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Shepherd: Pastor, Elder, Overseer
The words elder, overseer, and pastor all describe the same authority of leadership within the universal church. However, since different denominations use these terms as though there are separate entities, the three offices are thought to have distinct meanings. Within the ultimate authority of the ible and the Scripture, the terms elder, overseer, and pastor overlap in meaning. Indeed, Apostles Paul and Peter continuously interchange the offices of elder and overseer with the gift of pastor or shepherd. From this, it is clear that -- for the people they minister to, for, and with -- pastors are intended to have oversight. Thus, it is possible to say with confidence that those who have the gift to pastor also hold the office of elder and overseer.
Table of Contents
Two Parallel Directions.
The Human Overseer.
Fitness to Lead.
Constable, T.L. (2010). Notes on Acts. Plano, TX: Sonic Light. Retrieved http://www.soniclight.com/
Cox, D.R. (2003). Pastor, bishop, and elder: What's the difference? [Web]. Retrieved http://davidcox.com.mx/usa/our_promo/pastorelderbishop_whats_the_difference.htm
Duffield, Guy P., and Nathaniel M. Van Cleave. Foundations of Pentecostal Theology. Los Angeles, CA: L.I.F.E. Bible College, 1983.
Elliott, John Hall. "Elders as leaders in 1 Peter and the early church." Currents In Theology And Mission 28, no. 6 (December 1, 2001): 549-559.
The Bible implores young people to be leaders in their spiritual communities, for youth can be the pallbearers of faith. "Don't let anyone look down on you because you are young, but set an example for the believers in speech, in conduct, in love, in faith and in purity," (1 Timothy 4:12). For a church to remain relevant for today's youth, it must actively communicate with young people using the symbols, language, and activities that the current generation appreciates and understands. The challenge is to retain core church values while still packaging traditional Biblical truths in new ways. In other words, churches need to be careful not to sacrifice core values, but to always help young people see how faith and service are important parts of spiritual growth, social functioning, and overall health and happiness.
The church I currently attend does a good job of keeping young people active…
Huizenga, D. (n.d.). Is church relevant? Ignite Your Faith. Retrieved online: http://www.christianitytoday.com/iyf/faithandlife/mylifeinyouthgroup/25.18.html
Taylor, J. (n.d.). Top ten reasons the church is losing our youth. Justin Taylor: Between Two Worlds. Retrieved online: http://thegospelcoalition.org/blogs/justintaylor/2013/02/11/top-10-reasons-the-church-is-losing-our-youth/
"Why Young Adults are Leaving the Church." Relevant Magazine. Retrieved online: http://www.relevantmagazine.com/god/church/features/27595-why-young-adults-are-leaving-the-church
There are some generalizations from the survey that are useful in the sense that they offer solid social reasons why pastors should be in touch with today's unmarried parents, in order to provide services for them outside their attendance for Sunday sermons: one, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to live below the poverty line as married parents"; two, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to have dropped out of school as married parents"; three, unmarried parents are "twice as likely" to have reported being in some degree of trouble with alcohol or with illegal drugs; four, unmarried parents "are younger than married parents" by an average of 7 years; and five, forty-three percent of unmarried mothers "have children with at least two men," while just 15% of married mothers "have children with different fathers."
In conclusion, Parke writes that the data from the research helps to dispel the myth…
Baldwin, Lewis. 2003. Revisiting the 'All-Comprehending Institution': Historical
Reflections on the Public Roles of Black Churches, in New Day Begun: African-
American Churches and Civic Culture in Post-Civil Rights America. Durham, NC:
Billingsley, Andrew. 1992. Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The Enduring Legacy of African-
Their primary duty is that of guiding the spiritual and religious aspects of the lives of their community members. They should give the highest priority to their duties towards the community including church service, counseling and other ceremonial functions required by their profession. As part of their professional and ethical duties, pastors are also required to show an interest in community development and increase their participation in community activities. This has become a necessity in modern culture because people expect institutions to take an interest and an active role in the community development efforts. Institutions cannot expect to benefit from the resources of the society and not give back. This is why business organizations, universities and even political parties make community development a part of their organization's commitment to the society and the people they serve. eligious institutions like the church are also expected to follow this example. The pastor,…
Arnold, W.V. (1982). Introduction to Pastoral Care. Westminster John Knox Press.
Bush, J.E. (2006). Gentle Shepherding: Pastoral Ethics and Leadership. Chalice Press.
Gula, R.M. (1996). Ethics in Pastoral Ministry. Paulist Press.
Hewart-Mills, D. (2011). Pastoral Ministry. Xulon Press.
However, Henry VIII was still insistent at that time on Catholicism in everything except loyalty to the Pope. The Pope had named Henry VIII a Defender of the Faith for the opposition that Henry had to Martin Luther, and Henry's theology did not change any because of his rejection of the authority of the Pope.
Thomas Cranmer and some or the other leaders of the Church, however, decided that there was a need to reform what they considered to be the heresies that had developed. Especially important to them were a liturgy and a ible that was printed in English. In addition to this, they also wanted to do away with some of the beliefs and practices that the Catholic Church had and that they believed did not fit in with Scripture, such as veneration of saints, celibacy for the clergy, and Purgatory. Their desire by accomplishing these things was…
Becker, Carl Lotus. Beginnings of the American People. (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1915).
De Molen, Richard, L. ed., Leaders of the Reformation (Selinsgrove: Susquehanna University Press, 1984)
King, John N. English Reformation Literature. The Tudor Origins of the Protestant Tradition (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982)
Luther, Martin. Ninety-Five Theses (Internet: www.bartleby.com,1517)
In 1846, Young led the church to the Great Salt Lake in Utah, where they established Salt Lake City, yet tensions continued between the settlers and the Federal Government (Church Pp). The Edmunds Act of 1882 countered the Mormon's practice of polygamy, a practice that had prevented Utah being recognized as a state (Church Pp). In 1890 a revelation from God changed church beliefs and practices when the fourth Church president, ilford oodruff, issued the Great Accommodation, which basically banned plural marriages and in 1896, Utah became a state (Church Pp).
During the 20th century, the Church maintained a dominant role in Utah and as of mid-2001, the Governor and all Federal senators, representatives and members of the Supreme Court are all Mormon (Church Pp). During the 1970's the Church received political and economic pressure concerning its institutionalized racism, which prevented males of black ancestry from ordination, thus, the Church…
The History of the Church. http://www.lds.org/churchhistory/history
Church History. http://www.religioustolerance.org/lds_hist.htm
Latter-day Saints, Church of Jesus Christ of. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition;
Johnson (1992) lists four theological themes present in the book of Acts: the Holy Spirit, the life of the church, the discernment of god’s activity, and universality. The same four themes are present in the life and ministry of Jesus in Luke’s Gospel. Moreover, these are the four main themes that would become the bedrock of the early church itself. According to Johnson (1992), being able to recognize these themes not only enrich the reader’s understanding of the gospel, but also reveals the “consistent religious preoccupations that might not be obvious on the surface of his storytelling,” (p. 14). These consistent religious preoccupations remain the cornerstones of Christianity.
The first theme is the Holy Spirit. So crucial is this theme Johnson claims that the book of Acts can even be considered the “Book of the Holy Spirit,” (p. 14). Luke refers to the “dramatic outpouring” of God, of course in…
It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.
In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.
1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?
2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?
3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?
4. How has the black church served…
Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/aaron.html#p6
Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,
2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/adams/adams.html#adams6
Recruitment and Training of Religious Ministry
Theology, a definition. What does it take to recruit and train qualified members of the ministry today?
