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ethical investment and focuses on the investment behavior of charities. Charities have been found lacking a clear SI policy even though the public clearly says it favors the charities that invest ethically.
Ethical Investment and Charities
Ethics and business are now so closely connected that you cannot discuss the latter without referring to the former. This is because most people today believe that ethics should be a part of every business policy and the public has become more conscious of the ethical responsibilities of business houses. This awareness has come from the realization that while all businesses may improve the economic condition of the country and accelerate economic activity, they do not necessarily benefit the society and many are unaware of their responsibility towards the community.
For example, tobacco companies are probably one of the most important economic sources of income for the country. Tobacco sells well and the income…… [Read More]
Moral Theology and Christian Ethics:
Casuistry is the process of determining what in right and wrong is specific cases where general or conventional norms are not specific enough. In essence, casuistry is the process with which basic moral principles are applied to activities of daily living. Throughout its history, casuistry has developed as method of moral reasoning when extraordinary new issues emerge and was particularly high in the 16th Century. These moral dilemmas during this period were sometimes accompanied by expeditions with religious and political conflicts in England raising questions that were unexpected in the earlier period. In such conflicts, there were few principles that tackled the emerging questions though most of them were inadequate to offer solutions (Keenan, 1996).
In the Anglican tradition, casuistry was mostly preserved in its ancient way though it was also integrated with the new ways. Anglican casuistry was normally generated by a confrontation of…… [Read More]
This is why seeking out the advice and counseling of a sex therapist is not only tolerable according to Christian dogma, but could even be seen as essential in many instances. God does not create problems simply so that human beings can sit back and pray that God fixes them -- there are always things that humans can do to improve their situation. We our responsible for feeding ourselves; if we accept that responsibility, God will make sure we do not starve. The same is true of sexual health -- taking an active step to correct or address any sexual problems that might arise invites God's assistance into the problem as well, and can be an opportunity to strengthen faith in God and religion even more.
This does not even touch upon the procreative aspect of sex, and although sexuality and sex itself is important for more than simple procreative…… [Read More]
Divorce and Marriage
Divorce and remarriage
Divorce and Marriage is Permissible
In the current modern society, a breakup of the traditional marriage is the most significant challenge. Prior research on this matter suggests that 43% of first marriages end separation and possible within 15 years. Although these results are disputable, it is undisputable that the divorce is on the rise across the globe. The increase in divorce is the main cause of societal problems such as early pregnancies (teen pregnancies), suicide, alcohol, and substance abuse, and the hesitation of young people to engage in marriage. Therefore, divorce has resulted into many societal problems, and children have to pay the price. Disturbingly, a comparison between the Christians and non-Christians show that Christians are more prone to divorce (Paechter, 2013).
Therefore, it is clear that the divorce is a church problem. Considering that, Christianity teaches that lasting faithful marriages are part of…… [Read More]
ethical theory hinges on the concept of right and wrong. Philosophers since Aristotle have debated the meaning of morality for thousands of years. The idea that everyone has an individual opinion of right vs. wrong equates to moral relativism. Are morals relative or absolute? Are actions inherently good or bad, regardless of their consequences? Or are consequences the summon bonum? And is an action good or right because of an absolute, even divine truth? This student raises an important issue: is, in Protagoras's words, "man the measure of all things"? Aren't our moral imperatives based on cultural norms, subject to individual interpretations? Indeed, several philosophers might agree with a strictly relativistic view on ethics, but most shy away from such muddy waters because of the various pitfalls of moral relativism.
Christian ethics dictate that there is an absolute religious conception of right and wrong. Within this deified version of morality,…… [Read More]
Ethics and Morality: The Theories of Ethics and Morality
The subject in this case faces an ethical dilemma, where she has to choose between reporting an ethical concern and just playing along or doing nothing at all. Both choices have serious consequences -- reporting would mean that i) she loses her job and livelihood because of a confidentiality breach, and ii) she stops her organization from producing the environmentally-friendly hovercraft, and consequently, becomes the reason why the world will never enjoy clean unpolluted air. Playing along, on the other hand, would mean that she watches as 200,000 innocent lives are lost as a result of the hovercraft's incompatibility with existing models.
The subject has a duty to uphold confidentiality in all dealings that have to do with the company. Disclosing such information to the press would amount to breach of this duty. However, as a member of a corporate body,…… [Read More]
Ethics are a number of behavioral guidelines that essentially stipulate what acts are inherently wrong. These acts include murder, rape, fraud, deceit, slavery, genocide, and torture to name a few (Paul 2003). Ethics, as opposed to morals, tend to be the most general rules by which human beings should treat one another. Morals, however, are like the micro version of ethics: they are subject to interpretation by the individual and highly dependent upon circumstances. Whereas a Hindu and Christian may disagree upon the morality of slaughtering a cow, they would be forced to agree upon the ethics of slaughtering a human being. The difference is one of perspective.
