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The formal power structure within the organization has been explained. The suggested strategy is one of collaboration and cooperative efforts in which all team members are involved in decision making processes which can be termed to be a process of "consensus" whereby each team member feels that they own the decision and therefore will contribute more genuine efforts at success in the process. In management and initiative and other efforts in the R&D position the key words for handling the social and political aspects within the organization are those of 'collaboration, cooperation, consensus, and connectivity' which are vital and necessary tools in gaining support and in the creation of an organizational-wide effort that results in productivity for the organization.
Wollenburg, K. (2001) Managing Up, Over and Across Am JH ealth Syst Pharm 2001 Oct 1;58 Suppl 1:S10-3 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retr ieve&db=PubMed&list_uids =11592350&dopt=Abstract
First, reak All the Rules: What the World's Greatest…
Wollenburg, K. (2001) Managing Up, Over and Across Am JH ealth Syst Pharm 2001 Oct 1;58 Suppl 1:S10-3 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retr ieve&db=PubMed&list_uids =11592350&dopt=Abstract
First, Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Manager Do Different" [excerpt referenced fro]: Great Leadership Leads to Success with People and Profits, Interaction Associates Online at http://www.interactionassociates.com/tips_detail.cfm?id=17
Linden, Russ (2003) Learning to Manage Horizontally: The Promise and Challenge of Collaboration; Public Management, Vol. 85, August 2003.
Wong, Sam & Kwock, Nicole (2004) The Adaptive Enterprise, Managing in Turbulent Times [Online at http://www.ey.com/global/download.nsf/Philippines/Managing_in _turbulent_times-Adaptive_enterprise/$file/Managing%20in%20turbul ent%2 0 times.pdf]
ural special education quarterly, Vol. 23, Issue 4, 3-9. etrieved November 26, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=104&sid=5c0f11c9-17f3-4f60-8ce3-d4df66666494%40sessionmgr14
Lake, V.E. (2004, August). Ante up: econsidering classroom management philosophies so every child is a winner. Early Chil Development and care, Vol. 174, Issue 6, 565-574. etrieved November 26, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=17&sid=5c0f11c9-17f3-4f60-8ce3-d4df66666494%40sessionmgr14
Los Angeles County Office of Education. (2002). Teacher expectations and student achievement. Coordinator Manual.
Marlow, E. (2009, December). Seven criteria for an effective classroom enviironment. College Student Journal, Part B, Vol. 43, Issue 4, 1370-1372. etrieved November 27, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=6&sid=c38435ba-e90f-4d97-8e0e495f0c240747%40sessionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=48318659
Pong, S., Hao, L., & Gardner, E. (2005, December). The roles of parenting styles and social capital in the school performance of immigrant Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Social science quarterly. Vol. 86, Issue 4, 928-950. etrieved November 26, 2010 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=7&hid=105&sid=92b749c0-92df-464c-8283-2bf54a532c10%40sessionmgr113
Querido, J.G., Warner, T.D., & Eyberg, S.M. (2002, May). Parenting styles and child behavior in African-American families of preschool children. Journal…
Anderson, K.M. (2007). Differentiating instruction to include all students. Preventing school failure. Heldref Publications. Retrieved November 27, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=8&sid=6e489bfl=d9d3=48b8=8a0b=f2elc246e0c2%40sessionmgr11
Chao, R. (1994). Beyond parental control; authoritarian parenting style: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child development, 45, 1111-1119. In parenting styles - cultural and ethnic variations in parenting styles. Retrieved November 26, 2010 from http://family.jrank.org/pages/1253/Parenting-Styles-Cultural-Ethnic-Variations-in-Parenting-Styles.html
Fox, L., Dunlap, G., Hemmeter, M.L., Gail, J.E., Strain, P.S. (2006, September). The teaching pyramid: A model for supporting social competence amd preventing challenging behavior in young children. The Brown University Child and Adolesent Behavior Letter. Wiley Periodicals Inc. Retrieved November 27, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=13&sid=8b7b705b-8d14-4ae5-ad69-04382330e75d%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=22043721#db=aph&an=22043721#db=aph&an=22043721
Hammond, H., Dupoux, E., & Ingalls, L. (2004, Fall). Culturally relevant classroom management strategies for American Indian students. Rural special education quarterly, Vol. 23, Issue 4, 3-9. Retrieved November 26, 2010, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=104&sid=5c0f11c9-17f3-4f60-8ce3-d4df66666494%40sessionmgr14
Increasingly, Courts are understanding that clothing that depicts sexual acts, coarse language, bodily fluids, or offense and bigoted messages disallows an appropriate educational experience. One response to this is a school dress code at one end of the spectrum, and school uniforms at the other. One can debate the efficacy of these provisions, but the basic difference is that the Tinker case was classified as a non-offensive protest (a black armband) as a Constintutional right, but blatantly offensive images or clothing that hinders learning, is unproductive and schools have a clear right to regulate that behavior (State Court and Lower Federal Court Decisions).
Moral/Ethical- By the time we reach school age we have a basic understanding that there are often consequences for our actions. Within the model of classroom management there are various ways a teacher can model behavior, modify student's behavior, and change the manner in which that student…
"State Court and Lower Federal Court Decisions." Jounral of Law and Education 32.1 (2003): 92+.
Tinker v Des Moines Independent Community School District. No. 393 U.S. 503. U.S. Suprement Court. 1969.
Torrance, E. Rewarding Creative Beheavior: Experiments in Classroom Creativity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1965.
These include listening to students, expecting students to listen attentively in return, creating rules that students follow directions, ensuring students provide and complete school work on time, and insisting students demonstrate appropriate self-control to limit disciplinary problems in the classroom (Givner, Lynne & Pierson, 2003). When teachers clearly outline these expectations to students, it is more likely students will respect them. Poor adjustment occurs when teachers do not clearly define their expectations for students, and then provide them with a learning environment that is respectful, and one that caters to individual learning abilities and personalities.
Why Meaningful Content & elevant Content is Important
Far too often students complain of boredom in the classroom, and this can lead to behavioral problems and disciplinary problems in the classroom. Teachers can avoid this by providing meaningful and relevant content to students. Students that learn interesting and meaningful content can also apply their knowledge…
Givner, G.C., Lane, K.L. & Pierson, M.R. (2003). Teacher expectations of student behavior: Which skills do elementary and secondary teachers deem necessary for success in the classroom? Education & Treatment of Children, 26(4):413.
She is having a problem with a student, ary Kirby, who arrives each day without any of the required reading materials. Mrs. ansler feels like she is in a atch-22 situation. If she sends ary back to his locker, she wastes class time; if she does not, ary cannot do his work.
Analysis -- Assertive discipline is a behavioral approach to home and classroom management that involves a high level of teacher or parent control. Sometimes it is known as a "take back control" approach, since instead of allowing students and extraneous events to control the classroom, the teacher is fully in charge. The underlying theory for this approach maintains that teachers must establish rules so that the learning process is uninterrupted by misbehavior or other passive-aggressive time wasters (McIntyre, 2008).
Part 1 -- Using assertive discipline in Mrs. ansler's class would require that she place a structured and systematic…
Canter, L. (1990). Assertive Discipline: More than Names on the Board and Marbles in a Jar. Dyc.edu. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://campus.dyc.edu/~drwaltz/FoundLearnTheory/FLT_readings/Canter.htm
Huitt, W. (1996). Classroom Management: A Behavioral Approach. Educational Psychology Interactive. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/manage/behmgt.html
McIntyre, T. (2008). Assertive Discipline. Behavioradvisor.com. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.behavioradvisor.com/AssertiveDiscipline.html
Some teachers make the mistake of providing too comfortable of a classroom environment for their students, which students find too distracting and the students only want to socialize with other students and the teachers. egardless of whether or not a teacher occasionally socializes with their students, it's important that the teacher remains a mentor and an authority figure to the students.
