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Church Planting: Models and Leadership
Development In The Hispanic Context
Church planting is a process that results in a new Christian church or parish in a new and untouched locality. Different from church development that includes the introduction of a new service, worship center, or expression that is integrated in to an already-established congregation, church planting is a concept that starts from the ground up. For a new local church to be considered "planted," it must eventually have a separate life of its own and be able to function without the support of its parent body, even if it continues to stay in some sort of relationship either denominationally or through being part of a larger framework of churches.
In viewing church planting in terms of the Hispanic context with a direct connection to leadership and the successful development of a new church and congregation, one must first understand the…
Aguero. Enio, "Hispanics in North America: What Can You Do" Church Planters 1 (March 2010): 1.
Barna, George, Leaders on Leadership (Ventura, CA: Regal Books 1997): 25.
Rodolpho Carrasco, "Catching Up with Hispanics," Christianity Today 1 (November 2010): B1.
Cafferty, Pastora San Juan, Hispanics in the United States: An Agenda for the Twenty-first Century.
The Catholic Church Government
The internal government of the early Church was formed within the framework of the Roman Empire, and bishops exercised authority over the Christian community in each Roman municipium. By the third century, a shift took place as the bishops of each Roman province formed the habit of meeting in a provincial synod, presided over by the bishop of the capital city, meaning the metropolitan bishop or archbishop. In the fifth century, the hierarchical evolution of Church government would be complete with the universal recognition of the Bishop of Rome.
In the Catholic Church, these leadership groups assumed a somewhat different form over time. From the first, three orders were thought to stand by themselves, these being bishops, presbyters (or priests), and deacons, and these were the only orders considered necessary to a church. By the third century, a number of other orders were introduced, all lower…
Allen, Alexander V.G. Christian Institutions. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1897.
Augustine, City of God. New York: Penguin, 2003.
Bokenkotter, Thomas. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Garden City, New York: 1977.
Bowle, John. Western Political Thought (New York: Oxford University Press, 1948.
Church of God in Christ: Founder -- Charles Harrison Mason (1907)
The objective of this research study is to examine the Church of God in Christ, a denomination founded by Charles Harrison Mason in 1907. The Church of God in Christ (COGIC) has more than six million members throughout the world and is one of the largest of all Pentecostal churches in the world. The Statement of Thesis in this work states that the founding of the Church of God in Christ resulted in African-American women in the South just following the Civil War to find a voice and to gain authority in the Church as well as bolstering their social status in the community.
The Church of God in Christ: Founder -- Charles Harrison Mason (1907)
Table of Contents
Item Page #
Chapter 1 -- Introduction
Chapter 2 -- Literature Review
Chapter 3 -- Methodology
Newman, Joe (2007) Race and the Assemblies of God Church: The Journey from Azusa SDtreet to the Miracle of Memphis. Cambria Press. 2007. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=yWprYuQyzywC&dq=The+Church+of+God+in+Christ+and+Founder+Charles+Harrison+Mason,+1907&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Cox, Harvey (2001) Fire from heaven: the rise of pentecostal spirituality and the reshaping of religion in the twenty-first century. De Capo Press. 2001. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=rIQO6nnUbhkC&oi=fnd&pg=PR15&dq=The+Church+of+God+in+Christ+and+Founder+Charles+Harrison+Mason,+1907&ots=dbgulnZqBe&sig=-RPCaAJjqo1UdUB8Go-kXZIKb0k#v=onepage&q&f=false
Newman, Joe (2007_ Race and the Assemblies of God Church: the journey from Azusa Street to the "Miracle of Memphis." Cambria Press.
Church leaders have to delve deeper into leadership complexities and to discover what's new and imperative and re-draws their leadership maps and their aspirations of leadership that will drive into the expected changes. For instance a church that is not yet using online services, such as a website may not attract new comers because more people have become technology savvy and are searching for information in the internet.
My argument is that the whole world is changing and the church cannot in way be left behind because it's the same congregations that push for change in all areas of society. Flexibility in leadership is a must due to the changing society. Technology keeps changing every day, and the church adopt the changes. Newcomers to a congregation that is still using the traditional books may not cope with the rest of the congregation if they have been using projectors.
Patrol and Troop, 1972, Learning about Leadership, The Boys Scout, America
Rickards, Clark, 2011, Dilemmas of Leadership, Paperback, London
Roland G. Kuhl, 2005 Approaches and understanding of Pastoral Leadership at the beginning of 21st Century
Here, just as the dominance of the Roman penal code would impose an acceptance of the death penalty upon adherents, so too would the Church begin to view the current patterns of social and civic order as demanding adaptation. Therefore, by the early 1990s and under Pope John Paul II, the Catholic Church officially began to pursue a more aggressive stance on stamping out the use of capital punishment where possible. This position would be articulated in the Pope's new Catechism of the Catholic Church. This would declare that while the death penalty could be seen as permissible in the most serious of cases, an effort at withholding from its invocation wherever possible should be pursued. (Overberg1, 1)
Accordingly, the Pope would declare that "public authority must redress the violation of personal and social rights by imposing on the offender an adequate punishment for the crime, as a condition for…
Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL). (2005). III. The Wages of Sin. CCEL.org.
Knight, K. (2009). Capital Punishment. New Advent.
Overberg, K.R. (1996). The Death Penalty: Why the Church Speaks a Countercultural Message. American Catholic.org.
Overberg1, K.R. (1998). Respect Life: The Bible and the Death Penalty Today. American Catholic.org.
Church Body and Christ
Currently, the church body does not always reflect Christ within the community or culture. That gives many people the wrong perception of the church, and of Christianity and Christ overall. With that in mind, there are several things Christians can do in order to be sure that the church is seen in a more positive and more realistic light. First, Christians can actually "practice what they preach." Many people who proclaim that they are Christian and attend church every Sunday live lives that are very different from what Christ actually taught. That hypocritical attitude, when seen by non-Christians, can quickly turn them away from Christianity and from having any interest in the church. Not all Christians do this, of course, but there are enough of them to cause distress for the church - and for those who are quick to say that Christianity is not the…
Ignatius of Antioch is an important early church figure for a number of reasons. His surname was Theophorus meaning "God-bearer" (EWTN, 2011). Many believe that he was most likely to converted by St. John who was known as the Evangelist. Not much is known of his early life, however (EWTN, 2011). In fact, since Peter as well as Paul planted the church in Antioch, one can believe that Ignatius was to succeed that of Evodius who was the bishop of that particular city at that time in history (EWTN, 2011). Furthermore, "Ignatius retained the office for forty years, proving himself in every way an exemplary pastor" (EWTN, 2011).
When Domitian reigned from 81-96, Ignatius was courageous by constantly preaching, fasting and praying with those in his congregation (EWTN, 2011). Once Domitian died, persecution ceased for at least 15 months during the reign of Nerva (EWTN, 2011). Furthermore, many…
EWTN. (2011). Saint Ignatius of Antioch Bishop, Martyr C. 117. Retrieved June 9, 2011, from Eternal World Television Network: http://www.ewtn.com/library/mary/ignatius.htm .
