Ethics and Morality: The Theories of Ethics and Morality
The subject in this case faces an ethical dilemma, where she has to choose between reporting an ethical concern and just playing along or doing nothing at all. Both choices have serious consequences -- reporting would mean that i) she loses her job and livelihood because of a confidentiality breach, and ii) she stops her organization from producing the environmentally-friendly hovercraft, and consequently, becomes the reason why the world will never enjoy clean unpolluted air. Playing along, on the other hand, would mean that she watches as 200,000 innocent lives are lost as a result of the hovercraft's incompatibility with existing models.
The subject has a duty to uphold confidentiality in all dealings that have to do with the company. Disclosing such information to the press would amount to breach of this duty. However, as a member of a corporate body, she also has a duty to always look out for the welfare of the community. Utilitarianism requires people to always go for the action that maximizes the best interests of the majority -- in this case, the deontological duty owed to the citizens overrides that owed to the company, which essentially means that the subject is...
Given the high cost of the hovercraft (about four times that of an SUV), most people may not afford it, and it may take years before their numbers on the roads are sufficient enough to have a noticeable effect on greenhouse emissions. This means that it could basically take decades before the effect of the same on the environment is felt. On the other hand, deaths resulting from the launch of the same are likely to be triggered immediately, and are deemed to increase as the number of hovercrafts increases. If we are to wait until the hovercrafts are sufficient to have a tangible effect on the environment, and we are losing between 100,000 and 200,000 lives in accidents annually, then we may have no one left to enjoy the 'clean' air by 2050. Based on the consequentialism theory, therefore, it makes sense to stop the launch of the hovercraft.
However, since the subject is guided by professional code of ethics, they will…
Moral Development/Kohlberg Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development: Therapeutic Implications Kohlberg continues to be a significant figure and influence on the field of psychology. He is well-known for his theory of moral development which details different stages of morality throughout one's life. Although the theory has faced criticisms, particularly due to a questionable generalization to all cultures, it continues to be a basis of knowledge and usefulness in practice. In regards to
Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to which it is applied. Therefore, the solution to the deontological issues raised by the issue presented by the movie is simply to reformulate a less restrictive rule that is incapable of being applied to every situation. Instead of proposing the rule
Ethics The Divine Command theory of morality is known as a nonconsequentialist theory because this particular theory of morality is one that is not in any way based on the consequences or outcomes of specific action, but rather holds that all actions have any intrinsic rightness or wrongness. In the case of Divine Command Theory, rightness or wrongness is decided based upon whether or not a specific action can be said
Kohlberg's theory of moral development presents three levels with two stages each of moral reasoning. The reason or motive for the behavior of an individual is what defines each stage (Crain, 1985). In order to come up with this developmental theory Kohlberg carried out studies using various dilemmas and finding out how the subjects responded. His main interest in the process is not a "yes" or "no" said by the
Bowman et al. (2010) states that "third-level reasoning…prevents abuse of professional skills for one's own advantage or for that of one's social group" (2010). Kohlberg believed that the U.S. government, the official morality, requires fifth stage moral reasoning (Lewis & Gilman 2005). This level asks for respect of individual rights and it accepts critically examined values (2005). While this stage is not the highest stage (the highest being a stage
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice developed as a cohesive field in the late twentieth century, with the establishment of the Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Journal, in 1998. The theory therefore represents a culmination of scholarly thought and analysis in the fields of philosophy, sociology, and psychology. As a cross-disciplinary theory, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice reveals the increasing hybridization of fields that relate to normative ethics. Because Ethical Theory and