Description of Message: A hands-on approach that encourages growth of mind and spirit will provide lay people with a well-rounded vision and the knowledge absolutely necessary to be successful in the church. No two-year or four-year academic program alone can provide lay people with the insight they need to be successful ministers.
Interpretation of Results
Modern Day Society: Statistics Related to Religious Affinity
How to spot prospective church leaders
Criticism: How valid are such studies as mentioned above that measure the religious affiliation of the nation? It certainly seems a valid notion that the religious identity of the nation is certainly scattered, perhaps as scattered as the non-homogenous population. However, throughout time people were faced with cultural variety and managed to find truth…
Capps, Walter H. (1972). "The Ways of Understanding Religion." New York: Macmillan.
Hexham, Irving. (2003). "Concise Dictionary of Religion." Vancouver: Regent Press.
Kosmin, Barry. Egon, Mayer. (2003). "American Religious Identification Survey." Accessed February 25, 2003 at http://www.gc.cuny.edu/studies/aris_index.htm
Melton, Gordon. Lewis, James R. (2003). "Religious Requirements and Practices of Certain Selected Groups: A Handbook for Chaplains."
Emotionally Healthy Church is a book about the importance of emotionally intelligent church leadership. A healthy Church depends on strong leaders who can introduce the congregation to Biblical principles and serve as role models in the community. Being disconnected with the emotional side of life is an unfortunate by-product of the modern world. Genuine discipleship involves a recognition and appreciation of the emotional components of spirituality. Emotional intelligence involves more than just empathy. It involves self-awareness as a pastor or church leader, with the express goal of eliminating sin and enhancing the power of prayer.
In The Emotionally Healthy Church, Scazzero (2010) provides an overview of why emotional health is important in a church, its leadership, and in a Christian community. The author also offers an emotional and spiritual inventory that can be used for church leaders to assess their current state, which can be useful in recognizing weaknesses and…
Scazzero, P. (2010). The Emotionally Healthy Church. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Evangelization is the mission of the Church. How is this expressed in your current parish/church community?
Evangelizing is the primary goal of the church: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,” (Matthew 28:19). “God’s salvific will is universal,” but it is also expressed through the Church (Galvin). The Church is the necessary human vehicle that transports and transmits the Word of God.
My current community is diverse but faithful. While there are differing opinions on the shape of evangelism, most believers would firmly agree that evangelism is one of the core functions of the Church. After all, we are entrusted with the duty of inspiring others to find Jesus, to retain their faith during times of spiritual crisis or doubt, and to deliver wayward souls to the peace they may find in…
Antioch Church: ecommendations for Change
"The more things change, the more they stay the same." This is a common adage in the world today. Nonetheless, it should also be recognized that change, in itself, is one of the most common business paradigms today. Businesses need to change in response to the environment and their customers. As soon as it becomes clear that a customer need or complaint is not addressed, change is required for such a business regardless of the nature of the goods or services offered at its premises. This is also, or perhaps most particularly, true of the church today. In an age where many are abandoning their faith in favor of more rational and scientific ideas, the church needs to revisit the way in which it provides its members and potential members with information and the opportunity to interact. Here, specific attention will be given to the…
Antioch Baptist Church (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.dontforgethim.org/
Gould, T.H.P. (2012). The Church and peer review: Was "peer" review fairer, more honest then than now? Retrieved from http://krex.ksu.edu
MKay, K., Kuntz, J.R.C. And Naswall, K. (2013). The effect of affective commitment: Communication and partiipatio on Resistence to Change: The role of Change Readiness.
Quast, L. (2013). Overcome the 5 main reasons People resist change. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/lisaquast/2012/11/26/overcome-the-5-main-reasons-people-resist-change/
The first four major Church Councils -- at Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus and Chalcedon -- set key definitions and foundations for the early Church. The First Council of Nicaea was held in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the First Council of Ephesus in 431, and the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Thus, in little more than a century and a quarter, the Church was able to address critical issues that were present among the faithful and answer questions regarding the Faith.
The First Council of Nicaea was convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine and it was called to address the issue of Arianism, which had arisen as a major heresy of the times. Arianism questioned the nature of Christ. Those in attendance included the bishops of the Church, such as Hosius of Cordova, Eusebius of Nicomedia, Eusebius of Caesarea and many others. In all it is…
church, where there is a charitable organization that I occasionally do volunteer work for. The second is a small business, a local family-run restaurant. These two organizations will provide a sufficient amount of contrast so that I can compare them in my research. The volunteer group has only three or four key members and the rest are just volunteers. The restaurant is basically run by the husband and wife, with their kids and a couple of employees. As I understand these organizations, they both have just a couple of people who make most of the decisions. From what I have seen at the volunteer group, it is more organization by committee among the leaders and things are very collaborative. If there is a final decision-maker I would not now at this point. The restaurant tends to be either the husband or wife making the decisions, depending on what the decision…
Akdere, M., & Azevedo, R.E. (2006). Agency theory implications for efficient contracts in organization development. Organization Development Journal, 24(2), 43 -- 54. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/197993598?accountid=144789
Altrichter, H., Kemmis, S., McTaggart, R., & Zuber-Skerritt, O. (2002). The concept of action research. The Learning Organization, 9(3), 125. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/215659917?accountid=144789
Stephens, J., Barton, J., & Haslett, T. (2009). Action research: Its history and relationship to scientific methodology. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 22(6), 463 -- 474.
CHUCH'S ESPONSIBILITY TO POVETY
The Church's esponsibility to Poverty
The Church's esponsibility to Poverty
The Christian church has a long history of involvement in social issues. The paper discusses what, if any, is the Christian church's responsibility regarding the elimination of poverty and the combating of unjust economic systems. There are many figures throughout Christian history who are known for their generosity and compassion for the poor, most namely Jesus Christ of Nazareth, as well as a number of saints and other notable figures. Therefore, a sense of responsibility toward the poor is a long tradition within Christian culture and in some ways, fundamental to the Christian spirit of giving, and assisting those less fortunate. The paper argues not necessarily that the Christian church has a special role in the combating of poverty, but that it is definitively has a role, which is closely linked to fundamental elements of…
Church Action on Poverty. What We Do. 2012, Web, Available from: http://www.church-poverty.org.uk/what-we-do . 2012 October 08.
Christian Churches Together. Statement on Poverty. 2012, Web, Available from: http://christianchurchestogether.org/statement-on-poverty/. 2012 October 08.
Galli, Mark. The Best Ways to Fight Poverty -- Really. 2012, Christianity Today, Web, Available from: http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2012/february/best-ways-to-fight-poverty.html . 2012 October 08.
Did the Crusades advance the cause of Christ?
According to a digitized volume originally published in 1864 by Partridge and Company, the Crusades were instigated chiefly by "the most superstitious and fanatical notions"; and these "soldiers of Jesus…carried destruction to those who knew him not. Is this the spirit of Christ or of his holy gospel? Is it not rather the spirit of Mahomet…" whose propaganda was always 'the sword or the Koran" (Meliora, p. 15). Simon de Montfort, the Duke of Burgundy, executed his task "…with relentless cruelty, ravaged the country, burned the houses, massacred all the people, whether Romanists on not" and inflicted the "most revolting indignities…upon the weak and helpless" (Meliora, 15).