This distinction can also be seen depending upon the circumstances (Ruggiero 2004). If one is to accept the ethical premise that it is wrong to kill another human being, they must conclude that killing a single individual to save many other lives…… [Read More]
Ethics with Character: Virtues and the Ethical Social orker -- Paul Adams
Professor Paul Adams of the University of Hawaii's Myron B. Thompson School of Social ork in this peer-reviewed article explores those aspects of social work that "…are not primarily about identifying and resolving dilemmas" (Adams, 2009, p. 83). Adams delves into the "ethical tradition" -- and the potential therein -- that had its roots in "the virtues and character" of social work practitioners from Aristotle and Hippocrates to today's social workers. In other words, how can today's social worker -- and the field of social work -- learn from the past to enhance the field ethically? This paper reviews and critiques Adams' research, which is very interesting and enlightening in the context of values, human interaction, and social work.
Review / Critique of Adams' Article
Ethics, in the view of Strom-Gottfried, refers to the "…embodiment of values into…… [Read More]
Christian-Based Ethics in Business
Having strong ethics is vital to the success of an organization but often that component is bypassed in the name of profit. With a strong ethical foundation, an organization will perhaps face more obstacles but will also have a better opportunity for success and longevity. Society, particularly American society, has changed greatly within the past 50 years, and continues to evolve. And with those changes, value systems and the emphasis placed on them changes as well. At the same time, society has dealt with large technological advances. And of course, as knowledge and technology increase, new questions and situations arise to challenge society's morals and ethics. Inadvertent disclosure of information becomes more prevalent as more people become involved in document handling. And the more documents that are handled by more people, conflict of interest may arise, with the potential to threaten the organization.
Particularly in…… [Read More]
Christian Worldview Nursing
Health care in the West and worldwide has undergone very extreme changes over the past decades. However, the basic principles of nursing like caring for the sick and elderly have remained consistent. While technology has changed radically since the days of Florence Nightingale, Christian caring in the nursing profession is still a foundational principle. It is this foundational principle that I seek to express in my ministering to my patients.
Christian Worldview and the Integration of Beliefs, Values, Ethics and Service
The definition of nursing for me symbolizes a set of beliefs, values, ethics and service. Nursing is after all a calling and a vocation, not just a job. In Judith Anne Shelly's book Called to Care, she defines nursing as distinct from medicine, even though the two occupy domains that are close together.
She defines it in a way that I find very familiar and similar…… [Read More]
What is interesting about this particular more of Luther, however, is that he actually condones violence when it is sanctioned in an official capacity. His definition of what constitutes an official capacity, however, is one of the more insightful points in The Ethics of Martin Luther. Violence is acceptable if it is administered by the government -- whether such violence stems from a soldier, a judge, an executioner, or from some other form of government. Furthermore, Luther recognizes the family structure as being the governing body of a particular household, and therefore views violence conducted by parents as being ethically acceptable, since the parents are the governing body within that particular domicile. It should be understood that in the case of familial violence, any belligerent acts are only permitted among those who dwell within a family's household.
Lastly, it should be noted that Luther places a significant amount of value…… [Read More]
Ethics in usiness
usiness ethics can be seen from two perspectives. The first, highly personal view of ethics depends to a great extent upon a person's upbringing and life experience. Thus, if a person was raised to be ethical and moral in a general sense, and has been so throughout life, it is likely that he or she would be an ethical business person as well. Secondly there is the perspective from a business point-of-view. Some have found that it is a sound business principle to be ethical, and that sound ethics also mean a sound bottom line. However, it does appear that ethics in business are experiencing a crisis. Some blame inadequate business courses for this.
O'Neill (2002) for example blames scandals such as those caused by Enron and WorldCom on business programs in schools that fail to make ethics a priority of teaching. Instead, he claims, the ideal…… [Read More]
Finally, torture is the best means to try to get this information from the suspect (McCoy, 2006). Taken as a whole, these circumstances are so unlikely to occur that, even if the ticking bomb scenario would justify the use of torture, it has not ever occurred and, therefore, cannot be used to justify torture.
In fact, what many people who advocate in favor of torture fail to acknowledge is that while torture may be guaranteed to elicit information from even the most reticent of subjects, there is no reason to believe that torture will elicit truthful information. The theory behind torture is that, with the application of sufficient pain and fear, people will talk, and that does appear to be true in the vast majority of cases. However, it is more important to wonder what they will say than whether they will talk. In the non-terrorist scenario, "About 25% of…… [Read More]
Ethics of Spider Man
The character Spider Man is a foundational superhero of the modern era. His history and life demonstrate the development of an ordinary and even some would say subpar or at the very least "un-cool" young adolescent into a super hero by a twist of fate, i.e. being bit by a genetically modified spider on a science filed trip. The early life of the Spider Man character as depicted in both comic books, television cartoons and movies in live action or animation depict a young man, who stumbles upon a great power and then struggles with how to use that power. In the 2002 film depiction, and true to the comic storyline Peter's/Spiderman's ethics are developed through the film as he struggles with his new found powers, seizing the opportunity to use them for personal gain, by attempting to win money as an amateur fighter/wrestler in a…… [Read More]
Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar
hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…… [Read More]
Ethics-CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Details of the Source
When does police mistake become murder?
