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Jones case is one of the major recent cases regarding civil liberties that basically examined whether the government requires a search warrant before placing a GPS device on a vehicle and tracking the movements of that vehicle. The ruling by the Supreme Court in this case upholds the extensive right for citizens to be free from unreasonable searches. However, the ruling on the case also demonstrated the struggle within the Supreme Court to balance the objectives of law enforcement with privacy concerns. Generally, the Supreme Court has continued to explore the limits of civil liberties, especially in light of the liberties guaranteed by the Bill of Rights.
This case can be traced back to when Antoine Jones was arrested on October 24, 2005, in possession of drugs. The law enforcement officers had attached a tracker to his Jeep albeit without judicial approval and followed Jones for a month…
"Online Law Library - Case Summary." Applied Discovery. Applied Discovery, Inc., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. .
"UNITED STATES v. JONES." U.S. Supreme Court Media. Oyez, Inc., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. .
Civil Liberties, a Price to Pay for Safety?
Terrorism is something that a country or a nation has to deal with at some time or another. The United States experienced a terrible tragedy on September 11th 2001 when the twin towers in manhattan collapsed due to hijacked airplanes. Ever since then, America has been on high alert in order to avoid another catastrophe. Some of the measures taken such as the passing of the Patriot Act to ensure such an event will not happen again restrict what can be carried on airplanes, such as smaller carry ons, smaller amount of liquids, etc.
American citizens have had issues with these "intrusions." Some have complained about the long wait times at airport check ins or the monitoring of possible "terrorist activity." However, in order for the United States to be a safer country, certain precautions must be met. American citizens should be…
Abdolian, Lisa F., and Harold Takooshian. "The U.S.A. Patriot Act: Civil Liberties, the Media, and Public Opinion." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30.4 (2003): 1429-1440. Print.
Davis, Darren W., and Brian D. Silver. "Civil Liberties vs. Security: Public Opinion in the Context of the Terrorist Attacks on America." American Journal of Political Science.48.1 (2004): 28-46. Print.
Domke, David, Erica Graham, Kevin Coe, Sue L. John, and Ted Coopman. "Going Public as Political Strategy: The Bush Administration, an Echoing Press, and Passage of the Patriot Act." Political Communication 23.3 (2006): 291-312. Print.
Leone, Richard C, and Greg Anrig. The War on Our Freedoms: Civil Liberties in an Age of Terrorism. New York: BBS PublicAffairs, 2003. Print.
Civil Liberties, Habeas Corpus, ar Terror subtopics: Explain historical evolution habeas corpus, including English American traditions. The explanation evolution American tradition include general meaning habeas corpus U.
The principle of habeas corpus promotes the idea that a person needs to be brought before a court in order for him or her to be judged before he or she is provided with a sentence. Habeas corpus is Latin for "that you have the body" and the former written order it is used to bring a prisoner or other detainee in the presence of the court so as for the respective individual to benefit from a fair trial. hen taking into account the U.S., federal courts are in charge of using the habeas corpus writ with the purpose of determining whether or not a detainee is being incarcerated as a result of having actually committed the crime that he or…
Dueholm, J.A. "Lincoln's Suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus: An Historical and Constitutional Analysis," Retrieved September 17, 2013, from http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jala/2629860.0029.205?rgn=main;view=fulltext
Garcia, M.J. "Boumediene v. Bush: Guantanamo Detainees' Right to Habeas Corpus," Retrieved September 17, 2013, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL34536.pdf
Schultz, D.A. (2009). Encyclopedia of the United States Constitution. Infobase Publishing.
Vile, J.R. (2010). A Companion to the United States Constitution and Its Amendments. ABC-CLIO.
However, during war it becomes all too easy to look for convenient ways to disregard even the most important laws.
The first, and most dramatic, effect of war is to increase the general fearfulness of a population. Fear and anxiety rocket way up during wartime, and are fueled by all the myriad effects of such conflicts. But another, less-well-understood reaction to war on the part of a both the individual and the nation (and, again, this is not a phenomenon that is in any way unique to the United States) is a marked increase in binary thinking. Humans are programmed to think in oppositionally defined, polar pairs and this is something that we do all the time.
But during fear-producing times, this tendency is greatly exacerbated. In peacetime, people are likely to find it easier to consider nuances and shades of meaning, but during armed conflict, no such nuance can…
Alien and Sedition Acts, http://www.ushistory.org/us/19e.asp . Accessed 3 December 2009.
James Bovard, 2003, October. Wilson's Crusade and Bush's Crusade. http://www.fff.org/freedom/fd0310c.asp . Accessed 3 December 2009.
Steve Connor. Racism and xenophobia linked to biological fear of outsiders in Stone Age. http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/racism-and-xenophobia-linked-to-biological-fear-of-outsiders-in-stone-age-566708.html . Accessed 2009 28 November.
Dean Dooley, n.d. Does the war on terror threaten civil liberties in the U.S. http://www.helium.com/items/501123-does-the-war-on-terror-threaten-civil-liberties-in-the-us . Accessed 2009 4 December.
T) he FBI can now act like a domestic CIA when seeking a criminal conviction. It can obtain a secret warrant from a secret court to gather evidence of crime without ever having to present to the court evidence that the person upon whom it wishes to spy is involved in crime. Moreover, evidence gathered in criminal case can now be more easily shared - without a court order - for "intelligence" purposes with intelligence agencies such as the CIA even if the information is about an American citizen ("Threats to Civil Liberties").
The exercise of rights generates costs, and it is these costs that are often in conflict. Davis and Silver agree that a proper balance must be found between freedom and control and that civil liberties cannot simply be trodden upon.
Lewis cites research documenting that the general public's fears had diminished within a month's time, to the…
Davis, D. & Sliver, B. "Civil Liberties vs. Security: Public Opinion in the Context of the Terrorist Attacks on America." American Journal of Political Science 48(1) Jan 2005: 28-46. JSTOR. JSTOR. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. November 29, 2006 http://www.jstor.org .
Lewis, C. "The Clash Between Security and Liberty in the U.S. Response to Terror." Public Administration Review. Jan/Feb 2005: 18-30. ProQuest database. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. November 29, 2006 http://proquest.umi.com .
Stephens, T. "Civil Liberties after September 11: Background of a Crisis." Guild Practitioner 61(1) Winter 2004: 4. ProQuest database. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. November 29, 2006
The United States is a country founded on the notion of protected civil liberties. After all, the pioneers who came to the country in the 18th century were themselves fleeing from persecution and seeking the freedom to practice their religious beliefs and the right to discuss their diverging views in public.
Today, these freedoms are protected by law under the Bill of Rights. They serve to protect individual freedoms from encroachment by the government. It is largely through the Bill of Rights that the Constitution limits the government's powers over the rights of individuals (Levy 8).
This paper examines the dual role the government takes in approaching such freedoms. First is the passive role, where the law prescribes that the government limit its role in matters of individual civil liberties. This includes the hands-off policy the government is supposed to take in matters such as freedom of the…
Getz, Arlene. "Big Brother Goes to Washington." Newsweek. November 15, 2002. Available from LEXIS/NEXIS Academic Universe.
Guernsey, JoAnn Bren. Abortion: Understanding the Controversy. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company, 1993.
Johnson, Lyndon B. "To Fulfill these Rights." Speech reprinted in The Affirmative Action Debate. George E. Curry (ed). Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1965.
Kimball, Roger. "The Case for Censorship." Censorship: Opposing Viewpoints. Tamara L. Roleff, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2002.
