Ambiguous Loss: Learning to Live with Unresolved Grief. Harvard University Press, MA.
Bowlby, J. (1977). The making and breaking of affectional bonds, I and II. British Journal of Psychiatry, (130), 201-210, 421-431.
In such situations, it becomes a necessity to have all the fields of learning and engagement to be within the identified fields for the youth. The society is a diverse avenue or entity that needs a clear pathway for understanding (Clinton 72). If the youth and all the people in the world are subjected to religious teachings without making affirmed considerations of the needs of the society, it becomes a hard way for many people to be successful.
The religious teachings must appreciate the importance of its followers interacting with the other members of the secular society. This establishes a fair ground where the young can grow and develop. If the society becomes very restrictive like within a Christian atmosphere, it becomes hard for the available avenues of growth and development to be executed by the available members. The young will not be at a stable avenue of relaying their…
Benton Mark Steven. Adolescent Faith Development as Related to the Influence of Christian School Teachers in Church of Christ K -- 12 Schools. ProQuest, 2008. Print 109
Bowen Kurt. Christians in a Secular World: The Canadian Experience. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 2004. Print 204
Clinton, Tim, and Hawkins Ron. The Popular Encyclopedia of Christian Counseling: An Indispensable Tool for Helping People with Their Problems. Harvest House Publishers, 2011. Print
Cocklin, Sarah, Bruess, Clint and Greenberg, Jerrold; Exploring the dimensions of human sexuality. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett, 2011 print.
d.). When these counselees overcome the various obstacles, they will be able to know the spiritual battle in their lives and move towards freedom in Christ.
The topic of discipleship counseling has developed to become an important subject in the church, psychology, medical, and sociology fields. Dr. Anderson's book is a balanced and reasonable tool that provides an outline of the process of Christian-based counseling and how it can be established in church.
Anderson, N.T. (2003). Discipleship counseling. Ventura, CA: egal Books.
Anderson, N.T. (2008). Winning the battle within -- ealistic steps to overcoming sexual strongholds. United States of America, Oregon: Harvest House Publishers.
Beck, J.. (2006). Collaboration between Biblical Studies and Counseling: Five Crucial
Questions. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 23(2), 101-110. etrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=244f2fb0-a917-4db0-bd96-c12466f71241%40sessionmgr11&vid=2&hid=5
McHenry, S.H. (2008). Therapy with God -- wonderful counselor, comforter, friend. United States of America: Sue McHenry.
Wright, M.J. (n.d.). Something's Missing:…
Anderson, N.T. (2003). Discipleship counseling. Ventura, CA: Regal Books.
Anderson, N.T. (2008). Winning the battle within -- Realistic steps to overcoming sexual strongholds. United States of America, Oregon: Harvest House Publishers.
Beck, J.R. (2006). Collaboration between Biblical Studies and Counseling: Five Crucial
Questions. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 23(2), 101-110. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=244f2fb0-a917-4db0-bd96-c12466f71241%40sessionmgr11&vid=2&hid=5
Ultimately, every person is a child of God, and this positive sense of self must be upheld by the counselor, who ultimately points the client to self-healing and a better relationship with the world and the divine.
The American Association of Christian Counselors states the Christian counseling is a: "Ministry to persons acknowledges the complexity of humans as physical, social, psychological, and spiritual beings. The ultimate goal of Christian counseling is to help others move to personal wholeness, interpersonal competence, mental stability, and spiritual maturity." This is clearly the goal of Anderson's approach to therapy. Anderson does not shy away from the difficult subjects that can arise in therapy, such as the subjects of incest, physical abuse, and depression. He acknowledges that forgiveness and coming to terms with pain is a difficult process, and one that cannot be easily healed with religious platitudes.
Anderson's book is particularly useful because…
About us. (2011). American Association of Christian Counselors. Retrieved September 22, 2011
Anderson, Neil T. (2003). Discipleship counseling. Regal.