Nothing should interfere with the process of learning. That being said, teachers should assess their classrooms from day one in order to pick out any specific details, which may inhibit learning. These details can immediately be changed, whether or not it's the layout of the classroom furniture, the placement of materials, posters on the wall, etc. Teachers should also be aware that a classroom layout may need to be changed after the first day or two (or even month) of the classroom meeting. Once students become comfortable in their…
.: Keys To Effective Learning: . Professional Development for Teachers. (n.d.). Keys to Effective Learning. Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://keys2el.com/workshops/teachers.html
Curtis, M.E., & Longo, A.M. (n.d.). NCSALL: Reversing Reading Failure in Young Adults. NCSALL: NCSALL Home. Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://www.ncsall.net/index.php?id=466
Kapoh, J. (n.d.). CLASSROOM Management PLAN. California State University, Los Angeles. Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://www.calstatela.edu/faculty/jshindl/cm/jenny%20kapoh%20CMP.htm
The University of New Orleans' College of Education maintains a web page dedicated specifically to topics of interest to classroom management. The web site, which can be found at url http://ss.uno.edu/ss/homepages/cmanage.html, contains a thorough set of links that can guide the prospective student or professional educator toward finding other websites of interest. The parent web site for the University of New Orleans' Social Studies programs can be found at url http://ss.uno.edu/. Although the University of New Orleans' classroom management website is not easily accessible through popular search engines like Google, and although it can be a little bit tricky to locate the classroom management links directly through the department's home page, once found the set of links will prove invaluable for the graduate student or professional educator. The team members who maintain the website are named as Mary M. Banbury and James H. Miller, whose e-mail addresses are…
Teachers should watch closely as students enter the classroom at the beginning of the period. This is a time when problems may be present to the teacher. If a teacher suspects that a student may have a problem during class, the teacher may be able to head off the problem before it begins. For example, if a student walks into the classroom with a negative outlook, the teacher might speak with the student before class begins. This not only may allow the student to vent, but the teacher may also get to the root of a possible problem before it occurs within the classroom.
Students should be made aware of discipline guidelines and rules from the beginning of the school year. ules should be posted within the classroom, available in handouts and should be discussed on a regular basis. A teacher should never create a rule unless they intend to…
Discipline Help: You Can Handle Them All. (n.d.). Discipline Help: You Can Handle Them All. Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://www.disciplinehelp.com/teacher/instruction.cfm?section=step§iontitle=Introduction
How Is Discipline Handled in Second Grade?. (n.d.). Pregnancy and Parenting - From The Labor of Love. Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://www.thelaboroflove.com/articles/how-is-discipline-handled-in-second-grade/
The Teacher's Guide Classroom Management Page. (n.d.). The Teacher's Guide. Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://www.theteachersguide.com/ClassManagement.htm
Allowing students to choose between three books to read for an in-class assignment or to select from a variety of topics for research papers enables students to feel invested in the process of learning. Even when reprimanding students, stressing they always have a choice is essential: they can choose to do their homework, for example, four days a week and be rewarded by no homework for the weekend, or if they do not turn in their homework on time they do not get a reward of a free weekend, and a reduction in their grade because the paper is late.
Creating an environment where it is 'easier' to be responsible is also helpful. For example, writing down all assignments that are due on a dry erase board, so students are constantly confronted with the deadlines for various projects makes it harder for them to forget. Having differently colored folders for…
As with all responsibilities and duties of a teacher or other classroom leader, preparation is a fundamental aspect of behavior management. Developing a comprhensive and detailed understanding of the needs of classroom management and the processes that can fulfill those needs is essential before even entering the classroom.
Once a full strategy for achieving a well-managed and positively supportive classroom has been developed, the teacher must then adhere to this plan while teaching in order to maintain consistency and provide clear and ongoing expectations for the students in the classroom. This consistency should actually be an explicit and entirely integrated part of the classroom management system, as without such consistency there will not be any shared understanding of the practices and behavioral expectations, and the entire system will essentially be obsolete (Young & ichardson, 2007; Koza & Smith, 2010). The teacher has a responsibility to treat all situations and students…
Koza, W. & Smith, J. (2010). Managing an Early Childhood Classroom. Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education.
Young, M. & Richardson, L. (2007). Early Childhood Development from Measurement to Action. Washington DC: The World Bank.
Low-structured classrooms have more dialogue between the teacher and the students as well, according to PAW (2009).
Capizzi (2009) notes that it is easy to visit a variety of classrooms and see how each one has its own style and its own feel. Teachers can get very creative when it comes to structuring and decorating their classrooms, which is nice, but teachers have to be careful that they organize the classroom in a way that supports and encourages teaching and learning. For example, how the desks (both teachers and students) are arranged, as well as how bookshelves and tables are arranged, and decor -- all make a difference when it comes to creating a supportive classroom (2009). While decor and arrangement is vital to a supportive classroom, Capizzi (2009) also states that taking the students' ages into account is also quite important. On another note, students should be able to…
Capizzi, a.M. "Start the year off right: designing and evaluating a supportive classroom management plan." Focus on exceptional children,42(3): 1-12.
above). Seating Edward near the teachers desk results in less external distraction, more hands-on management, and while the teacher may need to review instructions because of the lack of proximity to the chalkboard, Edward will have fewer distractions and be able to focus more on his work.
While there is no "ideal" classroom seating arrangement because of the differences in the classroom makeup, age of students, and activities, I believe that the classroom should not be static. Student desks are easily moved, and as long as the teacher's desk, computer station and chalkboard remain stable, then I would likely have two ways of organizing the room:
A -- Lecture, film, presentation or group even in which I wanted all eyes on me, minimal collaboration, testing, individual work, etc. Note that in this arrangement student contact is limited, students who are behavior or attention problems would be seated in the first…
Jones, F. (2004, September 4). Do Seating Arrangements and Assignments = Classroom Management? Retrieved January 2011, from Education World: http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr330.shtml
Classroom Management, and Organization Plan for a Pre-K Trainable Mentally Handicapped (TMH) class with students ages 3-5. The plan reflects one's leadership and management style in order to develop a comprehensive plan for effective classroom management and discipline. The assignment addresses areas like content, conduct, and covenant management, establishment, and teaching of classroom procedures, development and teaching of classroom rules and consequences, prevention of problems, establishment of positive relationships, students with special needs, students with varying ability levels, socio-economic, cultural, ethnic, gender, and linguistic needs, stages of cognitive and moral development, interests, and learning styles, Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, and home- school connection or communication with parents.
A student who is mentally handicapped means one who has sub-average general cognitive functioning and as a result has a lower level of learning. Along with this deficiency in adaptive behavior, could also be noted during the developmental period. As a…
Froyen, L.A., & Iverson, A.M. (1999). "Schoolwide and classroom management: The reflective educator-leader" (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Marks, J.W., Van Laeys, J., Bender, W.N., & Scott, K.S. (1996, Summer). "Teachers create learning strategies: Guidelines for classroom creation. Teaching Exceptional Children."
Hannah, Mary Elizabeth, and Pliner, Susan. (1983) "Teacher Attitudes Toward Handicapped Children: A Review and Synthesis." School Psychology Review12 12-25
Alexander, Cara, and Strain, Philip S. (1978) "A Review of Educators' Attitudes Toward Handicapped Children and the Concept of Mainstreaming." Psychology in the Schools 15:390-396
I often read them books about children from different cultures getting along together, and we also sing songs related to different cultures. Also, when a child asks me a question about why certain children look different or speak differently, I answer them in a loving and honest manner.
I feel it is important to help each child feel accepted in the group, help children learn to communicate and get along with others, and encourage feelings of empathy and mutual respect among children and adults. Therefore my goal is to encourage social interaction that promotes togetherness without eclipsing individuality; and to encourage communication skills that are socially acceptable but not overly constrained.
Some of the activities I provide to promote social skills and cooperation include:
Group games such as telephone and "who has the button?"