Other than that, many dress codes cause too much restriction of freedoms and are more trouble than they are actually worth. There is no reason that a student can't wear a particular color, just because a gang somewhere across the country wears that color. At that rate, no one would be able to wear any color because of various (often mistaken) connotations, which is just silly.
When it comes to the court case regarding the woman who wrote about molestation, torture, and murder of children on the Internet, this should certainly be allowed. There were no pictures, and if a person wrote something like this in a book, he or she wouldn't be prosecuted. That's why it's called fiction...and people should be allowed to express themselves through their writing. She didn't force anyone to read it, and if they didn't like it, they could certainly stop reading. What luxurious lives…
The main advantage of the convention is that they provide an opportunity for candidates to define themselves in a positive way and for the party to heal itself after a decisive nomination battle.
2. The electoral college is the means by which presidents are actually elected.
To win a state's electoral votes, a candidate must have a plurality of votes in that state. Except in two states, the winner takes all.
3. In all but two states, if a candidate has a plurality of votes in a state the winner gets all of that state's electoral votes.
4. Soft money is money used to advance a particular political campaign in such a manner as to skirt the legal limits, such as advertising that does not name a candidate or party, but focuses on a particular issue tied to a particular campaign.
5. Approximately 930 million dollars.
6. The Federal Election…
The Bill of Rights was added to the U.S. Constitution in 1791. These are the first 10 amendments of the constitution, and were specifically created to facilitate the civil liberties of those who are lawfully included in the United States of America. In some ways, the Bill of Rights descends from the Magna Carta (Author 73), as the latter document preceded the former and was also created to ensure the civil liberties of individuals. Therefore, the origins of the Bill of Rights are intrinsically linked to the notion of not letting the government impose on the rights of individuals within the country. Originally, the Bill of Rights functioned as protection for civilians. Although time and different amendments and various court rulings have helped to mutate the meaning and (perhaps) even the efficacy of the Bill of Rights, its origins were to guarantee civil liberties to U.S. Citizens --…
YOU HAVE THIS INFORMATION, I DO NOT
civil liberties in general has increased during the last years in the UK and the U.S. IN particular, in concerns related to matters of National Security, the UK as well as the rest of the democratic world will have to place a heavy load on this chapter. The extradition of terror suspects to other countries where there are verifiable guarantees that they will not be tortured. Ever since democratic governments have been under the suspicion of having used ill-treatments in their offensive against terrorism it has become the duty of every self-respecting party or political coalition to have a chapter dedicated to it in its government program. The Coalition's programme for government specifically states that We will seek to extend these guarantees to more countries. In their efforts to guard National Security, democracies are striving to steer free of becoming terror generators themselves. A third party involved and often misused…
"Human Rights and Criminal Prosecutions: General Principles." CPS.gov.UK Available at: http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/h_to_k/human_rights_and_criminal_prosecutions_general_principles/#content Retrieved: May 11th, 2015
"National Security." Available at: http://cameronsdashboard.co.uk/national-security / retrieved: May 12th, 2015
Human Rights Watch.(2002) "United States: Reports of Torture of Al-Qaeda Suspects." Available at: http://www.hrw.org/news/2002/12/26/united-states-reports-torture-al-qaeda-suspects Retrieved: May 11th, 205
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
The civil liberties that majority of Americans enjoy today were fought for through tough conditions and in several occasions people got detained and even killed defending the basic civil rights that need to be availed to each American on equal basis. The early 1920 saw the increase in the civil rights movements that wanted the democratic space within the country expanded and guaranteed more than it was at that moment in time.
ACLU was founded in 1920 with the headquarters in New York though there are affiliate offices across several other states in the U.S. (American Civil Liberties Union of Indiana, 2014). ACLU is regarded as the nation's guardian of liberty with the mission to work on a daily basis within the communities, the courts as well as the legislatures to ensure that the individual rights of each American, as provided for in the constitution…
American Civil Liberties Union, (2014). About the ACLU. https://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0
American Civil Liberties Union of Indiana, (2014). About the ACLU of Indiana. http://www.aclu-in.org/images/About/2014-7-10_About_the_ACLU_of_Indiana.pdf
ACLU, (2014). War Comes Home: The Excessive Militarization of American Policing. New York: ACLU Foundation.
One of the fundamental issues taking place in the United States in the present day encompasses the aspect of civil liberties and civil rights for all individuals and groups. A particular aspect in consideration is the lack of fairness and equity for black people in the United States. In the contemporary, there continues to be heated debate and arguments made regarding how the African-American group of people are being treated in the nation. In particular, the issue in this regard encompasses the recent verdict made by a jury ruling that Jeronimo Yanez, a police officer in Minnesota was not guilty for shooting and killing Philando Catile. Imperatively, castile was killed by the police officer during a routine traffic stop while with his girlfriend and child (Miller, 2017).
Observed Political Event
The observed political event is a political rally and speech made by Valerie, Philando Castile's mother subsequent to the verdict…
Civil rights can be delineated as the very basic and fundamental rights to be free from unequal treatment, on the basis of particular attributes that are considered important, for instance gender, race, and also disability. The Bill of Rights protects all citizens of the nation against the infringement of their rights and liberties by any entity and even the state, as it is assured in the Constitution. One of the key civil rights discussed and debated in the United States in the present day encompasses the rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning community (LGBTQ) (Newton, 2014).
Describe the observed political event in detail, including the environment and people involved
The event I attended was a political protest that covered the annual gay rights march. In particular, the parade was in search of shedding some light on the gay rights. The individuals that participated in the parade…
American Civil Liberties Union
(Friend or Foe)
America was founded on the astute principles of democracy and the potential benefits of freedom it derives. America, unlike many of its foreign counterparts has long recognized the benefits of individual rights, freedoms and privileges and has fought to the death to protect them. Currently, America aims to spread these principles of democracy around the globe in an effort to create a better quality of life for all mankind. Even with these lofty and ambitious goals, America, on occasion fails to uphold these principles within its own borders. Too often, America has overlooked the problems prevalent within its own country while criticizing other nations about their own circumstances. Many of these overlooked issues including slavery, discrimination, women's rights and others have left an unfavorable image in American history. In such instances, the American Civil Liberties Union has become the beacon of hope for…
1) " American Civil Liberties Union." Social Welfare History Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
2) "ACLU History | American Civil Liberties Union." American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
3) "ACLU: Accomplishments." Action Center | American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
4) "American Civil Liberties Union - New World Encyclopedia." Info:Main Page - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011.
(Chambers and Wedel, 2005, p. 65-67) the objectives of the CLU are then applied to specific issues, according to the perceived needs of the issue itself and what the historical best practices are for achieving successful change for any given issue. The application of objectives can be very broad to very specific based on historical best practices according to the CLU and other civil rights movements. If for instance a goal is to reduce the infringement of the constitutional rights of a single individual, who was transgressed against, the legal means might be used as a logical objective, while other goals, such as decreasing the utilization of the U.S. sponsorship of torture and/or rights infringement in the rest of the world, the call is to inform the public of the problem and then allow members and individuals in the organization to write congressmen and utilize the press to broaden concern…
ACLU: Death Penalty" (ND) Retrieved, June, 1, 2007 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/general/index.html
ACLU: Success Stories" (ND) Retrieved, June, 1, 2007 at http://action.aclu.org/site/PageServer?pagename=AP_success_feedback_main
Chambers, D.E. & Wedel, K.R. (2005) Social Policy and Social Programs: A Method for the Practical Public Policy Analyst, fourth Ed. New York: Allyn and Bacon.