Baker, Lyman. (1997). Repression. Critical concepts. Retrieved September 22, 2011 at http://www.k-state.edu/english/baker/english320/cc-repression2.htm
You can't simply say you're going to integrate the science of psychotherapy with scripture." Moore argues, "because there are only sciences and theories of psychotherapy that are contradictory and incoherent." The implication that pastoral care and counseling and not and have not been Biblical, Vicki Hollon, executive director of the Wayne Oates Institute in Louisville, insists, was creating a false dichotomy. Hollon contends that Southern officials created the proverbial straw man. "And their movement away from science reveals a lack of faith, or at least a fear that somehow science is outside the realm of God's creation and domain." Some secular counselors encourage clients, including those in marital counseling, to refrain from reading the Bible and to stop going to church if that made them feel worse. Stuart Scott, a former pastor and current professor and convert to biblical counseling, became disillusioned with the answers psychology gives. Scott states he…
Briggs, M.K., & Rayle, a.D. (2005). Incorporating Spirituality into Core Counseling Courses: Ideas for Classroom Application. Counseling and Values, 50(1), 63+. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019987790
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from: www.bartleby.com/66 / www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786083
Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.). (2003). Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786085 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786083
Daniel, R.L. (2003). Chapter 10 Counseling Men. In Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners, Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.) (pp. 189-207). New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786293 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005843832
Effective Biblical Counseling
The primary goal of counseling should not be to “make the client happier” but rather to get one to a point where the client wants instead to do God’s will. This is the Christian approach to counseling that often goes missed and it is a goal that many people seeking counseling often forget they should be trying for, even though they are Christian. They imagine that if they do everything right they should be rewarded with peace and happiness—and yet the Christian’s life is only peaceful and happy when it is lived in accordance with God’s will, and that is the point that Crabb (1977) makes here. The goal of counseling should be to get the patient to see how he or she could be more in line with God’s will because that is where peace is to be found.
Development of Problems and…
(Paul, 2005) In fact, the AAPC survey found that African-Americans, devout evangelicals, people without a college degree, the elderly and people age 18 to 29 are most likely to fear that a professional counselor won't take their religious beliefs into serious consideration when treating them. (Paul, 2005)
People come to Christian counselors for two reasons," commented Randolph Sanders, executive director of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies, an association of Christians in mental health and behavioral sciences. "One is faith perspective; they want a therapist who resonates with their worldview. The second is moral ethics; they want a counselor who understands what guides their decisions." (Paul, 2005)
Christian counseling, more than secular counseling, has the ability to present a starkly positive viewpoint. In fact, the origins of Christian counseling were planted in the clergy, whom parishioners historically consulted about emotional and spiritual well-being and health.
According to Paul, The progenitors…
Tillich, Paul. 1951. Systematic Theology, vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Friedman, Edwin. 1985. Generation to Generation: Family Process in Church and Synagogue. New York: Guilford Press.
Zikmund, Barbara, et al. 1988. Clergy Women: An Uphill Calling. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.
Yust, Karen. 2002. "The Toddler and the Community," in Human Development and Faith, ed. Felicity Kelcourse. St. Louis: Chalice Press.
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
ethics codes of the three following counseling associations share certain ethical responsibilities in common, while containing certain responsibilities unique to their organization. The three associations' ethics codes that will be studied about here are the American Counseling Association (ACA) 2005 Draft Code of Ethics, the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC) Code of Ethics-Y2004 Final Code, and the American Association of Pastoral Counselors (AAPC) Code of Ethics.
