Through both observation and formal instruction, a child acquires new knowledge that determines how he/she behaves. Furthermore, the child's behavior is strengthened or transformed by the outcomes of his/her actions and the reaction of other people (Aldinger & Whitman, 2003).
Cognitive Behavioral Theory:
As the second theory of cognitive learning perspective, the behavioral theory explains the role of knowing in determining and foretelling an individual's behavioral pattern. The cognitive behavioral theory implies that people tend to formulate self-concepts that influence the behavior they display. The formulated self-concepts can either be positive or negative depending on the individual's environment resulting in either good or bad behavior respectively. This theory also explains individuals' learning and behavior through the cognitive triad i.e. The self, the world, and the future.
Cognitive Model of Learning:
The first step in the cognitive model of learning is comprehension, which depends on an individual's prior knowledge and reading…… [Read More]
Psychology - Cognitive
Cognitive Learning Theory
Info: Write a paragraph (1) in which you identify one principle from cognitive learning theory and discuss two implications of the theory for instruction or assessment. . (The implications you discuss should be your ideas and not ones that are discussed in the textbook.)
• Accurate statement of a principle of cognitive (constructivist) learning theory
• Discusses two original, reasonable implications which follow logically from the theory
Cognitive learning theory has as one of its principles "Learners construct knowledge and understandings within a social context." In other words, students should learn in a group setting. Interaction, discussion, and collaboration with fellow students are a way to engage the pupil in active, rather than passive learning. Further, knowledge is constructed from the setting itself. Teamwork and effective communication techniques are developed as a result of the setting.
Constructing knowledge and understandings within…… [Read More]
The kidneys of someone that has chronic renal failure are generally smaller than average kidneys, with some notable and important exceptions (ogers, 2004). Two of these exceptions would be polycystic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy (ogers, 2004). Another diagnostic tool that is used, that of the study of the serum creatinine levels, can not only diagnose chronic renal failure, but also help to distinguish it from acute renal failure, as the acute version would see a rapid and sudden spike in the serum creatinine levels over several days or several weeks, as opposed to a gradual rise that is seen over months or even over years (ogers, 2004).
Sometimes, the levels of serum creatinine have not been measured in the past, and therefore the patient is often first treated as having acute renal failure. Only when blood tests continue to show elevated serum creatinine levels and it is determined that…… [Read More]
My professional goals with regard to the development of students with whom I work is to enable them to develop a better grasp of the English language and to advance their English language skills in reading, speaking and comprehension. In a sense, my goals are intertwined with their academic success. However, on another level, I can identify professional goals that are independent of my students' outcomes. These are to come to class prepared, enthusiastic about what I am teaching, and always in a positive mood. If I can meet these three goals, I can effect an atmosphere in my classroom that facilitates constructive learning, that promotes engagement, and that supports everyone's desire to want to be there. A teacher who projects surliness and lack of preparation is more than likely to develop an environment in which negativity is the result. It is better to promote positivity in the classroom…… [Read More]
Learning and Cognition
Definition of Learning
Merriam-Webster defines learning as "knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study; modification of a behavioral tendency by experience (as exposure to conditioning)" (Merriam-Webster, 2011). Other experts defines learning as a process, one that leads to behavioral change or potential behavior change that is relatively permanent. That is, as people learn, his or her learning alters the way one perceives the environment, the way he or she interprets incoming stimuli, and therefore, the way one interacts or behaves (Introduction to Learning Theory, 2004). According to Cherry (2011), learning is a permanent change in behavior that is the result of experience. The common characteristic that all these definitions share is their identification of a behavioral component as part of the process of learning. In other words, for learning to occur, a change in behavior takes place.
The ole of Behavior
For the early part of…… [Read More]
For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.
The Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.
With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…… [Read More]
Learning Differences and Learning Needs
Learning Styles and Learning Preferences
For many years a great debate has existed in the field of education. Teachers and educators have attempted to uncover the best method for teaching students. The majority of evidence available suggests that multiple factors influence a student's ability to achieve in the classroom, none the least of which is learning styles and preferences. There is ample evidence supporting the notion that intelligence aside, most students have a learning preference related to their cognitive style of thinking that is ingrained or innate.
Because of this students will react to material presented to them in the classroom in different ways. It is vital that teachers begin recognizing the significance of these individual learning differences and uncover methods for coping with and addressing learning style differences and preferences within the classroom. Only then will all children be afforded the opportunity to learn…… [Read More]
Cognitive Ability Testing
Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.
Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…… [Read More]
There are some indications that observational learning might be genetic; animals teaching their young to hunt and the discovery of mirror neurons -- brain cells that fire when emotions/behaviors are observed in others -- both point to a biological basis for this type of learning. This learning is far more likely to occur if observed behaviors are met with rewards, however. Observational learning is also at the heart of the controversy concerning violence in the media, which some believe leads to more violent behavior in real life as individuals observe and learn from "fake" violent depictions.
There is growing evidence that violent media does in fact lead to increased real-world violence, both with "copy-cat" crimes and simply with violence generally. Exposure to violence lowers inhibitions against violence and possibly alters perceptions about the meanings and intentions behind others' behaviors, as well, causing nonviolent acts to be perceived as…… [Read More]
When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.
ognitive Theory of Learning
The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…… [Read More]
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
Trace conditioning…… [Read More]
Learning & Teaching
Identify a behavior in the healthcare setting that you would like to change that involves extinguishing an undesirable behavior and replacing it with a healthier behavior (e.g., getting cardiac patients to reduce their high-fat diet and eat healthier foods; getting patients with low back pain to minimize their pain and become more independent in their activities). Describe how the behavior could be changed using the principles of a particular learning theory. Then describe how the same behavior could be changed using a different theory. Depending on the behavior to be changed and replaced, you might also discuss why one plan might work better for men than women, or for younger people than older people.
To start with the last sentence first, it is clear that the younger a person is, they are generally more pliable and "changeable" than with older and/or more mature people that are more…… [Read More]
"Morris goes to School" by B. Wiseman.
Your name, whole group, 5th grade, all, 09/03/2012.
Objectives for Lesson
The students will engage in reading and writing activities with reflection and understanding.
The students will be motivated to connect the story to their own particular cultural/ethnic / routine experiences
The students will be encouraged to generate situations and to apply to new circumstances using the story as their base
The students will be encouraged to imagine a recipient of their story and to direct the writing of their story to this recipient.
CSO's or SOLs (WV New Generation Content Standards and Objectives)
Engage in reading of the text with understanding and motivation
Apply the story to their own circumstance be able to find launch pads from the story with which they can craft their own informative and meaningful tale.
Participate in collaborative conversation with partners and…… [Read More]
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques
Case of the Fat Lady
Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…… [Read More]
Cognitive Strategies in Education
The purpose of this work is the first define metacognition and explain the four cognitive strategies of chunking, mnemonics, advance organizers and rehearsals and then to consider how each one might be useful in helping facilitate understanding of metacognition. Finally this work intends to create a sample lesson plan that represents the strategies.
Metacognition can be defined as the learner's awareness of the knowledge they possess as well as their ability in understanding, controlling and manipulating of their own metacognitive processes. Metacognitive skills are important both from an educational perspective and throughout the individual's life. Metacognition is a new field which has left theorists in a vague position in terms of conventional terminology. The primary factor in metacognition is the "conscious awareness" on the part of the individual in learning as to the learning taking place and their control of the learning process.
I.…… [Read More]
Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease
The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.
Literature eview: Cognitive Effects
The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…… [Read More]
Due primarily to the growing trend of globalization, education has now become paramount to the overall success of society. International competition for both jobs and prominent positions poses both threats and benefits. For one, international competition encourages innovations which ultimately increases the overall quality of life for society. Innovations such as the internet have given rise to many unique and attractive markets. However, in order to take full advantage of the opportunities globalization and business presents, society must properly educate itself. Through education, civilization can fill the needed jobs required to utilize growing fields of innovation. The underlying principles within education have now been altered. New techniques are required to retain more information. Alternatively methods must be simple enough that students can utilize it in an effective manner within their respective careers. Many theories have been developed in regards to learning theories. These theories primarily consist of behavior, cognitive,…… [Read More]
As a conclusion, the authors suggest a functional architecture of cognitive emotional control. The review ends with suggestions for future study, including a consideration of cultural differences and their effect on the individual's ability to control emotion in a cognitive way.
Since the study is a review, the research methodology involves an overview of recent studies in the field of cognitive emotional control. The researchers appear to have made thorough work of this purpose, while also offering insight and into potential future applications of such research. Furthermore, their synthesis of research information is logical and relevant to the questions posed at the beginning of the document.