The relationship between liberty and security is a tense one, as retaining or bestowing some liberties will lessen security. This claim, while it holds for some liberties, does not hold for all. Some liberties have a very low relationship with security, and some have no relationship at all. The tension in the relationship between liberties and security is caused by an attempt to strike a balance between the two by compromising one for the other. Both liberties and security have competing interests, which can be sentenced as commensurable values to provide a means of comparison to justify sacrificing one for the other. This allows the gain or loss of either liberty or security to be measured relative to each other to determine either event's advantage. The complication in deciding which to keep, liberty or security, exists due to the varying importance attributed to each concept. Each one's advantage is a…
Allhoff, F. (2018). Liberty and security: A balanced approach. Journal of Law and Public Affair, 3(1), 53-82. Retrieved from https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1025&context=jlpa
Davis, L., Pollard, M., Ward, K., Wilson, J., Varda, D., Hansell, L., & Steinberg, P. (2010). Long-term effects of law enforcement\\\\'s post9/11 focus on counter-terrorism and homeland security. U.S. Department of Justice, RAND Corporation.
Institute of Medicine. (2012). Crisis Standards of Care: A systems framework for catastrophic disaster response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Waugh, W., & Streib, G. (2006). Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management. Public Administration Review, 131-140. Retrieved from https://www.csus.edu/indiv/s/shulockn/executive
Wise, C. (2006). Organizing for Homeland Security after Katrina: Is adaptive management what\\\\'s missing? Public Administration Review, 66(2), 302 –18.
It can also be confusing. Some states have gay marriage as a legal right. Others have domestic partnerships, civil unions, and other terms for things that are the same or similar (Herek, 2006). Whether these options are constitutional is also something that has to be addressed and that is argued about by many scholars and laypeople (Herek, 2006). One of the other concerns that is brought to light where civil unions and their benefits are concerned is how employers view 'spouses' and what kinds of requirements are listed for them to be able to receive benefits (Same, 2008). Depending on how these people are listed, employers may or may not have to accommodate homosexuals and their partners in states that allow for gay marriages and civil unions.
As can be seen by the following map, not all states believe in any type of same-sex civil union or gay marriage, but…
Aristotle. (360). Nicomachean ethics. W.D. Ross, trans. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.html civil rights" the Oxford Guide to the United States Government. John J. Patrick, Richard M. Pious, and Donald a. Ritchie. Oxford University Press. (2001). Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Apollo Group. 25 October 2008. http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t89.e153
Dolhenty, Jonathan, Ph.D. (2003). An overview of natural law theory. The Jonathan Dolhenty Archive. Radical Academy. http://radicalacademy.com/philnaturallaw.htm .
Franklin, John Hope & Moss, Jr., Alfred a. (1988). From Slavery to Freedom (New York: Knopf.
Herek, G. (2006, September). Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective. American Psychologist, 61(6), 607-621. Retrieved October 24, 2008, doi:10.1037/0003-066X.61.6.607
They would subsequently call them at home, leave literature and fetus dolls at their door, and even call families and distant relatives of the patients to inform them of the patients' plans to ask them to intercede. The Pro-Life advocates argued that they were lawfully exercising their right of free speech on public property (such as across the street fro doctors' offices) to verbally attack patients by name as they exercise their equally important right to personal physical autonomy under the recognized privacy penumbras.
The Value of the Legal Approach Suggested by the Article
The Yale Law Journal article (Clapman, 2003) explained various ways that the general right of free speech is limited by more important privacy rights. For example, truth is ordinarily an affirmative defense to defamation. However, existing law already recognizes that certain statements, despite being truthful, serve no valid purpose besides injuring another person, such as by…
Clapman, A. "Privacy rights and abortion outing: a proposal for using common-law torts to protect abortion patients and staff." The Yale Law Journal. Yale University,
School of Law. 2003. Retrieved May 25, 2010 from HighBeam Research:
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Federalism and Religious Freedoms: The Importance of and the Adherence to the Separation of Church and State in a Multicultural Environment
Although it is clear that many religious concepts were embedded into the original drafting of the Constriction and the Nation's laws, maintaining a separation of church and state in the official capacity allowed the country to prosper in many ways. Having civil laws that govern beyond religious controls allows for a level of stability that can accommodate many difference ideologies.
Federalism and Religious Freedoms
A Federalist design works to protect religion and religious leaders by allowing them to operate freely without any state intervention.
• Although religions receive many protections, there are many issues that put the church and state at odds when the religious ideology conflicts with the secular freedoms which have been present since the founding in varying forms and degrees; obvious examples in today's…
The first route entails that the House and the Senate must each ratify the proposed Amendment by a two-thirds majority. Then the bill must be ratified by three-fourths of the states' legislatures within a reasonable time period. The second method would be for the creation of a Constitutional Convention to hear and propose the amendment to the states; this method also requires three-fourths of the state legislatures to approve the amendment. This second procedure has never before been used to amend the U.S. Constitution. In either case, however, it would take a number of years before the Amendment for Total Equality would become law. Furthermore, consitutional amendments are historically rare, and the proposals signficantly outnumbers the legal amendments. Several steps can be taken to ensure the timely implementation of this much-needed constitutional amendment.
Proponents of the proposed Amendment for Total Equality have a steep uphill battle to climb. The tide…
The Constitution of the United States. U.S. Constitution Online. http://www.usconstitution.net/const.html#Article5 .
Federal Marriage Amendment." Wikipedia. 4 Dec 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Marriage_Amendment .
Longley, Robert (2004). "Federal Marriage Amendment H.J. Res 56." About.com. http://usgovinfo.about.com/cs/usconstitution/a/marriage.htm.
Mount, Steve (2003). "Constitutional Amendments." U.S. Constitution Online. http://www.usconstitution.net/constam.html#process .
Civil Liberties vs. Government
The role of government in regulating the behaviors and activities of certain people and/or in certain situations is not generally questioned by most people. On the same note, the right of people to generally live their lives and be left alone is also presumed to be true in many to most cases. However, those two paradigms inevitably collide because they cannot both be true at the same time in all situations. There are situations where government should or must step in just as there are situations where they should leave people alone and let them live how they wish. The million dollar question is where that line precisely exists in certain situations because it can be far from clear what that answer is.
One source that the author of this report focused on was the definition of positive and negative liberty. The latter one, that…
Alexander, J., & Richmond, S.A. (2007). Administrative discretion: Can we move beyond cider house rules? The American Review of Public Administration, 37(1),
51 -- 64. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Carter, I. (2012). Positive and negative liberty. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2012/entries/liberty-positive-negative/
Unlike the more committed New England settlers who were fueled by a desire to practice their faith and farm and to create a 'shining city on a hill,' settlements in the southern regions of North America were made up of single men, unused to labor and farming as well as taking orders. Despite certain famous incidents from this period of history, such as the friendship established between Powhatan and Pocahontas with Captain illiam Smith, settlements like Jamestown floundered (Davis & Mintz 52). The Puritans, for all of the criticism leveled upon them, fared better, perhaps because they brought a form of government and a structured ideology to sustain them as a people, although the struggles that beset this community (not the least of which was the Salem 'witch scare') in terms of tilling unfamiliar soil and surviving a harsh climate cannot be underestimated.
Eventually, all of the colonies began prosper.…
Davis, David Brion & Steven Mintz. The Boisterous Sea of Liberty: A Documentary History of America from Discovery Through the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press,
The war and the years that preceded it led to the creation of social classes in our country. These classes consisted of the rich upper-class down to the poor immigrants; and each class had its own rules and regulations by which it lived. To this day, a large part of our society is based on classes. Socially, the war divided races and started what would lead to racism, bigotry, and the separation of black and whites. The war had served as a pathway to change but it would be several decades before the racial views of whites would change and allow for blacks to be treated fairly. Another thing that changed shortly after the war was women's rights. This movement paved the way for women to be considered equal and treated fairly (Ferland, 2009).