The first level of comparison between the three ethics codes begins with finding the similarities and differences they display in their duties to clients. There exist several similarities in this regard between them. In terms of obtaining informed consent, the ACA codes of ethics states (A2. a) that clients can choose to either continue or terminate treatment at any time. This would be after the counselor discharges his/her duty in informing the client exactly how the counseling would occur, what the counselor's credentials…
AACC code of ethics-Y2004 final code (n.d.) Retrieved February 6, 2005 from WWW: http://www.aacc.net/About_us/media/aacc_code_of_ethics.doc
American association of pastoral counselors code of ethics (n.d.) Retrieved February 6, 2005 from WWW: http://www.aapc.org/ethics.htm#IV
2005 ACA code of ethics draft (n.d) Retrieved February 6, 2005 from WWW: http://www.counseling.org/PDFs/ACA_Code_of_Ethics_2005_Draft.pdf
Posture Towards Speaker, Nodding and Affirming, And Looking at Speaker
4, 1, 2, 3
T, T, T, F, F
I would address this opportunity by referring him to a Christian psychologist (not a Pastoral Counselor) and following up with the colleague about his progress. After his suicidal thoughts and self-harm patterns have become more manageable I would see him again if requested.
I would address such an admission by asking about my client's prayer life, exploring the reasons why they find their behavior troubling, and talking about reasons why it may be impacting their spiritual, emotional, and physical well-being. We would then develop together a plan to address this behavior that included reformulating thought patterns around sex and strengthening the client's inherent power to control their own behavior.
My faith dictates a belief that all people should be cared for according to their absolute worth as children of God.…
Christian marriage is one of the most important Biblical principles. Since God created the first man and woman, He intended us to create strong relationships with our nuptial partners, procreate, and participate in community life in this way. Marriage is the foundation of not only strong families, but also of strong individuals and strong societies. Therefore, Christians should continue to advocate strongly for the institution of marriage in spite of secular norms and trends that lead away from the marriage tradition.
The current trends that include a high rate of divorce, or domestic partnerships that do not result in marriage, do not correspond to Christian lifestyles. Moreover, these trends are relatively new and certainly do not reflect the millennia of tradition established by Christianity. The divorce rate has only been high within the past century, whereas marriage is an age-old institution. Domestic partnerships that result in children but not in…
Christian marriage is one of the most important Christian traditions. Since God created the first man and woman, He intended us to create strong relationships with our partners, procreate, and participate in community life in this way. Marriage is the foundation of not only strong families, but also of strong individuals and strong societies. Therefore, Christians should continue to advocate strongly for the institution of marriage in spite of secular norms and trends that lead away from the marriage tradition.
The current trends that include a high rate of divorce, or partnerships that do not result in marriage, do not agree with Christian lifestyles. Moreover, these trends are relatively new and certainly do not reflect the tradition established by Christianity. The divorce rate has only been high within the past century, as previously it was not normative to divorce. Domestic partnerships that result in children without a wedding is also…
Cooke, Bernard. "Christian Marriage: Basic Sacrament." Chapter 4 in Perspectives On Marriage by Kieran Scott & Michael Warren. Oxford University Press, 2007.
Scott, Kieran. "Cohabitation and Marriage as a Life-Process." Chapter 8 in Perspectives On Marriage by Kieran Scott & Michael Warren. Oxford University Press, 2007.
Counseling and Paye
Chistian Paye in Counseling
"Chistian Clients' Pefeences Regading Paye as a Counseling Intevention" is a quantitative study by Weld and Eiksen (2007) in the Jounal of Psychology and Theology. Thei study used a suvey of counselos and thei Chistian clientele with a Peason and Fishe appoach to quantifying the data. The implications of the analysis ae used to discuss the counselo-patient elationship in tems of paye, expectations, seculaity, ace, gende, and a vaiety of othe factos.
The eseaches note a lack of scholaly eseach on the subject of "client expectations about paye in counseling" and attempt to fill a potion of that gap analyzing a suvey of Chistian clientele and thei counselos (Weld, Eikson, 2007, p. 328). In the light of ecent laws egading counselos' espect fo clients' eligious beliefs, specialty counseling has developed that includes a Chistian/spiitual appoach to healing. Weld and Eikson (2007) acknowledge that…
references Regarding Prayer as a Counseling Intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4): 328-341.
Crabb's book, Effective Biblical Counseling and the theories presented there. This paper will examine how Crabb treats some of the more popular theories in the book and how he is able to summarize them for the reader -- largely accomplishing this in a very accessible manner.