Eating together at the same time in the same area
Formal introductions of new…
Source: Gardner H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice, New York: Basic Books
Classroom management is one of the greatest stressors American teachers cite with respect to their jobs.. Teachers feel pressured by the demands of increasingly stringent curriculum standards and results-oriented, high-stakes testing. Many believe they could teach much more effectively if they did not have to deal with so many behavior problems. For these reasons, it is interesting to explore behavior problems from the perspective of Chinese elementary school teachers, who work in an environment Americans perceive as more highly structured and strict.
Researchers surveyed 527 elementary school teachers in five Chinese provinces. Although their perception of time spent on classroom management was lower than reported by teachers in the U.., 34% compared to more than 50%, Chinese teachers reported frustration with the amount of time wasted in addressing behavior issues (hen, Zhang, Zhang, Caldarella, Richardson & hatzer (2009, p. 187). The researchers began by interviewing a small group of teachers…
Shen, J., Zhang, N., Zhang, C., Caldarella, P., Richardson, M., & Shatzer, R.H. (2009).
Chinese elementary school teachers' perceptions of students' classroom behaviour problems. Educational Psychology 29 (2), pp. 187-201. Retrieved from Academic
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Behavioral Theorist Diane avitch
Classroom Management: Behavioral Theorist Diane avitch
It is clear that teachers do play many roles in a typical classroom, but mainly one of the most vital is that of a classroom manager. Effective learning and teaching and is not able to take place in a classroom that is poorly managed. If students are disrespectful and disorderly, and no apparent rules and events guide behavior, chaos turns out to be the norm. As a new teacher facing their first classroom experience, they will be bombarded with information. esearch has displayed that the quality of teacher-student associations is the basis for all other features of classroom management. Additional, research has displayed that teachers who had high-quality relations with their students had rarer discipline problems and rule desecrations than those who did not have high-quality associations. Nevertheless, Diane avitch was a woman that has plenty of classroom strategies in…
Braswell, L. B. (2005). Cognitive-behavioral therapy with ADHD. New York: Guilford Press.
DiGangi, S. & . (2015). A component analysis of self-management training with behaviorally disordered youth. Behavioral Disorders,, 9, 281-290.
Linsin, M. (2015, March 5). Six classroom management tips for new teachers. Retrieved from Teacher Network: http://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/2015/oct/08/classroom-management-tips-new-teachers
Ravitch, D. (2014, March 24). The Myth of Charter Schools. Retrieved from The New York Review of Books: http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2010/11/11/myth-charter-schools/
Philosophy and Theories
Children have a need to be loved and feel self-worth (The Glasser Approach, 2010). Relationships between teachers and students are important to build self-management, self-efficacy, motivation, and engagement in students for success. In order to manage behavior, teachers need to know how a student learns, what motivates them, and what structures and routines work best for a student to learn.
Children seek meaning in information and reconstruct that information to make it their own. The individuality in students causes them to learn in different ways. Teachers can collaborate with students to develop a meaningful construction of information that leads to higher thinking skills (Vygotsky, 2014). In collaboration, teachers help develop students as learners where they can learn different ways to learn. It teaches a child self-management skills as they learn to take responsibility for their own learning and behaviors.
Individual performance gives the student information for self-evaluation…
Bauman, E. (2009, Nov 1). Discipline with Dignity: Curwin and Mendler. Retrieved from Manchester University: http:///users.manchester.edu/Student/ekbauman/Prof...
Hicks, S. (2012, May 31). Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management. Retrieved from Liberty University: http://digitaleommons.liberty.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1598&...
Schunk, D. (1985). Self-Efficacy and Classroom Learning. Pschology in the Schools, 22(2), 208-223 retrieved from http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/D_Schunk_Self_1985 ...
Simonsen, B. e. (2008). Evidence-Based Practices in Classroom Management: Considerations for Research to Practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380 Retrieved from http://www.mepbis.org/docs/cace-11-15-10-PBISclassroom.pdf.
Classroom management theories including learning behavior theory are the foundations through which teachers can develop emotionally safe classroom where all students can learn. For instance, learning behavior theory helps in creating suitable instructional interventions for management of routine misbehaviors, increasing intrinsic and extrinsic behavior, and encouraging positive social interaction, self-motivation and active engagement. An example of a situation that could benefit from the use of learning behavior theory is Carol's scenario who has some behavior issues. Some of Carol's major behavioral issues include talking a lot, especially off the subject matter, poor concentration when she thinks the lesson is boring, being distracted by her friend, Frankie, and the need to be reminded to get back to her work.
Carol's Negative Behaviors:
One of Carol's major problems in the classroom is talking a lot, mostly off topic or the subject matter, which results in her constant interruptions of the learning activities…
"Behavioral, Cognitive, Humanist Approaches." (n.d.). Euromed Info. Retrieved March 3, 2014,
Darling-Hammond et. al. (n.d.). Session 5 -- Feelings Count: Emotions and Learning. Retrieved March 3, 2014, from http://www.learner.org/courses/learningclassroom/support/05_emotions_learning.pdf
DeLong, M. & Winter, D. (2002). Motivating Students. Retrieved from Vanderbilt University
My personal teaching philosophy for the adolescent setting is largely founded on the results of multiple studies assessing the various changes that students at this development stage experience. This is more so the case with regard to the neurological reorganization of the brains of those at this stage which, as Derrick points out, have been largely mapped using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (32). It is by way of understanding these behaviors that “educators can look at behavioral management interventions as opportunities to facilitate brain development as opposed to emotional confrontation” (Derrick 32).
The behavioral management interventions I would adopt are mindful of diversity and supportive of those at this stage of development affected by gender role changes. Towards this end, the need to have in place concise and clear equality-promoting rules in place cannot be overstated. The said rules ought to address standards of engagement and interaction amongst students so…
Derrick, Mears. “Adolescent Brain Development and Implications for Classroom Management.” Journal for Physical and Sport Educators, vol. 25, no. 6, 2012, pp. 32-34.
Classroom Management: Hands on or Hands off?
The issue of classroom management is a complex one in today’s world, especially as the issue of how to educate has taken on so many different dimensions over the previous decades. There are so many different schools of thought on the best way to educate that managing the classroom and instilling discipline is also impacted by these myriad voices and perspectives. This paper will focus on the issue of classroom management at the high school level and address the problem by examining whether character education, praise and relationship building can be facilitative types of classroom management approaches that can serve as effective strategies to classroom management.
The problem of classroom management and whether or not teachers should adopt a hands on or hands off approach to discipline has largely been impacted by the philosophical underpinnings of the modern era, which have…
My classroom management theory is based on a constructivist approach to learning, which implies that there is a mutual responsibility between the learner and the instructor to move forward with the learning experience. My current position is in the First Grade, which at times can make this somewhat challenging. In many ways, First Grade is a segue into a "real" school atmosphere: longer day, more academics, less play, stricter expectations, social growth, challenging social and academic environment and more. Often, the first few months of First Grade are transitions into expected behaviors and a more regimented school day, so classroom management can be challenging at times. Overall, I have been using placement of students (moving desks, etc.), challenging paced lessons and a reward system for good behavior, excellence in teamwork, assignments, etc. By in large, this has been quite effective for this level of student, most of whom…
Sutton-Smith, B. (1997). The Ambiguity of Play. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
The National Institute for Play. (2011). Play Science -- The Patterns of Play. Retrieved from: http://www.nifplay.org/states_play.html
Rimm-Kaufman, S., et al. (2009). The Contribution of Children's Self-Regulation and Classroom Quality to Children's Adaptive Behaviors. Journal of Developmental Psychology. 45 (4), 958-72.
Schneider, M. (2003). Linking School Conditions to Teacher Satisfaction. Retrieved from: http://www.edfacilities.org/pubs/teachersurvey.pdf
Classroom Arrangement and Early Childhood Autism
The arrangement of the classroom environment could effectively meet the individual needs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as the room is neatly divided, which helps ASD children delineate borders and boundaries, and bright colors are used to help convey important information—like the class schedule, vocabulary words on the board to learn, and so on. There is also plenty of space for peer interaction, which Bene, Banda and Brown (2014) note is helpful for peer-mediated instruction, as it allows students to discuss with one another and communicate more freely without obstacles getting the way.