The Christian Science Monitor,
Date of publication: 04-05-1999,
Summary of Facts
Racial profiling is probably the biggest concern of minorities groups in our country because it has been the cause of numerous injustices against them. Our law enforcement agencies appear to be ruthlessly biased in their exercise of duty as is clear from this article. The author shows that racial profiling has resulted in prosecution and death of many innocent immigrants. The article argues that when death results from irresponsible actions of the police, it should be counted as murder because it violates basic civil rights provided by the constitution to every citizen regardless of color or creed. However it has been noticed that our police would open fire on any immigrant who appears to be a threat. The author asks: "Should the police officer be tried…… [Read More]
Ethics in Software and Copyright Infringements in the Balkans
The first point one has to look at is the situation in these countries and their position in terms of development as also the size of the potential market. There are a total of eight countries and most of them have been in political turmoil till about ten years ago. These countries are all breakaway portions of other bigger countries, or the soviet empire. The software market is small but there are already participants in it from United States which means that there is a lot of future potential development. On the side of the governments there are definite efforts to legalize the situation of software, though full achievement will take quite sometime. At the same time, there are a lot of conflicts within the big names in the industry -- Microsoft and Linux -- and this is leading to advantages…… [Read More]
One of the most high profile disbarment cases in the United States, the one of Egil Krogh, Jr., reveals the interface between politics, ethics, and the law. In many ways, Krogh was an ideal fall guy for the Nixon administration. On the other hand, all individuals must take personal responsibility for their actions even when they were directed to act by a superior. The Krogh case presents the dilemmas of ethics that arise in particular in positions of power. Intimidation was certainly used on Krogh, every bit as much if not more than that which he used against Dr. Fielding and other targets of surveillance and government manipulation. The ethical norm central to the court's decision is directly related to personal responsibility. It was categorically wrong to "authorize the burglary of Dr. Fielding's office," in addition to similar and related infractions ("Thinking Critically About elevant Legal Issues," n.d.). Being…… [Read More]
Overall the automobile industry must make a more concerted effort o behave in ways that are consistent with accepted business ethics. From a utilitarian standpoint the automakers must begins to consider the consequences of their actions in the decision making process. At the current time Toyota is fighting to rebuild its brand image because the company6 did not thoroughly take into consideration the consequences of their actions. From a deontological standpoint the automobile companies have failed to act in ways that are just as it relates to the bailout and the recall of defective vehicles by Toyota. Going forward the companies that make up the industry must learn from the issues they have been confronted with in recent years. It is only through such a process that the entire industry will reflect a more ethical business model. An increase in ethical responsibility will likely prove effective attracting customers back…… [Read More]
The editorial points out that their ruling "does not save a single fetus because physicians could instead use a standard D&E method" (LifeEthics.org).
It is interesting that the Court did not offer an exception to their rule; if they had been actually concerned about the life of a pregnant woman who may die due to the deformity of her unborn baby, they would have provided a corollary to their decision. It would read something like, "Except in cases where the mother's life is threatened." But no, the Court was following their right wing political agenda and ruling against a late-term abortion, forgetting the possibility that a pregnant mother might die without a late-term abortion.
Support for the Court's ethics: Gregory Koukl is in the dark as to why "so many mothers, doctors, senators, Members of Congress" accept partial-birth abortions ("…this barbaric practice"). Koukl asserts that a partial-birth abortion is "not…… [Read More]
Possibly the only exception to the immorality of suicide arises as a function of the philosophical impossibility of violating the fundamental right of the individual - both at law and in moral principle - of refusing medical treatment. Adults who are mentally competent to make decisions for themselves cannot be compelled to accept medical treatment unless their illness presents a health risk to others, such as in the case of infectious tuberculosis (Miller 1984). In that case, it is not suicide specifically that is the issue, since it would be conceptually impossible to allow the (competent) refusal of defining medical procedures deemed "necessary for continued life" first, and second, to require an individual to seek unwanted medical care for some conditions but not others.
However, even if the mentally competent individual may refuse life-saving medical care himself, allowing the same decision made for an incapacitated person by another by proxy…… [Read More]
The author then asserts the tenet of natural law that men naturally seek what is good, and that to know the good and not pursue it is to reject God (99, 101-102). Balthasar closes with a comparison of the freedom of an individual and his membership in an aggregate social group -- the only true way to combine the two identities, he says, is in Christ, where the two identities converge.
All three of these discussions attempt to explain a modern facet of Christian belief and practice-Schurmann in his examination of a New Testament interpretation, Ratzinger in his reconciliation of praxis and theory, and Balthasar with his overview of justifications for action based on faith. Each man treats a subject that is distinctly modern in its discussion, most notably Ratzinger's response to the Marxist concept of praxis, but all three topics can be related back to moral theology and trace…… [Read More]
As such, the statistician has a duty not only to make sense of the data but also to . "…develop the means to insure the proper interpretation of such information by all relevant parties…"(Ostapski and Superville).