In conclusion, it is always fascinating to consider the different ways and preference types in how individuals might view and experience the world around them. Having an understanding of cognitive types is particularly useful in fields like education and leadership. Such an understanding…… [Read More]
Cognitive restructuring theory describes the various applied approaches aiming at reframing behaviors. The theory uses cognitive therapy to apply the behavioral technique. The theory involves learning how to think differently to change negative thinking and replace it with positive thinking. In addition, cognitive restructuring aims at helping people to deal with problems of anxiety and depression. In so doing, people can change their manner of thought and live their daily lives with energy and hope.
Cognitive theory is practical and can help Tom control and effectively manage his anger. As such, tom would not change significantly because the action had already taken place. For Tom, it would be better to focus his energy on how to avoid such a thing from happening and avoid future irritation. In this case, Tom would take one of the techniques offered in the cognitive therapy. Aggression replacement may help teach him some behavioral techniques…… [Read More]
God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.
Types of Cognitive Processes
The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.
Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)
Judgment -- (Thinking…… [Read More]
(3) According to the Multiple Intelligences Survey, I have quite a bit of intrapersonal and interpersonal intellegence and a moderate amount of musical and kinesthetic intelligence. This makes sense because I enjoy analyzing people and situations; and, I decided to leave my old job because I was bored sitting still behind a desk and not talking to anyone for most of the day.
As I was enjoying the surveys so much, also I took Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory and discovered that my learning style consists of doing and feeling or what Kolb would abbreviate as "CE/AE." When these findings are placed on the two-by-two grid by Kolb, my learning style is accommodating. An accommodating learning style is often times referred to as a "hands-on" style and one that relies upon intuition over logic. In fact, these findings also did not surprise me because I have to do something at least…… [Read More]
According to the University of Canberra's Academic Skills Centre (2008), learning is a highly complex process that "takes place at different levels of consciousness, and in different ways, in everything we do. Moreover, individual people learn in different ways and have their preferred learning styles." One of the keys to improving student learning is to understand the different types of learning styles and apply that knowledge to study habits and practices. Study skills are themselves behaviors that need to be learned like any other. Using a combination of disciplinary techniques and cognitive shifts, students can improve their capacity for learning. This will, in turn, help boost grades and test scores. However, learning in an academic context is about more than earning grades. Learning should ultimately enhance one's view of the world and increase tolerance of diversity.
The theory of multiple intelligences has formed the theoretical foundation for the study…… [Read More]
During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.
Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…… [Read More]
Color coding words and researching notes.
Using highlighters, circle words and underlining (Fleming, 2010).
If one focuses more on illustrative or graphical knowledge than on the expressions of what is being taught, they put themselves at a distinctive weakness since verbal and written knowledge is still the chief favored option for delivery of knowledge. One should apply their note taking and try to find occasions to make clear information to others by way of using words. A visual learner learns best when knowledge is given to them visually and in a printed language arrangement. In a classroom location, they profit from teachers who employ the blackboard or overhead projector in order to register the vital parts of a lecture, or who supply them with an outline in order to follow along with throughout the lecture. They profit from knowledge attained from textbooks and class…… [Read More]
Learning Power-Myth of Educational Empowerment
Education and empowerment
Education is important and essential for everyone be it formal, informal or even public education. It therefore means that everyone is entitled to education. Education is an entry point to many opportunities and it forms an integral part in the preparation for as well as the legitimization of forms of social life in particular. Education is not only purposed to "achievement" that is measured through standardized tests and assessments.
There are other important purposes of education one of them being empowerment. Empowerment is a process through which an individual's assumptions are challenged about how things can be done and are done. Empowerment challenges ones basic assumption on power, achievement, helping and succeeding in life. At the centre of the empowerment concept is the idea of power. For empowerment to take place there are two things to be considered; first requires that power…… [Read More]
This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.
Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…… [Read More]
One area that was missed in the literature was the effectiveness of various intervention strategies in reducing stress in families with persons with disabilities. It is not known what interventions have been tried and which ones were most effective in helping families to build coping mechanisms and reduce stress. This is the obvious next step into developing a thorough understanding of the topic area.