There are also several lamps in one area to help give light and make the room brighter. The lamps are helpful for reading and give a warm, lively atmosphere to the classroom. They are like living room lamps so have the added benefit of being inviting and welcoming. As…
The proposed classroom management technique seeks to foster democracy because a culture of responsibility and freedom is promoted in the learning environment. As a teacher, I have comfortably adapted to using this model because it gives my students equal opportunities of interacting and responding to classroom issues. In the end, I can satisfy the needs of the majority. Since the environment is safe, their constitutional rights are guaranteed and rules applied are fair to all students. In such a classroom, all students are given equal opportunities especially in the formulation of programs and policies. Moreover, all students will be involved in the decision-making process because no discrimination exists in such a learning environment. Therefore, the learning environment fosters sharing among students especially in the maintenance of discipline, control and even the promotion of meaningful learning process (Dreikurs, Grunwald, & Pepper, 2013).
In the current classroom, I ensure that all students…
Punishment should be equal, and no favoritism is employed. ules enable a teacher to maintain control of the classroom. Maintaining a good classroom behavior is easier than trying to correct inappropriate behavior. Students who have established inappropriate behavior will resist any changes that a teacher attempts in order to correct their behavior. Therefore, it is better for a teacher to maintain order and discipline for the classroom at all times. Establishing clear guidelines and rules, which have consequences if broken will ensure that students maintain good behavior. Parental influence is vital in maintaining discipline of the students. Parents will be kept in the know of their children behavior, and they can also administer disciplinary measures at home.
Students should also be made to understand that disciplinary measures are undertaken to teach them and prepare them for the future. Good student behavior is vital as it protects other students and ensures…
Evertson, C.M., & Weinstein, C.S. (2006). Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues. Florence, Kentucky: LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC Incorporated.
Mehra, R. (2004). Classroom Management. Manhattan, New York: Pinnacle Technology.
Shaw, R. (2008). Philosophy in the Classroom: Improving Your Pupils' Thinking Skills and Motivating Them to Learn. Florence, Kentucky: ROUTLEDGE CHAPMAN & HALL.
Class room management holds extreme importance in the process of teaching. It is mandatory for a teacher to manage her class effectively in order to achieve her predetermined instructional goals. 'Successful classroom management involves much more than rules and discipline. Indeed research into classroom management demonstrates that effective teachers are proactive about student behavior, and they involve students in the process of establishing and maintaining rules and routines'. (Strong, 2007)
An effective instructional is dependent on various factors, and a properly managed classroom is definitely one of those factors. There is no way that a teacher can achieve her desire objective, if the process of teaching is taking place in a poorly managed classroom. A properly managed classroom along with attractive materials can definitely attract the attention of students and involve them in the process of learning. Management of classroom is also important to avoid any unnecessary wastage…
Evertson, C.M, & Weinstein, C.S. (2006). Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (p.51)
Mcleod, J, Fisher, J, & Hoover, G. (2003). The Key Elements of Classroom Management: Managing Time and Space, Student. Alexandria, USA: ASCD Publication.(p. 75)
Stronge, J.H. (2007). Qualities of Effective Teachers. Alexandria, USA: ASCD Publication. (p.40)
Another important aspect of observational learning is retention. For effective classroom management to take place it is important the students understand and retain the few classroom management rules that will be set out in the beginning of the year.
aise hand to speak
Treat others with respect
If you don't know then please ask
The retention factor with regard to classroom management will be reinforced each time the students witness another student having to suit out for five minutes of recess because they failed to respond appropriately to the clapping signal for attention. In addition we will have a weekly short discussion about classroom rules and why they are important and how the students can help themselves and each other to remember what they are.
The production step in the path to observational learning with regard to effective classroom management will be easily found in the response of the class…
Horner, Sherri L (2001) the EFFECTS of OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING on PRESCHOOLERS' BOOK-RELATED BEHAVIORS and ALPHABET KNOWLEDGE.(Statistical Data Included) Child Study Journal
Houseal, Ana (2003) Self-efficacy, standards, and benchmarks as factors in teaching elementary school science. Journal of Elementary Science Education
Newman, Jean (1999) in the Trenches: Increasing Competency of Teachers-in Training by Having Them Conduct Individualized Interventions.
Journal of Instructional Psychology
Journal Entry 1
Discourse on classroom management has shifted away from a disciplinarian and authoritarian model towards one more steeped in developmental psychology, social justice, and compassion. Within a new educational paradigm, teachers can provide structure in the classroom without expecting “conformity” or “obedience” per se (Jones, Jones & Vermette, 2013, p. 21). Teachers working within a classroom management paradigm that emphasizes trust and relationship building create far more effective educational environments.
Still, teachers do need to be armed with information and specific strategies. Some of the strategies recommended including improved awareness of non-verbal communication cues and a systematic means of redirecting and reframing problematic behavior (Jones, Jones & Vermette, 2013). Effective classroom management requires sensitivity to issues like cultural diversity and other contextual variables, too. The authoritarian approach does not work with adolescent students, especially, requiring teachers to develop a flexible and creative approach to problem solving in the…
Classroom Management and the Escalating Child
Every classroom has one, a disruptive child. This includes the non-compliant student, the combative student, the student who engages in inappropriate nonverbal communication, and the attention grabber whose behavior escalates. This last type student is the subject of this paper. I will tell you about a child I observed first, then summarize an article on classroom management, and attempt to apply the principles in the article to the problem I observed with this child.
I visited a kindergarten in a nice, clean school in a working class neighborhood. The building was old but well-kept and spacious. The children walked to school from their homes. Most of the children were white with a few black and hispanics here and there. Classes were not overcrowded. This particular kindergarten with 17 students convened all day, not the usual morning or afternoon. The room was attractive, cheerful,…
Albin, R.W. (2003). Twelve practical strategies to prevent behavioral escalation in the classroom. Preventing School Failure, 47, 4 (summer), 156-6l.
Education - Classroom Management
Relationship etween the Use of ehavior Contracts and Student's Ability to Stay on Task
An Introduction to ehavioral Contracting
In dealing with children, there are cases when a teacher encounters a child who does not behave in a normal way as other children do. For instance, a child may show constant inattentiveness to learning, or may demonstrate irresponsiveness to discipline. A child with such disruptive behaviors oftentimes requires special attention and monitoring as part of a process of modifying an unpleasant behavior into an appropriate one. One strategy used to deal behavioral difficulties of a child is ehavioral Contracting. From Family Education Network (online), the following is a definition of behavioral contracting.
A behavioral contract is a written contract that specifies the child's behavioral obligations in meeting the terms of the contract and the teacher's (or parent's) obligations once the child has met his or her…
Watson, Christopher. Behavior Modification, A Proactive Intervention for the Classroom.
2003. University of Minnesota. 28 November 2003. http://ici2.umn.edu/preschoolbehavior/tip_sheets/behmod.htm
Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood & Adolescence. 28 November 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2602/0000/2602000079/p1/article.jhtml
Successful classroom management is a central component of a productive educational environment. Without it, otherwise valuable learning activities can be rendered less effective or even fruitless. Teachers are acutely aware of this phenomenon and strive to maintain order in their classrooms. While universal tactics, such as proximity, direct instruction, and the provision of high-interest activities, generally prevent potential disarray, there are moments when personalized techniques more successfully address management issues.