Ever since the Civil ar ended there has been great discussion over whether or not the…
"Civil War Overview." 2008. Son of the South. 26 April 2009
Ferland, R.W. 2009. AuthorsDen.com. 26 April 2009
updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
Litwak, Leon. "Results of the Civil ar." Funk & agnalls® New Encyclopedia. 2005 orld
Almanac Education Group. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Bleeding Kansas." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Dred Scott." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
John B. Gordon, "Causes of the Civil ar," Reminiscences of the Civil ar, page updated June 1, 2002, April 23, 2009, http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
"Causes of the Civil ar," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html
Gordon Leidner, "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer," Great American History. April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise," The Civil ar, April 23, 2009, http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/200303.html
"Causes of the Civil War," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html
Gordon, John B. "Causes of the Civil War." Reminiscences of the Civil War. Page
updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil War: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
California was particularly problematic. Taken from Mexico after the war, California was geographically cut in half along the 36°30, and was therefore legally and politically cut in half. However, residents applied for statehood as a free state in 1850. Congress responded with a set of complicated compromises: California would be admitted as a free state in exchange for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required that citizens residing in free states hand over runaway slaves, who would not be afforded any legal rights. Additionally, the District of Columbia would cease trading slaves, but the institution itself would not be abolished; slaves would not be emancipated. The admission of California as a free state upset the balance of power in Congress. The Fugitive Slave Law fueled the Underground Railroad and underscored the deepening divisions between North and South.
The Missouri Compromise was shot to pieces in 1854, when Kansas and Nebraska were…
Bleeding Kansas." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html .
The Compromise of 1850." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html .
Cozzens, Lisa. "Impact of Dred Scott." African-American History. Online at http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/scott/impact.html .
Kansas-Nebraska Act." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press, 2001. Online at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ka/KansasNe.html .
hen a northern imposition of tariffs, ratified in Pennsylvania in 1828, began to damage southern income, the 'abomination,' as this legislation was labeled, became a flashpoint for Southern identification with anti-federalist principles. This spoke to one of the strengthening ideological holdings in the South as it pertained to maintaining a slave-labor system in spite of the nation's prevailing cultural, ethical and economical trends.
The South would generally hold that the Constitution was conflictive to the independence of states.
In the unfolding dispute between the regions, South Carolina would be a leader for the concept of nullification, which as explicated in a doctrine anonymously written by southern leader John C. Calhoun, would entitle states to undermine Federal laws that were inconsistent the individual states' constitutions. An act which elicited a military response against South Carolina from then president, Andrew Jackson, this underscored the extremity of distinction in economic interest which had…
APVA. (1997). History of Jamestown. The Association for Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. Ret. Online at http://www.apva.org/history/.
Morrison, Michael. (1997). Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Rosenberg, Daniel. (2005). Calculating the Value of the Union: Slavery, Property Rights and the Economic Origins of the Civil War. The Historian, Vol. 67.
Woodworth, Steven E. (2000). Cultures in Conflict: The American Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Limiting te Spread of Radical and
Online ate speec or retoric tat calls for violence against anoter organization or te government itself.
Sources of information about operational tecniques, suc as ow to create bombs, develop poisons or to carry out effective violent attacks.
Wenever te subject of terrorism comes up, te question of ow to balance law-abiding Americans' rigts to individual freedom wit te need for public safety inevitably must be addressed. In 2010, in Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project, te U.S. Supreme Court found tat even "peaceful speec in te U.S. can be criminalized if it is 'coordinated' to support a foreign terrorist organization named by Congress" (Feldman 2010). Te material in question did not meet te standard of Brandenburg v. Oio, "wic eld tat advocacy of violence can be made criminal only if it is directed to incite imminent lawless action and is also likely to produce suc…
M4D2: Lone Wolves vs. The Pack: Who Poses a Greater Threat?
Lone wolf terrorists tend to have less formal organizational capabilities and training than organized terrorists. Events which caused mass causalities like the 9/11 bombings require more careful planning and coordination that one individual (particularly a mentally unhinged individual) is likely to be capable of; also, organized terrorists have financial resources that lone wolf terrorists do not possess, either from selling money through the drug trade, wealthy radical backers, or other means. Thus it would seem that lone wolves are less likely to precipitate actions with mass causalities. However, they can still be quite deadly as in the case of "Nidal Malik Hasan in the United States, who killed many of his fellow soldiers after opening fire at a military base" (Thompson 2013). The problem with lone wolf terrorists is that their motives may be so shadowy and their logic so twisted it is difficult to anticipate their actions or predict where they will strike. Or, in the case of Hasan, they may be a case of an insider whose disaffection with the organization gradually spills over
They now work together in what has become an ideological battle against the U.S. In this vicious battle against the terror outfits, our people have been robbed of their cherished freedom, which has always been the cornerstone of our constitution.
As history has time and again illustrated, 'power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely'. This can be extended to the patriot act, which has given absolute power to the law enforcers at the cost of the freedom and privacy of its citizens. Ethnic profiling and 'speculation without any accountability' have undermined the rule of law and overridden civil and constitutional rights of thousands of citizens. The much-touted 'preventive paradigm' of which the patriot act is an important tool has resulted in much wrongdoing. The former president's acceptance that Iraqi invasion was a 'terrible mistake' is enough proof of the strategic misadventure of a failed intelligence system backed by emergency terror…
1) David Weigel, (Nov 2005), 'When Patriots Dissent: Surprise: Standing up to the Patriot act can be good Politics', Reason, 37(6), pp. 32-38.
2) Ken Olsen, (2007), 'Patriot Act's Wide Net', Nation, p. 8, 2007, September 24
3) Cole D & Lobel J, (2007) ' Why are we Losing the War on Terror', Nation, 285, 11-18.
4) Dalgaard -- Nielsen A (2004),'Civic Liberties and Counter Terrorism: A European Point-of-View', Center for Transatlantic Relations, 2004
Mill and U.S. Constitution
None of the issues being raised today by the Occupy all Street (OS) movement are new, but rather they date back to the very beginning of the United States. At the time the Constitution was written in 1787, human rights and civil liberties were far more constrained than they are in the 21st Century. Only white men with property had voting rights for example, while most states still had slavery and women and children were still the property of fathers and husbands. Only very gradually was the Constitution amended to grant equal citizenship and voting rights to all, and even the original Bill of Rights was added only because the Antifederalists threatened to block ratification. In comparison, the libertarianism of John Stuart Mill in his famous book On Liberty was very radical indeed, even in 1859 much less 1789. He insisted that individuals should be left…
Dahl, Robert Alan. How Democratic is the American Constitution? Yale University Press, 2003.
Kaplan, Lawrence. S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Scholarly Resources, Inc., 2002.
Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. University of North Carolina Press, 1989, 2004.
Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. London, 1859.
Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union
535 U.S. 564 (2004)
On June 29, 2004, the United States Supreme Court held by a five to four margin that in the case of Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union 535 U.S. 564 (2004), a district court judge did not abuse his discretion in issuing a preliminary injunction against enforcement of the Child Online Protection Act, COPA, 47 U.S.C. SEC 231, (OLR 2004). The Court's rationale was that the plaintiffs were likely to prevail at trial on their argument that there were plausible, less restrictive alternatives to the statute, particularly blocking or filtering software (OLR 2004). Two of the justices in the majority also joined in a concurring opinion, finding other constitutional defects in the law and of the four justices who dissented, three asserted that the law was the least restrictive alternative because it regulated a very small amount of lawful speech…
OLR Research Report. August 10, 2004.