For instance, Crabb's treatment of Abraham Maslow's theory of classical needs hierarchy is extremely astute and user-friendly. Crabb explains how the need on the lowest rung of the hierarchy needs to be met and completed in order for the individual to be able to have sufficient motivation to get the subsequent need met and so on (Crabb, 1986). According to these ideologies, the lowest needs are the physical ones: food, water and comparable needs -- these are the needs that the organism must fulfill in order to survive (Crabb, 1986). The following need is the need of security, which encompasses a general sense and…
Crabb, L. (1986). Effective Biblical Counseling. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing.
EBT and Christian Principles
ational Emotive Behavioral Therapy and Christian Principles in Young Adults
The goal of rational emotive behavioral therapy (EBT) is to help people address and resolve behavioral and emotional problems so that they can lead fuller, happier, and better lives (Dryden, 2005). In many ways, Christian principles are similar, as a relationship with Jesus Christ often helps people live their lives in better ways, feel happier, and find a sense of fulfillment (Nielsen, Johnson, & Ellis, 2001). Getting the two to work together, though, can be somewhat difficult because psychology and religion have long been at odds when it comes to how issues from the past should be handled. This does not mean that psychology and religion cannot work together, though, and because there are ways to tie them together it is possible to use both to help young adults with the issues with which they struggle…
Dryden, W. (2005). Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in a Nutshell (Counselling in a Nutshell). NY: Sage Publications.
Ellis, A., Abrams, M., & Abrams, L., PhD. (2008). Theories of Personality: Critical Perspectives. NY: Sage Press.
Ellis, A. & Dryden, W. (2007). The Practice of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (2nd ed.); NY: Springer Publishing.
Nielsen, S.L., Johnson, W.B., & Ellis, A. (2001). Counseling and Psychotherapy With Religious Persons: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Approach; NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Sara expresses significant concern regarding finding a job, leaving her family and leaving her friends. While she enjoyed her studies in business she is not exactly sure how she can apply this to her daily life. She is also somewhat ambivalent about wanting to work in the business world, and wonders if she should try to find a position that she would find more emotionally and personally fulfilling. Sara is not involved in a romantic relationship at this time but does have a small but very close circle of friends, all of whom are moving to different places. Sara expresses sadness at the thought of leaving her friends, and concern that she will be able to keep up with them after college is over. She is also concerned that she will not be able to make friends in her new setting. Sara is an intelligent woman who appears to have…
Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.
a. Key facts and statistics…
SPIITUAL DISCENMENT AND VOCATIONAL COUNSELING PAPE INSTUCTIONS Directions: The purpose
There are a number of decision-making factors that one should consider when attempting to determine where and what form of education or occupation that an individual should pursue. These factors are generally stratified into those that pertain to the individual and his or her own concerns, those that directly relate to God and God's will/specific purpose for that person, and those that relate to the impact of that decision on other people. After completing the Decision-Making Factors Survey found at the end of Dennis Horton's article "Discerning spiritual discernment: assessing current approaches for understanding God's will," it is quite clear that the most important of those factors for me in particular are those pertaining to my own individual concerns and God's specific plan for me. Perhaps these factors figure most eminently into my own decision-making process because I…
Haywood, M.A. (1998). "A spiritual gifts discernment process." www.earthlink.net. Retrieved from http://home.earthlink.net/~haywoodm/SpiritualGiftsDiscernment.html
Horton, D.J. (2009). "Discerning spiritual discernment: assessing current approaches for understanding god's will." The Journal of Youth Ministry. 7 (2): 7-31.