New Advent. (2009). The epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans. Retrieved June 9, 2011, from New Advent: http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0109.htm .
Romanides, J.S. (2011). The ecclesiology of st. Ignatius of Antioch . Retrieved June 9, 2011, from Romanity: http://www.romanity.org/htm/rom.11.en.the_ecclesiology_of_st._ignatius_of_antioch.01.htm .
Further, this will allow us to connect such a principle to the lives of the students. For this purpose, each student will take a turn reading a passage from Daniel 3: "Song of the Three Holy Youths."
e will pay focus to specific passages of importance such as the following.
"Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego answered King Nebuchadnezzar" 'There is no need for us to defend ourselves before you in this matter.' If our God, whom we serve, can save us from the white-hot furnace and from your hands, O king, may he save us! But even if he will not, know, O king, that we will not serve your god or worship the golden statue which you set up." (Daniel 3:16-18)
"hen the satraps, prefects, governors, and nobles of the king came together, they saw that the fire had had no power over the bodies of these men; not a…
Daniel, Chapter 3, New American Bible, 2002.
Jayne, S. (2010). 'Unshakeable Confidence.' Crosswalk.com.
S. oil producer (1940)
Debt is debt; borrowing and financing are debt, some who take the con stance in regard to the practice of the church borrowing money for its building project(s). In fact, as the excerpt from the following quote by Sanders, introducing this paper's segment contends: "It's dynamite to spend future earnings. I have had a taste of it myself, and it's mighty bitter. A debt is a debt, whether it's margins or mortgages; and debts are all the same, no matter how you try to camouflage 'em. You never get much out of 'em except trouble. On the farm or in Wall Street, if you use the other fellow's money, it costs you a lot more than it's worth."
Scripture relates the following four precedents regarding borrowing:
orrowing is always presented in the negative (see Proverbs 17:18).
God never made a promise to anyone and then fulfilled…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.
www.bartleby.com/66 / (accessed April 25, 2009).
Craig Wieland. (2006). "Till Debt Do Us Part Should your church raise all the funds?"
http://www.churchsolutionsmag.com/articles/381Feat3.html (accessed April 25, 2009).
.. may not lack people to work their holdings for their maintenance, and may be able to take out what gold there is on the island;... And because this can better be done by having the Indians living in community with the Christians of the island, and by having them go among them and associate with them, by which means they will help each other to cultivate and settle and increase the fruits of the island and take the gold which may be there and bring profit to my kingdom and subjects... beginning from the day you receive my letter you will compel and force the said Indians to associate with the Christians of the island to work on their buildings... And so that on feast days and such days as you think proper they may be gathered to hear and be taught in matters of the Faith. (Goodpasture 1989,…
Gill, Anthony. 1998. Rendering Unto Caesar: The Catholic Church and the State in Latin America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
This inherited infallibility might have been enough to maintain some form of power and integrity throughout the bulk of the fourteenth century, but in the last quarter of the 1300s a new problem arose out of the Babylonian Captivity that could not be so simply solved. After being convinced to move the papal seat back to Rome and thus reestablishing the independence of the Church, Pope Gregory XI promptly dies, and his successor Urban VI did not prove especially capable or moral, and the same body of cardinals that had elected Urban VI elected Clement VII later in 1378, despite Urban VI's refusal to relinquish the papacy. Clement VII moved his papacy back to Avignon, where he was supported as the one true pope by France, Spain, Scotland, and southern Italy, while northern Italy, most of Germany, Scandinavia, and England all backed the pope in Rome (Cairns 241). This: Great…
More parliamentary action concluded the nation's complete split with the Catholic Church, and began directing church taxes to the monarchy. Growing nationalism in the period leading up to and during the Reformation, both in England and elsewhere, helped leaders and individuals to begin to think independently of Rome, and was aided in the simple collective consciousness of the time by Protestantism. This also led the Church to increase freedoms for nations and leaders remaining papist, in order to retain come control. Much of this can also be traced to the resolution reached in the matter of the split papacy during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when local bishop were granted more authority within the Church itself. The rise of Protestantism, then, must be understood as the culminating period of a long trend within the Church's political progression.
Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits), was…
Free exercise can be explained as follows: "If a rigidly observed policy of neutrality would discriminate against campus organizations with religious purposes or impinge on an individual's right to freedom of speech or free exercise of religion," then a state organization such as a public school would be obliged to permit religion on campus (p. 43). However, the free speech clause of the First Amendment has been cited for reasons to allow religious expression on school campuses: and in some instances proves more effective than the free exercise clause (p. 44). Private institutions have significantly greater leeway in the freedom of religious expression, and state governments also offer significant protections of religious expression.
The free exercise and establishment clauses are more naturally reconciled in private institutions. Private institutions "have no obligation of neutrality," and can establish religion as they see fit and in most cases regulate religious expression (p. 44).…
The other Saint holds the Book, or the Word of God. There is a hierarchal relationship depicted here.
Each of the religious figures, and the Christ, too, are ethnic in appearance, depicting a period before Christian art began to reflect a European appearance in iconology.
At the base, the foundation, of the church, is a man pointing upwards, and we see his shadow, thus, he is of the earth, the sun, and the moon, because he has a shadow we know he is not a heavenly apparition. There is, too, a cross, and we can see the shadow of the cross in the foundation of the Church.
The artwork conveys the seriousness of the scene, the tradition, the sacrifice, and the promise. The depiction of form was not as important to this artist as was the depiction of tradition, of worship, and of the promise of eternal life.
Refining and redesigning the great "systematic" collections such as Palestrina's would have proved an impossible task. As a result the seventeenth century saw the almost total disappearance of collections of offertories such as Palestrina's and antiphones such as Anerio's.
While there was great debate about the use of human voice because the voices of the celebrant of the Mass had to carry the entire burden of the rite, there was none where the organ was concerned. Indeed, the Church prescribed the playing of the organ.
However, music for the Mass was not so rigidly thought of outside of Rome. In Northern Italy, in particular, the organ made way for a trio of two violins and bass. Eventually, entire musical Masses are created.
In particular, Venice desired to affirm is autonomy from Rome, and levels of tolerance for music in the liturgy were very expansive.
One of the results of the…
Church #1 Name: .Thomas Road Baptist Church
Church #1 Website: www.trbc.org
Ministry is…praying for others.
Does the church have a prayer ministry? What does it look like?
The first image on the website features a call for prayers and for donations for the victims of the Oklahoma tornadoes.
Ministry is…following Jesus' example by practicing spiritual mentoring and multiplying.
Does the church have a strategy for evangelism?
The church presents a friendly and accessible face to the public, including a "what to expect" section for newcomers.
Does the church have a strategy for discipleship? Unclear.
Briefly describe what they look like.
Discipleship is not specifically discussed on the website.
Ministry is…leading small groups.
a. Does the church have a small group ministry? What can learn about their small group ministry from their website?