Legal Information Institute. 2004.
The Civil War was one of the most defining events in the nation’s history, and at the time was the most important event since the American Revolution. Whereas the Revolution embodied the ideals, values, and principles of the new nation, setting it apart from the British Crown and forever altering the geopolitical landscape, the Civil War revealed the persistent hypocrisy that continues to plague American society. Unresolved conflicts left brewing in the American psyche led to built-up tensions, exposing fissures in the society along the lines of culture, ethnicity, religion, race, gender, and socioeconomic class. The causes of the Civil War can be traced in fact to the inability of the original framers to take a firm stance on slavery, and to divest too much of the federal government’s power to the states. At the same time, protecting states’ rights was critical in the late eighteenth century when the nation…
e are supported in this by a statement which Justice Kennedy made during a 2003 Supreme Court case on the subject, wherein the Justice observed that "gay people have a 'liberty under the Due Process Clause [that] gives them the full right to engage in [intimate] conduct without intervention of the government.'
No matter how unpopular a group's sexual norms, he explained, the government may not 'demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime.'" (Masci, 1) This would essentially acknowledge that discrimination against the rights of homosexuals qualifies as a form of civil rights violation, strengthening the legal precedent now becoming an ever greater likelihood. Those parties who have objected have also shown a great deal of resolve, as suggested by their victory in the typically left-leaning state of California. Primarily, this denotes that on both sides of the issue, parties are politically…
Anitel, S. (2007). Gays' Discrimination at the Workplace Decreases Productivity.
Softpedia. Online at http://news.softpedia.com/news/Gays-039-Work-Discrimination-Decreases-Productivity-70002.shtml
Head, T. (2006). Workplace Discrimination. About: Civil Liberties.
Masci, D. (2008). An overview of the same-sex marriage debate. The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. Online at http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=288
shifting seas of global social consciousness and worldwide political hierarchy have only recently brought the word 'terrorism' to the quotidian mind of Americans, it has long enjoyed a cemented place in the construct of civilization. Daily associations between the word terrorism and the frightening images of gore and destruction rampant on the 24-hour news networks affirm the complicated understanding of terrorism in the modern world; bombings on an Israeli bus, explosions outside a Pakistani supermarket, and subway atrocities mingle with recent memories of the World Trade center and recollections of the bloody IRA, Black Liberation Army, and Basque independence movements. Personal reaction and affiliation to the events, movement, and goals of each group's paradigm resonates inside a loose definition of political violence, while governmental response is chiseled, monochromatic, and decisive. While the motives and end-results always differ, the path to terrorism is marked by similar goal posts. These similarities and…
O'Brien, Sean P. "Foreign Policy Crisis and the Resort to Terrorism: A Time-Series Analysis of Conflict Linkages." The Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 40, No. 2. (Jun., 1996.) p. 329.
Ibid, p. 330.
Further, the benefits are often indirect, such as the ACLU campaign against the federal government's domestic spying program.
Substitutability: There is no real substitute for the benefits offered by the ACLU. The only real option is to take on these issues personally. This would require filing an individual law suit or lobbying one's personal legislator.
Target Efficiencies: The goal of the ACLU is to protect civil liberties. To do this it focuses much of its time pursuing legal recourse. The fees that the ACLU member pays assist with the cost of court actions. Court actions are expensive, so a lot of money will only go a little way, meaning that this approach may not be efficient (although it may be the most effective).
Trade Offs: The individual trades their cash in exchange for the work done by the ACLU, which may or may not directly effect them. The member also…
Abdo's (2013) testimony to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is about the NSA privacy breaches first exposed in depth by Edward Snowden. The speaker accuses the NSA of using intrusive and "in certain respects unlawful" surveillance methods (p. 2). The NSA has also used their surveillance techniques outside as well as inside of the United States. Abdo (2013) speaks directly to the ACLU to outline the scope of the NSA's surveillance program. The overall purpose of the speech is to suggest what role the ACLU can and should play in promoting civil liberties, which is of course the mission of the organization.
Because NSA surveillance is a direct threat to privacy and civil liberties, the subject matter is directly relevant to the core goals of the ACLU. First, the author lists some of the main components of the NSA surveillance program. A few of the components are rooted in…
Abdo, A. (2013). Testimony to ACLU.
civil war on the American economics, military and diplomatic ties. The paper will discuss the effects of the victory of the Unions and the defeat of the Confederates.
The victory of the North in the American Civil War put an end to slavery and to the South's effort to secede from the Union. The years during which the Civil War settlement continued to be contested are known as the econstruction period. econstruction lasted roughly from the end of the war in April 1865 to the withdrawal of the last federal troops from the South in April 1877.
Effects of Civil War
The most important result of the Civil War was the liberation of nearly 4 million Southern slaves. The sudden release of so many people would have been a tremendous problem even in an atmosphere free from the bitterness that had been created by a civil war. Postwar…
Civil War: The Effects, Last viewed: 19th May'04
United States History, Civil War Effects and Reconstruction, last viewed: 19th May'04
Civil War and by the mid-20th century, the United States was a prevailing and influential nation in the global politics. This was enhanced by the high level of involvement in controlling the events that take place across the world. The U.S. has been an active player in working with other international players in the processes of promoting peace and coexistence among the nations. Its large stake in a number of countries politically or economically has made the U.S. A major player in the international politics. The high involvement of the United States in international relations has led many to argue that it to be considered as the 'policemen of the world'. "The United States acts as the world's police, through taking policy and practical military action/missions in war/conflict torn areas across the world, with the focus to enforce global security."
Indeed, many people have argued that the U.S.…
Benhabib, S. (2008). U.S. Foreign Policy; The legitimacy of human rights. Daedalus, Vol. 137, Issue 3, p. 94-104.
Cameron, F. (2005). U.S. Foreign Policy After The Cold War. London: Routledge.
Kerstin, M. (2004). Security and Human rights; less liberty for greater security? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 42, No. 27, p. 14-20.
Certainly, Lincoln was extremely upset with the notion that while some Americans were free to pursue their own personal agendas, others were not free in any respect whatsoever, these being African-American slaves. Thus, in order to end this situation, Lincoln dedicated his life to seeing the institution of slavery eradicated from the face of the earth which he accomplished in some small measure in 1863 with his Emancipation Proclamation.
Furthermore, in 1860, the editor for the Charleston Mercury, a staunch advocate of slavery, wrote an editorial called "The Terrors of Submission," a reference to the South falling under the control of the abolitionists who wished to see slavery destroyed and the slaves given their freedom. This unidentified editor points out that if Abraham Lincoln becomes President in 1861, then an "immediate danger will be brought to slavery. . . all slave property will be weakened. . . And all the…
"Causes of the Civil War." 2009. Internet. Retrieved May 25, 2009 from http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html .
Horwitz, Tony. Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches From the Unfinished Civil War.
New York: Random House, 2002.
Taylor, Alan. American Colonies. New York: Penguin Group, 2003.
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).
At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman
Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…
Berkeley, Kathleen C. The Women's Liberation Movement in America. New York:
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
Frederick Powledge. We Shall Overcome: Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Gurko, Miriam. Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement.
advertising strategy and the branding strategy are all integrated with the larger concept of marketing strategy and, on the highest levels, with the company's overall business strategy. The way that a certain brand is advertised depends on what the company decided for that brand, namely what the strategy for it is. It also depends on a variety of marketing-related elements, such as product positioning on the market or the targeted group of consumers. For example, a brand that is #2 on the market and aims to be #1 may have an advertising campaign that targets the leader.