MacArthur, J. (2008). "Discernment: spiritual survival for a church in Christ." www.crossroad.com. Retrieved from http://www.crossroad.to/Bible_studies/sermons/mcarthur/discernment.htm
Sakach, T. (2012). "Spiritual discernment." www.innertech.com. Retrieved from http://innertech.com/blog/2007/01/spiritual-discernment/
Then, when the therapist is praying for the patient, they are changing their mental state of mind as well. This is significant, because it shows that when prayer is used during the process of obtaining mental health treatment, the patient would be more open to new ideas. At the same time, the therapist is more concerned about their patient's well being. Over the course of time, this improves the quality of treatment that is being provided; by helping the patient to be in the most resourceful state of mind and it is allowing the therapist to have more compassion. These two elements are necessary ingredients, in allowing the patient be able to help themselves, while having the trained mental health professional serving as a counselor / friend.
For a trained mental health professional, this article will provide a good foundation as to how prayer can be used, as a…
Weld, C. (2007). Christian Clients Preferences Regarding Prayers as a Counseling Intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35 (4), 328 -- 341.
religious help-seeking among African-American Christians. The author writes from the perspective of someone who is seeking to increase participation among this demographic in non-religious mental health seeking, and notes that the historical tendency among the demographic is to turn to their churches for "financial, social justice and mental health needs." The churches are poorly-equipped to deal with genuine mental health issues, so this exploration serves the purpose of helping the mental health community to understand how to attract more religious African-Americans to non-religious mental health care.
The paper first examines how and why African-Americans have come to see the church in this role. This initial section has some logical weaknesses, however. The author notes that "religious help-seeking…is a viable option" and that "the effectiveness of counseling provided by pastors appears to be at least comparable to that received by clients of secular mental health professionals," citing "a greater sense of…
The purpose of David Powlison’s Biblical Counseling Movement is to provide readers with a history of the approach and then to provide readers with Powlison’s own perspective on what works and why. The aim of the book is to provide context about the nature of Biblical counseling, how it has been used throughout history, and then to make rational, common sense assessments about how it can be applied in one’s own life and career. Thus, the primary goal of the book is to give the reader context and the ability to implement the acquired knowledge in practice.
Development of Problems and Personal Need
The issues came about when Jay Adams reasoned that modern psychology was really just “bad theology” as Powlison puts it. There was a personal need among patients and providers who knew better to provide a Biblical counseling approach that could truly address the needs…
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
Guidance for Those Who Wish to Guide
For individuals who wish to use online educational pastoral opportunities to gain skills and expertise so that they can go on to serve the counseling needs of undergraduate students face a number of challenges. This does not mean that this is not a valid and appropriate method of learning, merely that those engaged in any form of distance learning that leads to accreditation within the field of counseling must be attentive to a number of specific challenges. This paper examines some of those challenges.
One of the key challenges faced by this type of student is to learn to differentiate pastoral counseling and psychological counseling within a Christian context from mainstream psychotherapy. This is a complex series of negotiations for anyone to make, and it is especially challenging to accomplish in the relative isolation of online learning. Online learning is an…
AAPC Code of Ethics. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.aapc.org/policies/code-of-ethics.aspx .
Paul, P. (May 2005). "With God as My Shrink." Psychology Today. http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200505/god-my-shrink .
Wicks, R. (1985). Clinical Handbook of Pastoral Counseling. New York: Paulist Press.
Professionals involved in therapy and counseling with members of the Creole culture of New Orleans and southern Louisiana should be aware of the history and traditions of this group that make it distinctive from all others in the United States, and indeed from the French-speaking Cajun communities in the same region. In Louisiana, Creoles are not simply the white descendants of the early French and Spanish colonists, although in the post-Civil War era of Jim Crow there was a major attempt to redefine them as 100% white. This was never the case in history since they are a mixed-race people descended from Europeans, Native Americans and African slaves during the 18th Century and occupied a special caste in pre-Civil War Louisiana. They spoke their own language known as Creole French, as do tens of thousands of their descendants today, and in appearance have often been able to 'pass' as…
Ancelet, B.J. (1994). Cajun and Creole Folk Tales: The French Oral Tradition of South Louisiana. Garland Publsihing, Inc.
