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Learning and Cognition Definition of Learning Merriam-Webster

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81943194

Learning and Cognition

Definition of Learning

Merriam-Webster defines learning as "knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study; modification of a behavioral tendency by experience (as exposure to conditioning)" (Merriam-Webster, 2011). Other experts defines learning as a process, one that leads to behavioral change or potential behavior change that is relatively permanent. That is, as people learn, his or her learning alters the way one perceives the environment, the way he or she interprets incoming stimuli, and therefore, the way one interacts or behaves (Introduction to Learning Theory, 2004). According to Cherry (2011), learning is a permanent change in behavior that is the result of experience. The common characteristic that all these definitions share is their identification of a behavioral component as part of the process of learning. In other words, for learning to occur, a change in behavior takes place.

The ole of Behavior

For the early part of…… [Read More]

References

Bietz, K. (2011). The relationship between learning and cognition. Bright Hub. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from  http://www.brighthub.com/education/early-childhood/articles/101060.aspx 

Cherry, K. (2011). Learning Study Guide. About.com Psychology. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from  http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/learning_sg.htm 

Introduction to Learning Theory and Behavioral Psychology. (2004). Retrieved June 26, 2011 from  http://allpsych.com/psychology101/learning.html 

Merriam-Webster. (2011). Learning. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from  http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/learning?show=0&t=1309112968
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Learning Reinforcement for Learning to Effectively Take

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81873442

Learning Reinforcement

For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.

The Social Learning Theory

The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.

With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Akers, Ronald. Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Transaction Publishers, 2009

Griffin, Ricky Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning, 2009

Sarafino, Edward. Self-Management: Using Behavioral and Cognitive Principles to Manage Your Life. John Wiley and Sons, 2010

Ronald Akers, Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance (Transaction Publishers, 2009), 25.
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Learning Differences and Learning Needs

Words: 1817 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77545748

Learning Differences and Learning Needs

Learning Styles and Learning Preferences

For many years a great debate has existed in the field of education. Teachers and educators have attempted to uncover the best method for teaching students. The majority of evidence available suggests that multiple factors influence a student's ability to achieve in the classroom, none the least of which is learning styles and preferences. There is ample evidence supporting the notion that intelligence aside, most students have a learning preference related to their cognitive style of thinking that is ingrained or innate.

Because of this students will react to material presented to them in the classroom in different ways. It is vital that teachers begin recognizing the significance of these individual learning differences and uncover methods for coping with and addressing learning style differences and preferences within the classroom. Only then will all children be afforded the opportunity to learn…… [Read More]

References:

Fields S.C. ( 1985, April 15-18). Assessment of aptitude interactions for the most common science instructional strategies. Paper presented at the 58th annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, French Lick Springs, IN.

Grabowski, B.L. & Jonassen, DH (1993). Handbook of individual differences in learning and instruction. Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Merrill M.D. ( 1973). "Content and instructional analysis for cognitive transfer tasks." A

V Communication Review, 21,109-125.
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Cognitive Testing Tool

Words: 2446 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55190613

Cognitive Ability Testing

Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.

Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…… [Read More]

Reference

Aiken, L.R. & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological assessment and Psychological testing, (12th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0205457428.

Bermingham D, Hill RD, Woltz D, Gardner MK (2013) Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information. PLoS ONE 8(3).

Lakin, J.M. (2012).Multidimensional ability tests in the linguistically and culturally diverse students: The Evidence of the measurement invariance. Learning and Individual Differences. 22(3):397-403.

Lohman, D.F. (2006). The Woodcock-Johnson III and the Cognitive Abilities Test (Form 6): A Concurrent Valid Study. University of Iowa.
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Learning Complex Tasks Like Driving

Words: 552 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21767364

There are some indications that observational learning might be genetic; animals teaching their young to hunt and the discovery of mirror neurons -- brain cells that fire when emotions/behaviors are observed in others -- both point to a biological basis for this type of learning. This learning is far more likely to occur if observed behaviors are met with rewards, however. Observational learning is also at the heart of the controversy concerning violence in the media, which some believe leads to more violent behavior in real life as individuals observe and learn from "fake" violent depictions.

Pages 203-204

There is growing evidence that violent media does in fact lead to increased real-world violence, both with "copy-cat" crimes and simply with violence generally. Exposure to violence lowers inhibitions against violence and possibly alters perceptions about the meanings and intentions behind others' behaviors, as well, causing nonviolent acts to be perceived as…… [Read More]

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Learning Cognitive Theory of Learning

Words: 5035 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10711915

When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.

ognitive Theory of Learning

Introduction

The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…… [Read More]

Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.

Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.

Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
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Learning Educational Psychology Multiple Choice

Words: 3789 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64594759



A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior

Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability

Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition

If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws

Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences

Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible

APA rules for research studies

Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject

Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions

Trace conditioning…… [Read More]

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Theoretical Foundations of Teaching and Learning

Words: 2539 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64313066

Learning & Teaching

Identify a behavior in the healthcare setting that you would like to change that involves extinguishing an undesirable behavior and replacing it with a healthier behavior (e.g., getting cardiac patients to reduce their high-fat diet and eat healthier foods; getting patients with low back pain to minimize their pain and become more independent in their activities). Describe how the behavior could be changed using the principles of a particular learning theory. Then describe how the same behavior could be changed using a different theory. Depending on the behavior to be changed and replaced, you might also discuss why one plan might work better for men than women, or for younger people than older people.

To start with the last sentence first, it is clear that the younger a person is, they are generally more pliable and "changeable" than with older and/or more mature people that are more…… [Read More]

References

Behlol, M., & Dad, H. (2010). Concept of Learning. International Journal Of

Psychological Studies, 2(2), 231-239.

Bradshaw, M.J. (2013). Innovative teaching strategies in nursing and related health professions (6th ed.). New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett.

DeYoung, P.A. (2003). Relational psychotherapy: a primer. New York: Brunner-
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Learning Model Morris Goes to School by

Words: 1085 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52255253

Learning Model

"Morris goes to School" by B. Wiseman.

Heading:

Your name, whole group, 5th grade, all, 09/03/2012.

Objectives for Lesson

The students will engage in reading and writing activities with reflection and understanding.

The students will be motivated to connect the story to their own particular cultural/ethnic / routine experiences

The students will be encouraged to generate situations and to apply to new circumstances using the story as their base

The students will be encouraged to imagine a recipient of their story and to direct the writing of their story to this recipient.

CSO's or SOLs (WV New Generation Content Standards and Objectives)

Student will:

Engage in reading of the text with understanding and motivation

Apply the story to their own circumstance be able to find launch pads from the story with which they can craft their own informative and meaningful tale.