The issue of inattentive students is a troublesome one for many teachers. The reasons for distractibility are numerous. However, by thoroughly investigating why a particular student cannot or will not pay attention in class, teachers can more quickly and accurately respond to this dilemma. There is a subpopulation of gifted and talented students who seem to be perpetually lost during large portions of instructional activities. Oftentimes the underlying cause is due to disorganization, rather than disinterest or boredom. These distracted…
Suggested rules for the classroom are: (a) arrive prepared; (b) follow directions immediately; - work during work times; and (d) keep to yourself. (ressi, nd)
4) Develop consequences for common rule infractions and be sure to (a) Fit to the nature of the problem; (b) implement calmly and consistently; and -implement as immediately as possible and in the setting in which the infraction occurs. (ressi, nd)
5) Design routines for the following: (a) Attendance/tardiness procedures; (b)Heading papers; - Assigning work; (d) Homework; (e) Late work; (f) rining materials to and from class; and (g) Collecting work
6) Prepare lessons on behavioral expectations for each major activity. It is necessary to "identify critical content: 'What do students need to now in order to behave responsibly?" (ressi, nd) e sure to make each activity clear in terms of: (a) Conversation; (b) Help; - Activity; (d) Movement; and (f) Participation. (ressi, nd) ressi…
Bressi, Rob (nd) CHAMPs: Proactive and Positive Classroom Management. PBS Coordinator, Springfield Public Schools. Online available at http://www.lblesd.k12.or.us/student/download/Bressi-CHAMPs.pdf
Sprick, Randy; Garrison, Mickey; and Howard, Lisa M. (2007) CHAMPS: A Proactive and Positive Approach to Classroom Management. Pacific-Northwest Publishing. 2007.
Classroom Management: CHAMPS
Fitness Business Trends
Three current trends in classroom management
One recent trend in classroom management is a stress on defined goals and expectations. The popular classroom behavioral management program Wong's Pragmatic Theory "stresses that classroom procedures and rules are clarified at the very beginning of the school year. Teachers are to instruct students how to follow rules and procedures. The teacher prepares lessons about the rules and procedures so that he or she can thoroughly teach the kids about the classroom procedures and rules" (Miller 2013). This stress upon predictability is also commensurate with such philosophies as behavioral theory, which emphasizes how student behavior can be shaped and reformed through goal-setting. Students are given goals to strive for and then are rewarded for reaching those goals. For students with behavioral issues this can be useful given that it provides concrete, reward-based mechanisms for improvement. The need for greater adherence to…
Behavior management. Sage Publications. Retrieved from:
Lynch, M. (2013). Future trends in K-12 classroom management. Education Week. Retrieved http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/education_futures/2013/11/future_trends_in_k-12_classroom_management_and_discipline.html
Miller, K. Wong's Pragmatic Theory: Advantages over disadvantages. Enroll.com. Retrieved from: http://blog.enroll.com/view-post/Wongs-Pragmatic-Theory-Advantages-Over-Disadvantages
Evidence-Based Homework Policy
Homework enables a student to better learn what is being taught in the classroom. It gives more experience of the subject principals. At the same time, homework and homework policies teach students social interaction skills, self-motivation, and active engagement skills and promote best practices in these areas. Homework policies work better based on grade levels of the student.
Ms. Zalogwe's homework policy does promote social interaction. Human use tools from their culture, such as reading, writing, etc., to develop social functions (Vygotsky, 2014). A teacher's collaboration with students to develop meaningful construction leads to higher thinking skills. This in turn, builds social interactions with others. Students learn communication skills that builds interactions with others.
Self-efficacy enhances motivation for more learning and skill building (Schunk, 1985). As homework brings more practice with classroom activities, students gain more confidence in what they are learning. This would also apply to…
Schunk, D. (1985). Self-Efficacy and Classroom Learning. Pschology in the Schools, 22(2), 208-223 retrieved from http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/D_Schunk_Self_1985 ...
Simonsen, B. e. (2008). Evidence-Based Practices in Classroom Management: considerations for Research to Practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380 retrieved from http://www.mepbis.org/docs/cace-11-15-10-PBISclassroom.pdf.
Vygotsky. (2014). Social Development Theory (Vygotsky). Retrieved from Learning Theories.com: http://learning-theories.comvygotskys-social-learning-theory.html
Tips on Classroom Management
Managing an effective learning process in a classroom is like driving on the street. Sometimes you can speed up, but when the street is crowded, you can barely move at all.
Many factors contribute to successful classroom management: organized curriculum, students' background, students' motivation, available resources, clear lesson plan and organization, collaboration from the school and environment, discipline, supportive learning environment, and also relationship between the teacher and the students, and among the students inside the class.
Unfortunately, teachers cannot apply single management strategy to every class. There are no classes that have the exact same profile when compared to each other. In the beginning of the term and continuously, teachers need to identify the students profile, their best performances, and their problems, to ensure equal achievement for everyone.
Now, of course the 'traffic jam' needs the highlight. While teachers work hard to take control, why…
Gazin, A. (1999). Keeping Them On The Edge of Their Seats. Instructor Magazine August 1999.
Girard, K.L. (1995). Preparing Teachers for Conflict Resolution in the Schools. ERIC Digest No. ED387456. ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education Washington DC.
Long, J.D., Biggs, J.C., and Hinson, J.T. (1999). Perceptions of Education Majors and Experienced Teachers Regarding Factors that Contribute to Successful Classroom Management. Journal of Instructional Psychology June 1999.
Wheeler, E.J. (1994). Peer Conflicts in the Classroom. ERIC Digest No. ED372874. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Urbana IL.
Any type of assessment, whether it is personality-based, or a standardized assessment of ability, should be used to inform and guide learning, rather than to limit students. Adult students may have more formed personality traits and a greater wealth of life experiences, but they are still capable of change and growth like younger students.
Furthermore, adults are often more willing partners in the learning process and better-equipped to engage in self-directed learning to realize a goal. Educators themselves are on a learning journey and "if educators see self-directed learning as the goal of their work with learners but not themselves, there is a discrepancy in their perspective."
Cranton offers practical suggestions to the educator so he or she can become a transformative teacher, as well as engage in transformative education of the self. Keeping a journal, writing down one's philosophy of practice, contrasting one's philosophy with other educators, and viewing…
Cranton, Patricia. Professional development as transformative learning. Jossey Bass, 1996.
Patricia Cranton, Professional development as transformative learning (Jossey Bass, 1996), pp. 3-4.
Cranton, p. 123.
Cranton, p. 121.
To become successful, consequences are to be applied consistently and they never are to be physically or psychologically injurious to the student. (Wiggins, Classroom Management Plan)
Features about the techniques that I like These techniques enable to mend the behavior of the students who do not respond to conventional discipline. It promotes student involvement because it makes learning attractive and fun and particularly because of the focus being provided to the expectations and needs of the students and also because of the dignity and respect provided to the students. (Wiggins, Classroom Management Plan)
Features of the techniques about which you have reservations
While the students are not accepting the consequences for breaking the rule of the class it is sometimes imperative to infuse the Insubordination ule i.e. The student will not be allowed to remain the class until the consequence is being accepted, which is a part of the technique…
Classroom Management Plan" Retrieved at http://www.ius.edu/education/Elementary/new%20portfolio/Standard%202-all%20here/Copy%20of%20Classroom%20Management%20Plan.htm . Accessed 28 September, 2005
Enhancing Communication and Instruction via the Internet" (March 14, 2001) NYSCSS
Convention. Retrieved at http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/NYSCSS_Pres.htm . Accessed 28 September, 2005
Project Management Guide: Classroom Management Plan" Retrieved at http://k12science.ati.stevens-tech.edu/training/projectmgt/classroommgt.html. Accessed 28 September, 2005
Classrooms are diverse environments, characterized by students from varying backgrounds, and with varying needs and skill levels. It is from this diversity and the recognition of how it contributes to the richness of a learning environment that the concept of differentiated instruction arises. Through differentiated education, students representing diversity have the opportunity to learn in environments that promote inclusion, unity, and understanding. An investigation into the effects of differentiated instructional curriculum for a fifth-grade science class demonstrated that both teachers and students reported a significantly higher degree of satisfaction with methods and materials used in differentiated instruction as opposed to typical instruction (McCrea et al., 2009). Similar results were found in a study that investigated the effectiveness of differentiated instruction in the realm of physical education curriculum (Kriakides & Tsangaridou, 2008).