Yes. Within the larger framework of worship, there are specific groups designed to address the needs of students,…
CHURCH FATHERS DO YOU FIND THE MOST INSPIRING AND HY? THE COURSE IS NAVIGATING CHURCH HISTORY. Cairns, Earle. E. (1996). Christianity Through Centuries: A History Christian Church. (Third edition).
Saint Augustine of Hippo
The majority of people have a tendency to perceive a church father as being a person obsessed with religion and dedicated to promoting God's words regardless of the fact that they agree to them or not. However, there are some influential individuals in the history of Christianity who actually went much further than to act in agreement with stereotypes and who challenged most people's understanding of Christian thinking. Augustine of Hippo is one of the most influential characters in the history of estern Christianity and he is largely responsible for thinking in a series of modern-day Christians, taking into account that he made it possible for people to employ rational thinking when coming across Christian ideas.
Augustine of Hippo, "The City of God (De Civitate Dei) (Mobi Classics)," (MobileReference, 15.12.2009)
Green, R.P.H., "On Christian Teaching," (Oxford University Press, 1999)
Saint Augustine, "Confessions," (Hackett Publishing, 2006)
Von Dehsen, Christian D. "Philosophers and Religious Leaders: An Encyclopedia of People Who Changed the World," (Greenwood Publishing Group, 21.10.1999)
church fathers bring order to the early church?
The early Church fathers were able to bring a greater amount of order to the early church by the fact that they had such a command of the written word and such educated backgrounds that they were able to fine-tune and shed greater light upon the belief systems which shaped the Church in a more profound and aggravated manner. Many of the Church Fathers disagreed about the role that Greek philosophy should play within the church: some of them felt is detracted and distracted from the truths of the church and from the divine revelation that Christians needed to find.
Other church fathers found a certain amount of importance in studying classical literature and philosophy: "The classical Greeks could aid in the moral development of children because the Greeks, though pagan, still embraced a virtuous life. Knowledge of Greek thought helped Christians…
Kreis, S. (2006). The Church Fathers: St. Jerome and St. Augustine. Retrieved from Historyguide.org: http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/lecture16b.html
Church Jesus Christ Latter-Day v. Amos Here details: ead case titled, "Corporation Presiding Bishop Church Jesus Christ Latter-Day v.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day v. Amos
As a church employer in your religion, what reason would you give for requiring that the building engineer be of the same religion?
In the case of Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day v. Amos, although the gymnasium in question was open to the public who were not Mormons, the express intention of the religious institution running the facility was to promote its faith and a positive image of its faith. Having a building engineer who was not a Church member and who engaged in practices forbidden by the church such as smoking, drinking caffeine or otherwise violated Mormon teachings thus impeded the church to use its promotion of the gym for that express purpose (Bennett-Alexander & Hartman 2009: 528). The building engineer,…
Bennett-Alexander, D.D., & Hartman, L.P. (2009). Employment law for business (6th ed.)
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day v. Amos. (1987). The Oyez Project. Retrieved from:
And a local church: A group of believers in this age meeting regularly and organized biblically to do God's will. (Examples: omans 16:1,3-5,14-16).
Fundamentally, church in history is basing each and every principle and belief through the teachings of the Holy Bible that was conceived in the works of the apostles of Jesus Christ in the early century AD and onwards to its distinction in the 18th to the 21st Century.
The Church and Its Believers
In the modern era, the worship of the church now varies in its level of worship through the attendance and patronage of its members. Data shows that church attendance also differs in different sects of the society and place of worship. The findings of the Institute for Social esearch at the University of Michigan in its periodical World Values Survey states the following datas:
The United States has a higher level of church attendance…
Sid Litke, Th M; Survey of Bible Doctrine; The Church (2005) Bible.Org (2005) Extracted Nov 01,2005; Website http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=424
Church, Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia (2005) Extracted Nov 01,2005 Website; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church
Religious Tolerance.Org (2005) HOW MANY PEOPLE GO REGULARLY TO WEEKLY RELIGIOUS SERVICES? (1999-2001) Extracted Nov 01, 2005; Website; http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_rate.htm
Introduction To Ecclesiology And Church History (2005) Extracted Nov 01, 2005;Website http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/staffhome/yukoszarycz/ecc/INTRO.htmL
[11: Kimball, Dan. The Emerging Church: Vintage Christianity for New Generations. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003.]
The Emerging Church essentially sees cripture as something that can be processed and changed with no problem. This is a direct insult and runs counterintuitive to common sense, dogmatic pursuits and scripture itself. McKnight (2007) suggested that "The emerging movement is consciously and deliberately provocative. Emerging Christians believe the church needs to change, and they are beginning to live as if that change had already occurred. ince I swim in the emerging lake, I can self-critically admit that we sometimes exaggerate. " [footnoteRef:12] This presents a challenging and narrative story as opposed to a more objectionable and paternalistic story more aligned with the philosophic intent of its scriptures'. [footnoteRef:13] [12: McKnight, cot. "Five treams of the Emerging Church: Key Elements of the Most Controversial and Misunderstood Movement in the Church Today." Christianity Today 51…
Since doctrine is diminished the emphasis in the emergent church movement is spiritual experience. In the Emergent church we find them using contemplative prayer, in yoga positions, eastern type meditation, walking through labyrinths, and other alternative non-Christian practices to induce for themselves a spiritual experience. But when discussing the word of God they view it as if it is not absolutely true. When you deny the importance of doctrine or question it as the emergent church does the only thing left to pursue is experience, which is the modus operandi of worship in their gatherings. This is a religious Pollyanna movement where they accept other methods and practices, believing it will enhance or improve their spirituality without any consequences. By using these other religions practices it will make you more like Jesus. But when you open yourself up using other spiritual methods to produce an experience you are no longer practicing the way of Christ Jesus, his Spirit is not involved.[footnoteRef:20] [20: Tomlinson, Dave. The Post-Evangelical. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003.]
Ultimately the Emerging Church is seriously deviating from the Word of God, but in less profane that was once more demonstrative of a typical sinner. There will always be tricksters in the night looking to blind those with a false light as opposed to the radiating brilliance that is the Son of God, Christ himself. Realizing this and understanding this testimony of faith can help reveal the false nature of this doctrine and let Christ rule His Kingdom.
As a religion founded on championing the oppressed, Christianity has enormous power to change the minds and hearts of followers. Instead of remaining the religion of the oppressors Christianity can become once again what it was when Jesus was alive: the religion for those who wish to break free from the shackles of economic, political, and social oppression. Lewter uses the pyramid analogy to convey the concept of social oppression. Christianity before the Council of Nicea was the religion of the oppressed but after Constantine adopted Christianity for the oman Empire it became the means by which to pray for "keeping the pyramid intact" and to "remain at the top."
For African-Americans since the trans-Atlantic slave trade, Christianity has resurfaced as a religion of the oppressed. Prayer has become a means to alleviate suffering, to pray for relief as opposed to praying for status quo. When slaves were expected to…
Lewter, Andy. "Doctrinal Heresies of the Early Christian Church."