Participate in collaborative conversation with partners and…… [Read More]

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Cognitive and Behavioral Techniques Therapy

Words: 1586 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9470176

Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy

Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques

Case of the Fat Lady

Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…… [Read More]

References

Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.

Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.

Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
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Cognitive Strategies

Words: 1045 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87319292

Cognitive Strategies in Education

Cognitive Strategies

The purpose of this work is the first define metacognition and explain the four cognitive strategies of chunking, mnemonics, advance organizers and rehearsals and then to consider how each one might be useful in helping facilitate understanding of metacognition. Finally this work intends to create a sample lesson plan that represents the strategies.

Metacognition can be defined as the learner's awareness of the knowledge they possess as well as their ability in understanding, controlling and manipulating of their own metacognitive processes. Metacognitive skills are important both from an educational perspective and throughout the individual's life. Metacognition is a new field which has left theorists in a vague position in terms of conventional terminology. The primary factor in metacognition is the "conscious awareness" on the part of the individual in learning as to the learning taking place and their control of the learning process.

I.…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Barrett, Nancy F. (nd) Cognitive Styles and Strategies [Online] available at:

http://www.med.uiuc.edu/departments/internalMed/PDFs/CognitiveStyles.pdf

Metacognitive Skills (nd) available [Online] at: http://education.calumet. pur due.edu/vockell/EdPsyBook/Edpsy7/edpsy7_meta.htm

Jacobson, Rebecca (1998) Teachers improving learning using metacognition with self-monitoring learning strategies Education, 1998 June
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Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease

Words: 3403 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5754060

Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease

The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.

Literature eview: Cognitive Effects

The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…… [Read More]

References

Aaro, Jonsson C., Smedler, AC., Leis, Ljungmark M., & Emanuelson, I (2009). Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury: ISSN: 1362-301X, Vol. 23 (13-14), pp. 1008-16. doi:10.3109/02699050903379354

Cozzarelli, Tara A. (2010). Evaluation and Treatment of Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. LCDR USPHS. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 10, Edition 1.pg 39-42. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed 

Howard, RS., Holmes, PA & Koutroumanidis, MA. (2011). Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Practical Neurology [Pract Neurol], ISSN: 1474-7766, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 4-18; PMID: 21239649. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.235218

Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria., Greenwood, Richard., Powell, Jane Hilary., Leech, Robert., Hawkins, Peter Charlie., Bonnelle, Valerie., Patel, Maneesh Chandrakan., Counsell, Serena Jane., and Sharp, David James (2011). White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. Brain A Journal Of Neurology. 134; 449 -- 463. doi:10.1093/brain/awq347
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Learning Due Primarily to the Growing Trend

Words: 831 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71546963

Learning

Due primarily to the growing trend of globalization, education has now become paramount to the overall success of society. International competition for both jobs and prominent positions poses both threats and benefits. For one, international competition encourages innovations which ultimately increases the overall quality of life for society. Innovations such as the internet have given rise to many unique and attractive markets. However, in order to take full advantage of the opportunities globalization and business presents, society must properly educate itself. Through education, civilization can fill the needed jobs required to utilize growing fields of innovation. The underlying principles within education have now been altered. New techniques are required to retain more information. Alternatively methods must be simple enough that students can utilize it in an effective manner within their respective careers. Many theories have been developed in regards to learning theories. These theories primarily consist of behavior, cognitive,…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Processes the Development of

Words: 1624 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46665013

As a conclusion, the authors suggest a functional architecture of cognitive emotional control. The review ends with suggestions for future study, including a consideration of cultural differences and their effect on the individual's ability to control emotion in a cognitive way.

Since the study is a review, the research methodology involves an overview of recent studies in the field of cognitive emotional control. The researchers appear to have made thorough work of this purpose, while also offering insight and into potential future applications of such research. Furthermore, their synthesis of research information is logical and relevant to the questions posed at the beginning of the document.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is always fascinating to consider the different ways and preference types in how individuals might view and experience the world around them. Having an understanding of cognitive types is particularly useful in fields like education and leadership. Such an understanding…… [Read More]

References

Felder, R.M. And Brent, R. (2005). Understanding Student Differences. Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 94, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://eprints.me.psu.ac.th/ILS/info/Understanding_Differences.pdf

Kay, W.K., Francis, L.J., and Robbins, M. (2011). A distinctive leadership for a distinctive network of churches? Psychological type theory and the apostolic networks. University of Warwick. Retrieved from:  http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/41317/1/WRAP_Francis_Psychological_type_and_Apostolic_networks_final_version.pdf 

Nardi, D. (2007). The 8 Jungian Cognitive Processes. Retrieved from:  http://www.keys2cognition.com/cgjung.htm 

Ochsner, K.N. And Gross, J.J. (2005, May). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 5. Retrieved from:  http://icdl.com/graduate/Portal/IMH212/documents/ochsner-gross.pdf
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Cognitive Restructuring

Words: 1047 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26356198

Cognitive restructuring theory describes the various applied approaches aiming at reframing behaviors. The theory uses cognitive therapy to apply the behavioral technique. The theory involves learning how to think differently to change negative thinking and replace it with positive thinking. In addition, cognitive restructuring aims at helping people to deal with problems of anxiety and depression. In so doing, people can change their manner of thought and live their daily lives with energy and hope.

Cognitive theory is practical and can help Tom control and effectively manage his anger. As such, tom would not change significantly because the action had already taken place. For Tom, it would be better to focus his energy on how to avoid such a thing from happening and avoid future irritation. In this case, Tom would take one of the techniques offered in the cognitive therapy. Aggression replacement may help teach him some behavioral techniques…… [Read More]

References

Kate, S., Tony, A., Sharon, H., Irina, L. (2007). A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive

Behavioral Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger

Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37.7, 1203-1214.

From: Burns, D.D. (1989). The Feeling Good Handbook: 4 Steps in Cognitive Restructuring.
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Cognitive Processes

Words: 1376 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69227851

Cognitive Processes

God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.

Types of Cognitive Processes

The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.

Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)

Judgment -- (Thinking…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barrett, L., Sorensen, R. & Hartung, T. (1985). Personality Type Factors of Faculty and Students Implications for Agricultural College Teaching. NACTA, 1-5.

Berens, L.V. & Nardi, D. (2004). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to the Personality Type Code. Telos Publications.

Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories. C. George Boeree, 1-17

Henden, G. (2004). Intuition and its Role in Strategic Thinking. Sandvika: Nordberg Hurtigtrykk.
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Learning in Recent Years Is

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69090854



(3) According to the Multiple Intelligences Survey, I have quite a bit of intrapersonal and interpersonal intellegence and a moderate amount of musical and kinesthetic intelligence. This makes sense because I enjoy analyzing people and situations; and, I decided to leave my old job because I was bored sitting still behind a desk and not talking to anyone for most of the day.

As I was enjoying the surveys so much, also I took Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory and discovered that my learning style consists of doing and feeling or what Kolb would abbreviate as "CE/AE." When these findings are placed on the two-by-two grid by Kolb, my learning style is accommodating. An accommodating learning style is often times referred to as a "hands-on" style and one that relies upon intuition over logic. In fact, these findings also did not surprise me because I have to do something at least…… [Read More]

References

Codde, PhD, J.R. (2006). Using Learning Contracts in the College Classroom. Michigan State University.
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Learning According to the University of Canberra's

Words: 1529 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84269176

Learning

According to the University of Canberra's Academic Skills Centre (2008), learning is a highly complex process that "takes place at different levels of consciousness, and in different ways, in everything we do. Moreover, individual people learn in different ways and have their preferred learning styles." One of the keys to improving student learning is to understand the different types of learning styles and apply that knowledge to study habits and practices. Study skills are themselves behaviors that need to be learned like any other. Using a combination of disciplinary techniques and cognitive shifts, students can improve their capacity for learning. This will, in turn, help boost grades and test scores. However, learning in an academic context is about more than earning grades. Learning should ultimately enhance one's view of the world and increase tolerance of diversity.

The theory of multiple intelligences has formed the theoretical foundation for the study…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, T. (2010). Multiple intelligences. Retrieved online:  http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.php 

Dartmouth College Academic Skills Center (2011). Managing your time. Retrieved online:  http://www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/success/time.html 

Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons. Perseus.

Langer, J.A. (1986). Learning through writing: Study skills in the content areas. Journal of Reading. Feb 1986.
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Learning Disabled During the Course of a

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24918403

Learning Disabled

During the course of a child's school years they will learn to define themselves as a person and shape their personality, sense of self-concept and perception of their potential for achievement for life (Persaud, 2000). Thus the early educational years may be considered one of the most impacting and important with regard to emotional, social and cognitive development for students of all disabilities. Labeling is a common by-product of educational institutions, one that has been hotly debated with regard to its benefits and consequences by educators and administrators over time. There are proponents of labeling and those that suggest that labeling may be damaging to students in some manner.

Students who are labeled at the elementary and middle school level as learning disabled may face greater difficulties achieving their true potential in part due to a decreased sense of self-esteem, self-concept and personal achievement (Persaud, 2000). The intent…… [Read More]

References

Beilke, J.R. & Yssel, N. (Sept., 1999). "The chilly climate for students with disabilites in higher education." College Student Journal, Retrieved October 19, 2004 from LookSmart. Available:  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles.mi_m0FCR/is_3_33/ai_62839444/pg_3 

Clark, M. (1997). "Teacher response to learning disability: A test of attributional principles." The Journals of Learning Disabilities, 30 (1), 69-79. Retrieved Oct 4, 2004 from LDOnline. Available:

 http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/self_esteem/teacherresponse.html .

Clark, M. And Artiles, A. (2000). "A cross-national study of teachers' attributional patterns." The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 77-99.
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Learning and Assessment People Learn

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47827205



atching videos.

Color coding words and researching notes.

Outlining reading.

Using flashcards.

Using highlighters, circle words and underlining (Fleming, 2010).

If one focuses more on illustrative or graphical knowledge than on the expressions of what is being taught, they put themselves at a distinctive weakness since verbal and written knowledge is still the chief favored option for delivery of knowledge. One should apply their note taking and try to find occasions to make clear information to others by way of using words. A visual learner learns best when knowledge is given to them visually and in a printed language arrangement. In a classroom location, they profit from teachers who employ the blackboard or overhead projector in order to register the vital parts of a lecture, or who supply them with an outline in order to follow along with throughout the lecture. They profit from knowledge attained from textbooks and class…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"DVC Online," 2000, viewed 23 October2010,

Fleming, Grace. 2010, "Learning Styles," viewed 22 October 2010,



"Visual Thinking and Learning," 2010, viewed 23 October
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Learning Power Myth of Educational and Empowerment

Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74983835

Learning Power-Myth of Educational Empowerment

Education and empowerment

Education is important and essential for everyone be it formal, informal or even public education. It therefore means that everyone is entitled to education. Education is an entry point to many opportunities and it forms an integral part in the preparation for as well as the legitimization of forms of social life in particular. Education is not only purposed to "achievement" that is measured through standardized tests and assessments.

There are other important purposes of education one of them being empowerment. Empowerment is a process through which an individual's assumptions are challenged about how things can be done and are done. Empowerment challenges ones basic assumption on power, achievement, helping and succeeding in life. At the centre of the empowerment concept is the idea of power. For empowerment to take place there are two things to be considered; first requires that power…… [Read More]

References

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, (1996). Finding Common Ground in an Era of Fragile Support. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from  http://www.ascd.org/publications/newsletters/policy-priorities/dec96/num07/toc.aspx 

The Odysseus Group.(2003). Dumping us Down-Reviews. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from http://www.johntaylorgatto.com/bookstore/dumbdnlapp.htm
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Cognitive Theories of Development Piaget's

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88820358

This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.

Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…… [Read More]

References:

Gallagher, C. (1999, May). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from  http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/vygotsky.htm 

Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from  http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html 

"Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky). (n.d.). The Theory Into Practice Database.

Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://tip.psychology.org/vygotsky.html
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Cognitive Disabilities and Family Cognitive

Words: 1674 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 83568746



One area that was missed in the literature was the effectiveness of various intervention strategies in reducing stress in families with persons with disabilities. It is not known what interventions have been tried and which ones were most effective in helping families to build coping mechanisms and reduce stress. This is the obvious next step into developing a thorough understanding of the topic area.

