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Cognitive therapy provides a structured framework for change. Describe your understanding of how this form of therapy works.
According to Cherry (2012), cognitive behavior therapy, also known as CBT focuses on helping clients to understand the thoughts and feelings that create their behaviors. If such behaviors are problematic, the client is encouraged to work on the way they think and feel about certain situations, which, it is assumed, would then also create change in the behavior. Commonly, phobias, addiction, depression, and anxiety are treated by means of CBT. This type of therapy is generally used to create short-term solutions to very specific problems, which focus on helping people to change by focusing on destructive or disturbing thought patterns that influence their behavior negatively.
The underlying cause for disturbed behaviors is then regarded as thoughts and feelings, more than repressed subconscious disturbances created by the individual's past. As such, these are…
Cherry, K. (2012). What is Cognitive Behavior Therapy? Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychotherapy/a/cbt.htm
Haggerty, J. (2006). Psychodynamic Therapy. PsychCentral. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/psychodynamic-therapy/
To treat dysfunctional modes of either thinking or behaving in Cognitive Therapy three general approaches are applied: 1. Deactivation through distraction or reassurance 2, Modification of content or structure 3. The construction of more adaptive modes which "neutralizes' the maladaptive modes. These steps are fundamental in the process as each step is an aspect of the developed sense of self or core belief. To describe each process is also important. The concept of deactivation is essential but usually only partial as the mode of thinking or behaving is likely based in some truth, in other words the core belief has a particle of truth that is held and developed by the individual for adaptation and survival, therefore the therapist may need to reassure those parts of the mode that are based on truth and then distract the individual by reality testing or modification of the whole of the…
Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: basics and beyond. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Hewstone, M. Fencham, F.F. & Foster, J. (2005). Psychology. Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing.
Robertson, D (2010). The philosophy of cognitive-behavioural therapy: Stoicism as rational and cognitive psychotherapy. London, UK: Karnac Publishing.
Sanders, D. & Wills, F. (2005) Cognitive therapy: an introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Evolution and Development of Cognitive Therapy
Psychology is a relatively young science. Though it has roots in philosophy and other humanities, it has only been an official science for a little over a century. Moreover, the different treatment modalities in psychology are also relatively new. However, in a short period of time, some treatments have grown to preeminence in the field, so much so that, even though they are relatively young, they are considered the standards by which other treatments are judged. These two approaches are psychoanalysis and behavior therapy, and they have been used, with some success for decades. However, in the 1960s, a new therapeutic approach emerged: cognitive therapy. Cognitive therapy focused on the role that thoughts played in behavior and disorders, with the premise that changing thoughts would result in behavior and symptom change.
Of course, like other areas of psychology, it is important to understand that…
Beck, A. (1993). Cognitive therapy: Past, present, and future. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(2), 194-198.
Gluhoski, V. (1994). Misconceptions of cognitive therapy. Psychotherapy, 31(4), 594-600.
Montgomery, R. (1993). The ancient origins of cognitive therapy: The reemergence of stoicism.
Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 7(1), 5-19.
Aaron Beck & Cognitive Therapies
Cognitive therapies are therapies that relate to how a person thinks, and attempt to solve problems based on changing how people think. The founder of cognitive therapies was Aaron Beck.
Beck believed that problems resulted from cognitive distortions, that is, were based in a person's thinking. Beck believed that a person's thought, beliefs, attitudes and perceptions were the basis for what emotions they would experience and how intense those emotions would be and that by changing the thinking a person could change their experience.
Beck explains this concept saying "cognitive therapy is based on the premise that emotions come out of unexamined, habituated thought reactions. These thoughts and the emotions they foster can be deconstructed and, hence, defused of their power to poison all human interactions" (Beck, A.T. (1989). Love Is Never Enough. New York: Harper Collins).
Beck's therapies are made accessible to medical practitioners…
Antonuccio, D.O., Danton, W.G., & DeNelsky, G.Y. (1995). "Psychotherapy vs. Medication for Depression: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom With Data." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26:6.
Barrett, D. (2002). "The "Royal Road" becomes a Shrewd Shortcut: The Use of Dreams in Focused Treatment." Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16:1.
Beck, A.T. (1989). Love Is Never Enough. New York: Harper Collins.
Reinecke, M., & DuBois, D. (2001). "Socio-Environmental and Cognitive Risk and Resources:Relations to Mood and Suicidality among Inpatient Adolescents." Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 15:3.
personality and psychotherapy theories, namely, client-centered therapy (CCT) and cognitive therapy. The first section of the paper takes up CCT (or ogerian therapy), giving a brief overview of the theory's key points, including its founder and the views of the founder. Sub-sections under this section explore, in brief, the areas of personality structure under the theory, theory architecture, and an approach to intervention using the theory (or in other words, how the client is dealt with using the CCT model).
The second section of the paper follows a similar exploration of the theory of cognitive therapy (CT), developed by A.T. Beck. Sub-sections follow similar lines, concisely dealing withpersonality structure under CT, architecture of the theory, as well as interventions for helping out clients under this model, supported by literature in the field.