For me, the difference between a church, a sect and a cult is a difference of degree. A church is the original: it is the thing that starts it all off. In Christianity it would be the main churches that eventually became known as the Catholic Church with the base in Rome. Then there was the split between the East and the West—the schism. Then there was the Protestant Reformation. Sects would be subsets of both: they would have some of the teachings but would disagree on certain matters. Cults would introduce new and novel ideas and get further away from the original truths and teachings of the churches. So this is the difference in degree that I would point out.
I think that Stark and Brainbridge (Defining Cults/Sects, n.d.) define these distinctions well and I would use their definition as a rule to explain the differences. However, I do…
Defining Cults/Sects. (n.d.). Digital File.
The Sect-Church Process. (n.d.). Digital File.
In his 2012 book Church Growth 101: A Church Growth Guidebook for Ministers and Laity, Glenn Mollette offers valuable insights on pastoral leadership, evangelism, church ministry, church development, and other pastoral and church ministry aspects. With extensive reference to biblical text, the book is organised into 15 chapters. This paper offers a chapter by chapter summary of the book. After the summary, implications for the author’s personal life as well as ministry are offered.
The first chapter is about vision. The chapter is based on Proverbs 29:18, which states that “where there is no vision the people perish.” According to Mollette (2012, p.1), “vision begins with calling.” He narrates the encounters of Paul, Moses, and Peter to illustrate how calling is the basis of our vision, which is driven by our intrinsic drive and strength to serve God. Our internal drive is motivated by what we see or hear God…
Mollette, G. (2012). Church growth 101: A church growth guidebook for ministers and laity. Newburgh: Newburgh Press.
Women broke through the stained-glass ceiling of the A.M.E church to attain ordination and rose to the episcopacy because of their struggles
This research study analyses and provides an account of the role that black women played in the AME church in the quest to break the stained-glass ceiling and achieve equal rights and status with their male counterparts in the leadership and service of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. The research gives an account of the abilities and skills that women brought into the church service and the factors that made it possible for them to overcome the struggles through perseverance and resilience. The research gives an account of the first women to assume the leadership of AME church giving a clear account of their journey, struggles, and efforts towards equality in the church. The research investigates the roles played by AME church women in curving…
Banerjee, Neela. “A Woman Is Installed as Top Episcopal Bishop” The New York Times. 2006. https://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/05/us/05bishop.html
Barga, Michael. “African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church” Social Welfare Historical Project. https://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/religious/african-methodist-episcopal-a-m- e-church/
Campo, Allison Michelle, and Michael L. Blakey. Nineteenth century enslaved African Americans\\' coping strategies for the stresses of enslavement in Virginia. Williamsburg, Virginia: The College of William and Mary, 2015
Grant, Jacquelyn. Perspectives on womanist theology. Atlanta, Ga: Interdenominational Theological Center. 1996.
Grant, Jacquelyn. Perspectives on womanist theology. Atlanta: ITC Press. 1995.
Joseph, Celucien. “African Methodist Episcopal Church.” In Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications, Inc. doi:10.4135/9781452276274.n38. 2013.
Lincoln, Charles Eric, and Lawrence H. Mamiya. The Black church in the African American experience. Durham: Duke University Press. 2005.
Mannion, Gerard. \\"Changing the (Magisterial) Subject: Women Teaching-with-Authority— from Vatican II to Tomorrow\\". Irish Theological Quarterly. 81 (1): 3-33. 2016.
Crisis in the Church
When it comes to crises in the church community, the counselor has to be mindful of how to be prepared beforehand. Just as community planners will plan ahead so that in the event of a disaster the proper channels of communication are open and people know how to respond, so too does a minister need to have a plan in place for when or if a disaster should affect the church community.
Other things a minister has to keep in mind are the basics: people’s basic needs are likely going to have be met—food, water, shelter—these are the things people will be looking for in an event of a disaster, as Floyd points out in Chapter 12.
Leaders have to be found and appointed so that there is not chaos and disorder, with some people or groups trying to take command and others trying to exert…
Reverend Miller is a leader in the local Methodist community. As such, he serves as a role model and someone who is responsible for embodying the teachings of Christ as best he can. Yet Reverend Miller is also human, and therefore fallible. No church leader can be expected to be saint-like, removed from sin, or perfect. Yet all should ideally aim for high standards, for personal spiritual progress, and for ethical behavioral comportment. One of the main problem dynamics in this case is the conflict between Reverend’s obvious guilt evidenced in his need to confess to a friend, versus his seeming lack of remorse evidence by his admission that “over time, it didn’t feel so wrong anymore.” The Reverend also does not say that he plans on changing his behavior, even though it can be assumed that he would prefer not to be a pornography addict because of…
“Book of Resolutions: Pornography and Sexual Violence,” (n.d.). United Methodist Church. http://www.umc.org/what-we-believe/pornography-and-sexual-violence
“Social Principles: The Nurturing Community,” (n.d.). United Methodist Church. http://www.umc.org/what-we-believe/the-nurturing-community
The Seventh Day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination that observes the Sabbath (a holy day of rest) on Saturdays (like Jews) rather than on Sundays (like most other Christians). The group focuses especially on the Second Coming of Christ, which they believed would be imminent and would result in the faithful being taken to the Promised Land. Like other Protestant groups, they hold firm to the idea that Scripture is infallible, that there are Three Divine Persons in the Holy Trinity, and that there will be a resurrection. This paper will discuss the beliefs, hopes, traditions, etc. of the Seventh Day Adventists.
The Church was formed in Maryland in 1800s but it has since become international with over 20 million members worldwide. They have 28 Fundamental Beliefs, which are similar to Trinitarian Protestantism and include belief in justification by faith alone, baptism by immersion, and a literal interpretation…
This paper looks at the organizational structure of the early Christian communities and highlights the ways in which mission and vision played central guiding roles in the maintenance of these communities. It also shows how these communities had clear leaders and how the morale of the communities was supported through the celebration and honoring of the martyrs, whose relics were preserved in shrines. The paper then explains how these principles can be applied to an organization today.