Answering the question for this portion of the paper, Meliora states, "To Christianity as a religion the Crusades did much evil" because the Christian Church "…sank more deeply into superstition; the clergy into ignorance; and…
Crawford, Paul F. 2011. Four Myths About the Crusades. The Intercollegiate Review 46
McCannon, John. Barron's AP World History, 2010. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational
Disparity of Targeted Funding in the Black Urban Community
There are many ways to get funding for different types of projects, no matter where a person or organization is located. Some of the areas most in need of funding for projects are in black, urban communities (Barnes, 2005; Day, 2002; Haight, 1998; Patillo-McCoy, 1998). Money is often scarce there, and without funding there are few programs that can help people who really need it. This puts these residents at a distinct disadvantage, and makes it more difficult for them to get out of poverty and build better lives for themselves. No matter what types of programs need funding and financial help, there are different ways in which getting that funding can be considered.
Church congregations often help raise money for community projects, but there are other ways in which these congregations can help those in need (Billingsley, 1999; Brown &…
Barnes, S.L. (2005). Black church culture and community action. Social Forces, 84(2): 967-994.
Billingsley, A. (1999). Mighty like a river: The black church and social reform. NY: Oxford University Press.
Brown, R.K., & Brown, R.E. (2003). Faith and works: Church-based social capital resources and African-American political activism. Social Forces, 82(2): 617-641.
Calhoun-Brown, A. (1996). African-American churches and political mobilization: The psychological impact of organizational resources. The Journal of Politics, 58(4): 935-953.
United eform Church and allied religious institutions such as the Methodist Church in Britain have expressed concern over election results for the British National Party (BNP). In the June 2009 elections, the BNP garnered two European Parliament seats and three seats in local councils around the United Kingdom.
The Secretary for Church and Society for the United eformed Church, Frank Kantor remarked that "We must never become comfortable with the BNP using their position to promote racist policies. We will continue to their messages of hatred and fear. (United eform Church,)."
A lot of commentators predicted a BNP success largely due to the low voter turnout and political instability in the weeks leading up to the election. The results were however much lower that BNP estimates of the elections returns (ibid).
The Methodist Church's public issues policy adviser achel Lampard said that "The limited success of the BNP does not…
Taylor, Matthew. (2010). BNP leader Nick Griffin accused of lying over party's constitution. Available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/nov/08/nick-griffin-high-court-bnp . Last accessed 11th Nov 2010.
United Reform Church. (2009). Churches concern at BNP election gains. Available: http://www.urc.org.uk/news/2009/june/churches_concern_as_bnp_makes_election_gains .
The modern Anglican Church is more specifically referred to as the Anglican Communion. It is an international association of national and regional Anglican Church, so instead of there being a single "Anglican" Church with universal authority and dominion over all Churches, each national or regional Church has full and complete autonomy. Historically, these Churches fall under full communion with the Church of England, or the Mother Church, and the specific titular head, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The status of "full communion" means, ideally that there is mutual agreement on several specific and basic doctrinal issues, and that full participation in each single Church's sacramental rubric is available and upheld by all Anglicans (The Anglican Communion Official Website, 2011).
Overall, the essential nature of the Anglican Communion is epitomized in the iblical passafe from John 1: This life is revealed, and we have seen it and testify to it,…
The Anglican Communion Official Website. (2011, March). Retrieved June 2011, from Anglicancommunion.org: http://www.anglicancommunion.org/
Anglicanorum Coetibus. (2009). Cited in Vatican.VA
Archbishop of York on being Anglican. (2011). The Church of England. Cited in:
Julius Caesar stood at the commencement of the Roman empire, so did Constantine stand at the end of the Roman empire. Remarkably, there are still the historical landmarks that helped define the contemporary Christianity and its spread in the earlier decades. In Rome, the Milvian Bridgestill stands over the murky waters of Tiber River, it is upon these grounds that the battle that would be a critical milestone in the unfolding of European and Christian civilization. The factual records that were written almost 1700 years ago are still accessible in the libraries and the information on Constantine can still be objectively analyzed and used to tell the expansion trend of the early church and the relationship that there is between Christianity and the state.
Constantine rule and the influence on the church expansion
Historically, Diocletian, who was the last great prosecutor of the church managed to reform the administration of…
It is commonly believed that the country of England was a solely Catholic nation until Henry VIII's abrupt break from Catholicism so that they might marry Anne Boleyn. The king was already married and under Catholic law, the only way to end a marriage was through the death of a spouse or through annulment. Henry attempted to annul his first marriage, but the presence of a daughter Mary, showed that his claims that the marriage went unconsummated proved to be completely false. The Catholic Church refused to grant Henry a divorce and vowed to excommunicate him from the church if he went through with it (Dixon 1878,-page 3). In retaliation, King Henry of England decided that, rather than have to obey a religious person in a position of power, he would break off from the Catholic Church entirely and place himself at the head of his new religion.…
Cody, David. (2011). "The Church of England." Retrieved from http://www.victorianweb.org/religion/denom1.html
Dixon, Richard (1878). History of the Church of England. Smith, Waterloo.
Patterson, Melville (1909). A History of the Church of England. Longmans, New York.
Spence-Jones, Henry (1897). The Church of England: A History for the People. Harvard.
In addition, simply from observation, there were people from a vast array of lifestyles present. One way that was obvious was in the attire that people were wearing. Some were dressed in conservative clothing, while a few people were dressed in clothing that could almost be labeled "provocative." In addition, there was a couple who were clearly bikers. There were worshippers of all ages present, though the majority of people seemed to be middle-age or younger.
I can not even begin to estimate how many worshippers were present, but the former stadium was almost full to capacity, which means that there had to have been tens of thousands of worshippers there.
Like many worship services, the service began with music. However, there was no mere choir singing at Lakewood; although a choir did sing, the day also featured a performance by a Christian-music band and a singer whom appeared somewhat…
Great Awakening: The eginning of Evangelicalism
The evangelicals started a new movement in the 1950s called new evangelicalism with a basis on human experiences that downplayed the role of doctrine and turned back on external church relations which in a way made it hard to differentiate evangelicalism from the mainstream Christendom. This movement has experienced several transformations since the Reformation from pietistic evangelism, fundamentalist evangelism, and classic evangelism to the more modern form known as evangelistic fundamentalism. Within the movement, the emergent church is increasingly growing to influence the postmodern culture. y advocating for diversity and pluralism, postmodernism in no way lays claim to any absolute principles in the new cultural dispensation. And so the new church primarily focuses on the younger generation. y attempting to reverse the church to the practices of the middle ages, it can only be possible to take a critical look at the spokespeople because…
1 Pettegrew, Larry D. "Evangelicism, Paradigms, and the Emerging Church." The Master's Seminary Journal, 2006: pp 159-175.
2 Gary Dorrien, The Remaking of Evangelical Theology (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox, 1998) pp 2-3.
3 Clark Pinnock, Most Moved Mover (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001) p 110.
4 Minkema, Kenneth J. "Jonathan Edwards in the Twentieth Century." Journal of the evangelical theological society, 2004: pp 659-87.
Separation Church State
Study by NORC which was held at the University of Chicago reveals that although abruptly divided, people's attitudes towards homosexuals are changing swiftly, young generation leads the way. Hence there is greater acceptance and positivity. Majority of public is not just in favor of same-sex relationships and marriages but they do also support elementary civil liberties and independence of expression of homosexuals overwhelmingly. This fact goes totally in contrast to strident division on these concerns in the 1970s (Harms, 2011). However, author of the NORC report named "Public Attitudes toward Homosexuality" and director of the GSS at NORC, Tom . smith concluded from studies that there is a growing trend of greater tolerance towards homosexuality. The supporting level for same-sex marriages rose dramatically over the last 20 years. Percentage went from 11% positive in 1988 to 46% in 2010 after surveying more than 2000 people (Harms, 2011).…
Harms, William. UChicago News. 28 September 2011. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2011/09/28/americans-move-dramatically-toward-acceptance-homosexuality-survey-finds
Human Rights Campaign. 2012. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.hrc.org/resources/entry/stances-of-faiths-on-lgbt-issues-american-baptist-church-usa
Johann, Hari. The hidden history of homosexuality in the U.S. 22 June 2011. The Independent. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/johann-hari-the-hidden-history-of-homosexuality-in-the-us-2300636.html
Mohr, Richard D. A More Perfect Union. Boston, 1994
Cordeiro-Doing Church as a eam
By the very nature of culture and humanity, humans tend to be group animals -- they thrive in groups, coalesce into groups, indeed, the very process of moving from hunter-gatherer to cities was part of a group behavior. Within this essay we will first look at group normative behavior, intergroup communication and leadership, and finally the way in which group behaviors influence individuation and specific responses to that group's culture.