Dass-Bailsford, P. (2010). "Ignore the Dead: We Want the Living" in Dass-Brailsford, P., ed. Crisis and Disaster Counseling: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina and Other Disasters. SAGE Publications.
Dominguez, V.R. (1997). White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press.
Dormon, J.H. (1996). "Ethnicity and Identity: Creoles of Color in Twentieth-Century South Louisiana" in Dormon, J.H. Creoles of Color in the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, pp. 166-86.
Cornell, Dewey; Limber, Susan P. (2015). Law and policy on the concept of bullying at school. American Psychologist. 70(4), 333-343.
his article focuses on the legal circumscriptions for counteracting the effects of bullying and the very instances of this unfortunate phenomenon. From a legal perspective, the right to endure an existence bereft of bullying is something which is only granted within the context of civil rights. Moreover, the authors of this document determine that such rights generally require individuals to fit into categories protected by civil rights such as belonging to a historic minority group, having a disability or experiencing religious or gender-based persecution. It is concerned with establishing changes in basic laws to prevent instances of bullying that do not apply to the aforementioned categorizations.
Peets, K.; Poyhonen, V.; Juvonen, J.; Salmivalli, C. (2015). Classroom norms of bullying alter the degree to which children defend in response to…
This source stratifies the effects of anti-bullying programs into three different codifications including a cognitive, behavioral, and emotional one. Within this article, the authors conduct original research to determine the efficacy of utilizing anti-bullying approaches that focus on cognitive-behavior and that which focuses on just behavior. The findings indicate that the order in which these two anti-bullying programs are implemented is of immense importance, and that utilizing the cognitive-behavior approach subsequent to utilizing the one focusing on just behavior is more effective in redressing negative emotions. Still, both programs were able to decrease dysfunctional cognitions regarding bullying.
Turner, H. A.; Finkelhor, D.; Shattuck, A.; Hamby, S.; Mitchell, K. (2015). Beyond bullying: Aggravating elements of peer victimization episodes. School Psychology Quarterly. 30(3), 366-384.
This study was of extreme interest in that it contextualized the phenomenon of bullying beyond simply representing physical, psychological, cognitive and emotional effects of an inherent power imbalance between the bully and its victims. Instead, it utilized empirical evidence based on qualitative interviews with both students and parents about the effect of victimization as it pertained to sex, weapons, internet use, and injury. The study found that the most profound ways that victims were effected had to do with these latter reasons, and not just the conventional power imbalance associated with bullying. The implications are that there is much more at stake when a student is victimized by a bully.
How would one find the patience to persevere with the methods and practices recommended by the author here when the patient, despite their best conscious intentions and statements, does not really (at least initially) want to devote themselves to the necessary spiritual and psychological tasks necessary to achieve healing? As effective as the methods McMinn describes may be, there are doubtless many cases of extreme resistance in counseling; how can the counselor find a balance between a vigorous attempt to encourage true healing and development and the level of spiritual understanding and theological distance that is required in order to provide effective Christian counseling?
After having read this book, I will make a conscious effort to obtain a greater knowledge of scripture and the ways in which it can impact day-to-day life. While I felt I had a decent understanding of scripture before, the way in which the author…
McMinn, M. (1996). Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling.
Forest, VA: Tyndal House.
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.
New York: The Guilford Press.
Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
DaSilva's analysis of the figure of Jesus in these tales illustrates the historical context and exegetical differences of these books, and his interpretation also implies that the fullest vision of contemporary Christianity is one that embraces all versions of Christ across all four gospel narratives. For example, an individual seeking Biblical counseling may first find psychological respite in the image of Mark of the suffering Christ, crying out in despair upon the Cross. Next, there is an attempt, as in Matthew, to tie an individual's mission, suffering, and life to a larger familial and national tradition of hope, of fulfillment, faith, and redemption, through talking and emotional healing. Then, through discussing the Jesus as presented in Luke, the heart in a less intellectual and verbal fashion is opened up, to a mission of forgiveness and hope and return to the Father anew. And finally, a greater understanding of the self…
" (1) Fearing its potential competition with Biblical modalities of understanding, some Christian patients may initially fear, even consciously avoid the modern practice of psychotherapy, seeing it as a mere scientific reductionism of the uniqueness of the human animal. Or, conversely, some may uncritically embrace counseling it as a better way of understanding the mind than the biology of the natural sciences, especially approaches as person-centered theory and transactional analysis.