Organizational structure is something every organization must address in order to maximize its power and reach its potential. The organization that lacks definition and order will likely be one that fails. The early Church communities provide an example of how an organization can succeed even in the face of a hostile environment. By analyzing the structure of these communities, one can see how mission, vision, networking and leadership all helped to…
While modern biblical researchers such as Bart Ehrman have contended that textual reliability of the New Testament is absent under close historical analysis,[footnoteRef:2] other scholars such as Michael Kruger have resisted the argument and shown that the New Testament contains textual integrity and reliability from start to finish.[footnoteRef:3] This paper argues that those who doubt the textual reliability of the New Testament are doing so from the standpoint of conjecture and subjective critique rather than from the standpoint of both logical inference and deduction. This topic is relevant for today’s world because it affects the question of faith and whether it can be possible. Faith should rest upon reason—but if one believes that the text of the New Testament is unreliable one has no reason to believe in its message of redemption. On the other hand, if one can show that the New Testament has textual reliability, one can…
The Beguines: The Intersection of Gender and Heresy in the Church
The Beguines may not be a household term, but this all-female religious movement of the thirteenth century left an indelible stamp on European and Church history. Beguine philosophy, theology, and religious practice are all quintessentially mystical, with an emphasis on personal encounters with God and overt displays of religious experience taking place outside of the dominant Church monastic order. The writings of key figures in the movement like Hadewijch and Marguerite Porète reveal the independent spirit that epitomizes the Beguine way of life. Arguably, the Beguine’s greatest contributions may be towards the illumination of gender roles and norms in European society. Because the Beguines eschewed neither asceticism nor family life entirely, their liminal status presented a threat to the rigid dogma that dominated Church discourse throughout the Middle Ages. The Beguines were primarily active in the Low Countries: mainly…
“The Beguines.” https://www2.kenyon.edu/projects/margin/beguines.htm
Coleman, John A. “When They Began the Beguines.” America: The Jesuit Review. 8 Nov, 2011. https://www.americamagazine.org/content/all-things/when-they-began-beguines
Gui, Bernard. Inquisitor’s Manual. Burr, David (Trans.). https://www2.kenyon.edu/projects/margin/inquisit.htm
Hadewijch. “You Who Want...” Hirschfield, Jane (Trans.). https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/48704/you-who-want-
Knuth, Elizabeth T. “The Beguines.” Dec, 1992, http://www.users.csbsju.edu/~eknuth/xpxx/beguines.html
Porète, Marguerite. The Mirror of Simple Souls. Duncan, Bonnie (Trans.). Excerpt online: https://www2.kenyon.edu/projects/margin/porete8.htm
Raber, Jean Hughes. “The Wisdom of the Beguines.” Commonweal. 29 July, 2015, https://www.commonwealmagazine.org/wisdom-beguines
“Who Were the Beguines?” The Economist. 13 May, 2013, https://www.economist.com/the-economist-explains/2013/05/12/who-were-the-beguines
Oral Exam: Sacrament of Healing
The biblical basis for the sacrament of penance is: “Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained (John 20:22-23).
The theological basis for the sacrament of penance is that it is a means of regaining grace and justice for those who had defiled their souls through mortal sin. Prior to the coming of Christ the Lord, penance was not a sacrament, nor is it a sacrament for the unbaptized. However, after rising from the dead, Christ breathed on the Apostles and sent them the Holy Ghost and gave them the power to forgive sins in the name of Jesus with the direct purpose of reconciling those among the faithful who had fallen into a state of sin since their Baptism. Such has been the teaching of the Church since…
Reflection Summary: Preaching that Changes Lives by Mike Fabarez (2005)
Because the weekly sermon is typically the most visible and by far the most common interaction that most congregants have with their church, developing an acute sense of what sermons should communicate and how they should be framed represents an essential need for all who would seek to inspire others and help them change their lives in meaningful ways. This need and how to address it are described and discussed in Mike Fabarez’s text, Preaching that Changes Lives, together with a number of useful empirical observations and insights that can help guide the process. This reflection summary provides a chapter-by-chapter summary of this book followed by a statement concerning what was learned and how this learning is applicable to the author’s life and ministry.
Part I – Rethink Your Task
1. Understand the life-changing power of preaching. As the title…
The work that will be the focus of the monks’ lives, according to the Cluny foundation charter, is the work of the rule of St. Benedict. The monks were to pray, perform “works of mercy toward the poor, the needy, strangers, and pilgrims.”[footnoteRef:1] Who would benefit from it, of course, would be the monks themselves, the Church as a whole, those who would receive the attentions of the monks, as well as William and his wife (who donated the land) and their families. William notes several times that he is donating the land because he is wealthy and it is good for the wealthy to care for others and to give to the Church. He asserts that he is donating it because he wants to reap a portion of the rewards of those monks who, despising the world, are able to give their lives to the everlasting and obtain mercies…
“The Foundation Charter of Cluny” in Readings in Medieval History, 5th Ed. (ed. by
Patrick Geary), Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2016.
Religious Trend and Religious Sensitivity
It is surprising to note that religious trends in the US have been on the decline in the past couple of years. People are losing their faith and when children move out of their parents' homes they tend to stop going to church. This indicates that the children did not have a strong belief as their parents. With the changing lifestyles and job situation, young people do not have the time to go to church and they do not create the time for church. Also, there is an increasing number of young adults in the US who identify as Atheists since they do not ascribe to a particular religion.
One must be sensitive to other religious beliefs and practices. Some people hold dearly to their religion and tradition and one should respect that. While some religions might seem odd in the way they do things…
The Nature of Power
Military, political and religious power was extremely influential in determining the events of the world at the time of Jesus. Essentially, those manifestations of power were the might that determined the shape, form, and nature of the world in terms of its social order. Those who had religious power were able to assert their sway over others to gain personal and public benefits. The same concept is applicable to men with military power as well as political power. Oftentimes during the epoch in which Jesus lived, religious power earned one political power, which in turn was reinforced by the might of the military.
The ministry and environment of Jesus was at odds with the political power of his day. In this regard, Herod the Great was something of an antipode to Jesus in terms of the varying forms of power. Herod’s power came from the military…
Pope Francis (2017). Pope Francis’ daily homily.
44). Moreover, religious expressions that take place in public forums on campus should not discriminate against or favor any religion. Governments can be involved with religion if a religious organization violates constitutional rights.
2.What is the distinction between public and private institutions?
Public institutions are bound by the law to refrain from endorsing "religion over nonreligion" or to support "one religion over another" (p. 43). Private institutions are not, insofar as those institutions are willing to deny federal funding. Similarly, private institutions are not fully bound to uphold all federal laws: "public institutions and their officers are fully subject to the constraints of the federal Constitution, whereas private institutions and their officers are not," (p. 32). Public institutions are by definition disallowed to endorse a religious doctrine. Private institutions have a large degree of leeway in their organizational activities and in many cases are permitted to practice…
According to the institutional authority of the Catholic Church, individuals must accept certain principles, go through certain orientation and membership procedures (such as confirmation and confession), and submit to certain authorities, such as priests, bishops, and the Pope.
Give a meaning of sacrament as it applies to church.
Sacraments in the context of a worship community are often defined as the invisible made visible, or how the divine makes itself physically manifest on earth. The most obvious symbol of this is transubstantiation in the Catholic Mass, where God is made present in the form of the host, through the ritual process evident during the ceremony. In other Christian traditions, such as Quakerism, the spirit may be spontaneously present during a communal and nonhierarchical worship ceremony, when it moves ordinary believers to speak. The church during the context of any worship ceremony is supposed to provide a unique space and time…
Church Plan on Sex Abuse, by Marguerite Michaels. Specifically, it will argue against the plan.
ecently, the oman Catholic bishops of the United States formulated and adopted a new plan regarding sexual abuse by Catholic priests. Briefly, the plan says that if a priest is accused of sexual abuse, a board of at least one priest and lay Catholics will advise the local bishop in private if there is "sufficient evidence" of abuse. This is not acceptable practice, for the board may, and probably will be prejudiced toward the priest, and against the victim, especially if the board is made up of local members of the parish. The board, if it exists at all, should be made up of disinterested third parties, and members of parishes that are far enough away so as not to bring prejudices to the board. In other words, it should be an impartial…
Michaels, Marguerite. "A Church Plan on Sex Abuse." Time. 25 Nov. 2002.