Group norms are defined as a set of internal rulings that are followed by the group members in order to increase the overall efficiency of the group's activity. hese norms usually refer to the members' behavior towards themselves, their hierarchical superior and group outsiders, as well as to their approach and attitude towards the work they are expected to perform. Norms determine the way in which groups solve problems, make decisions and do their work.…
Thus, a recurring theme throughout Doing Church as a Team, not only focuses on the very real nature that it is never an individual undertaking from the ordained clergy, but a combination of a set of goals that continue to evolve and change just as the needs of the individual. Quoting Psalms 27:11, Cordeiro notes, "Teach me Thy way, O Lord, and lead me in a level path." To be a true leader, to be a true effective member of a spiritual group, one must act in a manner that is not the frenzied approach of darting from one tasty blossom to another, but a considered and level effort -- much like the tortoise in the Aesop fable, with regular, steady progress -- and eyes on the goal. Only in this manner, can the ebb and flow of success and failure be mitigated and the true nature of the contemporary Christian be realized in an effective and advantageous manner.
Cordeiro, W. (2004). Doing Church as a Team. Ventura, CA: Gospel Light Publishing.
Church vs. State during the Middle Ages
Political Conflict between the Church and the State during the Middle Ages
Christianity is considered as one of the most dominant religions in the world, and has proliferated throughout the years, for as early as the 2nd century, initially established in Jerusalem. Although derived from the 'older' religion of Judaism, Christianity had greater appeal and popularity to the people because it is a new form of religion that seeks the same teachings and doctrines as Judaism, but utilizes both affirmation and fulfillment of its followers towards God.
Established in Jerusalem, Christianity quickly spread into Western civilization, and has pervaded the European society and culture by 9th century. Over the years, Christianity was inevitably ingrained into European society, and has become the dominant religion and political ideology of the Holy Roman Empire, political territory established by Charlemagne in 9th century over the central and…
Boniface VIII. (1302). Unam Sanctam. Accessed November 26, 2003. Internet Medieval Source Book Web site. Available at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/b8-unam.html .
Henderson, E. (1896). Letter of Gregory to Bishop Hermann Metz (1081). In Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages. Accessed November 26, 2003. Available at http://cas.memphis.edu/~jmblythe/3370/G7ToMetz1081.htm .
Robertson, J. (1904). Sketches of Church History: From AD 33 to Reformation. New York: Edwin S. Gorham.
Robinson, J. (Ed.). (1904). Readings in European History. New York: Ginn & Co.
Such movements, however, had a way of becoming victims of their own success, as Niebuhr argued. Insofar as they spoke to popular aspirations and needs, they attracted large followings, necessitating new structures and hierarchies. The sharp critiques of social injustice became muffled as devotees percolated up into the respectable classes. Enthusiasm waned, leaving liturgy and ritual to provide what spontaneity and spirit no longer could. Sects became churches. (Campbell 36)
Campbell syas that Methodism especially illustrates this idea beacsue this movement always possessed something of a divided soul:
On one hand, the early esleyan movement was an extraordinarily decentralized affair, that invested authority in an army of itinerant ministers and lay preachers, many with little formal religious training. On the other hand, Methodism retained a strong episcopal center that reigned supreme on questions of doctrine and discipline, finance, and ministerial appointment. The stresses implicit in this situation first became apparent…
AME Church Elects More Women Bishops." The Christian Century, Volume 121, Issue 15 (July 27, 2004), 18-19.
Black Methodist Churches Moving toward Union." The Christian Century, Volume 117, Issue 19 (June 21, 2000), 676.
Campbell, James T. Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States and South Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Carroll, Bert E. The Routledge Historial Atlas of Religion in America. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Robinson, Darrell W. (1997). Total church Life: How to be a first century church in a 21st century world. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Homan. The writer provides a summary of chapters two through twelve and then discusses what classification this book fits into. The writer completes the work with a one page reflection about the author's viewpoints with three leaders named who would agree with the author's views.
Info: 1. summarize the content of each chapter in one half page. Take only chapters 2 through 12
classify the book as to type and specialized field of study and critique it as if you were submitting a book review for a major journal - one and a half pages.
write a one-page reflective (judge, critique, assess) paper synthesizing the author's views with those of others in the field. Highlight three other leading thinkers in this discipine with whom this author can…
As a Christian reader of this book I found it to be extremely uplifting. As I went through the chapters and applied the author's suggestions in theory in several different settings it was easy to see that it can work. Robinson has taken away the hustle the bustle and the need to put on airs that has locked many churches into a vicious cycle lately, and it replaced it with the bottom line in the work of the Lord. This author has provided me and others with the ability to go back to basics and use this book as a foundational blueprint for success within a congregation. I believe if one takes this book and refuses to deviate from the step-by-step process that it provides the reader in the organization of a church and the growth of the congregation.
Robinson, Darrell W. (1997). Total church Life: How to be a first century church in a 21st century world. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Homan publishers.
Civil ights: The ole of Black Churches
The audience will understand the role that black churches played in the ongoing Civil ights Movement.
In this speech, I will show that black churches -- through methods of advocacy, spiritual leadership and active participation -- play a significant role in the ongoing Civil ights Movement that began in the mid-20th century and clearly continues on into today's times.
Everyone knows of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the important role he played in the Civil ights Movement. But how many people know about or realized that King was one of many black pastors to bring black churches into the Movement, providing leadership, spiritual nourishment, and advocacy to African-Americans struggling for equality? Or that black churches continue today to be part of that ongoing struggle? Just as black churches are making an impact in cities around the country where communities are torn by racial…
African-American Registry. (n.d.). The Black Churches: A Brief History. AARegistry.
Retrieved from http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/black-church-brief-history
Calhoun-Brown, A. (2000). Upon this rock: The black church, nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement. PS: Political Science and Politics, 33(2): 168-174.
Dagan, D. (2015). Black churches led the Civil Rights Movement. Can they do it again? The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/14/baltimore-black-churches-freddie-gray_n_7556560.html
Resistance meant affirming one's own cultural heritage, in this case an African-American or black heritage (Lincoln and Mamiya 15).
By the 1990s, the problems encountered and caused by young black students in public schools had become a national priority and among the initiatives proposed by black leader at the time was the establishment of special schools exclusively for young black males. The rationale for this educational initiative was that this would provide the possibility of concentrating exclusively on the learning potential, learning styles, and the learning and behavioral difficulties of these students in a more effective manner than can be done in the traditional coeducational interracial settings that were typically dominated by white and feminine cultures (Billingsley 107). According to this author, "It was an idea, simple and straightforward, that grew out of the best motivations to improve the performance of these boys. It seemed to have a great deal…
Billingsley, Andrew. Mighty like a River: The Black Church and Social Reform. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Billingsley, Andrew, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell, and Roger H. Rubin. (1994). "The Role of the Black Church in Working with Black Adolescents." Adolescence 29(114):251.