This literature review revealed several key trends into research regarding families and cognitive impairment. This area continues to be an area of interest. However, the focus seems to be shifting from a psychological perspective into a sociological based approach. There is much more interest in recent years regarding the issues of cognitive disability and its impact on society at large. In the area of persons with cognitive disability, having families of their own, politics will play a factor in the direction of research in the future.…… [Read More]
Choosing the most effective style that relates to one's individual personality is very useful in terms of increasing one's learning strengths. I have personally found that in reality most people combine a number of learning styles in developing their unique approach to learning. From my perspective I have found that a combination of both imaginative and analytical learning styles best suits my needs. The emphasis in my approach is however on the imaginative style as I am more comfortable with a learning style that explores various sources and views of reality in a discursive and open-ended way. At the same time the more considered and careful analytical approach is also useful in that it tends to 'ground' one in reality.
Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.
etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a
Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203
Guild,…… [Read More]
Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)
These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.
Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…… [Read More]
The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…… [Read More]
This, in effect, links learning to memory. Memory is likened to the idea of cognitive maps, or at least the way cognitive maps operate in the mind of the individual. Memory is described as processing information through encoding (getting information and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). These processes that the individual goes through to create and retain memory is highly related to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the individual; operant conditioning described learning as the consequences in behavior of the person, linked also to the memory of an event and its consequences; and lastly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped out and retain in his/her mind.
Santrock,…… [Read More]
It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…… [Read More]
The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…… [Read More]
Learning Problems vs Language Problems
The objective of this study is to examine how learning problems and language problems are related. Specifically considered will be the fact that when students who are learning English as their second language and who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties that the teacher and the school's problem-solving teams must examine whether these problems are related to learning a new language or whether the problems may be due to cognitive delays or developmental delay or disability.
The work of Fisher ( nd) entitled "Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or Language Issue" states that English language learners all "with learning disabilities...too often...fall through the cracks." (p.13) The reason stated for this is that these learners are often considered to be "slow English learners, or they may be in a school district that does not have enough resources to test them in their L1…… [Read More]
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or (CBT) is currently the popular method to provide therapy to the client with weight control maladies. CBT is ostensibly necessary to assist binge eaters and those whom suffer from tendencies to bulimic episodes. According to Brody (2007), "Most popular at the moment is cognitive-behavioral therapy, with or without medication. Since binge eaters have highly irregular eating habits, the behavioral aspect introduces structure to their eating behavior: regular meals, including breakfast, and an afternoon snack if needed." (Brody, 2007)
apoport, Clark, & Wardle further ascribe CBT as a comprehensive methodology to address the psychological, not neurological, deficiencies with regard to how the client addresses their weight problem. According to apoport, Clark & Wardle (2000), "Cognitive -- behavioural treatment (CBT) for obesity also focuses on weight loss, but incorporates psychological strategies to promote lifestyle change. ecent reviews show that CBT programmes achieve weight losses…… [Read More]
It's always the same thing with motorcyclists, they think they own the road" said David as he sat in his car stuck in mid-morning traffic. The motorcyclist zoomed past him through the narrow gap between him and another car. David looked over at the other driver who was on the cell-phone. He gestured at the motorcyclist and shook his head at his fellow car driver in a bid to say, "Jerks, the?" David figured the other driver probably felt the same way, because he too shook his head and continued with his conversation on the phone.
David was getting fidgety as the traffic showed no signs of easing up. Probably some accident he thought, then said out loud, "Probably some woman not looking where she's going. It's always a woman." He slapped his steering wheel and looked at the clock. 11:42 it said. He was definitely late. David…… [Read More]
Learning & Memory
The Accuracy of Memory
The research I completed for this assignment was fairly straightforward. Upstairs in my living room on a day in which I had yet to leave the house, I tried to imagine my front door. I did so without having looked at it for at least 14 hours -- since I had arrived at home the evening before. Once I was able to visualize the door, I then wrote down all of the details that I could conceive of related to its physical appearance. My annotations on this subject included the fact that the door is white and is at the base of approximately 20 steps which lead to the main unit of the domicile. In this tall foyer, the white of the door stands out against the creme color of the walls around it (I was able to see this same color on…… [Read More]
The methodology used was to study a selected group of children. While the results are useful in examining this cognitive process, it could also be argued that the group was too small to make general assessments and that further studies would have to be undertaken to compare the results of this study over a wider range of children. This would also take into account other variables such as ethnic group etc.