However, the authors advocate a more critical, theologically informed appropriation of psychotherapy in relation to faith, suggesting therapy's compatibility with orthodox Christianity through the conscious and flexible integration of psychology and theology, and present the author's justification of what they call responsible eclecticism, endeavoring as they do to understand psychology on its original terms, and then to examine how such precepts relate to Biblical narratives and moral behavior.
One of the most important challenges or concepts offered by this book's…
The value of discipleship stresses the cohesion between the events of the past and the present, a fundamental tenant of psychotherapy. Discipleship also implies a mediation between God and his agents on earth, and the therapist always functions as a mediator between God's grace and earth. Community is also an important tenant of modern therapy, namely that no psychologically healthy human being is a spiritual and social island. Everyone needs social resources to fall back on, such as the church and the family. In particular for Christian counselors, the family often comes to the forefront as part of the patient's community as well as the church community. And apocalypticism focuses on the future and the patient's hopes and plans, over the course of the inner and outer changes weathered during the counseling relationship.
These four important challenges or concepts offered by the book for effective Christian counseling thus form a…
This does not mean that the image is supreme, as is often counseled in an idol-worshipping and media obsessed climate, but rather that the human being him or herself is intrinsically good, because the human form and moral compass was created in line with a larger plan and a larger divine order -- like human history, like the organization of the books of the Pentateuch itself. The person does not need to worry about creating his or her image, or intrinsic goodness; rather it is already there, waiting to be found.
The goodness of humanity, as affirmed by the beginnings of humankind outlined in the Old Testament are some of this text's most powerful notions for creating a Biblical vision of counseling. Much of secular and sacred counseling involves creating a tale of one's origins. Often these tales of individual origins, in a troubled mind with a troubled past, may…
Turkey to address the needs of the Syrian refugees, thereby facilitating the safety of the refugees while ensuring the health of the local Turkish communities.
United Nations leader Ban Ki-moon has described the Syrian Civil War as having reached "appalling heights of brutality," ("UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP"). According to official United Nations counts, more than 460,000 Syrians have fled Syria to find safety, and those numbers are expected to surge to 700,000 by the beginning of 2013. Most of the refugees have crossed over the border to Turkey and also to Jordan, but many others have gone farther -- to North Africa and Europe. With the crisis having already reached epic proportions, and growing bigger, the time for providing a Christian plan of aid is nigh.
There are many options for assisting the refugees. The most pressing is to help Turkey build enough well stocked…
Krajeski, Jenna. "Taking Refuge: The Syrian Revolution in Turkey." World Policy Institute. 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/summer2012/taking-refuge-syrian-revolution-in-turkey
Ozey, Ramazan. "Turkey's Land Borders and Border Disputes." Retrieved online: http://www.ramazanozey.net/rozey/icerik/detay.asp?id=4&dil=en
Reynolds, James. "Syrian Refugees Slipping into Turkey." BBC News. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-20433238
"UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP." Retrieved online: http://www.focus-fen.net/index.php?id=n293725
I will never know, but I often wonder how his view of the world may have affected what he took with him in his head and in his heart when he left the doctor's office that day. Until that day, I had never really considered the idea that psychology and religion might be able to coexist and might be able to help anyone who came for help, religious or not.
After reading the book, I have a lot of questions that the author really did not answer. I understand the concepts of worldview, but I am not sure the author went deeply enough or explained the idea of worldview enough. Examples would have been nice in more places throughout the book, in order to show how real people with real issues based on their worldview were able to overcome those concerns and move forward. "Getting over something" is not…
Dineen, T. (2000). Manufacturing victims: What the psychology industry is doing to people. New York: Robert Davis Multimedia Publishing.