Buck, Pearl. The Good Earth. New York: Washington Square Press, 1931 (2004 ed.).
Frederick, Marla F. Between Sundays: Black Women and Everyday Struggles of Faith. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.
Christ Book Critique
Everett Ferguson's book Church History, Volume One: from Christ to Pre-Reformation explores the relationship between the church and secular historical events. Since the inception of the Christian religion, those in positions of leadership have utilized the faith in the religion to extend power to the followers, often coming into conflict with secular leaders such as kings and queens. The book covers an extended period of time and deals thoroughly with the various struggles of the Christian religion and specifically the Catholic Church. The book also explains the writing of the Christian Bible and explains the ways that the religion spread until it eventually became the most influential belief practice in the western world. In the text, the author makes several arguments regarding this dynamic which deal with specific periods in Christian history including the first rise of Christianity in the waning Roman Empire, the growth of the…
Everett Ferguson, Church History, Volume One: from Christ to Pre-Reformation: The Rise and Growth of the Church in its Cultural, Intellectual, and Political Context. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005)
Stenhouse demonstrates remarkable insight into the gender roles and norms that plural marriage entails. The marriage is qualitatively different than a monogamous one. As Stenhouse notes, the husband "aims to be looked upon more as a ruler than as the head of a family," (149). Flowers confirms Stenhouse's observations, "the practice of polygamy tended to instill in people the attitude of despotism or authoritarianism" (22). Polygamy also reveals a deep contradiction in Mormon philosophy. "The irony is that a gospel of universal brotherhood…is so marked on every hand by borders, boundaries, and radical difference" (Givens 295).
Polygamy in America has almost become synonymous with Mormonism. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has been at the center of a national debate that spanned the issues of religious freedom, federalism, and feminism. Plural marriage mirrored an unequal social structure that pervaded Mormon culture and indeed much of the culture of…
Flowers, Ronald Bruce. That Godless Court? Supreme Court Decisions on Church-State Relationships. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1989.
Givens, Terry L. People of Paradox: A History of Mormon Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Gordon, Sarah Barringer. The Mormon Question: Polygamy and Constitutional Conflict in Nineteenth Century America. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press.
Krakauer, Jon. Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith. Doubleday, 2003.
For example, to attend the temple, advance in the Priesthood, or serve a mission, individuals must adhere to the Law of Chastity (e.g., no premarital or extramarital sexual intimacy) and abstain from alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs. They are also required to promise to care for others, including both family and other church members. Similarly, all physically and emotionally capable young men between the ages of 18 and 27 are expected to serve missions and young women are invited to do so as well. While serving a mission, young people leave all individualistic pursuits (i.e., jobs, scholarships, dating relationships, etc.) behind for an extended period of time (i.e., 2 years or 18 months, for men and women, respectively). During this time they are engaged full time (all day, every day with no trips home to see family) in sharing their beliefs with others and engaging in service projects.
Barry, Carolyn Mcnamara, and Larry J. Nelson. "The Role of Religion in the Transition to Adulthood for Young Emerging Adults." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 34, no. 3 (2005): 245. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009936607 .
Coates, James. In Mormon Circles: Gentiles, Jack Mormons, and Latter-Day Saints. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100261702 .
Mangum, Garth, and Bruce Blumell. The Mormons' War on Poverty: A History of LDS Welfare, 1830-1990. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1993. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=3525193 .
Riley, Naomi. "God on the Quad: At Religious Colleges-Which Are Growing Fast-Student Life Is Different." The American Enterprise, March 2005, 22. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008837726 .
Pneumatologists and theologians have long sought to define the role of the Holy Spirit within the Christian faith. These scholars' understanding of the Spirit differs greatly, not only in terms of the role of the Holy Spirit, but also in terms of whether those roles are central to the Christian church (yrie, 1997). Even the base concept of the perception of the Spirit differs among scholars and religious leaders.
This paper discusses the various notions of the role of the Holy Spirit in the Christian Church, as expressed by modern theologians and pneumatologists. Additionally, this paper will discuss the differing views of whether those roles are central to the Church, or if they are to be applied on a more diverse level. Finally, this paper will discuss ways in which the Spirit is celebrated and displayed in the lives of those who believe.
To understand the role of the Holy…
Barres, C. 2004, 'Wonder working power', Heartlight magazine, [Online]. Available at http://www.heartlight.org/articles/200402/20040210_wonderpower.html .
Bednar, D. 2003, Mother's weekend welcome (transcript of March 21, 2003 Brigham Young University presentation for Women's Week). Brigham Young University, Rexburg, Idaho. Available at http://www.byui.edu/Presentations/Transcripts/WomensWeek/2003_03_21_Bednar.htm .
D'Ambrosio, M. 2003, 'The charisms of The Holy Spirit for service', Charisms of the Holy Spirit and the sacrament of confirmation, Crossroads Productions, Flower Mound, Texas.
Fanning, W. 1990, 'Baptism', in R. Broderick (ed.), The Catholic encyclopedia, revised and updated, Nelson Reference, New York.
defination of "elder" and "deacon," and the biblical requirements for each office. It then discusses whether a woman be an elder or a deacon. It concludes by outlining contributions women make to theology, leadership, and management in the local church.
The Role of omen in the Church
According to the New Testament, the elders are overseers who are charged with the responsibility of governing the church (New International Version, Acts.20.28). The Bible requires an elder to be one who is
"blameless, married to one wife, temperate, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, 3 not given to drunkenness, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money. 4 He must manage his own family well and see that his children obey him, and he must do so in a manner worthy of full respect. 5 (If anyone does not know how to manage his own family, how can he…
Hartford Institute for Religion Research. "Fast Facts." 2006. www.hirr.hartsem.edu. 22 April 2012.
James, Carolyn Custis. "Women Theologians: A Spiritual Goldmine for the Church." September 2005. www.sites.silaspartners.com. 22 April 2012.
New International Version Bible. Biblica. Biblica Inc., 1973.Online.
Both William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope mocked the times in which they lived in their respective works of literature: The Tempest and The Rape of the Lock. In using elements of the supernatural and pagan universes, these two authors make fun of Church authority, which was in decline during the Renaissance. Shakespeare and Pope portrayed monarchic power in a favorable light relative to their portrayal of the Church. In both The Tempest and in Rape of the Lock, supernatural beings influence royalty. Church authority is depicted as being weak and ineffective because of the inclusion of pagan elements. For example, in The Tempest, Prospero is the exiled Duke of Milan. Stranded on an island, he turns not to the divine authority of the Church but rather to occult powers: he manages to control and enslave a spirit-being named Ariel. Similarly, Belinda in The Rape of the Lock has a…
Transformational Women's Leadership
The website for Changing Minds.org describes transformational leadership in the standard way, as charismatic leaders with vision and imagination who inspire followers to achieve radical change in an organization or society. Transformational leaders are passionate and exciting and they care about their followers. They make people believe that their ideals can be achieved through their own commitment, enthusiasm and drive. In the process, their followers are also transformed and empowered to do things that they would never have believed possible. This website also points out some of the dangers of transformational leadership in that when such leaders are wrong they can lead "the charge right over the cliff and into a bottomless chasm." They may also "wear out" their followers with constant demands for high energy and commitment, especially if those at the lower levels really do not desire change (Transformational Leadership 2002-11)
Legacee.com has a very…
Goodman, D., ed. (2003). Marie Antoinette: Writings on the Body of a Queen. Routledge.
Lever, E. (2000). The Last Queen of France. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.
Plain, N. (2002). Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the French Revolution. Marshall Cavendish.
Price, M. (2004). The Road from Versailles: Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the Fall of the French Monarchy. NY: St. Martin's.