This literature review revealed several key trends into research regarding families and cognitive impairment. This area continues to be an area of interest. However, the focus seems to be shifting from a psychological perspective into a sociological based approach. There is much more interest in recent years regarding the issues of cognitive disability and its impact on society at large. In the area of persons with cognitive disability, having families of their own, politics will play a factor in the direction of research in the future.…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., & Haritou., M. et al. (2005). Identifying factors contributing to child and family outcome 30 months after traumatic brain injury in children. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 76(3):401-408,

Family Village. (2006). Cognitive Disability/Mental Retardation. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_cdmr.htm

Feldman, M., Varghese, J., Ramsay, J., & Rajska, D. (2002). Relationships between social

support, stress, and mother-child interactions in mothers with intellectual disabilities.
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Learning Styles in Essence Learning

Words: 1697 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4604283



Choosing the most effective style that relates to one's individual personality is very useful in terms of increasing one's learning strengths. I have personally found that in reality most people combine a number of learning styles in developing their unique approach to learning. From my perspective I have found that a combination of both imaginative and analytical learning styles best suits my needs. The emphasis in my approach is however on the imaginative style as I am more comfortable with a learning style that explores various sources and views of reality in a discursive and open-ended way. At the same time the more considered and careful analytical approach is also useful in that it tends to 'ground' one in reality.

eferences

Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.

etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a

Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. etrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203

Guild,…… [Read More]

References

Durbin G. (2002) Interactive Learning in Museums of Art and Design.

Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:2V3DNJpxFKkJ:www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/5752_file.pdf+%22dynamic+learning+style%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=za&client=firefox-a

Exploring Psychology. Learning Styles. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at  http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch06/learnsty.mhtml  www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203

Guild, P. (1994, January). Making Sense of Learing Styles. School Administrator, 51, 8. Retrieved February 26, 2009, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000308203  www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002522655
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Cognitive Modification the Needs of

Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82252365

"

Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)

These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.

Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…… [Read More]

References

Bouck, E.C. (2004). Exploring Secondary Special Education for Mild Mental Impairment: A Program in Search of Its Place. Remedial and Special Education, 25(6), 367-377

Bray, P., & Cooper, R. (2007). The Play of Children with Special Needs in Mainstream and Special Education Settings. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32(2), 37-48

Gersten, R., Schiller, E.P., & Vaughn, S. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary Special Education Research: Syntheses of the Knowledge Base on Critical Instructional Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2004). Cognitive Therapy: 100 Key Points. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
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Cognitive and Affective Psychology According

Words: 2587 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25257859

The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.

Question 2

1:

Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.

Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…… [Read More]

References

AudioEnglish.net. (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience.  http://www.audioenglish.net/dictionary/cognitive_neuroscience.htm 

Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/www.edpsycinteractive.org/brilstar/chapters/affectdev.doc

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.  http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/tuokko/Ethical%20Principles%20of%20Psychologists.pdf 

Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
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Learning and Memory in the

Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46953791



This, in effect, links learning to memory. Memory is likened to the idea of cognitive maps, or at least the way cognitive maps operate in the mind of the individual. Memory is described as processing information through encoding (getting information and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). These processes that the individual goes through to create and retain memory is highly related to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the individual; operant conditioning described learning as the consequences in behavior of the person, linked also to the memory of an event and its consequences; and lastly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped out and retain in his/her mind.

orks Cited

Santrock,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology. McGraw-Hill.
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Cognitive Theory Cognition Is the

Words: 1824 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29875252

It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).

Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm

2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.

3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439 

4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
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Cognitive-Behavior and Reality Therapies Cognitive-Behavior

Words: 1519 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58151900

The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)

eferences

Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp

Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet

Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.

Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…… [Read More]

References

Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at  http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp 

Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet

Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
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Learning Problems vs Language Problems

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93484975

Learning Problems vs Language Problems

The objective of this study is to examine how learning problems and language problems are related. Specifically considered will be the fact that when students who are learning English as their second language and who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties that the teacher and the school's problem-solving teams must examine whether these problems are related to learning a new language or whether the problems may be due to cognitive delays or developmental delay or disability.

The work of Fisher ( nd) entitled "Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or Language Issue" states that English language learners all "with learning disabilities...too often...fall through the cracks." (p.13) The reason stated for this is that these learners are often considered to be "slow English learners, or they may be in a school district that does not have enough resources to test them in their L1…… [Read More]

References

Recommended Practices for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Documentation of Learning Disabilities (2014) Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario. Retrieved from:  http://www.ldao.ca/documents/Assessment%20Protocols_Sept%2003.pdf 

Special Education and English Language Learners: Guidance for LEA Staff

An Overview of the ELL/SPED Programs and the Identification Process

(Webinar #1) (nd) Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved from:  http://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/webinar/documents/ELL-QandA-12-09-13.pdf
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Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

Words: 2062 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19929272

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or (CBT) is currently the popular method to provide therapy to the client with weight control maladies. CBT is ostensibly necessary to assist binge eaters and those whom suffer from tendencies to bulimic episodes. According to Brody (2007), "Most popular at the moment is cognitive-behavioral therapy, with or without medication. Since binge eaters have highly irregular eating habits, the behavioral aspect introduces structure to their eating behavior: regular meals, including breakfast, and an afternoon snack if needed." (Brody, 2007)

apoport, Clark, & Wardle further ascribe CBT as a comprehensive methodology to address the psychological, not neurological, deficiencies with regard to how the client addresses their weight problem. According to apoport, Clark & Wardle (2000), "Cognitive -- behavioural treatment (CBT) for obesity also focuses on weight loss, but incorporates psychological strategies to promote lifestyle change. ecent reviews show that CBT programmes achieve weight losses…… [Read More]

Reference

Brody, J.E. (2007, Feb 20). Out of control: A true story of binge eating. New York Times, pp. F.7-F.7. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/433509755?accountid=13044 

Marchesini, G., Natale, S., Chierici, S., Manini, R., Besteghi, L., Domizio, S.D., . . . . (2002). Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life in obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.International Journal of Obesity, 26(9), 1261-1261-1267. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802073

Mefferd, K., Nichols, J.F., Pakiz, B., & Rock, C.L. (2007). A cognitive behavioral therapy intervention to promote weight loss improves body composition and blood lipid profiles among overweight breast cancer survivors.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 104(2), 145-145-52. doi:10.1007/s10549-006-9410-x

Rapoport, L., Clark, M., & Wardle, J. (2000). Evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural programme for weight management. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 24(12), 1726-1726-1737. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801465
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Cognitive Error

Words: 753 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20151805

Cognitive Error

It's always the same thing with motorcyclists, they think they own the road" said David as he sat in his car stuck in mid-morning traffic. The motorcyclist zoomed past him through the narrow gap between him and another car. David looked over at the other driver who was on the cell-phone. He gestured at the motorcyclist and shook his head at his fellow car driver in a bid to say, "Jerks, the?" David figured the other driver probably felt the same way, because he too shook his head and continued with his conversation on the phone.