The study of cognitive process provides us with valuable insight into the way that children and adults perceive the word around them. The way that we perceive, filter and retain our reality plays a vital part in the way that we react and behave and in our personal development. The issues of perception, sensory memory and social cognitive factors all play a cardinal role in human development. The more that we study and understand the various…… [Read More]
Within each of these are discriminatory and generalized patterns of learning; and can be incorporated into learning models.
My own learning style is a combination of listening (learning from others) and then doing. It depends on the material; for any tactile operation, I find it easier to understand by touching and manipulating than simply reading in a manual how to perform the task. I believe I make clear use of discrimination in learning; responding to different stimuli with different responses. When the learning task is more scholarly in nature, I tend to combine visual and aural methods with kinesthetic and write down, or outline material.
Burton, N. (March 15, 2012). Hide and Seek: Understanding Self-Deception, Self-Sabotage
nd More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:
Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational,…… [Read More]
n other words, it can be criticized for being somewhat discursive and for not providing any form of comparative analysis.
Alternatively, one could argue that methodologically the research falls into the category of a case study, a legitimate form of intensive qualitative research. n the final analysis the article does provide some illuminating insights into the possibilities of literature for social and emotional development in gifted students.
Article 3: The Connection between Social-Emotional Learning and Learning Disabilities: mplications for ntervention by Maurice J. Elias.
The author of this article identifies a number of problematic social and emotional areas for the learning disabled or special needs student. These include the recognition of emotions in self and others; the regulation and management of strong emotions and the recognition of strengths and areas of need ( Elias, 2004). The article also reviews the literature and theoretical positions on this topic. Furthermore, the author…… [Read More]
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).
Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).
Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…… [Read More]
If the student has a tendency to make errors based on cognitive conditions the correction of those conditions should probably take place as early as possible in the student's life. A recent study on cognitive development found that "cognitive developmental psychology and constructivism offer possibilities for the future of entrepreneurial cognition research" (Krueger, 2007, pg. 124). Krueger extrapolates that the reason entrepreneurial teaching is so effective is that it takes in consideration much in cognitive theory thinking. Krueger writes "as a field, entrepreneurship is lauded for the effectiveness of its teaching" (pg. 124). Krueger believes that entrepreneurial thinking and teaching in the classroom goes hand in hand with discerning cognitive bias. He believes that deeply seated beliefs and belief structures ultimately anchors entrepreneurial thinking. It could be said that if society wishes to develop further becoming even more entrepreneurial in its aspects, then cognitive bias needs to be addressed in…… [Read More]
Cognitive ehavioral Therapy
In comparison with many different types of treatments that are available cognitive behavioral therapy (CT) has been used as a way to address a host of anxiety and depression disorders without the use of prescription medication. This is because; this approach is based on the fact that health care professionals are treating someone by: looking at how their thoughts are influencing the way that they are interacting with others. To fully understand the effectiveness of this kind of treatment requires examining the use of CT to deal with: a variety of issues / disorders, discussing the implications for treatment planning, understanding what aspects should be implemented when conducting a treatment program and the different ways that you can ensure that the therapy is useful at dealing with the objectives for each patient. Once this takes place, it will provide specific insights about the underlying effectiveness of CT…… [Read More]
Jean Piage is a luminary as far as cognitive development theory goes. This is because of his contributions in his intellectual development theory. According to Piaget, intellectual development is a continuation of innate biological processes. He emphasizes that children go through four sequential processes of development. These four stages also occur with sub stages within them.
The sensory motor stage: 0 to 2 years; intuitive stage: 2 to 7 years; concrete operations stage: 7 to 11 years; and the formal operations stage: 11 to 15 years (Simatwa, 366).
hat "Active Construction of Knowledge and Understanding" Means
A person's way of understanding occurs in five ways that are related. These are referred to as cognition domains. These ways include understanding as a representation, understanding as connectivity between knowledge types, understanding that forms active knowledge construction and understanding as cognition situation. Understanding as a representation refers to owning internalized ideas,…… [Read More]
learning theories, and apply them to the adult learning environment. Specifically behavioral, constructivist, and cognitive learning theories are examined.
Behavioral Learning Theories
This approach to learning suggests that learning is the result of external stimulus and response to stimulus, thus the learner's environment is the primary factor influencing learning (Hergenhahn & Olson, 1997). The focus of the behavioral learning model is changes in behavior facilitated by stimuli provided by the learner's environment; not stimuli produced by the learner. einforcement of stimuli in the environment are thought to effect change and therefore become critical to the learning process in this learning theory model. The learner's responses to stimuli can be strengthened depending on how one is conditioned to respond; meaning, in the behavioral model, positive reinforcement can serve to enforce positive learning.