This refers to the ethical dimension of professionalism and to the duty and responsibility of the statistician that extends beyond the technical aspect of his work. Seltzer (2005) makes an important point in this regard. He states that the ethical dimension of statistics is extremely important. We only have to refer to history to encounter examples o situations where scientists did not accept the ethical dimension of their work. Seltzer refers to extreme cases such as the part that science has played in genocide and in the perpetration of atrocities by the Nazis during the Second World War. More commonly, Welter also notes that, "…unaddressed ethical issues simply threaten the credibility of a statistical…… [Read More]
In 1997, numerous key educational institutions including the AASA (American Association of School Administrators); ASCD (the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development), NAESP (the National Association of Elementary School Principals), and the NASSP (National Association of Secondary School Principals) worked in the auspices of ISLLC, funded by the CCSSO (Council of Chief State School Officers), to increase educational management standards. The National Policy Board for Educational Administration used the ISLLC principles for accreditation, efficiently holding educational administrative training programs accountable for not only creating pre-service instructive leaders' knowledge of moral concepts and structures but also for budding their capability to apply such ideas and structures to make moral decisions that would optimistically affect the experiences of pupils. This is in line with the fifth criterion deals with morals, saying that "a school superintendent is an educational organizer who promotes the achievement of all pupils by acting with honesty, justice, and…… [Read More]
Morality of Statistics
Ethics/Business Statistics, Christian Worldview
The morality of statistics: Will statistics invariably lie?
A famous book from the 1950s was entitled How to lie with statistics. Implied by the counter-intuitive name was the concept that the old cliche that 'numbers don't lie' was false. In fact, as discussed in the article "eflection before action: The statistical consultant confronts ethical issues" by S. Andrew Ostapski and Claude . Superville, statistics can be highly subjective in terms of how they are presented as are the conclusions which can be drawn from them. Even researchers have been accused of manipulating statistics to prove 'facts' that are not true within academia. The pressures only increase when statisticians are asked to serve the financial 'masters' of commerce. "The ability to be creative in building interdisciplinary bridges can be risky, especially when the parties that are served do not understand the statistical process. The…… [Read More]
Rule breaking, innovation or ethical dilemma?
People often think that in order to run a business, or be a leader, one must adhere to all the rules. But the old saying "Some rules are made to be broken" rings true. Many successful entrepreneurs have had to make decisions that would ultimately be seen as rule breaking, even at times, illegal. That is just how the world works. People must make tough decisions in order to make it in the tough worlds of business, politics, and even medicine.
This paper focuses on several articles along with an annotated bibliography to demonstrate the effectiveness of rule breaking in reaching one's goals in business and entrepreneurial endeavors. So many greats like Bill Gates, Bill Clinton, etc., have broken rules in order to get to where they are now. In fact, wise leaders often take risks to get things accomplished. Any entrepreneur…… [Read More]
repositories of ethical values, religion, philosophy, cultural experience, and law influence managers. Although different doctrine controls different religions, all of the major religions preach some form of responsibility to society in general. Christian managers reading and seeking direction from the Bible exemplifies the use of a religious text to influence the managerial thought process. Many passages from the various religious texts draw a comparison between a shepherd and the shepherd's responsibilities. If each person is considered a shepherd, then each person has responsibilities beyond what they do for themselves. In some cases a religion teaches that moral responsibility extents to the indirect results business activity, such as pollution. In spite of the pressures to remain open for business seven days a week, some Christian-oriented businesses refuse to open on Sundays even though this decision hurts them directly in terms of lost business, but also hurts them because of the loss…… [Read More]
Ethics abortion. ethics? hat abortion? related affect . A breif history abortion. Does abortion fall metaethics, normative ethics, applied ethics? I include Christian, Jewish, Islamic views abortion.
There has always been much controversy regarding the issue of abortion, as while many believe that it would be perfectly normal for people to have access to the practice, other consider that it is wrong and that society would practically accept the killing of innocent human beings by supporting the concept. Morality is one of the principal ideas that comes up when discussing with regard to abortion. Numerous individuals believe that there is no situation when abortion can be considered to be right. Some believe that abortion is justified when it is performed with the purpose to protect the mother's life and others consider that the pro-abortion argument is very complex and that there are a series of situations when abortions needs…… [Read More]
Ethics -- "History and Good." It gives a summary and analysis of the chapter, besides a short introduction on the author and the book.
Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945), German theologian firmly believed that the foundation of ethical behavior lay in the reality of the world and the reality of God -- both being reconciled in the reality of Christ. All his life, he called for "responsible" action against evil and was sharply critical of ethical theories, which avoided such direct action. Bonhoeffer lived and practiced his ethical beliefs by confronting the evil of Hitler's Nazism that he saw rising at close range in his home country. His uncompromising stance against the Nazis ultimately cost him his life when he was arrested in 1943 for his part in a conspiracy against Hitler and was hanged in the weeks before Hitler's own suicide and the end of the Second World War in Europe.…… [Read More]
This is not necessarily a bad thing, as this might mean that these individuals acknowledge the fact that Christian messages are powerful and refrain from falling victim to prejudice when it comes to being a believer. Acting without considering matters at first can have a damaging effect on individuals because they might fall victim to producing incorrect interpretations of the gospel.