David was getting fidgety as the traffic showed no signs of easing up. Probably some accident he thought, then said out loud, "Probably some woman not looking where she's going. It's always a woman." He slapped his steering wheel and looked at the clock. 11:42 it said. He was definitely late. David…… [Read More]

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Learning & Memory the Accuracy of Memory

Words: 1445 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87602775

Learning & Memory

The Accuracy of Memory

The research I completed for this assignment was fairly straightforward. Upstairs in my living room on a day in which I had yet to leave the house, I tried to imagine my front door. I did so without having looked at it for at least 14 hours -- since I had arrived at home the evening before. Once I was able to visualize the door, I then wrote down all of the details that I could conceive of related to its physical appearance. My annotations on this subject included the fact that the door is white and is at the base of approximately 20 steps which lead to the main unit of the domicile. In this tall foyer, the white of the door stands out against the creme color of the walls around it (I was able to see this same color on…… [Read More]

References

Baars, B. (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: the Workspace of the Mind. San Diego: Oxford University Press.

Dehon, H., Laroi, F. "Affective valence influences participant's susceptibility to False Memories and Illusory Recollection." Emotion. 10 (5): 627-639.

Gallo, D.A. (2010). "False memories and fantastic beliefs: 15 years of DRM illusion." Memory & Cognition. 38 (7): 833-848.

Lindsay, D.F., Read, D.J. (1994). "Psychotherapy and memories of childhood sexual abuse: a cognitive perspective." Applied Cognitive Psychology. 8: 281-338.
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Cognitive Processes of Cognitive Processes

Words: 1855 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 78409228

124).

The methodology used was to study a selected group of children. While the results are useful in examining this cognitive process, it could also be argued that the group was too small to make general assessments and that further studies would have to be undertaken to compare the results of this study over a wider range of children. This would also take into account other variables such as ethnic group etc.

3. Conclusion

The study of cognitive process provides us with valuable insight into the way that children and adults perceive the word around them. The way that we perceive, filter and retain our reality plays a vital part in the way that we react and behave and in our personal development. The issues of perception, sensory memory and social cognitive factors all play a cardinal role in human development. The more that we study and understand the various…… [Read More]

References

Cropley, A.J. (1999). Creativity and Cognition: Producing Effective Novelty'. Roeper Review, 21(4), 253. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001272839 

Garfield, J.L. (1990). Foundations of Cognitive Science: The Essential Readings (1st ed.). New York: Paragon House. Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76868168 

Glass et al., ( 2008) Auditory sensory memory in 2-year-old children: an event-related potential study. Neuroreport, 19(5), pp 569-73.

Hung, D. (2003). Supporting Current Pedagogical Approaches with Neuroscience Research. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 14(2), 129+.
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Learning - Learning Has Been

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1053829

Within each of these are discriminatory and generalized patterns of learning; and can be incorporated into learning models.

My own learning style is a combination of listening (learning from others) and then doing. It depends on the material; for any tactile operation, I find it easier to understand by touching and manipulating than simply reading in a manual how to perform the task. I believe I make clear use of discrimination in learning; responding to different stimuli with different responses. When the learning task is more scholarly in nature, I tend to combine visual and aural methods with kinesthetic and write down, or outline material.

Burton, N. (March 15, 2012). Hide and Seek: Understanding Self-Deception, Self-Sabotage

nd More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201203/self-deception-series-repression-and-denial

Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational,…… [Read More]

And More. Psychology Today. Retrieved from:

 http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201203/self-deception-series-repression-and-denial 

Burton's article is a combination of the psychodynamic and behavioral models of psychological investigation. The major point of the article is that humans are not always rational, but are rationalizing. For instance, the trauma of 9/11, even for those not directly affected, caused a number of people to commit suicide. Moreover, if someone is the victim of beatings as a child, they tend to repress those memories, internalize some of the actions, and possibly have problems forming attachments. This, according to Dr. Burton, is the mind's way of defending and coping with stress. It becomes part of the unconscious, but often resurfaces in odd forms. The healthy individual can get on a path to deal with these issues; talk through them, analyze, and find coping mechanisms.
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Learning the Role of Social

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95227898

n other words, it can be criticized for being somewhat discursive and for not providing any form of comparative analysis.

Alternatively, one could argue that methodologically the research falls into the category of a case study, a legitimate form of intensive qualitative research. n the final analysis the article does provide some illuminating insights into the possibilities of literature for social and emotional development in gifted students.

Article 3: The Connection between Social-Emotional Learning and Learning Disabilities: mplications for ntervention by Maurice J. Elias.

The author of this article identifies a number of problematic social and emotional areas for the learning disabled or special needs student. These include the recognition of emotions in self and others; the regulation and management of strong emotions and the recognition of strengths and areas of need ( Elias, 2004). The article also reviews the literature and theoretical positions on this topic. Furthermore, the author…… [Read More]

In order to deal with these problems, the author suggests that in the first instance these inabilities and difficulties in the student must be recognized by the teacher or the therapist. Once they have been recognized, a responsive and caring approach should be taken. The teacher becomes involved in the process of articulating "... The strategies that students must use when they feel the strong feelings that are preventing them from learning effectively..."( Elias, 2004). Furthermore, the teacher should help the student to recognize his or her strengths. This can go a long way to reducing any sense of guilt or inadequacy.

While this study does not provide any quantitative methodology or strategy it does provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical aspects of the problems and the way that these problems can be addressed by the teacher. What is clearly implied throughout is that the innate talents and abilities of the special needs student enhanced by the caring and responsive techniques and strategies on the part of the teacher.

It could be argued that this study is possibly not as rigorous and methodologically intensive as the first article discussed in the present paper. However, what is clear from an analysis of the study by Elias is that the author provides a comparatively comprehensive overview of the issues and problems at stake and also supports this with practical examples of methods
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Cognitive Counseling This Is a

Words: 5805 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 29574321

Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).

Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).

Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. TheFreeDictionary.com. 15

May 2009 .

Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. Beckinstitute.org. 15 May 2009 .

Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.
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Cognitive Bias May Exist in

Words: 2013 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 96408719

If the student has a tendency to make errors based on cognitive conditions the correction of those conditions should probably take place as early as possible in the student's life. A recent study on cognitive development found that "cognitive developmental psychology and constructivism offer possibilities for the future of entrepreneurial cognition research" (Krueger, 2007, pg. 124). Krueger extrapolates that the reason entrepreneurial teaching is so effective is that it takes in consideration much in cognitive theory thinking. Krueger writes "as a field, entrepreneurship is lauded for the effectiveness of its teaching" (pg. 124). Krueger believes that entrepreneurial thinking and teaching in the classroom goes hand in hand with discerning cognitive bias. He believes that deeply seated beliefs and belief structures ultimately anchors entrepreneurial thinking. It could be said that if society wishes to develop further becoming even more entrepreneurial in its aspects, then cognitive bias needs to be addressed in…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, C.E.; (2006) a general theory of psychological relativity and cognitive evolution, Etc., Vol. 63, No. 3, pp. 278-289

Besharov, G.; (2004) Second-best considerations in correcting cognitive biases, Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 12-20

Han, S.S.; Catron, T.; Weiss, B.; Marciel, K.K.; (2005) a teacher-consultation approach to social skills training for pre-kindergarten children: Treatment model and short-term outcome effects, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 681-693

Kayluga, S.; (2007) Expertise reversal effect and its implications for learner-tailored instruction, Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 19, pp. 509-539
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86708159

Cognitive ehavioral Therapy

In comparison with many different types of treatments that are available cognitive behavioral therapy (CT) has been used as a way to address a host of anxiety and depression disorders without the use of prescription medication. This is because; this approach is based on the fact that health care professionals are treating someone by: looking at how their thoughts are influencing the way that they are interacting with others. To fully understand the effectiveness of this kind of treatment requires examining the use of CT to deal with: a variety of issues / disorders, discussing the implications for treatment planning, understanding what aspects should be implemented when conducting a treatment program and the different ways that you can ensure that the therapy is useful at dealing with the objectives for each patient. Once this takes place, it will provide specific insights about the underlying effectiveness of CT…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good. New York, NY: Avon Books.

Glossoff, H. (2005). Article 2. ACA Code of Ethics.

Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Wilson, R. (2010). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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Cognitive Development

Words: 1516 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25723502

Cognitive Development

Jean Piage is a luminary as far as cognitive development theory goes. This is because of his contributions in his intellectual development theory. According to Piaget, intellectual development is a continuation of innate biological processes. He emphasizes that children go through four sequential processes of development. These four stages also occur with sub stages within them.

The sensory motor stage: 0 to 2 years; intuitive stage: 2 to 7 years; concrete operations stage: 7 to 11 years; and the formal operations stage: 11 to 15 years (Simatwa, 366).

hat "Active Construction of Knowledge and Understanding" Means

A person's way of understanding occurs in five ways that are related. These are referred to as cognition domains. These ways include understanding as a representation, understanding as connectivity between knowledge types, understanding that forms active knowledge construction and understanding as cognition situation. Understanding as a representation refers to owning internalized ideas,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aleven, Vincent and Koeginger, Kenneth. "An Effective Metacognitive Strategy: Learning by Doing and Explaining with A Computer-Based Cognitive Tutor." Cognitive Science, 26 (2002): 147-179. Print.

Casey, Betty, Jones, Rebecca, and Hare, Todd. "The Adolescent Brain." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124 (2008): 111-126. Print.

Hill, Patrick and Lapsley, Daniel. "Egocentrism." Education.com,  http://www.education.com/reference/article/egocentrism/ . Accessed 23 August 2016.

Hurst, Melissa. "Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theories." Study.com,  http://study.com/academy/lesson/differences-between-piaget-vygotskys - cognitive-development-theories.html. Accessed 23 August 2016.
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Traditional Learning Theories Behavioral Constructivism and Cognitive

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19191460

learning theories, and apply them to the adult learning environment. Specifically behavioral, constructivist, and cognitive learning theories are examined.

Behavioral Learning Theories

This approach to learning suggests that learning is the result of external stimulus and response to stimulus, thus the learner's environment is the primary factor influencing learning (Hergenhahn & Olson, 1997). The focus of the behavioral learning model is changes in behavior facilitated by stimuli provided by the learner's environment; not stimuli produced by the learner. einforcement of stimuli in the environment are thought to effect change and therefore become critical to the learning process in this learning theory model. The learner's responses to stimuli can be strengthened depending on how one is conditioned to respond; meaning, in the behavioral model, positive reinforcement can serve to enforce positive learning.

Also important to the behavioral model is repetition and generalization of important learning concepts (Hartley, 1998). These serve to…… [Read More]

References:

Bruner, J.S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.

Bruner, J.S. (1996). The culture of education. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.

Hartley, J. (1998). Learning and studying. A research perspective. London: Routledge.

Huang, Hisu-Mei. (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol 33, No. 1, 27-37.
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Examining Different Learning Theories

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50408198

Dominant Learning Theories

Excellence in the field of pedagogy depends on an understanding of the major learning theories and models along with an ability to use them when appropriate. Even if one doesn't agree with these major learning theories, it's still important to be aware of them as a professional. A strong comprehension of the major learning theories can also help to guide one's actions and choices as an educator, scholar or general pedagogue.

Behaviorism, for example, is a major learning theory which asserts that the bulk of learning that occurs in human beings is done through conditioning. This is important as it puts a lot of focus on the power of the environment and how the environment can shape a person's behaviors through the stimuli acquired. Behaviorism is a school of learning which pays very little attention to mental states, finding things like moods and emotions to be too…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (2014). What Is Behaviorism? Retrieved from about.com:  http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behaviorism.htm 

Euromedinfo.eu. (2013). Behavioral, cognitive, humanist approaches. Retrieved from euromedinfo.eu:  http://www.euromedinfo.eu/behavioral-cognitive-humanist-approaches.html/ 

Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from about.com:  http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
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Theoretical Approaches to Learning

Words: 2498 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78319889

theoretical approaches to learning and explores possibilities of learning applications to special education. A matrix is presented and the information in the matrix is explained within a professional setting that deals with special education. The theoretical approaches to learning provide the framework for development of leaning skills and are examined in detail.

Keywords: Learning, Learning theories, Cognitive development, andura's social learning, Pavlov, Classical condition, special education, Erikson's theory, social development theory, experiential learning.

andura's Social Learning Theory

Social learning theory by andura highlights the societal processes in learning suggesting that people learn from each other using the means of observation and imitation. This means that children watch and learn behavior of adults and family members and during the process of observation they pick up skills which they imitate. The theory of social learning requires an analysis of the psychological processes of motivation, attention and memory and these three cognitive processes…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.

Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of Behavior Modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
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Psychology Animal Learning

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3739790

Animal Learning

Comparative cognition is a psychological approach to learning that studies how animals process information. S.T. Boysen (1998) in his article presents the summary and review of different issues concerning this approach specifically in relation to animal learning. Pervious studies and researches were discussed and their findings were carefully explained to show how cognitive learning approach has evolved over the years and what it tells us about "information-processing, reasoning, memory, and the phylogenetic emergence of mind" in nonhuman species. Imitative behavior and the influence of imitation on learning capabilities of an animal have occupied the most important place in comparative cognitive research. However imitation has been a contentious subject with varying definitions as key researchers have failed to agree on one specific pattern of learning through imitation even though the earliest studies in this connection appeared during late 19th century. For example omanes (1884) found that imitation required "intelligent…… [Read More]

References

S.T. Boysen (1999) CURRENT ISSUES AND EMERGING THEORIES IN ANIMAL COGNITION Annual Review of Psychology Annual

Zentall, Thomas R, (2002) A cognitive behaviorist approach to the study of animal behavior., The Journal of General Psychology
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Adult Learning Andragogy Adult Learning as a

Words: 2887 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17218108

Adult Learning: Andragogy

Adult learning as a concept was first introduced in Europe in the 50s (QOTFC, 2007). ut it was in the 70s when American practitioner and theorist of adult education Malcolm Knowles formulated the theory and model he called andragogy. He defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn (Zmeryov, 1998 & Fidishun, 2000 as qtd in QOTFC)." It consists of assumptions on how adults learn, with emphasis on the value of the process. Andragogy approaches are problem-based and collaborative as compared with the didactic approach in younger learners. It likewise emphasizes the equality between the teacher and the learner (QOTFC).

Adult Learning Principles

Knowles developed these principles from observed characteristics of adult learners. They have special needs and requirements different from those of younger learners (Lieb, 1991). Adults are internally motivated and self-directed. They bring life experiences and knowledge into their learning experiences. They…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chen, I. (2008). Constructivism. College of Education: University of Houston. Retrieved on June 6, 2011 from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichn/ebook/et-it/constr.htm

Corley M.A. (2008). Experiential learning theory. California Adult Literacy Professional

Development Project. CALPRO: California Department of Education. Retrieved on June 13, 2011 from  http://www.calpro-online.org/documents/AdultLearningTheoriesFinal.pdf 

Kolb, D.A. et al. (1999). Experiential learning theory. "Perspectives on Cognitive
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Preferences in Learning Between American

Words: 23082 Length: 65 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 88878710

The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).

Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…… [Read More]

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Education Theories Knowledge of Learning

Words: 3781 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93366223



Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."

As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.

This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).

Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.

Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.

Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
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Education - Distance Learning Distance

Words: 515 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41774353



In various trials in which learners were presented with different formats of video- only, auditory-only, combinations of both, and formats combining each with note-taking by students, researchers have determined that results are comparable, although more so for superior students than for average students. In that regard, average students learn better from repeated viewing in conjunction with audio-based information while superior students benefited equally regardless of the precise combination of those variables.

The author presents the results of research documenting the extent to which developers of computer-based video instruction may be overemphasizing the value of technical sophistication and suggests that the relative value of video-based lessons is substantially the same without the inclusion of all the bells and whistles available by virtue of the latest computer-based information formats. On the other hand, the author reports that vocational task-specific training effectiveness is somewhat more dependent on more sophisticated interactive information formats.

Since…… [Read More]

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Static Learning in the 21st

Words: 12488 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 64826198

Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.

Significance of the Study to Leadership

A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.

ecause of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anglin, Gary J., Vaez, Hossein, and Cunningham, Kathryn L. (nd) Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics. Visualization and Learning. Online available at:  http://www.aect.org/edtech/33.pdf 

Arnold, T.C., & Dwyer, F.M. (1975). Realism in visualized instruction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 369 -- 370.

de Melo, H.T. (1981). Visual self-paced instruction and visual testing in biological science at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4954A.

Dwyer, F.M. (1969). The effect of varying the amount of realistic detail in visual illustrations designed to complement programmed instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 6, 147 -- 153.
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Education How Do People Learn

Words: 1718 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92978467

New York: Praeger.

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Cohen, M. (2003). 101 Ethical Dilemmas. New York: outledge.

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Daniels, H. & Edwards, a. (Eds.). (2004). The outledgefalmer eader in Psychology of Education. New York: outledgeFalmer.

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Gielen, U.P. & oopnarine, J. (Eds.). (2004). Childhood and Adolescence: Cross-Cultural Perspectives and Applications. Westport, CT: Praeger.

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Gregory, E., Long, S., & Volk, D. (Eds.). (2004). Many Pathways to Literacy: Young Children Learning with Siblings, Grandparents, Peers, and Communities. New York: outledgeFalmer.

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Manson, S.M., Bechtold, D.W., Novins, D.K., & Beals, J. (1997). Assessing Psychopathology in American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Adolescents. Personality and Social Psychology eview, 1(3), 135-144.

King, Patricia M. And Kitchener, Karen S. (1994). Developing eflective Judgment: Understanding and Promoting Intellectual Growth and Critical Thinking in Adolescents and Adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

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eese, H.W. & Franzen, M.D. (Eds.). (1997). Biological and Neuropsychological Mechanisms: Life-Span…… [Read More]

References

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Allender, J.S. (1991). Imagery in Teaching and Learning: An Autobiography of Research in Four World Views. New York: Praeger.

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Cohen, M. (2003). 101 Ethical Dilemmas. New York: Routledge.
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Strategy Development and Organization Learning

Words: 1555 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 82213032

The primary reason for their achievements lays in the creativity and innovation brought in by CEO Howard Schultz, but also by the appropriate understanding and integration of theoretical managerial concepts. Two of the most relevant such concepts are the strategy development and the organization learning. The two concepts are interconnected and both rely massively on the firm's ability to analyze the internal and external environments and best adapt to the emergent changes in these environments: seize opportunities, minimize threats, maximize strengths and eliminate weaknesses.

eferences

Bryson, J.M., 2004, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement, John Wiley and Sons

Easterby-Smith, M., Araujo, L., Burgoyne, J., 1999, Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization: Developments in Theory and Practice, SAGE

Enderle, ., March 22, 2004, Starbucks and HP: The Future of Digital Music, Tech News World, http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33164.html?wlc=1221127641last accessed on January 14, 2009

Harrison, .T.,…… [Read More]

References

Bryson, J.M., 2004, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement, John Wiley and Sons

Easterby-Smith, M., Araujo, L., Burgoyne, J., 1999, Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization: Developments in Theory and Practice, SAGE

Enderle, R., March 22, 2004, Starbucks and HP: The Future of Digital Music, Tech News World,  http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33164.html?wlc=1221127641last  accessed on January 14, 2009

Harrison, R.T., Leitch, C., 2008, Entrepreneurial Learning: Conceptual Frameworks and Applications, Routledge
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Human Robot Interaction learning language