Also important to the behavioral model is repetition and generalization of important learning concepts (Hartley, 1998). These serve to…… [Read More]
Dominant Learning Theories
Excellence in the field of pedagogy depends on an understanding of the major learning theories and models along with an ability to use them when appropriate. Even if one doesn't agree with these major learning theories, it's still important to be aware of them as a professional. A strong comprehension of the major learning theories can also help to guide one's actions and choices as an educator, scholar or general pedagogue.
Behaviorism, for example, is a major learning theory which asserts that the bulk of learning that occurs in human beings is done through conditioning. This is important as it puts a lot of focus on the power of the environment and how the environment can shape a person's behaviors through the stimuli acquired. Behaviorism is a school of learning which pays very little attention to mental states, finding things like moods and emotions to be too…… [Read More]
theoretical approaches to learning and explores possibilities of learning applications to special education. A matrix is presented and the information in the matrix is explained within a professional setting that deals with special education. The theoretical approaches to learning provide the framework for development of leaning skills and are examined in detail.
Keywords: Learning, Learning theories, Cognitive development, andura's social learning, Pavlov, Classical condition, special education, Erikson's theory, social development theory, experiential learning.
andura's Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory by andura highlights the societal processes in learning suggesting that people learn from each other using the means of observation and imitation. This means that children watch and learn behavior of adults and family members and during the process of observation they pick up skills which they imitate. The theory of social learning requires an analysis of the psychological processes of motivation, attention and memory and these three cognitive processes…… [Read More]
Comparative cognition is a psychological approach to learning that studies how animals process information. S.T. Boysen (1998) in his article presents the summary and review of different issues concerning this approach specifically in relation to animal learning. Pervious studies and researches were discussed and their findings were carefully explained to show how cognitive learning approach has evolved over the years and what it tells us about "information-processing, reasoning, memory, and the phylogenetic emergence of mind" in nonhuman species. Imitative behavior and the influence of imitation on learning capabilities of an animal have occupied the most important place in comparative cognitive research. However imitation has been a contentious subject with varying definitions as key researchers have failed to agree on one specific pattern of learning through imitation even though the earliest studies in this connection appeared during late 19th century. For example omanes (1884) found that imitation required "intelligent…… [Read More]
Adult Learning: Andragogy
Adult learning as a concept was first introduced in Europe in the 50s (QOTFC, 2007). ut it was in the 70s when American practitioner and theorist of adult education Malcolm Knowles formulated the theory and model he called andragogy. He defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn (Zmeryov, 1998 & Fidishun, 2000 as qtd in QOTFC)." It consists of assumptions on how adults learn, with emphasis on the value of the process. Andragogy approaches are problem-based and collaborative as compared with the didactic approach in younger learners. It likewise emphasizes the equality between the teacher and the learner (QOTFC).
Adult Learning Principles
Knowles developed these principles from observed characteristics of adult learners. They have special needs and requirements different from those of younger learners (Lieb, 1991). Adults are internally motivated and self-directed. They bring life experiences and knowledge into their learning experiences. They…… [Read More]
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…… [Read More]
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…… [Read More]
In various trials in which learners were presented with different formats of video- only, auditory-only, combinations of both, and formats combining each with note-taking by students, researchers have determined that results are comparable, although more so for superior students than for average students. In that regard, average students learn better from repeated viewing in conjunction with audio-based information while superior students benefited equally regardless of the precise combination of those variables.
The author presents the results of research documenting the extent to which developers of computer-based video instruction may be overemphasizing the value of technical sophistication and suggests that the relative value of video-based lessons is substantially the same without the inclusion of all the bells and whistles available by virtue of the latest computer-based information formats. On the other hand, the author reports that vocational task-specific training effectiveness is somewhat more dependent on more sophisticated interactive information formats.
Since…… [Read More]
Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.