4. People who use intellectual principles in rejecting Christianity are motivated by ration and by their unwillingness to accept unfounded matters. It seems irrational for an intellectual individual to accept the concept of a person dying and coming back to life. Non-religious people who are guided by intellectual principles support science and feel that it directly contradicts religion. They tend to interpret the gospel literally and thus feel that it is similar to a work of fiction. Seeing the overall history of Christianity and the way that many individuals…… [Read More]
Life and Death: The Life Support Dilemma by Kenneth E. Schemmer M.D
Kenneth Schemmer in his thorough, thought provoking book brings to life the controversial subject of the life support issue. For years, many all over the country have pondered, "What if a person were in some kind of an accident and the physicians told them that they were not going to make it?" And all that he or she could do is just lie there in extreme pain waiting for their life to the end. Or even worse case scenario what if they happened to end up completely brain dead? These debated questions are taken on by Dr. Schemmer in making his point that life support decisions may not necessarily be the decision of the family, the doctor or the patient but by a higher being that gives life and takes life. Schemmer uses these controversial questions in his…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to answer a few brief questions and take a position on the subject of euthanasia. The first question will be a definition and distinction between active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. The question of ethical issues for each type will be raised. The laws in each state regarding euthanasia will be covered. Finally, there will be a position taken by the author of this report and it will be based on scholarly research from roughly four sources. While euthanasia may be controversial to some, there are some situations where people are going to do what they are going to do and allowing them the easier and more dignified path is the way to go.
When it comes to the definition of active or passive euthanasia, the difference is pretty clear. Active euthanasia, as defined by the British Broadcast Corporation (BBC) is…… [Read More]
secular society, Christian values, beliefs, and worldviews are systematically excluded from the educational system. Parents who can afford costly private schools can help inculcate their children into a Biblical worldview, but the majority of Christians who cannot do this and whose children attend public schools need to find ways to resolve the ideological conflicts presented to their children. Children regularly receive disparate information about crucial issues such as those related to gender roles and norms, human sexuality, and the origin of life on earth. While all of these core topics challenge Christian educators to adapt their curricula to conform to legal and societal expectations, the most contentious of these might be the evolution and intelligent design debate. Christian educators continue to struggle with presenting a more balanced worldview to their students, but legal and societal expectations persist in silencing minority voices. One of the most important contemporary issues in education,…… [Read More]
open today than they have ever been before. While it is a little sad that some states remain set against fully offering the choice of marriage to all who would love another person, regardless of gender, an increasing number of states have become sufficiently open to offer full equality of marriage. At the heart of the debate regarding marriage equality is the idea of whether the law should promote some sort of collective morality by enforcing the dominance of conventional sexual preference or not. My view is that, although the law does promote a sense of how one should interact with others, i.e. avoiding murder and the like, sexual preference should not form part of what the law allows citizens to do.
Devlin (1965, p. 371) suggests that there are those who feel that immorality and criminal offenses should not be synonymous, unless there are public features involved, such as…… [Read More]
Malphurs, Aubrey. Advanced Strategic Planning: A new model for Church and Ministry Leaders ISBN-13:978-0801014550
In the latest edition of Malphurs's book Advanced Strategic Planning, the author remains consistently committed to the goal of helping ministers develop the most effective and successful ministries possible. Strategic planning refers to the large and diverse checklist of activities relevant during the development of a new ministry or during major structural or thematic changes to existing ones. Without a strategy or a roadmap, notes Malphurs, many churches are doomed to failure. The author walks the reader through the process of strategic planning from the pre-planning and visionary stages through to the pragmatic and logistical issues like fundraising and financial management, through the necessity for ongoing assessment. Although the book would be strengthened with additional sections on risk and crisis management, Malphurs does a good job with the material.
The strengths of the Malphurs book…… [Read More]
The dilemma associated with this case study suggests that little is known or can be done with serious illness with any great confidence. At the heart of the issue is who is responsible for the sick child as it appears, but may not be true, that he cannot take care of himself and that his immune system needs to be guided by someone else.
The lack of a formal family and the unnatural formation of this family also contributes to the confusion of this ethical problem. The Christian Scientist mother of the child holds no biological claim to the child and is demanding a unique spiritual procedure to be used to the heal the child. Although this method is controversial and not based in traditional science, the laws allowing for this type of treatment are allowed in reasonable circumstance in many areas of the world.
The…… [Read More]
The concept of the common good can apply just as well to secular or political values as to spiritual or religious ones. Social and political organizations should be devoted to the common good, but not all are, as Sullivan & Pagnucco (2014) point out. Some organizations base their founding principles, ideologies, and practices on hatred or fear, thereby detracting from the common good. Catholic Social Teaching offers an idealized model of civil society in which each person is engaged in and committed to the common good: the creation and maintenance of the conditions necessary for human flourishing. The specific methods of working towards the common good, and how the common good will manifest, may vary from place to place or from time to time, but the ultimate goals of personal and collective fulfillment remain the same.
Participation in social organizations is inevitable, even for those who remain relatively detached from…… [Read More]
ethics codes of the three following counseling associations share certain ethical responsibilities in common, while containing certain responsibilities unique to their organization. The three associations' ethics codes that will be studied about here are the American Counseling Association (ACA) 2005 Draft Code of Ethics, the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC) Code of Ethics-Y2004 Final Code, and the American Association of Pastoral Counselors (AAPC) Code of Ethics.
The first level of comparison between the three ethics codes begins with finding the similarities and differences they display in their duties to clients. There exist several similarities in this regard between them. In terms of obtaining informed consent, the ACA codes of ethics states (A2. a) that clients can choose to either continue or terminate treatment at any time. This would be after the counselor discharges his/her duty in informing the client exactly how the counseling would occur, what the counselor's credentials…… [Read More]
If the leaders of our national financial institutions had asked 'are these moral actions right, ethically speaking, from the point-of-view of my profession' rather than 'will these moral actions make money,' the world financial crisis would never have occurred.