In correlating the advertising strategy with the branding strategy, our company needs to consider several elements. First, this is a new company, as well as a niche company. The first objective of a successful advertising strategy is to relate to the characteristics of the brand and understand how to reach the targeted group…
1. Gustafson, Tara, Chabot, Brian, (2007). Brand Awareness. Cornell Maple Bulletin
2. Lewis, Randall, Rao, Justin, (2013). On the Near Impossibility of Measuring the Returns to Advertising. On the Internet at http://www.justinmrao.com/lewis_rao_nearimpossibility.pdf . Last retrieved on November 27, 2013
3. Brassington, F, Pettitt, S. (2000). Principles of Marketing, 2nd Edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited
4. Meidan, A, (1996). Marketing Financial Services. Hampshire and London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
A Fight for Democracy
There are many forms of government that exist in the world. From dictatorships to monarchies to democracies. However, the most challenging form of government by far is democracy. This is because it involves participation by the government and the people.
The word democracy has origins in the Greek language with the meaning 'rule by the people' (Patrick, 2006). ome and Athens represented the precursors to modern democracies and served as the first 'democracies' of antiquity. Democracies were made in order to control the abuse of power people witnessed see from rulers. While democracy has ancient roots, modern democracy was only formulated during the age of Enlightenment, specifically the 17th and 18th centuries.
In this age, philosophers designated fundamental elements of democracy. These are: basic human and civil rights, separation of powers, religious freedom, and separation of church and state (Ostrom, 1997). Modern democracies have…
Burns, K. (2015). The Civil War. The Film. Episode Descriptions. Episode One.Pbs.org. Retrieved 26 May 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/film/episode1.html
Jones, T. (2016). Could the South Have Won the War? Opinionator. Retrieved 26 May 2016, from http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/16/could-the-south-have-won-the-war/
Kent, Z. (2011). The Civil War. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow.
Ostrom, V. (1997). The meaning of democracy and the vulnerability of democracies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Civil Order Control
Civil order control has become a necessary aspect of modern day law enforcement. Inherent in civil order control, however, are a number of problems that have to be addressed in order for it to be effectively implemented, such as societal attitudes, law enforcement norms, and so on. As Roberson and Das (2015) point, in civil order control “there is often a strong political component to the activities being controlled” (p. 72). The reason for this is that whenever a situation occurs that is a threat to civil order, it is basically a threat to the government of the society as well. That is why throughout history, any type of civil order control has been met with controversy—whether it was a workers’ strike or protest being put down by military force or a holdout of a religious sect like the Branch Davidians in Waco being smoked out by…
Civil Liberties and Temporary Security: Billy Budd and Guardians
"People willing to trade their freedom for temporary security deserve neither." Benjamin Franklin's statement is often invoked in times of warfare, when civil liberties tend to be most at risk of curtailment, yet it crucially fails to describe the one sector of the American population that is most involved in warfare: the military. Historically military service has not exactly been the voluntary affair it currently is. During the U.S. Civil War cities like New York and Philadelphia would have riots over Lincoln's imposition of a military draft; the First and Second World wars would see the invention of "conscientious objector" status, and Vietnam made "dodging the draft" a generational meme among baby boomers. But leaving aside the question of whether or not military conscription is a gross violation of civil liberties -- to some extent, this depends upon the culture, as…
inning the Civil ar
The American Civil ar is considered the most costly of all the wars fought by this nation in terms of the human lives that were lost and the casualties which left young men mutilated, amputated, and barely able to carry on. Approximately 750,000 young men died by the war's end either from wounds inflicted in battle or from infection and lack of sanitation in hospitals.[footnoteRef:1] At the end, to warring sides were once again united as a single nation rather than two countries torn apart by ideological differences. Four years of bloodshed and violence officially ended at Appomattox Court House in Northern Virginia when Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. It is believed that the Union won the war because the nation was reunified; however this assumption is based on the belief that there can ever be a winner in…
Alexander, Bevin. How the South Could Have Won the Civil War: the Fatal Errors that Led to Confederate Defeat. New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 2007.
Civil War Trust, "Robert E. Lee." Last modified 2011. Accessed November 14, 2012.
Covert, Thomas M. "To his Wife." Stafford Court House, VA. 1863.
Freedom, Liberty, And Authority
homas Jefferson is attributed as saying "the price for freedom is constant vigilance." Only those who are willing to stake there reputation, their personal well being, their fortunes and their futures on the pursuit and defense of freedom are those who will have a guarantee of remaining free from the tyranny of those who would exchange the freedom for the freedom of minority at the expense of the majority. John Stuart Mills captured this idea 100 years after the original constitutional convention, Declaration of Independence and the Constitution recorded these and other words into the annals of history. Mills accurately captured the reason U.S. citizens are free, and the only means by which the can hope to remain such.
Mills begins in much the same way as Hamilton as he sets the stage for the path, and pursuit of freedom. He identifies that there exists in…
The Declaration of Independence, and constitution were built on the recognition that freedom and responsibility, to ourselves, to our fellow citizens, to our government and from our government to us is the cornerstone of life, and prosperity. Possibly this was part of the understanding of Patrick Henry when he gave his famous speech from St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia in which he demanded "Give me liberty, or give my death." Our founding fathers lived an active faith that permeates every area of their activities. As such, there is no other framework to understand the interaction of faith, life, and political service but as a sacred duty to work for the well being of all men. Even if men did not embrace the same faith as the founding fathers, they committed their lives, property, and sacred honor in the pursuit of freedom, religious, political, cultural, and economic freedom for the entire nation's citizenry. This principle stood fast on our nation through successive attacks for over 150 years. It is not until recent decades that those who oppose freedom, in favor of giving power back to a few, have been able to breech the walls, and begin to tear down the freedoms, rights and responsibilities on which our country was founded.
One very simple principle"
Magazine article by Roger Kimball; New Criterion, Vol. 17, November 1998
northern southern soldiers claim fighting "freedom" "liberty." 2 sources ( newspaper, journal, magazine, book legitimate website ). Works utilize source equally documented text listed properly a works cited page.
Passion during the Civil War
The American Civil War occurred between 1861 and 1865 and is largely considered the most destructive conflict in U.S. history, resulting in approximately one million military casualties and an inestimable number of civil victims. Much controversy still surrounds the nature of this conflict, as its determining causes are complex. Contemporary international perception may have placed a progressive, anti-slavery label on the whole affair, yet the basic fact remains that nineteenth century America was an increasingly inhomogeneous country and prone to blatant discrepancy.
This work is focused on providing an analysis of Southern and Northern perspectives from a justifying point-of-view, in order to form an outline of the opposing sides' motives. Both parties were strongly driven by…
Harrison, R. The Motives and Aims of the Soldiers of the South in the Civil War: Oration Delivered Before the United Confederate Veterans at Their Fourteenth Annual Reunion. Nashville: Order of the United Confederate Veterans. June 14, 1904, Volume 6
Tulloch, H. The debate on the American Civil War Era. New York: Manchester University Press, 1999
Reconciliation of the Liberties
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a philosopher in the eighteenth century who wrote about topics as varied as religion and politics. He famously worked on a treatise with respect to government that attempted to explain what government should be. His thoughts, called "On the Social Contract," were an attempt to reconcile the liberties of the ancients and the moderns (as they were called being, as yet, modern to Rousseau). His belief was that actual government should be as close to true human nature as is possible. This nature, he said, was such that it wanted no government, but that it needed to be a part of a collective to receive both protection and goods. He related that there were ancient societies which tried to do this, and that the liberty of the moderns was much the same because people did not change. The general nature of man had…
Constant, Benjamin. Political Writings. Trans. Biancamaria Fontana. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Print.