Words: 813 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55067172

Final results reveal far better efficiency in the worksheets for sessions wherein the robot gazed away from, when compared with the session it gazed in the direction of the child, because the child had been entering the worksheets. This had been the situation particularly for the much more tough worksheet elements. These results emphasize the require for cautious execution of social robot conducts to prevent disadvantageous outcomes. Based on Herberg, Feller, Yengin and Saerbeck (2015), outcomes recommend that raising a robot tutor’s interpersonal conducts doesn't inevitably improve children’s studying habits, however at times can in fact hinder children’s learning efficiency. Children success-rate worsened in worksheet words translation activities the moment the robot tutor got involved in watchful conducts, as opposed to when it gazed away. In the worksheets for Latin translation, this kind of watchful drawback impact tended to happen mainly on the more tough elements, with the simpler elements…… [Read More]

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Virtual Child and Learning Theories Application

Words: 920 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10725657

Social Learning Theory and Parenting Skills

The most applicable and relevant philosophy in parenting particularly of the preschool years children is the social learning theory that was proposed and developed by Albert Bandura. The social learning theory is widely seen as the bridge between the cognitive learning and behaviorism, and it is this combination of two theories or approaches to learning that makes it most applicable for my parenting approach. This approach concentrates on attention, motivation as well as memory. This theory indicates that people learn through seeing the behaviors of others, their attitudes and the result of their behaviors. In this sphere, learning is continuous and involves the reciprocation of the behavior of the individual, the environmental influences, the cognitive influences that models the individual (Albert Bendura, 1971:Pp3). In a nut shell, the individual is aware of the relationship between his behavior and the consequences, and he learns these…… [Read More]

References

Albert Bendura, (1971). Social Learning Theory. Stanford University. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from  http://www.jku.at/org/content/e54521/e54528/e54529/e178059/Bandura_SocialLearningTheory_ger.pdf 

Johansson T., at.al (2012). Preschool teachers view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark. European Early Childhood Education Research. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from Journalhttp://edu.au.dk/fileadmin/edu/Forskningsprojekter/Science-didaktik/Preschool_teachers_view_on_childrens_learning.pdf

Serve (2014). Preschool: Thinking and learning. Retrieved March 28, 2015 from  http://center.serve.org/ss/preactive.php
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Conducting Learning Motivation Performance of Employees of Law Enforcement Agents

Words: 2131 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95057588

Learning, Motivation, Performance of Employees of Public Safety Organizations

The motivation is defined as the intrinsic phenomenon affected four factors: temperament, situation, tool, and goal. Typically, people are motivated to achieve their goals, instincts and necessities, thus, the concept motivation assists people to complete a task, gain a goal as well as achieving a certain degree of success from their job. Thus, the concept motivation explains why some people behaves in a certain way and the reasons for their behaviors. In essence, motivated people are oriented, and energetic in characteristics, which influence their behaviors. From the educational point-of-view, motivation is the polyhedral structure associated with academic achievement and learning, however, employees' motivation is low in the public sector compared with the private organizations. The public safety organizations are the government agencies that include law enforcement agencies, EMS (Emergency Medical Services), rescue squads, and fire departments. The Department of Safety in…… [Read More]

Reference

Blanchard, P. N., & Thacker, J. W. (2013). Effective Training Systems, Strategies, and Practices (5th Ed.) ISBN 13:978-0-13-272904-8

Ford, L. (2009). Improving training transfer. Journal of Industrial and Commercial Training, 4, 6-92.

Fortenbery, M.J.A. (2015). Improving Motivation and Productivity of Police Officers. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.

Giran, H. Amin, A. & Halim, A. (2014). The Impact of Self-Efficacy towards Training Motivation at Kolej Poly-Tech MARA Kuantan, Malaysia. Asian Social Science; 10(19):69:76.
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Impact of Social Promotion on Learning

Words: 2441 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 20639763

Long-Term Effects of Social Promotion on Student and Teacher

There is a problem in an urban elementary school in Eastern New York. This problem specifically is the social promotion of fifth grade students. Currently, nothing is being done to address the issue of social promotion which is supported by state education policies that benefits from children being passed to the next grade level. There is a lack of training for teachers who teach students who are at risk learners. Teaching at risk learners is one of the areas that require high quality teachers to enhance learner outcomes. However, at risk learners have teachers who are not adequately trained to meet the standards of effective teaching to meet their needs (Grant, Stronge & Popp, 2008). The current educational system/framework does not align such learners with expert teachers, but with average teachers with inadequate training, average skills, and less experience (Grant, Stronge…… [Read More]

References

Aldridge, J. & Goldman, R. (2014, May 7). Current issues and trends in education (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon.

Education Week. (2004, August 4). Social Promotion. Retrieved December 22, 2016, from https://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/social-promotion/

Grant, L., Stronge, J.H. & Popp, P. (2008, May). Effective Teaching and At-Risk/Highly Mobile Students: What Do Award-Winning Teachers Do? Retrieved from Sonoma State University website:  http://www.sonoma.edu/TRIO-training/research/homeless/mobile.pdf 

Hernandez-Tutop, J. (2012, May). Social Promotion or Grade Repetition: What's Best for the 21st Century Student. Retrieved from Institute of Education Sciences website:  http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532287.pdf
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Linguistic Learning Studies Differences in

Words: 793 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 71073706



That is a function of the complex cognitive mechanisms involved in human language processing and speech, which Kormos explicitly acknowledges as possibly the most complex of all human cognitive processes (Levelt, 1995 in Kormos, 2003 p88). Given that characterization, the use of a word span test -- in which performance could quite conceivably measure other variables besides raw working memory, such as parallel recognition and various other associative or pneumonic devices -- instead of a non-word span test likely undermined the validity of the Mota study (2003) results.

Furthermore, the Kormos and Safar study (2008) employed standard objective academic tests of foreign language proficiency, whereas the Mota study (2003) employed a novel matrix of variables (fluency, accuracy, and complexity) to measure foreign language proficiency (Mota, 2003 p69). The former type of diagnostic test would appear to be an appropriately accurate and narrowly targeted measure of memory-based performance and learning in…… [Read More]

References:

Kormos, Judit, and Safar, Anna. "Phonetical short-term memory, working memory and foreign language performance in intensive language learning" Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, Vol. 11, No. 2; 2008: 261-271.

Mota, Mailce Borges. "Working memory capacity and fluency, accuracy, complexity, and lexical density in L2 speech production" Florianopolis, Vol. 24; 2003: 69-104.