Significance of the Study to Leadership
A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.
ecause of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school…… [Read More]
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eese, H.W. & Franzen, M.D. (Eds.). (1997). Biological and Neuropsychological Mechanisms: Life-Span…… [Read More]
The primary reason for their achievements lays in the creativity and innovation brought in by CEO Howard Schultz, but also by the appropriate understanding and integration of theoretical managerial concepts. Two of the most relevant such concepts are the strategy development and the organization learning. The two concepts are interconnected and both rely massively on the firm's ability to analyze the internal and external environments and best adapt to the emergent changes in these environments: seize opportunities, minimize threats, maximize strengths and eliminate weaknesses.
Bryson, J.M., 2004, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement, John Wiley and Sons
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Harrison, .T.,…… [Read More]
Final results reveal far better efficiency in the worksheets for sessions wherein the robot gazed away from, when compared with the session it gazed in the direction of the child, because the child had been entering the worksheets. This had been the situation particularly for the much more tough worksheet elements. These results emphasize the require for cautious execution of social robot conducts to prevent disadvantageous outcomes. Based on Herberg, Feller, Yengin and Saerbeck (2015), outcomes recommend that raising a robot tutor’s interpersonal conducts doesn't inevitably improve children’s studying habits, however at times can in fact hinder children’s learning efficiency. Children success-rate worsened in worksheet words translation activities the moment the robot tutor got involved in watchful conducts, as opposed to when it gazed away. In the worksheets for Latin translation, this kind of watchful drawback impact tended to happen mainly on the more tough elements, with the simpler elements…… [Read More]
Social Learning Theory and Parenting Skills
The most applicable and relevant philosophy in parenting particularly of the preschool years children is the social learning theory that was proposed and developed by Albert Bandura. The social learning theory is widely seen as the bridge between the cognitive learning and behaviorism, and it is this combination of two theories or approaches to learning that makes it most applicable for my parenting approach. This approach concentrates on attention, motivation as well as memory. This theory indicates that people learn through seeing the behaviors of others, their attitudes and the result of their behaviors. In this sphere, learning is continuous and involves the reciprocation of the behavior of the individual, the environmental influences, the cognitive influences that models the individual (Albert Bendura, 1971:Pp3). In a nut shell, the individual is aware of the relationship between his behavior and the consequences, and he learns these…… [Read More]
Learning, Motivation, Performance of Employees of Public Safety Organizations
The motivation is defined as the intrinsic phenomenon affected four factors: temperament, situation, tool, and goal. Typically, people are motivated to achieve their goals, instincts and necessities, thus, the concept motivation assists people to complete a task, gain a goal as well as achieving a certain degree of success from their job. Thus, the concept motivation explains why some people behaves in a certain way and the reasons for their behaviors. In essence, motivated people are oriented, and energetic in characteristics, which influence their behaviors. From the educational point-of-view, motivation is the polyhedral structure associated with academic achievement and learning, however, employees' motivation is low in the public sector compared with the private organizations. The public safety organizations are the government agencies that include law enforcement agencies, EMS (Emergency Medical Services), rescue squads, and fire departments. The Department of Safety in…… [Read More]
Long-Term Effects of Social Promotion on Student and Teacher
There is a problem in an urban elementary school in Eastern New York. This problem specifically is the social promotion of fifth grade students. Currently, nothing is being done to address the issue of social promotion which is supported by state education policies that benefits from children being passed to the next grade level. There is a lack of training for teachers who teach students who are at risk learners. Teaching at risk learners is one of the areas that require high quality teachers to enhance learner outcomes. However, at risk learners have teachers who are not adequately trained to meet the standards of effective teaching to meet their needs (Grant, Stronge & Popp, 2008). The current educational system/framework does not align such learners with expert teachers, but with average teachers with inadequate training, average skills, and less experience (Grant, Stronge…… [Read More]
That is a function of the complex cognitive mechanisms involved in human language processing and speech, which Kormos explicitly acknowledges as possibly the most complex of all human cognitive processes (Levelt, 1995 in Kormos, 2003 p88). Given that characterization, the use of a word span test -- in which performance could quite conceivably measure other variables besides raw working memory, such as parallel recognition and various other associative or pneumonic devices -- instead of a non-word span test likely undermined the validity of the Mota study (2003) results.
Furthermore, the Kormos and Safar study (2008) employed standard objective academic tests of foreign language proficiency, whereas the Mota study (2003) employed a novel matrix of variables (fluency, accuracy, and complexity) to measure foreign language proficiency (Mota, 2003 p69). The former type of diagnostic test would appear to be an appropriately accurate and narrowly targeted measure of memory-based performance and learning in…… [Read More]