Utilitarianism also tends to deemphasize minority rights -- but merely because a group is in the minority does not mean that it is engaged in a moral wrong. This can be seen in the current debate over gay marriage. Many people stress that marriage is 'naturally' between a man and a woman, simply because the majority of the population is heterosexual. However, by safeguarding only majority rights, African-Americans and other historically-discriminated against groups would never have been allowed to enjoy the promise of the American dream. Kantian principles demand upholding the moral integrity of all human beings, regardless of perceived consequences. During the American Civil Rights movement, many opponents of integration…… [Read More]
Business Ethics magazine recently awarded the Chroma Technology Corporation, a Vermont-based manufacturer of high-tech optical lens products, the "Living Economy Award" as part of the 16th Annual Business Ethics Awards. The Living Economy Award is offered to the company that best exemplifies "the living economy with practices of employee ownership, fair wages, and environmental stewardship," (Business Ethics). One of the key reasons why Chroma earned the accolade was due to its unique official salary structure: no employee earns less than $37,500 and none more than $75,000; therefore, no upper-level management official makes more than twice as much as anyone on the shop floor. Chroma's unique salary structure in part reflects my vision of corporate business ethics and the values I would like to embody as a professional. There are other reasons why I admire Chroma's policies. They employ an egalitarian meeting format modeled after the Quakers; they ensure environmental sustainability…… [Read More]
Because so many mortgage companies and lending institutions pass of the debts represented by their loans to third parties, there is little incentive to ensure that borrowers actually qualify for loans based on their income and credit history the way might where the original lending institution must absorb the cost of eventual default. Throughout the mortgage industry, practices evolved where realtors and mortgage brokers actively encouraged borrowers to misrepresent their financial circumstances to qualify for much more expensive properties than they could actually afford. Brokers who objected to this practice were subject to reprimand and even to dismissal from their positions, precisely because the moral rules within that vocational environment conflicted with objective values, not to mention federal law. Faced with similar circumstances, I would have no choice but to voice my objection, even at the expense of my position.
Similarly, my moral perspective does not permit rigid adherence to…… [Read More]
Business ethics is a division of ethics that pertains to the interaction of business and ethics and applies ethical analysis to the business area. It is both expressive and normal. The five activities within business ethics can be delineated as follows:
1. Using general ethical principles to specific practices in business.
2. The analysis of whether moral terms related to individuals' actions may be applied to combined entities such as firms.
3. Analysis of presumptions of business.
4. Analysis of other related areas of information as guided by embedded problems in business.
5. Describing morally commendable and exemplary actions of firms (Barrett, 2009).
Corporate social responsibility (CS) entails any activity that encourages the interests of any stakeholder of a business corporation. Occasionally CS refers to philanthropic programs that target communities or employees. In other instances it refers to obligations to promote the welfare of suppliers. It also refers to an…… [Read More]
Benedictine Values as Compared to Ethics Principles
Many different sets of ethics are used throughout the world and within different organizations, but there are a few foundational principles upon which most of those are based. Early in the Christian era St. Benedict (480-547 AD) wrote a collection of values that people should live by. There were a great number of these, but the University of Mary selected six of these that apply most specifically to the students who matriculate there -- community, hospitality, moderation, prayer, respect for persons, and service (University of St. Mary, 2011). Besides these moral edicts from the church are some basic principles by which most systems are built today. They include the four foundational principles of ethics and the two divisions of virtue ethics. The purpose of this paper is to outline all of these concepts, then to compare and contrast the Benedictine values to the…… [Read More]
obert Latimer Case
The obert Latimer case details the tragic situation of a father caring for a severely disabled child pushed to his breaking point. After witnessing the suffering of his daughter Tracy through numerous invasive and minimally effective procedures, Latimer eventually decided to take his child's life (Eckstein 1995). For doing so, he was convicted of homicide and although the case was tried in 1995, it still presents a number of troubling ethical challenges to medical ethicists today.