Wade, Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pa v. Casey; Stenberg v. Carhart, where the courts, with public concurrence, have debated the question of whether or not a partially birth child is indeed a person whose right to live should be challenged.
The separation of powers should have prevented the courts from taking on the moral question of abortion. The elected representatives should have been responsible for legislating laws that would govern the protection of human life. That the courts and the public has arrived at this point in time where the Supreme Court must decide the issue of whether or not it is acceptable to terminate a partially birthed life is unthinkable. Abortion is not a matter of Constitutionality, but a moral one, and one that does not belong before the Supreme Court.
Fields, Suzanne. "Barbie Gets Busted." The Washington Times 2 Dec. 1996: 17. Questia. 22 May 2007…
Norrander, Barbara, and Clyde Wilcox. "Public Opinion and Policymaking in the States: The Case of Post-Roe Abortion Policy." Policy Studies Journal 27.4 (1999): 707. Questia. 22 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001889368 .
Randolph, a. Raymond. "Before Roe V. Wade: Judge Friendly's Draft Abortion Opinion." Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 29.3 (2006): 1035+. Questia. 22 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015545898 .
church, where there is a charitable organization that I occasionally do volunteer work for. The second is a small business, a local family-run restaurant. These two organizations will provide a sufficient amount of contrast so that I can compare them in my research. The volunteer group has only three or four key members and the rest are just volunteers. The restaurant is basically run by the husband and wife, with their kids and a couple of employees. As I understand these organizations, they both have just a couple of people who make most of the decisions. From what I have seen at the volunteer group, it is more organization by committee among the leaders and things are very collaborative. If there is a final decision-maker I would not now at this point. The restaurant tends to be either the husband or wife making the decisions, depending on what the decision…
Akdere, M., & Azevedo, R.E. (2006). Agency theory implications for efficient contracts in organization development. Organization Development Journal, 24(2), 43 -- 54. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/197993598?accountid=144789
Altrichter, H., Kemmis, S., McTaggart, R., & Zuber-Skerritt, O. (2002). The concept of action research. The Learning Organization, 9(3), 125. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/215659917?accountid=144789
Stephens, J., Barton, J., & Haslett, T. (2009). Action research: Its history and relationship to scientific methodology. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 22(6), 463 -- 474.
The Bible implores young people to be leaders in their spiritual communities, for youth can be the pallbearers of faith. "Don't let anyone look down on you because you are young, but set an example for the believers in speech, in conduct, in love, in faith and in purity," (1 Timothy 4:12). For a church to remain relevant for today's youth, it must actively communicate with young people using the symbols, language, and activities that the current generation appreciates and understands. The challenge is to retain core church values while still packaging traditional Biblical truths in new ways. In other words, churches need to be careful not to sacrifice core values, but to always help young people see how faith and service are important parts of spiritual growth, social functioning, and overall health and happiness.
The church I currently attend does a good job of keeping young people active…
Huizenga, D. (n.d.). Is church relevant? Ignite Your Faith. Retrieved online: http://www.christianitytoday.com/iyf/faithandlife/mylifeinyouthgroup/25.18.html
Taylor, J. (n.d.). Top ten reasons the church is losing our youth. Justin Taylor: Between Two Worlds. Retrieved online: http://thegospelcoalition.org/blogs/justintaylor/2013/02/11/top-10-reasons-the-church-is-losing-our-youth/
"Why Young Adults are Leaving the Church." Relevant Magazine. Retrieved online: http://www.relevantmagazine.com/god/church/features/27595-why-young-adults-are-leaving-the-church
CHUCH'S ESPONSIBILITY TO POVETY
The Church's esponsibility to Poverty
The Church's esponsibility to Poverty
The Christian church has a long history of involvement in social issues. The paper discusses what, if any, is the Christian church's responsibility regarding the elimination of poverty and the combating of unjust economic systems. There are many figures throughout Christian history who are known for their generosity and compassion for the poor, most namely Jesus Christ of Nazareth, as well as a number of saints and other notable figures. Therefore, a sense of responsibility toward the poor is a long tradition within Christian culture and in some ways, fundamental to the Christian spirit of giving, and assisting those less fortunate. The paper argues not necessarily that the Christian church has a special role in the combating of poverty, but that it is definitively has a role, which is closely linked to fundamental elements of…
Church Action on Poverty. What We Do. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.church-poverty.org.uk/what-we-do . 2012 October 08.
Christian Churches Together. Statement on Poverty. 2012, Web, Available from: http://christianchurchestogether.org/statement-on-poverty/. 2012 October 08.
Galli, Mark. The Best Ways to Fight Poverty -- Really. 2012, Christianity Today, Web, Available from: http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2012/february/best-ways-to-fight-poverty.html . 2012 October 08.
Churches and Black Community
The role played by Black fraternal organizations in the creation of a much bigger "social network" that was very important for the Black communities in the North was hugely significant. The Black church was just as significant in the North as were the churches in the South. Besides the emotional input achieved by the Black churches, they were also cultural, political and social centers. They supported glee clubs and choral groups and protested against slavery and temperance (Pessen 46).
Northern free Blacks were much better placed to make significant advancements in their own lives both economically and education wise than their counterparts in the South. hile the ones in the South were fighting for more freedom, the Northern Blacks had more liberties and were gaining from them in the form of educational attainment and personal empowerment. During the period, Black education was largely ignored by the…
Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985. Print.
Hamilton, Shirley. "African-American Women Roles In The Baptist Church: Equality Within the National Baptist Convention, USA." (2009).
"Women's History." Chicago Metro: History Education Center. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
"The Black Church: a Brief History. "The Black Church," a Brief History.Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
Their primary duty is that of guiding the spiritual and religious aspects of the lives of their community members. They should give the highest priority to their duties towards the community including church service, counseling and other ceremonial functions required by their profession. As part of their professional and ethical duties, pastors are also required to show an interest in community development and increase their participation in community activities. This has become a necessity in modern culture because people expect institutions to take an interest and an active role in the community development efforts. Institutions cannot expect to benefit from the resources of the society and not give back. This is why business organizations, universities and even political parties make community development a part of their organization's commitment to the society and the people they serve. eligious institutions like the church are also expected to follow this example. The pastor,…
Arnold, W.V. (1982). Introduction to Pastoral Care. Westminster John Knox Press.
Bush, J.E. (2006). Gentle Shepherding: Pastoral Ethics and Leadership. Chalice Press.
Gula, R.M. (1996). Ethics in Pastoral Ministry. Paulist Press.
Hewart-Mills, D. (2011). Pastoral Ministry. Xulon Press.
Jesus learn from John the Baptist? How is the movement of Jesus different from John's?