Malphurs, Aubrey. Advanced Strategic Planning: A new model for Church and Ministry Leaders ISBN-13:978-0801014550
In the latest edition of Malphurs's book Advanced Strategic Planning, the author remains consistently committed to the goal of helping ministers develop the most effective and successful ministries possible. Strategic planning refers to the large and diverse checklist of activities relevant during the development of a new ministry or during major structural or thematic changes to existing ones. Without a strategy or a roadmap, notes Malphurs, many churches are doomed to failure. The author walks the reader through the process of strategic planning from the pre-planning and visionary stages through to the pragmatic and logistical issues like fundraising and financial management, through the necessity for ongoing assessment. Although the book would be strengthened with additional sections on risk and crisis management, Malphurs does a good job with the material.
The strengths of the Malphurs book…
servant leadership has existed for a long time. It means a leader's main part is to serve others, particularly employees. However, this kind of leadership remains lacking in the business world, even in churches. With a few rare exceptions, like CEO William Pollard, who cleaned his spill of coffee from the floor, most leaders in the business world expect their employees to serve them. This leads to a feeling of inferiority and constant tension and stress in the workplace. While servant leadership remains as a concept and a behavior seen in some, it still remains a rare occurrence in today's modern world (Blanchard & Hodges, 2002).
Servant-leadership has existed for thousands of years. Lao-Tzu in 5th century BC about the term. "The highest type of ruler is one of whose existence the people are barely aware ... The Sage is self-effacing and scanty of words. When his task is accomplished…
Biddle, C. (2016). Individualism vs. Collectivism: Our Future, Our Choice - The Objective Standard. The Objective Standard. Retrieved 25 May 2016, from https://www.theobjectivestandard.com/issues/2012-spring/individualism-collectivism/
Blanchard, K. & Hodges, P. (2002). The servant leader. Nashville, Tenn.: J. Countryman.
Heskett, J. (2013). Why Isn't Servant Leadership More Prevalent? Forbes.com. Retrieved 25 May 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/hbsworkingknowledge/2013/05/01/why-isnt-servant-leadership-more-prevalent/#33bcd9ad4c36
As her meetings became increasingly well-attended (men and women participated) they also became controversial because she was teaching religious and spiritual values that bucked the system.
Those that supported her theories and her right to hold these twice-a-week meetings became polarized from those who questioned her right to go against traditional church teachings. If you questioned the Church, then you also questioned the State, Reuben explains. She was put on trial, accused of heresy and of doing acts that were "not fitting for her sex" (women were supposed to be subservient to men), and was banished from the Colony (Reuben, p. 4/6).
The challenges that Hutchinson put forward to the Church's fundamentally strict tenets through her preaching were bold and in hindsight, they were absolutely correct. She was a person well ahead of her time, and did not fear being banished because her beliefs were so strong. The historical record…
Lippy, Charles. Introducing American Religion. State College, PA: JBE Online Books, 2009.
Reuben, Paul P. "Chapter 1 -- Anne Hutchinson." PAL: Perspectives in American Literature -- A
Research and Reference Guide. Retrieved from http://archive.csustan.edu .
Though it was certain that at this point Jones had many powerful political connections, it is suspected by many that there were secret ties that provided the real impetus for his move to Guyana, either as a means of escaping the hidden power structure that was after him, or perhaps of aiding the CIA in covert operations they were conducting in Guyana (Moore, 2002).
In 1978, Congressman Leo yan traveled to Jonestown to investigate the various claims regarding his group. When he left with four defecting members, Jones (or someone else) ordered his assassination, then led his group of 913 followers in a mass suicide by drinking Kool-Aid heavily laced with cyanide -- unless the bodies were a cover up of something still yet to be brought to light (Kurtz-Nichol, 1993; Moore, 2002). The explanation for the suicide is both to fulfill the religious promise of equality upon which the…
Chidester, D. (2003). Salvation and suicide. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Kurtz-Nichol, J. & Miller, C. (1993). "Jonestown: Examining the People's Temple." Rice University Academic Websites. Accessed 23 January 2009.
Moore, R. (2002) "Reconstructing reality: Conspiracy theories about Jonestown." Journal of popular culture, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 200-20.
Christian Church acknowledges its missionary function as truly the core of Christianity, the heart of the Church. Through Christ's teachings, mission is the foreground of His legacy to the Church, the instrument for redemption. The guiding principles at the basis of the Church's mission exist as transparently related by the ible which in itself transcends all worldly knowledge and phenomena. God, as the Holy Trinity, reveals Himself through the biblical record in order to communicate with man candidly and openly, sends His only son into the world in order to claim Him back to the offspring of wholeness, and puts forth a missionary pattern for His followers: "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another." (John 13:34, 15:17 King James ible) "And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the…
Abraham, William, James. The Logic of Evangelism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1989.
Blauw, Johannes. The Missionary Nature of the Church. New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill Company Inc., 1974.
Bosch, David, C. Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission. New York: Orbis Books, 1991.
Flett, John, G. The Witness of God: The Trinity, Missio Dei, Karl Barth, and the Nature of Christian Community. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2000.
high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…
What city is central to the development of Acts? How so?
Besides Jerusalem, the city most central to the development of Acts is probably Antioch. Acts chapter 11 narrates the founding of the church at Antioch, and in 11:26 the word "Christians" is used for the first time in the New Testament -- this is where the disciples were first called "Christians."
What are the "we passages "u in Acts?
In five separate sections of the book of Acts -- each reporting the missionary journeys of Paul -- the author suddenly shifts into the first person plural, as though to indicate the author of Acts was a traveling companion of Paul in the journey described. The "we passages" are Acts 16:10-17; 20:5-15; 21:1-18; and the openings of chapters 27 and 28. The significance is that the author of the book appears to have had first-hand personal knowledge of…
Qualified privilege has the same result as absolute privilege, but does not protect statements that can be proven to have been made with malicious intent (Pember, & Calvert, 2005).
The church would argue that they had a qualified privilege to communicate Steve's personal indiscretions due to the fact that they have the right to practice their religion. They will say that the disclosing of personal indiscretions is somehow a religious practice in their church and that everyone must disclose their indiscretions to them so that they can then make these public so that other people can help the person with their problems. They would argue that the statements were important facts to be known in the public interest in the carrying out of their religious practices.
d. Is there a legal difference in disclosing personal indiscretions to other elders, to members of the church, or to members of the public?…
Pember, D., & Calvert, C. (2005). Mass Media Law. New York: McGraw-Hill.
lack Church and Homosexuality
There are plenty of reasons why the black church refuses to accept homosexuality amongst its patrons. The African-American people have been one of the most oppressed races in America. They felt separate from the rest of the Americans due to the color of their skin. The African-American community has struggled with a lot of racism. In order to allow their society to survive and remain united they turned to prayer. The church was their salvation and helped them deal with oppression and racism. It was a sacred ground for them to heal their pain and regain their respect.
lack Church and their opposition
The black church knows that homosexuality rips the social fabric apart. They feel that gay people are not able to reproduce. They feel it's a threat to the survival of society and can also bring innocent children into the fold. It is a…
1. Black Pastors Bridle at Gay Marriage, Christine McCarthy McMorris, Religion in the news, 2004
2. Religious gays press case for equal rights, Joe Crea, Washington Blade, November, 2004
3. The failure of the black church, Rev. Renee McCoy, Black Light, 2004
4. Hostility rules amongst black congregations, Atlanta journal and constitution, 2003
7). Martin Luther understood that this corruption ran deep throughout the church and that such infractions against the Christian population needed to be weeded out from the roots.