Entwhistle, D.N. (2010). Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity: An introduction to worldview issues, philosophical foundations, and models of integration. (2nd ed.). New York: Cascade Books.
Johnson, E.L. & Jones, S.L. (Eds.) (with Collins, Gary. R., Myers, David G., Powlison, David & Roberts, Robert C.) (2000). Psychology & Christianity: Four views. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Jones, S.L. & Butman, R.E. (1991). Modern psychotherapies: A comprehensive Christian appraisal. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Self-management is the goal of the client and the therapist works with the client to aid him or her in recognizing self-defeating thoughts or actions that will give negative results, and developing positive thoughts that will have positive results (Lazarus, 1997).
The first tenet that is examined is the one Lazarus calls "Positive Thinking."
Positive cognition is focusing on personal skills and strengths, on what is good in the world, believing in one's self and belief in one's ability to succeed. When this is the dominating thought, the client then acts in ways that bring him or her closer to success. Positive thoughts and images about one's abilities dramatically increase one's chances of succeeding. Believing that success is possible is a prerequisite for most achievements.
Thinking positively does not mean being unrealistically optimistic. Nor does it mean one is without limits, that others will only help and never hinder, or…
Christian Counselors. Wikipedia. Retrieved October 8, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Counselors .
Cox, R.H., Cox, B.E. And Hoffman L. (Eds) (2004) Spirituality and Psychological Health, Colorado Springs, Colorado School of Professional Psychology Press
Egan, K. (1998) the Skilled Helper. A problem-management approach to helping. 6e, Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole.
Ellis, a. (1975). A Guide to Rational Living. Los Angeles: Wilshire Book Company
Saunda, D. Nelson witten in Decembe 2002; was witten fo the membes of Living Wates Chistian fellowship in Newpot News, Viginia. It was witten to addess the question on the best method Chistian lay leades, can develop and tain on how to povide pastoal counseling fo the congegational membes of Living Wates Chistian Fellowship (LWCF).
This liteatue eview is based on chapte two of the dissetation. It functions to citique the dissetation pape; it also gives the eade knowledge of ideas in the topic. It acts as a guide on the question being discussed while it gives summaies and diffeent efeences available. The autho wote the eview as a guide fo deacons, eldes and ministes in counseling due to the demand fo pastoal counseling by congegational membes.
The eseach poblem seeks answes as to the effective methods of developing and taining Chistian leades in an effective way. The liteatue eview…
references; hence, the author has formulated a review, which suits best the members of the LWCF.
A practical book review of Surrender to Love - Expanded Edition (2015) by David G. Benner
The primary goal of counseling comes out through Benner’s definition of conversion and repentance. According to Benner, repentance is shunning the world and giving self to Jesus. On the other hand, the conversion is a life-long journey of change aiming to take the image of God (p. 71-73). The journey of conversion is a summation of the author’s goal in counseling, the transformation in the spiritual being to become Christlike. According to Benner, this journey requires selflessness, unforceful, effortless, and unpretentious love towards God (p. 73).
Development of problems and personal need
The problems and personal needs characteristic to man, according to Benner are as a result of the fact that humans have spurned the love by God to be what they commonly refer to as freedom (p. 27). Humans…
Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) program. I chose this program because it is part of a nonprofit organization's attempt to prevent abused and neglected children from getting lost in the welfare system. For this reason, the program chooses court-appointed volunteers to watch over these children. This is a fantastic program because it teaches children about role models and the role an adult can have in a child's life. The program also offers children a stable environment that can be continued until the child is placed in a permanent home. Most importantly, the CASA program has been found to be an effective program, which is great, because, again it helps the children have a stable environment, rather than bounce between foster homes. Despite all these positives, however, I also included some issues and challenges. The first challenger was that a volunteer could become too emotionally attached, and the second includes maybe…