From a deontological or Kantian point-of-view, or the notion that one must behave as if setting a moral law for all time, Latimer's actions are immoral if it is assumed that intentional killing is always wrong, particularly of a disabled person who is not in full possession of his or her ability to determine if he or she is happy or not. A Kantian would ask the question -- if…… [Read More]
Normative Ethics and the Right to Privacy
Who owns a person's email after that person has died is a question that is coming up more and more with the advancement of technology. Cases such as those of deceased service members whose family wanted access to their email after they were killed in combat have made the news. Rulings were that the emails belonged to the deceased person and that person's Internet service provider, through the contract the person had with the company. Because of that, the parents or other family members who were grieving their lost loved one could not be given access to their emails. Whether that is "fair" is a matter of opinion, but is it ethical? In order to answer that question, it is important to explore the issue from both a utilitarian and deontological standpoint, as those are contradictory to one another. A conflict between two…… [Read More]
Early Christian polemicists such as Clement of Alexandria, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus of Lyons, and Tertullian all attacked Gnosticism as 'heresy' and until the 20th Century virtually nothing was known about it except in the distorted texts they had written. Their purpose was to construct the boundaries between what later became 'orthodox' or 'catholic' Christianity in opposition to Judaism, paganism and carious Christian 'heresies'. Until the fourth and fifth centuries, however, when Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire under "the guiding influence of the Christian emperors" like Constantine and Theodosius, Christian 'orthodoxy' was still fluid and in dispute. Only because of the power of the Roman state did Christianity become a "monolithic unity" that had not existed before and redefined "manifold ancient religious practices into three mutually exclusive groups: Jews, Christians and pagans (King 22). Early Christian polemicists deliberately exaggerated the differences between these groups and minimized…… [Read More]
pre-provided Kirst-Ashman text that focuses on values. There will be a brief two page review of the chapter and what was learned from the same. Alongside the summary of the topics of value and ethnic maters, there will be at least one example given what relates to the ethical or value-based problem presented for the agency that the author is familiar with and how it was solved. While ethics and values may seem to be common sense and easy to decipher to many, there are some layers and variations that must be accounted for and taken seriously.
As noted at the very onset of the chapter in question, the very first chapter of the relevant text covered values and ethics. However, this chapter goes a bit deeper in that it explains how common sense can devolve into confusion if the proper factors and decision points are not taken into account.…… [Read More]
If the dignity of work is to be protected, then the basic rights of workers must be respected -- the right to productive work, to decent and fair wages, to the organization and joining of unions, to private property, and to economic initiative (Themes of Catholic Social Teaching)."
As it relates to the Christian business, this principle should encourage business owners to pay their employees a living wage. A living wage guarantees that an individual will be able to afford the basic necessities in life (i.e. food, clothing, shelter).
The living wage varies depending on the location but many jobs in America do not pay workers a living wage even when they have been working there for a substantial amount of time. As an aspect of business ethics, Christian business owners should evaluate the amount of pay that workers receive and make certain that it is a living wage. Paying…… [Read More]
Values and Ethics
A person's worldview is shaped in many ways starting from birth. The values held by his family, friends and community are impressed upon him during the first years of his life, and form the basis by which he interacts with the world and through which he understands his experiences. hile many people remain truest to the ethics developed in childhood, and only develop complexity in their ethical standards as they age, others choose to stay true to the values that call to them most clearly and build up their values around a new pattern of beliefs. My values were rooted in my family of birth and developed through the influence of my friends and community, but they crystalized during the nearly two decades I spent serving in the U.S. Marine Corps. Among my core values are the Marine Corp ethical goals of honor, courage and commitment, and…… [Read More]
, 1931, p. 50)"
People speak, create, behave, sing, and poetically cite their values and the events, people, and inspirations that helped to form those values. Two symbols of our collective values are the Statue of Liberty; we value freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and the right of every man, woman of every race and ethnic background to be free in their pursuit of happiness.
Another artifact of American values is the Christian Church, the Jewish Synagogue, the Muslim Mosque, and any other place or sanctuary where people come together in community, with understanding that together in prayers for peace and one another, mankind is, under the influence of the greater forces of the faith and the universe, capable of miracles.
Parker, De itt H. Human Values: An Interpretation of Ethics Based on a Study of Values. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1931. Questia. 12 Feb. 2008…… [Read More]
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices Since Sep 11, 2001
The incident of 9/11 made the world pass though many sad and undesirable changes. One of such changes is declining rate of ethical considerations in U.S. based commercial organization. The subject is important to explore as it is likely to affect the image of U.S. business organizations. Furthermore, it is also expected that U.S. literature upon management and business administration may fail to appeal the world as the practices are not aligned with it.
The paper explains the changes in lieu of unfortunate incident of 9/11 in USA and casts light upon the implication of ethical consideration presently enforced in U.S. based organizations.
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices Since Sep 11, 2001
The incident of 9/11 was an unfortunate event for many nations of the worlds including Americans. The incident changed…… [Read More]
Aristotle, of course, acknowledges no such presence. Aquinas's philosophy is largely based on the acknowledgement of this presence as much as, if not more so than, it is on any singular conception of Aristotle's. Aquinas believed that just as much as one should follow his or her function by thinking and living a life that resulted in happiness by utilizing this thought process, one should also seek to ultimately act based upon the divine nature within one due to the presence of God. It is for this reason that Aquinas chooses to emphasize a healthy, positive union with God -- one that coincides with the rational, thought-provoking side of mankind.
It is due to this relationship with the divinity that Aquinas believes that the actual betterment of man's progress in his various pursuits -- pursuits which bring him happiness -- lies in his cultivation and furthering of his relationship or…… [Read More]
By only being interested in themselves, people fail to accomplish one of their main missions as Christians-that of discovering the Kingdom of God. People should not understand personal satisfaction as being equivalent to the greatest achievement. Christians should constantly be engaged in stepping in when they know that the circumstances require them to do so.
Protecting the environment does not mean that one would have to perform dehumanizing acts, but that the respective person should attempt to do as much as possible in order for them to assist nature.
Practically everyone comes across the topic of environmental protection at a certain point in their lives and it is up to them if they want to be a part of the movement. People need to understand that it is not themselves who should be the center of their interest, as they should also look into assisting others and the planet in…… [Read More]
action(s) should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration?