Habermas, Jurgen. "Three Normative Models of Democracy." in, Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political, Seyla Benhabib (Ed.) Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. pp. 21-30. Print.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. On the Social Contract. Trans. G. DH Cole. Dover, UK: Courier Dover Publications, 2003. Print.
If police officers are not sufficiently deterred by the prospect of evidence being suppressed at a hearing where a person's liberty is in jeopardy, it is a fortiori that they will not be deterred by the possibility of suppression at a civil forfeiture hearing where only the person's property is in jeopardy.
Law enforcement officials have much to gain in the outcome of the issues raised in Scott, and will likely bring challenges to the exclusionary rule in civil forfeiture. While the court's trend is moving away from applying the exclusionary rule in civil contexts, law enforcement agencies are increasingly relying on civil tools to attack crime. At the forefront of this movement is the use of civil forfeiture to seize the fruits and instrumentalities of the narcotics trade. Civil forfeiture statutes allow law enforcement officers to seize privately held assets that have been used in a crime, a practice…
Crandley, Mark J (2001) a Plymouth, a parolee, and the police: the case for the exclusionary rule in civil forfeiture after Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v. Scott.
Albany Law Review
Bilionis, Louis D. (1998) Process, the Constitution, and substantive criminal law.
Michigan Law Review
Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar
The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.
The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar
"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…
Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A
Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.
Child, Lydia. (1837). The Family Nurse [or] Companion of the American Frugal Housewife.
Bedford, MA: Applewood Books (originally published by Charles Hendee in Boston).
Slavery, The Civil ar and the Preservation of the Union
In the face of oppression and harsh treatment, slaves formed communities as a coping mechanism and to resist the belief that they were simply property. Members of these slave communities came together often to sing, talk, and even plan covert plots to runaway or sabotage the system in which they were living. Slaves married, had children and worked to keep their families together. Families were often broken up as members were sold off to different masters, but when a family was kept together, nuclear families of two parents and their children working for the same master were common. It was in these communities that countless elements of African-American slave culture were passed on for generations, including skills such as medical care, hunting, and fishing as well as how to act in front of whites, hiding their feelings and escaping punishment.…
Buchanan, James." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/B/BuchannJ1.asp .
Lincoln, Abraham," Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/L/LincolnA1.asp .
Missouri Compromise." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m/missrc1omp.asp .
The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America. PBS Online. 14 December 2002. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/title.html .
passing of the civil rights protection of homosexuals. This paper presents the views and reasons of the people who oppose the passing of this act. This paper then demonstrates the importance of the passing of this act and how it would benefit the society at large. The paper also highlights certain quotes to support its claim.
Civil Rights Protection of Homosexuals Human beings claim to represent a society that is not only civilized but also just in its ways. hen we as humans can fight for animal's rights, than we can certainly work for the civil rights protection of the homosexuals, who still belong to the category of human beings. Discrimination on the basis of race, class and sexual orientation must be eliminated as much as possible. Man, a creature of God has not been given the liberty to judge between right and wrong. As the bible has said, "There…
Dan L. Gays Deserve Their Civil Rights. 20 Apr. 1995. Available on the address http://www.spub.ksu.edu/ISSUES/V099B/SP/n141/opn-gay-rights-lewerenz.html.. Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.
Darren H. Gay rights For Gay Whites?: Race, Sexual Identity, And Equal Protection
Discourse. Cornell Law Review. 1 Jul. 2000.
Homosexual Agenda. Available on the address http://www.christianhelps.org/homoagenda.htm . Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.
What we can take from this is that their pluralistic society was always being threatened. No matter how far a pluralistic society would come in theories, those individuals without the same morality could immediately endanger and void new theories.
Carpenter focuses on the emergence of bureaucratic policy innovation in the U.S. during the Progressive Era, questioning why the Post Office Department and the Department of Agriculture became politically independent writers of new policy and why the Interior Department did not (Carpenter 2001, 4). To explain these developments, Carpenter gives an essentially new theory of bureaucratic autonomy grounded in organization theory, rational choice models, and network concepts.
In Carpenter's opinion, bureaucracies with very distinct goals are able to achieve autonomy when they are able to create and keep a reputation among different coalitions for offering services that are also very distinct (Carpenter 2001, 4) (which is what happened with the Post…
Bertelli, Anthony. & Lynn, Lawrence. Madison's Managers: Public Administration and the Constitution. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2006.
Carpenter, Daniel P. The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy: Reputations, Networks, and Policy Innovation in Executive Agencies, 1862 -- 1928. Princeton University
Cook, Brian J. Bureaucracy and Self-Government. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
" (Stoyle, 2005)
While the hope was that following the retreat of the Scots was the "...resurgence of English power" would ensue, these hopes were in vain because in October 1641 "Ireland - whose inhabitants were simultaneously appalled by the prospect of a puritan Parliament achieving political dominance in England...burst into rebellion." (Stoyle, 2005) Resulting was that in just a few weeks the power of the English in Ireland "had been reduced to a handful of coastal enclaves." (Stoyle, 2005)
The English government was "paralyzed by internal quarrels" and nothing was left that could remedy the situation. Stoyle writes that "by early 1642 both Scotland and Ireland had achieved a de facto independence, and English power in the Atlantic archipelago was weaker than it had been for centuries." (2005) the self-confidence of the English is stated to have "crumpled beneath the impact of these successive hammer-blows and, as they watched…
Ashton, Robert and Parry, Raymond Howard (1970) the Civil War and After, 1642-1658. University of California Press, 1970.
Donogan, Barbara (2008) Civil War in Three Kingdoms: Huntington Library Quarterly. Vol. 71 No. 3, September 2008.
Gelderen, M.V. And Skinner, Q. (2002) Classical Liberty and the English Civil War. Cambridge University Press 2002.
Hughes, Ann (1998) the Causes of the English Civil War. Macmillan, 1998.
It appeared almost as if the South might win, and many of Lincoln's advisers "said that there was no way to win the war and he might need to compromise on slavery," (Moreton, 2008). However, Lincoln would not budge. It would have certainly been the politically expedient thing to do for Lincoln to surrender and make a compromise that would result in the preservation of the union on the South's terms. Lincoln did not want to preserve the union at the expense of its moral integrity, though. For Lincoln, the emancipation of the slaves was integral to the creation of a "more perfect union." eferring to the tremendous loss of life that the Civil War caused, Lincoln (1863) stated in the Gettysburg Address, "It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced." The…
Goodwin, D.K. (2005). Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Lincoln, a. (1863). Gettysburg address. Retrieved online: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/gettyb.asp
Moreton, C.L. (2008). 10 Qualities that Made Abraham Lincoln a Great Leader. HRBLR. Retrieved online: http://hr.blr.com/whitepapers/Staffing-Training/Leadership/10-Qualities-that-Made-Abraham-Lincoln-a-Great-Lea
Phillips, D.T. (1992). Lincoln on Leadership. New York: Warner.
The reason for such volunteer support for a war against fascism was born from the economic calamity and the political turmoil of the 1930's (Sills pp). Thus, like many during the Great Depression, the young volunteers had experienced with deprivation and injustice, leading them to join the "burgeoning student, unemployed, union, and cultural movements that were influenced by the Communist Party and other Left organizations" (Sills pp). These groups had exposed the volunteers to a Marxist and internationalist perspective, and with their successes in bringing people to conscious, political action led to a revolutionary spirit (Sills pp).