According to Rausch, John the Baptist is "clearly a historical figure" who was not necessarily preaching anything new or revelatory (p. 1). John the Baptist works within the prophetic tradition and his teachings were rooted in Jewish Old Testament philosophy, eschatology, and theology. When Jesus went to see and meet with John the Baptist, the event "changed his life," according to Rausch (p. 4). John the Baptist may have so strongly influenced and impacted the young Jesus because of the content of his teachings: the emphasis on impending judgment and/or doom for a sinful and unrepentant humanity. Rausch also claims that there is historical and textual evidence linking Jesus's own ministry with the teachings of John. There are five main similarities between the core elements of John's teachings and Jesus's preaching, according to Rausch. The…
Did the Crusades advance the cause of Christ?
According to a digitized volume originally published in 1864 by Partridge and Company, the Crusades were instigated chiefly by "the most superstitious and fanatical notions"; and these "soldiers of Jesus…carried destruction to those who knew him not. Is this the spirit of Christ or of his holy gospel? Is it not rather the spirit of Mahomet…" whose propaganda was always 'the sword or the Koran" (Meliora, p. 15). Simon de Montfort, the Duke of Burgundy, executed his task "…with relentless cruelty, ravaged the country, burned the houses, massacred all the people, whether Romanists on not" and inflicted the "most revolting indignities…upon the weak and helpless" (Meliora, 15).
Answering the question for this portion of the paper, Meliora states, "To Christianity as a religion the Crusades did much evil" because the Christian Church "…sank more deeply into superstition; the clergy into ignorance; and…
Crawford, Paul F. 2011. Four Myths About the Crusades. The Intercollegiate Review 46
McCannon, John. Barron's AP World History, 2010. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational
In 1846, Young led the church to the Great Salt Lake in Utah, where they established Salt Lake City, yet tensions continued between the settlers and the Federal Government (Church Pp). The Edmunds Act of 1882 countered the Mormon's practice of polygamy, a practice that had prevented Utah being recognized as a state (Church Pp). In 1890 a revelation from God changed church beliefs and practices when the fourth Church president, ilford oodruff, issued the Great Accommodation, which basically banned plural marriages and in 1896, Utah became a state (Church Pp).
During the 20th century, the Church maintained a dominant role in Utah and as of mid-2001, the Governor and all Federal senators, representatives and members of the Supreme Court are all Mormon (Church Pp). During the 1970's the Church received political and economic pressure concerning its institutionalized racism, which prevented males of black ancestry from ordination, thus, the Church…
The History of the Church. http://www.lds.org/churchhistory/history
Church History. http://www.religioustolerance.org/lds_hist.htm
Latter-day Saints, Church of Jesus Christ of. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition;
There are some generalizations from the survey that are useful in the sense that they offer solid social reasons why pastors should be in touch with today's unmarried parents, in order to provide services for them outside their attendance for Sunday sermons: one, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to live below the poverty line as married parents"; two, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to have dropped out of school as married parents"; three, unmarried parents are "twice as likely" to have reported being in some degree of trouble with alcohol or with illegal drugs; four, unmarried parents "are younger than married parents" by an average of 7 years; and five, forty-three percent of unmarried mothers "have children with at least two men," while just 15% of married mothers "have children with different fathers."
In conclusion, Parke writes that the data from the research helps to dispel the myth…
Baldwin, Lewis. 2003. Revisiting the 'All-Comprehending Institution': Historical
Reflections on the Public Roles of Black Churches, in New Day Begun: African-
American Churches and Civic Culture in Post-Civil Rights America. Durham, NC:
Billingsley, Andrew. 1992. Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The Enduring Legacy of African-
However, Henry VIII was still insistent at that time on Catholicism in everything except loyalty to the Pope. The Pope had named Henry VIII a Defender of the Faith for the opposition that Henry had to Martin Luther, and Henry's theology did not change any because of his rejection of the authority of the Pope.
Thomas Cranmer and some or the other leaders of the Church, however, decided that there was a need to reform what they considered to be the heresies that had developed. Especially important to them were a liturgy and a ible that was printed in English. In addition to this, they also wanted to do away with some of the beliefs and practices that the Catholic Church had and that they believed did not fit in with Scripture, such as veneration of saints, celibacy for the clergy, and Purgatory. Their desire by accomplishing these things was…
Becker, Carl Lotus. Beginnings of the American People. (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1915).
De Molen, Richard, L. ed., Leaders of the Reformation (Selinsgrove: Susquehanna University Press, 1984)
King, John N. English Reformation Literature. The Tudor Origins of the Protestant Tradition (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982)
Luther, Martin. Ninety-Five Theses (Internet: www.bartleby.com,1517)
Disparity of Targeted Funding in the Black Urban Community
There are many ways to get funding for different types of projects, no matter where a person or organization is located. Some of the areas most in need of funding for projects are in black, urban communities (Barnes, 2005; Day, 2002; Haight, 1998; Patillo-McCoy, 1998). Money is often scarce there, and without funding there are few programs that can help people who really need it. This puts these residents at a distinct disadvantage, and makes it more difficult for them to get out of poverty and build better lives for themselves. No matter what types of programs need funding and financial help, there are different ways in which getting that funding can be considered.
Church congregations often help raise money for community projects, but there are other ways in which these congregations can help those in need (Billingsley, 1999; Brown &…
Barnes, S.L. (2005). Black church culture and community action. Social Forces, 84(2): 967-994.
Billingsley, A. (1999). Mighty like a river: The black church and social reform. NY: Oxford University Press.
Brown, R.K., & Brown, R.E. (2003). Faith and works: Church-based social capital resources and African-American political activism. Social Forces, 82(2): 617-641.
Calhoun-Brown, A. (1996). African-American churches and political mobilization: The psychological impact of organizational resources. The Journal of Politics, 58(4): 935-953.
Julius Caesar stood at the commencement of the Roman empire, so did Constantine stand at the end of the Roman empire. Remarkably, there are still the historical landmarks that helped define the contemporary Christianity and its spread in the earlier decades. In Rome, the Milvian Bridgestill stands over the murky waters of Tiber River, it is upon these grounds that the battle that would be a critical milestone in the unfolding of European and Christian civilization. The factual records that were written almost 1700 years ago are still accessible in the libraries and the information on Constantine can still be objectively analyzed and used to tell the expansion trend of the early church and the relationship that there is between Christianity and the state.
Constantine rule and the influence on the church expansion
Historically, Diocletian, who was the last great prosecutor of the church managed to reform the administration of…
As great as it is to have one thing that everyone shares, it's even better to have more than one to relate to. I think that makes people take their faith even more seriously.
I absolutely believe that misconceptions about people's beliefs are common. Protestants believe Catholics worship idols; Christians believe pagans worship demons and dance naked in the woods; believers think atheists are horrible, immoral people. From what I remember in history, part of the reason the Catholic Church was able to pull off the Crusades was by painting the non-Christians as evildoers who ate babies. hy does it happen? Because as human beings, we want to believe that we have a good deal on the afterlife. And I also think people often just want to think of themselves as "better" than others.