Developing and putting into practice differentiated instruction curricula involves shifts in planning, execution, and assessments that require flexibility and…
Hall, T., Strangman, N., Meyer, A. (2011). Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation: effective classroom practices report. National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum, retrieved 19 October, 2011 from http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/differentiated_instruction_udl .
Holloway, J.H. (2000). Preparing teachers for differentiated instruction, Educational Leadership, September, 82-3.
Kyriakides, L. & Tsangaridou, N. (2008). Towards the development of generic and differentiated models of educational effectiveness: a study on school and teacher effectiveness in physical education. British Educational Research Journal, 34(6), 807-38.
Lawrence-Brown, D. (2004). Differentiated instruction: inclusive strategies for standards-based learning that benefit the whole class. American Secondary Education, 32(3), 34-64.
Classroom Behavior Management
Developing a classroom that takes cultural diversity into account begins with understanding one's own ethnocentrism, that a lot of what we take for granted pertains specifically to our own cultural upbringing. Children who come from other cultures -- and their parents -- may well have different ideas and ideals. It is important to learn about the different cultures that are present in my classroom, as a starting point for understanding. A lot of developing an inclusive classroom involves listening to students and parents, so as to understand their cultures better, and how that pertains to the classroom. My plan would have specific Tier 1 rules, governing the basics of classroom behavior that are not subject to question on the basis of culture. But there will also need to be more of an individualized (Tier 2) approach, where some students from other cultures might receive special attention, or…
Traditionally, the behavior of the student disturbing the class would be stopped by the intervention of the teacher. Peace would be restored in the classroom and the incident would be discussed and punished later on during direct and face-to-face-to-face interactions between the student and the teacher. Nevertheless, in few circumstances, it is possible for the misbehavior to be generated by positive intents and to generate positive outcomes, in such a case the intervention of the teacher being put off. Examples in this sense include those of a student trying to stimulate his classmates to enhance their performances at a sports activity or other curricular or extracurricular activity. The teacher's ability to make the differences between the positive and negative types of misbehavior -- and to as such decide his intervention -- can only be obtained through the completion of the first step.
Finally, at the third stage, the misbehavior would…
Aves, M., 2010, What are some similarities of behavior and misbehavior in discipline management, eHow, http://www.ehow.com/list_7368943_similarities-behavior-misbehavior-discipline-management_.html last accessed on November 8, 2010
Durmuscelebi, M., 2010, Investigating students misbehavior in classroom management in state and primate primary schools with a competitive approach, Education, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3673/is_3_130/ai_n52943088 / last accessed on November 8, 2010
Bullying: Legal and Ethical Application
Bullying is a common social evil that requires the intervention of all school stakeholders. This study shows that bullying students should not be reprimanded negatively because it may accelerate the bullying trait. This can be achieved if a manager develops social goals based on reconciliation. This report attempts to balance the legal and ethical responses in bullying. The report will use Johnny and Tommy case study on bullying to reflect on the management actions based on reconciliation and integrity. The balance between legal and ethical ramifications in responding to bullying incidences is addressed. The concepts learned will be important in handling cases similar to the case study presented.
A case study (Management situation in a first grade classroom)
Johnny is well built and slightly bigger than most of his peers in class. As a result, he has been using his muscular advantages to exercising bullying…
Drew, N. (2010). No Kidding about Bullying: 125 Ready-to-use Activities to Help Kids
Manage Anger, Resolve Conflicts, Build Empathy, and Get Along, Grades 3-6. Free
Lavesque, R. (2003). Sexuality Education: What Adolescents' Rights Require. Nova Publishers
He wished to build the happiest place on the planet and this message continues to be handed over to the new recruits who join the organization presently also. Disney exists to give a guarantee to the Americans that are there for real. Disneyland is not just unreal, rather it is hyper-real. As a result it is possible to express of the corporate culture of Disney as being created. ("eading Organizations from behavior and experience to representation and experience," n. d.)
4) Explain how the four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture
The four functions of management support the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture as it leads to planning, organizing, leading and coordinating of resources and it is these 4 activities which recur across the institution and are extremely unified. Present features relating to management cover claims leading are distinct from…
Arnold, Paul. V. (2002) "Fixing manufacturing" MRO Today Magazine, Retrieved at http://www.progressivedistributor.com/mro/archives/mro%20coach/Lynch/FixingJJ02.htm
Bryman, Alan. (1995) "Disney and His World"
N.A. (2007) "Disney Institute Homepage" Retrieved at http://www.disneyinstitute.com/index.cfm
I will address the group with a general overview of the problems the company is facing, with the assertion that I believe it can be rectified. I will ask each employee to work together for the good of the company and its survival in the e-business world. The purpose of the conference will then be to involve every employee in restructuring the company in a more effective way.
To achieve this, I would divide the employees into smaller groups of 10 members or so each. The first issue to address is the vision, mission and goals. Each group will be asked to come up with suggestions. The second step will be to identify the various actions to reach the goals, and the third step will be to more effectively restructure the company. For the latter, the groups will be provided with a list of the divisions within the company. They…
Management Theory vs. Organizational Functions
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is useful for raising awareness of the contribution between job challenge and responsibility in motivating employees toward higher productivity and employee retention. It has also been useful in identifying and assessing customer satisfaction characteristics. Fishbein's Reasoned Action Theory is useful for explaining why particular behaviors are happening and the underlying causes of the behavior. Both theories are useful for identifying problem areas and planning actions for improvement in organizational behaviors.
According to (Bolm, 2012), the Two-factor Theory claims individual perception of satisfaction or dissatisfaction relates to discrete intrinsic and extrinsic variables where a variable can uniquely influence satisfaction or dissatisfaction, but not both. Motivator (intrinsic) factors include achievement, recognition, and responsibility where hygiene (extrinsic) factors include policy, status, and security. Motivator factors, when present, increase job motivation and satisfaction, but, when not present, show no effect. Hygiene factors, when present, show no…
Bolm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory-at the intersection of health care management and patient satisfaction. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res., vol 4, 277-285 Retrieved from http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3468274.
Dartey-Baah, K. & . (2011). Application of Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory in assessing and understanding employee motivation at work: A Ghanian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management 3(9).
Peters, R.M. (2010). Theory of Planned Behavior, Self-Care Motivation, and Blood Pressure Self-Care. Res Theory Nurs Pract, 24(3), 172-186 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm, nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728772.
Sukato, N. & . (2009). A Model of Male Consumer Behavior in Buying Skin Care Products in Thailand. ABAC Journal, 29(1), 39-52 Retrieved from http://www.abacjournal.au.edu/2009/jan09/article03_JanApr2009.pdf .
Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills
Antisocial behavior in schools in on the rise and has become a concern in school systems, from both a learning perspective and from a safety perspective, as well. Previously, schools have dealt with such behaviors using punitive measures such as expulsion, or even law enforcement measures to attempt to discourage youth from behaving in an undesirable manner. These programs have had little or no effect on curbing behavior problems in schools. Second Step and Boys Town are programs, which implement a positive approach to behavior management. These programs teach youth alternatives to violence and stress problem solving, coping, and conflict management. These programs have had considerably greater success than their predecessors. This research will qualitatively explore the theoretical issues behind the success of these two programs and take a critical look at them to explore ways in which they may be further improved for…
Butterworth, F. (1998, July 26). Why the South's murder rate is so high. The New York Times on the Web. ( http://www.nytimes.com )
Capra. F. (1996). The Web of Life. New York: Anchor Books.
Carlson, N.R. (1994). Physiology of behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Cohen, D., Nisbett, R.E., & Bowdle, B.F. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: an "experimental ethnography." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945-960.
e. Lindle 1996). Also, the conflict management design under the SBM structure does not work well under dictatorship; in fact when the principal becomes too domineering, the researches showed obvious instances of dissatisfaction amongst the staff and decreased incentive from the students to work and engage in the learning process. The conflict management design under the SBM structure is heavily dependent upon the contribution of the committees and cannot succeed without it. Numerous studies have shown that the most ineffective principals have been the ones who have appointed committees but haven't given them enough authority over the real executive tasks or enough room to perform and contribute to the overall managerial structure. The problem, as highlighted in numerous studies, with this approach is that there is an obvious tussle for authority between the principal, the teachers and the peripheral agencies like the investors. This tussle has a negative effect on…
Arnott, M.A. And Raab, C.D. (2000). The Governance of Schooling: Comparative Studies of Devolved Management. Routledge. London.