American radicalism was spurred by the appearance of pro-fascist groups like the Liberty League, and the expansion of fascism abroad (Sills pp). ith Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Hitler's rise to power in 1933, and Italy's assault on Ethiopia in 1934, (all accomplished without hindrance from estern governments), the Communist Party responded…
Hemingway, Ernest. For Whom the Bell Tolls. Scribner. 1995.
Nelson, Cary. The Spanish Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/scw/overview.htm
Rosemont, Franklin. Spanish Revolution of 1936. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/spain-overview.html
Sills, Sam. The Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Retrieved August 15, 2005 at http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/abe-brigade.html
Bob Dylan Annotated Bib
Honneth, Axel. "Liberty's Entanglements: Bob Dylan and His Era." Philosophy Social Criticism.
Sage Publications. 36:77. 2010. 777-783. Print.
This article acts as a panegyric to Bob Dylan, describing him as representing "a hardly imaginable synthesis, combining the longings of a social romantic, the pride and arrogance of an individualist outsider, the derision of a satirist and the bitterness of an apocalyptic prophet" (777). Honneth then goes on to describe how Dylan fits each of these roles. He likens Dylan to something greater than a simple songwriter or performer, but like a prophet or great spokesman for a generation. Art, he explains, has the ability to transcend its cultural moment and speak to a greater truth than has heretofore been understood. All artists, he states, have made a contribution to this popular culture. Dylan, however has the ability to include subtle messages of autonomy and freedom, unlike…
Russell, Craig H. Notes. Music Library Association. 50:3. 1994. 929-933. Print.
This article is a review of the book Positively Bob Dylan: a Thirty-Year Discography. Actually, the article deals with the many different texts about Bob Dylan that had appeared on the landscape at that time. Russell points to several different texts and judges their effectiveness by the information that they provide. Of all, he seems to be most fond of Clinton Heylin's book Bob Dylan: Behind the Shades. Most of Heylin's book is based on personal accounts and interviews with the singer/songwriter. This favorable review of Heylin is counterpointed with a negative review of a book by Richard Williams. This book, entitled Dylan: A Man Called Alias, he argues is not as truthful as the Heylin book. On accusation is levied that Williams "adopts some commonly held misconceptions without reexamining the primary evidence" (931). He also describes a third book, Richard Wissolik's Bob Dylan, American Poet and Singer which he defines as the most scholarly of the three texts.
The article is useful in that it illustrates one Dylan scholar's perspective on two potential sources. It gives a third point-of-view in a dialogue between Heylin and Williams. For someone trying to write a researched analytical paper on Bob Dylan, it is helpful to have another opinion about which sources should be relied upon over others. There are so many different sources out there in the world that it is very easy to get overwhelmed and to rely on information that is potentially false. By examining this article, not only do I get Russell's impressions of those other two books, but his own experiences and understanding of Dylan himself. The article goes on to describe some other books and texts that would be helpful for a scholarly paper discussing Bob Dylan. This is a valuable asset for someone searching for viable sources.
Thoreau's Resistance To Civil Government
This is a paper discussing the Henry David Thoreau's essay 'Resistance to Civil Government' and arguing that his ideas represent the extreme individualism and anarchist ideology.
The renowned American author and naturalist Henry David Thoreau is considered to be one of the most influential minds in the American thought and literature. Thoreau had not only great influence on American thought but also on the politics of the world, some of his ideas and concepts that he developed were the most original political doctrines devised by American thinker. We appreciate this more, considering the fact that he was an unconventional thinker. At the heart of Thoreau political philosophy was the concept of individualism, he was a supreme individualist and championed the human spirit against materialism and social conformity. His most famous book, "Walden" 1854 is an eloquent account of his experiment in near solitary living in…
Elizabeth Hall Witherell & Elizabeth Dubrulle, "The Life and Times of Henry D. Thoreau" 1999
Resistance to Civil Government, or Civil Disobedience - "Webtext" with detailed annotations and study notes by Jessica Gordon & Ann Woodlief at Virginia Commonwealth University, 1999
Abraham Lincoln expanded the presidential powers at the time of the American Civil War.
This paper will examine how Abraham Lincoln expanded the presidential powers at the time of the American Civil War (Writer Thoughts, n.d).
Civil War Background
A key event in the historical consciousness of USA is its Civil War that took place between 1861 and 1865. While the 1776-1783 revolution led to the nation's creation, its Civil War determined the type of nation America would be. It resolved a couple of important issues that the revolution failed to settle, namely: 1) whether America was to remain a dissolvable confederacy of numerous free, independent States or become an indivisible country having a sovereign federal government; and 2) whether America, whose fundamental declaration was that all of mankind has been created with equal rights to freedom, would remain the world's largest slaveholding nation (McPherson, n.d). By spring 1865, every…
Burlingame, M. (2008). Abraham Lincoln: A Life. Retrieved February 25, 2016, from http://abrahamlincolnsclassroom.org/abraham-lincoln-in-depth/abraham-lincoln-and-power/
Donald, DH (1996). Lincoln (1st Touchstone ed.). Simon & Schuster.
Greenberg, D. (n.d.). Slate Magazine - Politics, Business, Technology, and the Arts. Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus. Retrieved February 25, 2016, from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/history_lesson/2001/11/lincolns
McPherson, J. (n.d.). Civil War Trust: Saving America's Civil War Battlefields. A Brief Overview of the American Civil War. Retrieved January 24, 2016, from http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/civil-war-overview/overview.html
Neo-Liberalistic Legal Concepts on Nations ith Distinct Legal Tradition (Common, Civil, Socialist)
This review of the related literature focuses on broad definitions of the law as historically legislated and then as practiced in three countries: Malaysia, Indonesia and China. Common law, civil law and socialist law will be defined separately and then as they each apply to the country which has used that system as its focus for legal practice. The effect that neo-liberalism had after the Asian financial crisis on these three nations will be then be examined. Finally, this review will determine if there has been a change post-crisis in merger and acquisition or public finance law.
It is necessary to begin by defining terms that will occur throughout this review. The three systems of law to be initially discussed in the review are common law, civil law and socialist law. Of course, many dispute the fact…
Agami, Abdel M. "The Role that Foreign Acquisitions of Foreign Companies Played in the Recovery of the Asian Financial Crisis." Multinational Business Review 10, no. 1 (2002): 11-17.
Batra, Madan M. "The Dark Side of International Business." Competition Forum 5, no. 1 (2007): 306-313.
Berman, Alan. "The Anwar Saga: Sexuality and Politics in Contemporary Malaysia." Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review 4, no. 3 (2008): 188-193.
Chan, Anita, and Jonathan Unger. "A Chinese State Enterprise Under the Reforms: What Model of Capitalism?" The China Journal 62 (2009): 1-15.
What a careful examination of such sources has revealed, according to the author, is that there were strong ideological reasons for the contesting of the Civil War, that were inherently mixed with a social identity that relied upon the approval of one's peer groups. "Yet for Civil War soldiers, the group cohesion and peer pressure that were powerful factors in combat motivation were not unrelated to the complex mixture of patriotism, ideology, concept of duty, honor and manhood, and community or peer pressure that prompted them to enlist in the first place" (McPherson 1997, 13). The ideologies that both sides embraced, therefore, were notions of patriotism (even for the Confederacy, which considered itself its own nation at the time of the belligerence), honor, and duty as a man. Interestingly enough this viewpoint is considerably at variance with that of the traditional opinion of the motivation for the combatants in the…
McPherson, James. 1997. For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press.