While many viewed Luther's actions as adding fuel to the fire in terms of papal corruption, who would now, under threat, certainly enact even harsher punishment upon the general population, Luther felt at peace with his decisions. In studying the true word of God in the Bible and in pinpointing the discrepancies between these words and the words of church leaders at the time, Luther understood that he had the basis of his religion behind him, and thankfully he was able to spread this belief to the minds of many others who followed his cause throughout the eformation and into the creation of an entirely new Christian religion.
Brecht, M. 1993. Martin Luther: His oad to eformation, 1483-1521. Print. New York,…
Brecht, M. 1993. Martin Luther: His Road to Reformation, 1483-1521. Print. New York,
NY: Fortress Press.
Gonzales, J. 2010. The story of Christianity, Volume 2: The Reformation to the Present
Day. Print. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Persecution has been a component of the Christian experience since the time of Christ. The oman government periodically led formal persecution campaigns that were significant for the development of Christian identity and consciousness. Ten of these oman persecution campaigns were historically significant, beginning with one led by Nero and causing the martyrdoms of Peter and Paul ("Persecutions in the Early Church," 2013). Martyrdom thus became a core motif for Christians, leading to the tradition of Christian sainthood: "The high regard for the martyrs as the heroes of the church and the privileges assigned to them led to the cult of the saints," ("Persecution in Early Church: Did You Know?" 1990). Although they could be severe, early persecutions of Christians were sporadic and localized, rather than being "a constant experience," ("Persecution in Early Church: Did You Know?" 1990). Once Constantine the Great adopted Christianity as the official religion of ome,…
"Persecution in Early Church: Did You Know?" (1990). Retrieved online: http://www.christianhistoryinstitute.org/uploaded/50cf7cb17495c9.82992192.pdf
"Persecutions in the Early Church," (2013). Retrieved online: http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/history/persecution.htm
Reid, D.R. (n.d). Expect to be persecuted. http://www.growingchristians.org/dfgc/persecut.htm
260). This cosmological discussion is one reason Origen is said to have "created, indeed embodied, the first model of a scientific theology;" his approach to the notion of metempsychosis, like nearly all of his theological work, is rooted in a steadfast determination to distinguish "between the dogmata of the church tradition and the problemata which were to be discussed" according to reason, logic, and a prototype of the scientific method (Kung 1994, pp. 48-49). As will be seen, Origen's focus on not-yet-determined points of Christianity would ultimately contribute to his condemnation as a heretic, because could be considered genuine, innocent investigation in the third century would rapidly become dangerous propaganda to the Church's ruling powers.
Origen's description of an ultimate, total reunification should not be taken to mean that he is arguing that the actions one takes within the temporal world is meaningless, since everything will ultimately be united once…
Bovon, F. 2010, "The Souls Comeback: Immortality and Resurrection in Early Christianity,"
Harvard Theological Review, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 387-406.
Bowen, F. 1881. "Christian Metempsychosis." Princeton Review, May, pp. 316-341.
Clergymen of the Church of England. 2010. Reincarnation and Christianity. Kila: Kessinger
(Domestic Violence: Why Does it Happen? And How Can it Be Stopped) pastor or a priest may try and approach a domestic violence issue from a religious perspective, as these are primary for any religious person. The importance of dealing with the concerns for shelter, safety, intervention and treatment may have only secondary consideration. The view may be that once these people set things right with God things will become fine. This view discounts the fact that the other domestic issues are also important. Domestic violence is complicated and potentially dangerous and these ordinary concerns represent immediate and crucial needs. eligious concerns of a priest or pastor could become stumbling blocks or utility resources, when dealing with domestic violence as these concerns are at the core of many people's lives. The results will depend on how these are utilized. (a Commentary on eligious Issues in Family Violence)
In domestic violence…
Davidson, Bob. Domestic Violence: Why Does it Happen? And How Can it Be Stopped. Retrieved at http://www.lovetakestime.com/art-domesticviolence.html. Accessed on 11/27/2004
Domestic Violence. Adopted 36/3 Council 22/23 February 1994. Appendix 3 Council Meeting 22/23. February 1994. Retrieved at http://www.racgp.org.au/document.asp?id=861Accessed on 11/27/2004
Domestic Violence: An Overview. Facts of Domestic Violence on Children and Teenagers. Mental Health Journal. Retrieved at http://www.therapistfinder.net/Domestic-Violence/Domestic-Violence-Children.html . Accessed on 11/27/2004
Domestic Violence Fact Sheet. Retrieved at http://www.athealth.com/Consumer/disorders/DomViolFacts.html . Accessed on 11/27/2004
interviewed the pastor of Grace Life Baptist Church in uby Michigan, USA.
Would you say that your congregation (or the people within your particular department or area of ministry) is "Thinking Like Jesus" (i.e. Unity, Humility, Selflessness) as they interact, serve, and minister to/with each other? How specifically do you as a ministry leader teach, cultivate, and maintain "The Mind of Christ" in your area of ministry?
What we preach to the followers is to be like Jesus and to be like the Lord, one has to think like Him. It is not enough to know the right but also to believe that it as a way of life. Like Jesus, we preach that one should think of the heart and hence the sermon: "as he thinks in his heart, so is he." This essentially means that we should live in our hearts and think in the heart and this…
Abner, Kirk. Thinking Like Jesus. [Place of publication not identified]: Tate Pub & Enterprises Ll, 2013.
Barmen, Emily and Mark Chaves. "Lessons For Multisite Nonprofits From The United Church Of Christ." Nonprofit Management Leadership 11, no. 3 (2001): 339-352.
Laing, Mark. "The Missional Church And Leadership: Helping Congregations Develop Leadership Capacity." Mission Studies 28, no. 1 (2011): 142-143.
Miller, Donald. Blue Like Jazz. Nashville: T. Nelson, 2003.
" It caused missionaries to deal with peoples of other cultures and even Christian traditions -- including the Orthodox -- as inferior. God's mission was understood to have depended upon human efforts, and this is why we came to hold unrealistic universalistic assumptions. Christians became so optimistic that they believed to be able to correct all the ills of the world." (Vassiliadis, 2010)
Missiology has been undergoing changes in recent years and after much serious consideration Christians in the ecumenical era "are not only questioning all the above assumptions of the Enlightenment; they have also started developing a more profound theology of mission. One can count the following significant transitions:
(a) From the missio christianorum to the missio ecclesiae;
(b) the recognition later that subject of mission is not even the Church, either as an institution or through its members, but God, thus moving further from the missio ecclesiae to…
Bosch, David Jacobus (1991) Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission, American Society of Missiology Series; No. 16. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.
Gelder, Craig Van (2007) the Missional Church in Context: Helping Congregations Develop Contextual Ministry. Volume 1 of Missional Church Series. Missional Church Network Series. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007.
Guder, Darrell L. (2000) the Continuing Conversion of the Church. Grand Rapids, NI: Eerdmans, 2000.
Hesselgrave, David J> (2007) Will We Correct the Edinburgh Error? Future Mission in Historical Perspective. Southwestern Journal of Theology.Vol. 49 No. 2 Spring 2007.
In the appendix to his book Certain Trumpets, author Garry ills states, "I was not looking for the greatest or best leaders but those who can be seen, at some point in their career, exemplifying a distinctive kind of leadership," (271). For each of the sixteen leadership styles ills outlines, he puts forth one notable human figure who he feels most aptly demonstrates through their life the essential features of that kind of leader. hat each of these disparate leaders demonstrates, in spite of their differences, is a sphere of influence specific to their lifestyles, cultural context, personality, and talents. Each of these leaders was successful in leaving an impact on the world even though their approaches to leadership differed greatly. Eleanor Roosevelt, an almost reluctant leader who walked solidly between the two poles of radicalism and conservatism, exemplified the ability to execute reform in American political and social…
Wills, Garry. Certain Trumpets: The Call of Leaders. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1994.