Bryk, A., Sebring, P., Easton, J., Luppescu, S., Thum, Y., Nagaoka, J. And Bilcer, D. (1998a). 'Chicago School Reform: Linkages Between Local Control, Organizational Change, and Student Achievement. The American Educational Research Association. San Diego.
Bryk, A., Sebring, P., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S. And Easton, J. (1998b). Charting Chicago School Reform: Democratic Localism as Lever for Change, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
David, J. (1996). The Who, What, and Why of Site-based Management. Educational Leadership, 53-4:4-9.
DISCPLINE vs. Management
Compare Discipline and Management
Discipline in the classroom is often equated with punishment, although punishment is only one of the tools of discipline that can be used by a teacher. One common definition of discipline is "teaching others right from wrong" with "methods to prevent or respond to behavior problems so they do not occur" (Behavior management, Sage Publications, 5). Discipline's "most typical current meaning seems to be most associated with the notion of bringing children into line" (Allen 2010). In my own personal classroom vocabulary, I think of discipline as informing students of expected consequences, both good and bad, such as if a student turns in all of his homework on time he gets a sticker at the end of the week but if he does not he has to do an extra assignment. In other words, discipline is a way of dealing with problems and…
Allen, K.P. (2010). Classroom management, bullying, and teacher practices. The Professional
Educator, 34(1), 1-15.
Behavior management. Sage Publications. Retrieved from:
control group as well as potential other study groups (grade level and ability level
DCS2 -- Field Notes/Observational ecords -- Observation of the above classes engaged in either a various lessons; take detailed notes on behaviors observed and current strategies being use to refocus or mitigate that behavior.
DCS3 -- Audiotaped Interviews (Children) -- Interview students about ways they believe behavior or management intervention can be effective. Students innately understand that certain behaviors are acceptable and certain ones unacceptable, within the classroom. Use this to get their view on how they believe a teacher can be effective in classroom management and what that means to them.
DCS4 -- Interviews with experts -- Similarly, interview experts in the field of behavioral psychology, long-term teachers, or specialists in classroom management to discuss appropriate levels of classroom management and intervention techniques.
DCS5 -- Behavioral Scales -- Once literature review and interviews are complete,…
Churchward, B. (2009). 11 Techniques for Better Classroom Discipline. Discipline by
Design. Cited in:
Craig, D.V. (2009). Action Research Essentials. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Restructuring the Classroom: Conditions for Productive Small Groups," Elizabeth G. Cohen surveys, analyses, and critiques research in the field of cooperative learning and small class group productivity. Finding that small group learning can be eminently productive for both academic and social reasons, the author extrapolates from prior research which methods of learning and instruction are the most productive and also describes how to create and maintain "desirable kinds of interaction," (1). In particular, Cohen finds that open exchange and elaborated discussion are necessary for successful conceptual learning. This article attempts to build upon current and past studies to offer to the academic community an outline of the most favorable means of small classroom management. The author's intention is not meta-analysis but rather to introduce potential areas of fruitful research in appropriate areas.
Cohen's paper is well-organized and thorough in its scope. The introduction is succinct and to-the-point, and is immediately…
Cohen, Elizabeth. "Restructuring the Classroom: Conditions for Productive Small Groups." Review of Educational Research. Spring 1994, Vol. 64, No. 1. P. 1-35.
Fieldwork Paper and Fieldwork Form
The purpose of the fieldwork is to observe the two certified special education teachers and make connections to course content within real world classroom settings. One of the schools where the observation was conducted is P.S. / I.S. 266 whose address is 74-10 Commonwealth Blvd, Jamaica, NY 11426 (P.S. / I.S. 266, 2018). The school, which falls under New York City Public Schools district, is a pre-kindergarten to eighth grade learning institution that was established in September 2003 and has a student population of nearly 700 students. The second school is CLASP, which is located at 80 Grace Avenue, Great Neck NY, 11021 (CLASP Children’s Center, n.d.). This pre-kindergarten setting seeks to provide quality childcare for working parents and has existed for more than 35 years. This paper provides a summary of observations made in each of these schools as part of this fieldwork.
Compare and contrast prior impressions of teaching with the reality of your experiences in the classroom.
The moment teachers fresh out of college to get into the class environment, what they might have expected and what they encounter in the class can often be different (Melnick & Meister, 2008). The education profession is often a more complex profession than what many anticipate. Individuals who choose teaching as a profession should review why they did so in the first place if they are to overcome what awaits them. When new teachers enter the classroom, they are usually shocked by the challenges that come with being a teacher in the real world. At times, the reality is much more different than what the teacher anticipated. Beginning teachers often describe their first year in the classroom as a year of survival. Different studies have also backed this argument, labeling the first year…
Bluestein, J. (2004). Great Expectations: Good News for Beginning Teachers. Retrieved from Education Oasis: http://www.educationoasis.com/instruction/bt/great_expectations.htm
Carter, V., Orr, B., McGriff, M., Thompson, C., & Sonawane, S. (2014). Critical Incidents in Classroom Management During Student Teaching Internships and Their Effects on the Teaching Profession: Perceptions of Student Teachers in India and the United States. U.S.-China Education Review, 4(4), 209-228.
Cochran-Smith, M., & Lytle, S. (Eds.). (2009). Inquiry as Stance: Practitioner Research for the Next Generation. New York: Teachers College Press.
Cole, A. L., & Knowles, J. G. (1993). Shattered Images: Understanding Expectations And Realities. Teachrng & Teacher Educarion, 9(5), 457471.
maintain a culturally relevant and anti-bias program in a classroom setting as well as the identification of some principles and strategies for working effectively with English as second language students and what type of support or training teachers might need to implement these principles and strategies. Finally, a description concerning some ways that teachers can control the classroom environment to enhance cultural relevant learning and specific examples of materials and activities that might be used is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning strategies for developing anti-bias programming in the classroom in the conclusion.
Ways that a culturally relevant and anti-bias program can be established and maintained in a classroom setting
Humans are naturally biased creatures and the process begins early on. For instance, Barta and Winn (1996) report that, "Children begin to develop biases and prejudices long before they reach our classrooms. Research shows that…
A young girl from a multi-ethnic Hawaiian family join family members including aunts and grandmothers in the home's kitchen to make dumplings destined for the traditional dumpling soup that is being made for the family's traditional New Year's Eve celebration. This book discusses racial identities, family structure, and holidays.
Reiser, L. (1993). Margaret and Margarita. New York: Greenwillow Books.
This book describes how two young girls meet in a park and determine how to play despite the inability of the girls to speak each other's languages (Spanish and English). The book also describes the respective family structures of the two girls.
Disrupting by Imagining: ethinking Early Childhood esearch
Early Childhood esearch
This research highlights four teachers who work in early childhood classrooms who have chosen to implement the use of video-observations of their teaching in conjunction with the reflective process. Each teacher profile will include discussions and interviews about their teaching and change implementation. The ideas for change will be based upon their own knowledge, skills, and dispositions along with evidence from the recorded and observed videotapes. After viewing their own instruction, practitioners began the process of implementing change for individual students as well as for their class overall. Teachers shared this experience with others in their school and provided information regarding their results based on the following three areas: 1) Analysis: individuals and/or groups in the process of reflection (grade level teams); 2) Strategies: offers other teachers and/or programs ways to introduce concepts to a group of teachers and/or school;…
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freedom.
Brophy, J.E. (2004). Using video in teacher education. San Diego, CA: Elsivier.