To fix this, I think people should be more willing to discuss their faith with others.…
A Dictionary of Orthodox Terminology - Part 2 -- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. (n.d.).
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Retrieved August 29, 2011, from http://www.goarch.org/ourfaith/ourfaith9152
No Author, Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches, National Council of Churches, 2000.
No Author. (1914). About Ascension Cathedral: Ascension Cathedral. Ascension Cathedral. Retrieved August 29, 2011, from http://www.groca.org/?page_id=334
The modern Anglican Church is more specifically referred to as the Anglican Communion. It is an international association of national and regional Anglican Church, so instead of there being a single "Anglican" Church with universal authority and dominion over all Churches, each national or regional Church has full and complete autonomy. Historically, these Churches fall under full communion with the Church of England, or the Mother Church, and the specific titular head, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The status of "full communion" means, ideally that there is mutual agreement on several specific and basic doctrinal issues, and that full participation in each single Church's sacramental rubric is available and upheld by all Anglicans (The Anglican Communion Official Website, 2011).
Overall, the essential nature of the Anglican Communion is epitomized in the iblical passafe from John 1: This life is revealed, and we have seen it and testify to it,…
The Anglican Communion Official Website. (2011, March). Retrieved June 2011, from Anglicancommunion.org: http://www.anglicancommunion.org/
Anglicanorum Coetibus. (2009). Cited in Vatican.VA
Archbishop of York on being Anglican. (2011). The Church of England. Cited in:
The centralized church, "of circular or polygonal plan, with one large central space, usually with a dome overhead" became more popular in the Middle Ages. First came Romanesque and then Gothic churches, in the form of works such as Notre Dame and the Royal Abbey of Saint Denis ("Church," Encarta, 2009). The new church designs housed a congregation within their center halls and contained high, arching ceilings that seemed to reach upwards to God. They were "roofed with arching sheets of stone, the Romanesque with arches and vaults of semicircular form, the Gothic with pointed elements" ("Church," Encarta, 2009).
However, domes and Greek crosses continue to fascinate church architects: for example, Christopher ren, the designer of St. Paul's Cathedral created "a domed church of great openness designed in a restrained style that combines elements of Neoclassical, Gothic, and Baroque architecture," marrying older and daring conceptions from antiquity with Eastern-style domes…
"Church (building)." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. May 23, 2009.
Lendering, Jona. "Constantinople (Istanbul): Church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus." 2008.
Livius.org. 2008. May 23, 2009.
Scholars such as Gerhard Ruhbach argue that Eusebius was not even a political theologian as some have argued. Instead they assert that "Eusebius had no interest in politics for its own sake; his orientation to political developments was exclusively theological and ecclesiastical. Ruhbach found that Eusebius's attitude toward God's involvement in history was fundamentally shaped by the Bible, in particular, the Old Testament (Hollerich, 1990)."
This discussion has carefully discussed the accuracy of Eusebius's account of Church history. This review has revealed that Eusebius was a scholar who had a deep affection for the church. e found that although his writings are often believed to be disjointed and incoherent, his account can be received as accurate. e can also conclude that Eusebius was merely a man sharing his view of church history based on the Old Testament and his experiences. The accuracy of his account is no more problematic…
Schaff, Philip, and Henry Wace
Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church: Second Series. Trans.. Vol. 1. New York: Christian Literature Co., 1890.
Hollerich Michael J. Religion and Politics in the Writings of Eusebius: Reassessing the First "Court Theologian." Church History. Volume: 59. Issue: 3. Page Number: 309. 1990.
People of the parish won't know the difference." But the parishioners will know the difference if they wake up one morning and their church is closed; which many fear will be their fate.
If that happens many parishioners feel they would be lost without their church. Theresa Henry stated "I would be devastated if they closed this church. I found solitude coming here, it's helped me through hard times." Before anyone should panic however, Father Peter was quick to comment on the potential closing of Holy Cross Church stating "There's an ongoing planning process, it would be foolish to close down Holy Cross." He also attempted to raise moods by telling parishioners that there would be no decision any time soon and that a final decision won't be made for at least "two years."
Parishioners at Holy Cross Church in Times Square can read the writing on the wall and…
What changes will occur will be demographic and social. These changes will influence the way in which faith is practiced, but not the faith itself. The faith remains. This can be compared with the current trend of the Global Church as well. Christians from across the world are joining this Church under the unifying umbrella of their faith. Culturally, this means the integration of a wide variety of cultures and denominations. These differences no longer cause division, since the unifying factor, faith, is stronger. Allen seems to imply the same in his work. The faith that makes the Catholic Church remains its foundation. In the Global Church, the same thing occurs on a wider scale. The Christian faith remains unchanged, although the way in which this faith is expressed and integrated undergoes some changes.
What Lewis seems to be describing is a type of uniform Christian society, free…
It is commonly believed that the country of England was a solely Catholic nation until Henry VIII's abrupt break from Catholicism so that they might marry Anne Boleyn. The king was already married and under Catholic law, the only way to end a marriage was through the death of a spouse or through annulment. Henry attempted to annul his first marriage, but the presence of a daughter Mary, showed that his claims that the marriage went unconsummated proved to be completely false. The Catholic Church refused to grant Henry a divorce and vowed to excommunicate him from the church if he went through with it (Dixon 1878,-page 3). In retaliation, King Henry of England decided that, rather than have to obey a religious person in a position of power, he would break off from the Catholic Church entirely and place himself at the head of his new religion.…
Cody, David. (2011). "The Church of England." Retrieved from http://www.victorianweb.org/religion/denom1.html
Dixon, Richard (1878). History of the Church of England. Smith, Waterloo.
Patterson, Melville (1909). A History of the Church of England. Longmans, New York.
Spence-Jones, Henry (1897). The Church of England: A History for the People. Harvard.
Great Awakening: The eginning of Evangelicalism
The evangelicals started a new movement in the 1950s called new evangelicalism with a basis on human experiences that downplayed the role of doctrine and turned back on external church relations which in a way made it hard to differentiate evangelicalism from the mainstream Christendom. This movement has experienced several transformations since the Reformation from pietistic evangelism, fundamentalist evangelism, and classic evangelism to the more modern form known as evangelistic fundamentalism. Within the movement, the emergent church is increasingly growing to influence the postmodern culture. y advocating for diversity and pluralism, postmodernism in no way lays claim to any absolute principles in the new cultural dispensation. And so the new church primarily focuses on the younger generation. y attempting to reverse the church to the practices of the middle ages, it can only be possible to take a critical look at the spokespeople because…
1 Pettegrew, Larry D. "Evangelicism, Paradigms, and the Emerging Church." The Master's Seminary Journal, 2006: pp 159-175.
2 Gary Dorrien, The Remaking of Evangelical Theology (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox, 1998) pp 2-3.
3 Clark Pinnock, Most Moved Mover (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001) p 110.
4 Minkema, Kenneth J. "Jonathan Edwards in the Twentieth Century." Journal of the evangelical theological society, 2004: pp 659-87.