Communication Theories Cognitive Dissonance, Expectancy Term Paper

Length: 4 pages Sources: 3 Subject: Sports - Drugs Type: Term Paper Paper: #86201367 Related Topics: Phillip Morris, Communication Strategy, Interpersonal Communication, Smoking Cessation
Excerpt from Term Paper :

Their reaction to the deviations of others from expectancy depends on what they have to lose or we react to violations depend on reward value, or what we expect to get from the relationship. Thus a man is likely to react more positively towards an attractive younger woman standing close than a larger man from an out-group" (Expectancy violations theory, 2008, Changing Minds). I have noticed that irate customers who genuinely need or want my help can be placated if I adopt a pleasant demeanor, even if it violates their negative expectations, because of the reward they can receive in terms of establishing a positive and human connection with me as an individual.

However, customers who come only to vent will usually not be moved, no matter what I say or do, they will complain about every aspect of the experience regardless of how I behave, so it is best to let them 'say their piece' and move on. Obviously they 'get' less out of warm, human interactions than other callers, and I have little leverage with them, other than to deal with their request. I admit I notice expectancy violations theory exemplified in my own behavior. Call center workers have scripted responses and guidelines to which they have to adhere. Calls are recorded for quality and training purposes, which are calibrated and graded using a scorecard. If a person is rude, I will usually adhere to these guidelines by the letter, as I have nothing to gain by deviating from them, even if the customer becomes angry and frustrated because I am not giving him or her additional information. But if a customer is polite, since I can gain the sense of happiness of genuinely helping someone, I will add to my scripted formula as well, so the caller can get some added satisfaction from the call, and I can get the reward of added satisfaction from my work. Expectancy theory has proved invaluable at work, because it has enabled me to understand people's hostility better -- I have often been a customer on the other side of a poorly staffed hotline, and I can understand why people would approach the


Provided they listen to me and understand that I am not like the other call centers they have dealt with in the past, I try to embody the type of staff member I would like to meet, were I caller. I subvert their initial expectations and make myself seem more human, which makes them more compliant and accommodating.

Social exchange theory has also proved helpful in my work. "Exchange theory explains how we feel about a relationship with another person as depending on our perceptions of: the balance between what we put into the relationship and what we get out of it, the kind of relationship we deserve, the chances of having a better relationship with someone else" (Social exchange theory, 2008, Changing Minds). Because of the distanced nature of the medium of telephone exchange, people often feel as if they have very little investment in the relationship. Because the people I deal with 'put very little' into the relationship in terms of their agreeability, I have to put all that much more into the relationship, and try to make up for it in helpfulness if things are to proceed smoothly. Changing the perception and the give and take ratio between myself and a caller, by giving more of my humanity, makes the other individual want to give more back to me in terms of patience. Exchange theory also explains why calls are monitored and 'graded' by Phillip Morris -- although I always try to do my best at whatever job I perform, I know that if some people were not monitored, the quality of their responses might decline, given that a lack of 'quality control' would cause them to invest less effort in their work involving social exchanges.

Works Cited

Expectancy violations theory (2008). Changing Minds. Available November 29, 2008 at

Griffin, Em. First Look at Communication Theory. New York McGraw-Hill.

Available November 29, 2008 at

Kearsley, Greg. (1994). Cognitive dissonance. Theory into practice.

Available November 29, 2008 at

Social exchange theory. (2008). Changing Minds. Available November 29, 2008 at

Communication theories

Sources Used in Documents:

Works Cited

Expectancy violations theory (2008). Changing Minds. Available November 29, 2008 at

Griffin, Em. First Look at Communication Theory. New York McGraw-Hill.

Available November 29, 2008 at

Kearsley, Greg. (1994). Cognitive dissonance. Theory into practice.

Cite this Document:

"Communication Theories Cognitive Dissonance Expectancy" (2008, November 29) Retrieved October 24, 2021, from

"Communication Theories Cognitive Dissonance Expectancy" 29 November 2008. Web.24 October. 2021. <>

"Communication Theories Cognitive Dissonance Expectancy", 29 November 2008, Accessed.24 October. 2021,

Related Documents
Motivation Theories in Turkey Textile
Words: 7892 Length: 30 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 56902143

D.). A need also frequently serves to answer the question motivational psychologists regularly ask as they explore motives that impel the person people to do what he/she does: "What drives people to do the things they do?" Basic concepts of motive include: A motive depicts a person's internal state arousing and directing his/her behavior to meet a precise goal and/or objective. A deficit, a lack of something, contributes to a motive. Motives vary

Does the Fisher, Ury Model Work
Words: 29882 Length: 120 Pages Topic: Business Paper #: 38724917

Negotiation Skills A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of

Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in
Words: 5232 Length: 20 Pages Topic: Business Paper #: 470179

2 of the respondents were self-employed and 11.2% of respondent were white-collar workers with 1.2% of respondents being blue-collar workers. The following chart shows the factor analysis results with VARIMAX rotation of traveler's perceptions of hotel attributes in the study of Choi and Chu (2000). Factor Analysis Results with VARIMAX Rotation of Traveler's Perceptions of Hotel Attributes Source: Choi and Chu (2000) The following chart shows a 'regression analysis results of hotel factors

Benefits of Employee Motivation
Words: 6125 Length: 20 Pages Topic: Business - Management Paper #: 99942477

Organizational Behavior & Culture Complete summary of chapter 4 The chapter illustrates that the perception process is based on stages such as stimulation, organization, registration, and interpretation. The individual's acceptance and awareness levels for ascertained stimuli play critical roles in the perception process. The authors add that receptiveness towards certain stimuli remains highly selective in limiting a person's existing personality, motivation, attitude, and beliefs. People select various stimuli that satisfy certain needs

Application of a Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to...
Words: 60754 Length: 230 Pages Topic: Teaching - Technology Paper #: 60817292

Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to

Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Theoretical
Words: 9097 Length: 33 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 72657016

In other words Emotional Intelligence means that the individual is capable of: (1) Accurately perceiving emotions in oneself and others; (2) Uses emotions to facilitate thinking; (3) Understands emotional meanings; and (4) Manages emotions well. This model is referred to as the 'ability' model of emotional intelligence. (Mayer & Salovey, 1997) DANIEL GOLEMAN-PERSONAL & SOCIAL COMPETENCE Daniel Goleman proposed the model of emotional intelligence based on the Personal and Social competencies