He understood exploration and discovery was creating a new world order, and that the old way of doing things would not work in this big new world. He understood the future implications of law and global relations, and helped create the theories that would lead to national law and international understanding. History books and many historians do not always recognize him, but the Catholic Church recognizes him as an influential and vital advocate of theology, education, and global change.
In conclusion, Francisco de Vitoria is legendary for his creation of international law, his development of the University of Salamanca, and his treatment of many other theological issues. In 1926, The Dutch Association of Grotius honored the University of Salamanca with a gold medal to commemorate Francisco de Vitoria as the founder of international law. There is also a Spanish Asociacion Francisco de Vitoria that studies Vitoria and his ideas at…
Capizzi, Joseph E. "The Children of God: Natural Slavery in the Thought of Aquinas and Vitoria." Theological Studies 63.1 (2002): 31+.
Editors. "Vitoria." Oregon State University. 2006. 17 Jan. 2007. http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/vitoria.html
Schroeder, Joseph. "Francis of Vittoria." Catholic Encyclopedia. 2006. 17 Jan. 2007. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06232a.htm
Scott, James Brown. The Spanish Origin of International Law. Oxford, England: The Clarendon Press, 1934.
Mormonism was founded by Joseph Smith in the early 19th century in New York. Its formal name is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. During the Second Great Awakening (a Protestant movement in America in the early 1800s), Smith generated and drew support for his vision of America's privileged place in the history of Christianity. Smith's vision was rooted in the reformist movement of the Great Awakening and the doctrines that Smith taught were of the omantic spirit that fueled the Awakening, attracting many people of the time who looked forward to the return of Christ to the world as foretold in the New Testament (Smith, 2004). The new message that Smith gave to his followers was that "on the morning of the 22nd of September 1827 the Angel of the Lord delivered" to him "a series of records of the aboriginal inhabitants of North America" -- records…
Bushman, C. (2006). Contemporary Mormonism: Latter-Day Saints in Modern
America. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Jackson, A. (2012). The Mormon Faith of Mitt Romney: What Latter-Day Saints Teach
and Practice. UT: Kudu.
Nearly all of the attempts of Catholic Church to unite Orthodox Christians failed and what they achieved are religious hatred and distrust to Catholic Church.
Nowadays Catholicism has more than a billion followers all over the world. Their spiritual leader Pope John Paul II does a great work to make a dialogue between different confessions and does a lot to reconcile the representatives of different confessions. Bartholomew I, who is the Archbishop of Constantinople, is the leader of nearly 300 million Orthodox Christians (who mostly live in eastern and Southern Europe, Middle East and North Africa). More over Patriarch of Constantinople is simply "the first among equals" and does not have any supreme power over other patriarchs. John Paul II looks for the ways to keep the dialogue with Orthodox Church and looks for the ways for reconciliation, but Orthodox Church is not really enthusiastic in this process. ussian patriarch…
Ware, K. The Orthodox Church [2nd Edition]. London, Penguin Books, 1993.
Lameygh, E. CICM "The Laity in History" in East Asian Pastoral Review, Vol XXIII No.3 1986
Baldwin, M.W. Christianity Through the Thirteenth Century, New York: Harper & Row, 1970. p.182-183
Differences between Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox Christian Churches, Article the Associated Press Saturday, May 8, 1999
The shifting perceptions of 1096, particularly when seen against the backdrop of the historical
"reality, have much to teach us."
The development of the Rhineland Massacres, often looked at in history as a linear first example of official Jewish mass persecution by the Christians, wavers in importance to the modern scholar, as well as the modern Jew and Christian. Was it a warm up for mass persecution, or a warm up for crusade actions against the Muslims? Historically it is safe to say that it is all of these things, an important period in Jewish and Christian history. One that would have served as a good lesson for detractors of reinvigoration of anti-Semitism that pervaded not only the Nazi mentality but that of much of western thought, notorious anti-Semites existed all over the world during the rise of the Nazi regime. In fact the WWII genocide could be seen as…
Abulafia, Anna Sapir, ed. Religious Violence between Christians and Jews: Medieval Roots, Modern Perspectives. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
Bell, Dean Phillip. Sacred Communities: Jewish and Christian Identities in Fifteenth-Century Germany. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2001.
Chazan, Robert. God, Humanity, and History: The Hebrew First Crusade Narratives. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000.
Chazan, Robert. In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1996.
In exchange for this, the Spanish empire must finance the needs of the Church that included erection and building of churches, financing the salaries of the clergies and different church dignitaries, and implemented laws that affected church activities.
The roles of the clerics in the lives of the people in the Spanish colonies were very significant. Catholic priests gave social services such as hospital care that included elderly care, education, and business influenced almost all aspects of their lives and some even gave counseling to government leaders. These social services given by the Catholic clergies to the people of the colonies endeared them and gave power to the Church. This allowed the Catholic Church to be very influential in the lives of the people.
The relationship between the Church and the State in this arrangement made it impossible for the former to perform accordingly. Power and control were given to…
tensions ambivalence. Yet Christian ignore Paul's theology pressed letters. Discuss The rationale essay critically explore, evaluate discuss questions: ho St. Paul-hat Paul write letters churches individuals ministry? hat cultural, social, political religious contexts readings received Paul's writings? How contemporary church reads interprets Paul's writings 21st century evangelism, mission, ministry, Christian character formation ethical teachings.
Theology of Paul
Saint Paul (originally named Saul of Tarsus) was one of the most influential individuals in the Christian world and a person who is largely responsible for how society perceives Christianity. Even with the fact that he was not one of the original Twelve Apostles, his involvement in taking Jesus' words further increased his role as an imposing Christian figure. Paul's letters to individuals and churches were meant to provide these bodies with more information concerning Christianity. The Apostle likely considered that it was essential for the world to gain a complex understanding of…
Branick, Vincent P. "Understanding Paul and His Letters," (Paulist Press, 2009)
Connybeare, William John, "The Life and Epistles of St. Paul, Volume 2," (1856)
Freed, Edwin D. "The Apostle Paul and His Letters," (Equinox Publishing Ltd., 1 Jan 2005)
Lenski, R.C.H. "The Interpretation of St. Paul's Epistles to the Ephesians and Philippians," (Augsburg Fortress, 15 Sep 2008)
Luther's thought incited anti-Roman sentiment and thought initially in his native Germany. He strongly influenced sympathetic local princes to confiscate church lands and property and to redistribute these. He urged for the end of the practice of granting indulgences. Through his work, 95 Theses, he questioned the worth and truthfulness of indulgences. The Roman Catholic Church "granted" indulgences to absolve one's sin from a "treasury of merits" of the Church. Luther could not accept the clergy's ability to absolve sin and that it was something, which could be bought. He held that there was no biblical basis for indulgences and that the ible should be the sole basis and center of Christian theology. Outside of the ible, the clergy had no sure and valid foundation for their interpretations (Hermansen).
The foremost Reformation figure after Luther and Huldreich Zwingli, a Swiss pastor, was John Calvin, a French Protestant theologian (Microsoft Encarta…
Hermansen, Joel. The European Renaissance and Reformation. AP World History:
Appleton Area School District, 2009. Retrieved on June 5, 2009 from http://www.aasd.k12.wi.us/staff/hermansenjoel/Notes/The%20European%20Renaissance%20and
Microsoft Encarta. Reformation. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia: Microsoft
Corporation, 2009. Retrieved on June 5, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761562628/Reformation.html