Copa, A., Lucinski L., Olsen, E, & Wollenburg, K. (1999). Promoting professional and organizational development: A reflective practice model. Zero to Three, 20(1), 3-9.
Cross, N. (2011). Coaching: Seven reasons to go to the tape. ASCD Express, 7(1).
Language Barriers & Issues
Other cultures/languages iii. Issues specific to a given area/school
Improper terms used
Classroom Decorum (or lack thereof)
Gossiping/Cliquish behavior iii. Lack of Attentiveness
Students not staying on task
Insults b. Physical violence/injury
Groups cornering single victim
Text messages iii. Teasing/Taunting by Groups
Poorly Trained and/or Behaved Teachers
Use of unlicensed teachers
Teachers not adhering to curriculum
c. Teachers injecting personal/political/religious views
Overall inexperience of young teachers
a. Racial minorities tend to be poorer
b. Racial minorities more likely to be in single parent household
c. Racial minorities more likely to be discriminated against
d. Racial minorities often perform more poorly on tests
e. Accusations of institutional bias against minorities in general
f. Racist/stereotyping behavior by students
g. Segregated schools/neighborhoods
VI. Student Pacing
a. Students able to…
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
The critical discourse analysis was conducted in the context of ethnographic data collected over two years in this classroom. Extensive field notes, interviews, audio and videotaped lessons and discussions, support the researcher's understandings of the transcripts analyzed for this paper and collections of student work.(Dutro et al., 2006)
The findings are discussed over several pages where the researchers discuss how the students felt regarding various aspects of the survey they had taken. The particular part discussed in this analysis is where the researchers discuss the racial and ethnic designations that were printed on each child's copy of the district survey. Grace, who points to the printed categories to support her argument that race/ethnicity should not matter, first introduced the issue of racial/ethnic categories.
Limitations of the study include, conducting assessment at one school, in one state and city. Therefore, assessments may vary from area to area. The analysis shows…
Dutro, E., Kazemi, E., & Balf, R. (2006). About your color, that's personal: A critical discourse analysis of race and resistance in an urban elementary classroom. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, pp.1-33.
The Classroom of the Future -- Civics Education in the Future as a Living Lesson of Civics Democracy in the Classroom
Teaching Democracy in John Goodlad's Democratic Classroom
Civics is one of the most complex subjects to teach children, particularly children in junior high school, between the grades of 6th through 8th. During these ages, children are only beginning to gain a sense of centeredness in terms of their place in the world, their sense of personal morality, and also their sense of responsibility to the larger community. Merrill Harmin's text Inspiring Active Learning Strategies of Instruction provides an acronym for the five core aspects of any educational program -- DESCA means "Dignity, Energy, Self-Managing, Community, Awareness." Civics instruction must foster these elements in a student so that he or she becomes an effective learner, an effective participant in the larger community, as well as foster these principles…
Bitter, Gary. Using Technology in the Classroom. Fifth Edition. Pearson Allyn & Bacon, 2001.
Brophy, Jere, Motivating Students to Learn. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, 1997.
Gootman, Marilyn E. The Caring Teacher's Guide to Discipline, Second Edition. Corwin Press, 2000.
Goodlad, John I. In Praise of Education. (John Dewey Lecture Series) Teachers College Press, 1997.
The balanced scorecard was developed by Robert Kaplan and David Norton and serves as a useful tool for designing strategies along different types of important objectives in any organization. Other business models were deemed too narrow and they wanted something more comprehensive to translate vision and strategy into objectives and measures across four balanced perspectives: the financial perspective, customer perspective, internal process perspective, and the learning and growth perspective. Each perspective is important to look at individually, however when the four approaches are "balanced" then the organization is in the best position to create value for all stakeholders.
According to its founders, Robert Kaplan and David Norton, it consists of four major performance measures- Financial, Customer, Internal Business Processes, Learning and Growth (Kaplan & Norton, 2007). The financial measure gives an idea of the past performance of a company, whereas measures like customer satisfaction and learning…
GE. (N.d.). What is Six Sigma? Retrieved from GE: http://www.ge.com/en/company/companyinfo/quality/whatis.htm
Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (2007, June). Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System. Retrieved from Harvard Business Review: http://hbr.org/2007/07/using-the-balanced-scorecard-as-a-strategic-management-system/ar/1
Six Sigma Quality. (N.d.). What is Lean Six Sigma? Retrieved from Six Sigma Quality: http://www.sixsigma.com/what-is-lean-six-sigma/
University Alliance. (N.d.). Six Sigma vs. Lean Six Sigma. Retrieved from Villanova University: http://www.villanovau.com/resources/six-sigma/six-sigma-vs.-lean-six-sigma/
Clearly she has not been a good steward of her classes because the principal twice visited her class and both times she was working individually with a student while other students were misbehaving or otherwise not being productive.
The Trenton district was also negligent because state law requires that all computers in public schools have software that prevents -- or filters out -- inappropriate materials. A public school cannot allow students to access pornography, whether it was just a little stunt that some boys pulled to get attention, or whether they were actually curious about a porn site and hoped to access it for a thrill of some kind.
Additionally, the Trenton school district is also potentially negligent because the Connecticut Guidelines for Teacher Evaluation Programs (Duke, 1995) require that before a teacher gets a contract, he or she must pass "…an essential skills examination (CONNCEPT)"; in fact teachers must…
Duke, D.L. (1995). Reconstruction of Thinking: From Accountability to Professional
Development. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Dunklee, D.R., and Shoop, R.J. (2006). The Principal's Quick-Reference Guide to School Law:
Reducing Liability, Litigation, and Other Potential legal Tangles. Thousand Oaks, CA:
b) The Football Championship in Lisbon
The capital of Portugal has received little investments in developments and infrastructure from both the public as well as the private sectors. But the football championship has stimulated the construction and development of two stadiums in north and northeast parts of the capital, namely the Benfica and Alvalade stadiums.
The hosting of the football championships, supported by the two stadiums, draws the attention of investors and stimulates their efforts to set out new operations in the community, supporting as such its social and economic development.
"In general terms, those buildings give support to a modern city vision, that attempts to preserve its ancient culture at the same time it projects an image of progress.
Those infrastructures, given their magnitude in the urban context, might help to promote Lisbon as an international capital. They will certainly allow the city to re-structure its present functional structure.…
Barghchi, M., Omar, D., Aman, M.S., 2009, Cities, sports facilities development and hosting events, European Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 2
Copley, J., 2005, Sports events leave a giant 'ecological footprint', New Scientist, http://www.liv.ac.uk/impacts08/Papers/Impacts08-FLangen_and_BGarcia_May_2009_Events_Review.pdf last accessed on October 26, 2011
Cugola, G., Nitto, E.D., Fuggetta, A., 1998, Exploiting an event-based infrastructure to develop complex distributed systems, ICSE '98 Proceedings of the 20th international conference on software engineering, IEEE Computer Society Washington
Gursoy, D., Kendall, K.W., 2006, Hosting mega-events: modelling locals' support, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 33, No. 3
learning and teaching has drastically changed all over the world, in general, and in America, in particular. This is because of the sudden increase of information technology. Of late, both the teachers and learners, all over the world, have come to the realization that the old technologies cannot compete with the latest technological developments when it comes down to the practice of teaching and the process of learning. Therefore, the old technologies are being quickly replaced by the new multimedia technologies. It is important to note here that multimedia and its ever-increasing technological products have become very popular tools of both teaching and learning. This is because it allows the learners to pace their training in line with their capacity to learn; it allows the learners to gain control over the process of learning; and it allows the learning process to be individualized. The transformation of the methodology and approach…
Sorel Reisman. Multimedia Computing: Preparing for the 21st Century. Harrisburg:IDEA Group Publishing. 1994.
Shousan Wang. Multimedia and Some of Its Technical Issues. International Journal of Instructional Media. Volume: 27. Issue: 3. 2000.
Patricia Deubel. An Investigation of Behaviorist and Cognitive Approaches to Instructional Multimedia Design. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Volume: 12. Issue: 1. 2003.