There is presently much controversy regarding environmentalism and religion is particularly important when considering people's involvement in preserving the environment, with Christian groups from around the world being actively engaged in preserving and restoring it. Although there are a series of techniques that people can use in trying to save the environment, some methods are actually ineffective. The environment is rapidly deteriorating and urgent action needs to be taken in order for the process to be slowed down and eventually even stopped. Christian values influence people in protecting the environment, as it is essential for humans to benefit as a result of having access to the resources offered by a healthy planet. Christians should take advantage of the fact that their religious preferences bring them together and attempt to fight against environmental deterioration on several fronts.…… [Read More]
How Should a Christian Business Proceed?
As in any major decision, especially involving finances, Christians should only proceed after following these steps:
Prayer -- Seek God's guidance though daily prayer;
Studying His Word -- John 1:3 "…and the Word was God." Allow God to speak to you through His Word.
Seeking wise counsel -- Prov. 12:15 "…but a wise man is he who listens to counsel."
Asking a simple question -- "Do I see God's Hand in action?" Is God opening doors, such as bringing His people into your life as potential partners or by overcoming potential obstacles?
One would be naive to think that just because a business partner is Christian means they will therefore avoid all potential trouble. Plenty of Christian partnerships experience challenges, thus involving activities not pleasing to God, such as embezzlement, laziness, sexual indiscretions, sharp disagreements, lawsuits, divorce, etc... Soured relationships and sin is not…… [Read More]
Alcohol and usiness Ethics
Introduction moral society is built on the basis of a number of unspoken, but generally agreed upon social issues. A moral society generally applies the maxim "treat others in the way you would like to be treated" and this proverb, although it's heard more frequently in the school play yard than in the corporate boardroom, should affect business decisions which affect the community at large. Some would say that operating a business within legal boundaries is not an accurate measure of an ethical business. Within the past few decades, advertising has become the focus of ethical pressure. The 'Joe Camel' cartoon character developed as a spokesperson - mascot for the camel cigarette was pulled after community outrage that the furry, cute character was likely an attempt by the company to market their addictive and destructive products to children.
A tremendous pressure has been brought to bear…… [Read More]
The Family Christian Association of America (FCAA), Inc. is under the governance of a state wide corporate board of directors, composed of 30 volunteers from various professional disciplines. This board is responsible for the creation and approval of policies, development of financial resources, providing oversight of financial and legal matters, as well as authorizes volunteer advisory councils, and collaboration on strategic planning. (The Florida Christian Association of America, Inc., 2010)
The FCAA shows complete cohesion between the articles of incorporation, bylaws, website, and the work that they are doing in the community served. The mission and vision statement are clear, concise, and evident through the services provided to the population served by this nonprofit. There are actually very few areas that appear to need any correction or improvement. It appears that if there were more guaranteed ways to secure funding from year to year would be one of…… [Read More]
Nathaniel Hawthorne's beliefs concerning ethics, morality, and guilt as made evident in one of these stories. Consider how beliefs affect characterization, setting, plotting, and theme.
In the story of Rappaccini's daughter, the narrator becomes infatuated with a young woman whose life literally has become poisoned, because of her father's influence. Unlike a conventional Christian system of morality, as is typical of most of the author's other tales, the girl is being 'punished' for no real crime, other than being born the daughter of a mad scientist. The European setting is also atypical of the author. It takes place in exotic Italy, where the fantastical narrative seems more appropriate than Puritan New England.
The title character's father is a botanist who has created a beautiful garden, but because of his extensive scientific knowledge, he has hubristically attempted to transcend the laws of nature. He has created a girl whom literally has…… [Read More]
A personal ethical code needs to integrate both professional behaviors crucial to institutions, and personal behaviors, owing to their likely effect on an individual's leadership ability. Personal ethical codes should also echo an individual's worldview, as this is important in establishing the key values that have to be dominant in the ethical code. Of the many values identified, the crucial ones include vision, wisdom, service, character, work ethic, communication, commitment, and learning (Sullivan, 2009). When shaping people into educators, care must be taken to ensure others will recognize them as leaders. That is, educators represent leaders among students, in educational institutions, and particularly, leaders who work for Jesus (Howard, 2010). They have spiritual influence, due to using the Lord's powers. Leadership abilities include spiritually influencing others, through God's journey. Leaders attempting to ascribe only to influence are bound to fail themselves, as well as to lead their followers…… [Read More]
His followers claimed He had risen as He said He would, bodily appeared to them and then bodily ascended into Heaven, as Elijah prophesied. This experience emboldened them to come out of hiding and they gathered at the upper room of the Cenacle on the Day of the Pentecost. From then on, they openly preached the radical ethic taught by Jesus. The resurrection of Jesus is the origin of Christian worship and prayer and it directly links Jesus to God and Jesus has been called Lord, the Christ, the faithful and true witness. His followers who observed and advocated His teachings of the Good News were called Christians. Christianity was later founded and spread by the Roman soldier, Saul, who persecuted the Christians but was converted into an apostle by a direct encounter with Christ on Saul's way to Damascus. He was later renamed Paul.
Jesus as a Jew demanded…… [Read More]