Finally, the paper takes up a comparative discussion, in the last section, highlighting the key elements that are…
Beck, A. T. (1991). Cognitive therapy: A 30-year retrospective. American Psychologist, 46(4), 368-375. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.46.4.368. (Saybrook University library: PsycARTICLES database.)
Bozarth, J. D. (1997). Empathy from the framework of client-cantered theory and the Rogerian hypothesis. In A. C. Bohart, L. S. Greenberg, A. C. Bohart, L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), Empathy reconsidered: New directions in psychotherapy (pp. 81-102). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10226-003
Cahill, J., Barkham, M., Hardy, G., Rees, A., Shapiro, D. A., Stiles, W. B., & Macaskill, N. (2003).Outcomes of patients completing and not completing cognitive therapy for depression. British Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 42(2), 133.
Dattilio, F. M., & Hanna, M. A. (2012).Collaboration in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 68(2), 146-158. doi:10.1002/jclp.21831
Cross-cultural evidence shows that drinking abuse will be low in any group in which drinking "customs, values and sanctions are clear, agreed upon by all, consistent with other customs of the group and characterized by prescriptions for moderate drinking and proscriptions against immoderate drinking" (1995). Prohibition in America has obviously proven unsuccessful as it has in other locations as well, the approach that is taken today is a prohibitionist impulse in the "controversial control-of-consumption approach" (1995). When it comes to alcohol and drugs in the United States, there is a desire for policymakers (and others) to manipulate and control the behavior of others (something endemic to humans) (1995).
THE PROBLEM OF THERAPY
Healthcare professionals who treat substance abusing clients must recognize the powerful nature of these drugs and the controlling effects they have on people's lives. The fact that tens of millions of Americans continue to engage in substance abusing…
cognitive therapy is a widely accepted, empirically validated treatment for a number of conditions, including most especially depression. The theorist who responsible for developing cognitive therapy is Aaron T. Beck, a nonagenarian who is currently the University of Philadelphia Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and a member of The Institute of Medicine. To date, Dr. Beck has been the recipient of countless awards and honors in recognition of his contributions to the field of psychotherapy and he continues to research and write despite his advanced age. This paper provides a biographical description of Dr. Beck, followed by an analysis of an application of his cognitive therapy to depression. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning Dr. Beck and cognitive therapy are presented in the paper's conclusion.
Aaron T. Beck and Cognitive Therapy
One of the early pioneers of research into psychoanalytic theories of depression is Aaron Temkin…
Beck, J. (2012). Cognitive therapy for a client with depression [streaming video]. Retrieved from PsycTHERAPY database.
Beck, A. T. & Freeman, A. (2004). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders (2nd ed). New York: Guilford Press.
Beck biography. (2015). Aaron T. Beck official site. Retrieved from http://www.med.upenn.edu / suicide/beck/biography.html.
Freeman, H. (1999). A century of psychiatry. London: Mosby.
Evidence-Based Programs and Practices
Part 1: Define and Refine
Evidence-based programs are defined as a prevention or treatment practice, that is based on consistent scientific evidence providing proof that the practice improves client/patient outcomes. The practice should be supported by sufficient documentation and peer-reviewed research that shows its effectiveness (Operational Definition for Evidence-Based Practices Addictions and Mental Health Division, 2017).
Programs draw from theory in that the theoretical framework developed by researchers and professionals serve as a set of parameters or guidelines for how to interpret evidence and how to implement the recommendations based on the evidence into one’s practice. Theories serve as the lens through which to look at the evidence. Just as a microscope has a lens and a focus so that one can see all the details of the subject, the theory allows the data to be put into perspective, and that perspective is defined…
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT as commonly referred to encompasses several techniques. One is behavioral experiments whereby the psychologist helps the client to do behavioral experiments to test their thoughts and help them change their behavior through self-criticism and self-kindness. Second is thought records whereby the psychologist helps the client to change their beliefs through recording thoughts and their consequences. Another technique is imagery exposure which helps to provoke memories and positive emotions in the client. In vivo exposure is also another technique whereby the patient is exposed to the feared stimulus gradually in order to help them resole an issue Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2010()
The case of the fat lady
Intervention strategy for making and maintaining relationships
In order to help Betty explore and reduce her inner conflict and be able to make and maintain relationships, a cognitive…
Holmes, J. (2002). All You Need Is Cognitive Behaviour Therapy? BMJ: British Medical Journal, 324(7332), 288-290. doi: 10.2307/25227348
Schacter, D.L., Gilbert, D.T., & Wegner, D.M. (2010). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Worth Pub
Sue, D.W., Capodilupo, C.M., Torino, G.C., Bucceri, J.M., Holder, A.M.B., Nadal, K.L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271 -- 286. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271
Sue, S., Zane, N., Nagayama Hall, G.C., & Berger, L.K. (2009). The Case for Cultural Competency in Psychotherapeutic Interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 525-548. doi: doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163651
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques
Case of the Fat Lady
Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…
Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.
Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.
Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
Cognitive restructuring theory describes the various applied approaches aiming at reframing behaviors. The theory uses cognitive therapy to apply the behavioral technique. The theory involves learning how to think differently to change negative thinking and replace it with positive thinking. In addition, cognitive restructuring aims at helping people to deal with problems of anxiety and depression. In so doing, people can change their manner of thought and live their daily lives with energy and hope.
Cognitive theory is practical and can help Tom control and effectively manage his anger. As such, tom would not change significantly because the action had already taken place. For Tom, it would be better to focus his energy on how to avoid such a thing from happening and avoid future irritation. In this case, Tom would take one of the techniques offered in the cognitive therapy. Aggression replacement may help teach him some behavioral techniques…
Kate, S., Tony, A., Sharon, H., Irina, L. (2007). A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cognitive
Behavioral Intervention for Anger Management in Children Diagnosed with Asperger
Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37.7, 1203-1214.
From: Burns, D.D. (1989). The Feeling Good Handbook: 4 Steps in Cognitive Restructuring.
The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…
1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm
2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.
3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439
4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…
AudioEnglish.net. (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience. http://www.audioenglish.net/dictionary/cognitive_neuroscience.htm
Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/www.edpsycinteractive.org/brilstar/chapters/affectdev.doc
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/tuokko/Ethical%20Principles%20of%20Psychologists.pdf
Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
Cognitive distortions are anomalies present in habitual thoughts that eventually lead to serious psychopathological issues. These problems are typically associated with instances of distorted thinking that emerges as a result of cognitive structures, operations, or products. Cognitive distortions can influence individuals to put across behavior that is in disagreement with the principles that they live by. People who experience cognitive distortions are in some cases probable to resort to behaving immorally or to hurting themselves or someone else. In particular situations cognitive distortions can excuse deviant behavior, as individuals involved are not fully able to control themselves and thus have no power to refrain from doing something wrong.
Doctors can interpret information that their patients provide by making use of their understanding of cognitive distortions. hile some people are inclined to consider cognitive distortions as the reason behind a series of acts, it appears that cognitive distortions can sometimes be…
O'Donohue, William T., and Fisher, Jane E., "General Principles and Empirically Supported Techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy," (John Wiley & Sons, 04.02.2009)
"Cognitive Therapy for Depressed Adolescents," (Guilford Press, 1994)
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).
Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).
Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…
American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. TheFreeDictionary.com. 15
May 2009 .
Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. Beckinstitute.org. 15 May 2009 .
Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.
Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)
These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.
Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…
Bouck, E.C. (2004). Exploring Secondary Special Education for Mild Mental Impairment: A Program in Search of Its Place. Remedial and Special Education, 25(6), 367-377
Bray, P., & Cooper, R. (2007). The Play of Children with Special Needs in Mainstream and Special Education Settings. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32(2), 37-48
Gersten, R., Schiller, E.P., & Vaughn, S. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary Special Education Research: Syntheses of the Knowledge Base on Critical Instructional Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2004). Cognitive Therapy: 100 Key Points. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Both types of reflection are ways to restructure cognition. Dynamic reflection focuses on problems and problem solving, while existential reflection seeks to discover meaning in life. In either case, the helper's role is to facilitate the reflection process.
Congruence with Social Work Values and Ethics
To determine the congruence between cognitive therapy and social work values and ethics, the writer consulted the National Association of Social Worker's (NASW) Code of Ethics (NASW, 2008). NASW's ethical principles are based on its six core values of service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. The overriding purpose of cognitive therapy is service to the client -- helping her identify, challenge, and change the cognitive misconceptions that result in unhealthy emotions and dysfunctional behavior. Perhaps the most obvious congruence is between the values of dignity and worth of the person and social justice. The former…
Lantz, J. (2007). Cognitive theory and social work treatment. In M. Mattaini & C. Lowery (Eds.), Foundations of social work practice: a graduate text (4th ed.), 94-115. Washington D.C. NASW Press.
National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from http://www.socialworkers.org/pub/code/code.asp .
Psychology -- Cognitive theoies
Use of the Session Bidging Woksheet in Cognitive Theapy
The pupose of the Session Bidging Woksheet is to assess the client's insight and compehension of the pio theapy session (Beck, 1995). Being awae of the fact that they will be questioned concening the pevious session encouages the client to pepae fo the pesent session by eflecting on the session thoughout the week. If the client cannot emembe thei esponses o the significant concepts fom the pio theapeutic session, the counselo and client come togethe to figue out a way so that they can moe effectively ecall the elements of the pesent session. The Session Bidging Woksheet offes a way of getting this done. This is impotant because seveal studies have shown that inceased memoy and undestanding of theapeutic sessions has a diect impact on teatment outcome (Shephed, Salkovskis, & Mois, 2009). Also this technique equies that…
references. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37(2), 141-150.
Whipple, J.L., Lambert, M.J., Vermeersch, D.A., Smart, D.W., Nielsen, S.L., & Hawkins, E.J. (2003). Improving the effects of psychotherapy: The use of early identification of treatment failure and problem solving strategies in routine practice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 59-68.
The always developing field of psychology and the tools used to develop this science, have provided many patients with much need relief. The constant evolution of the mind requires that clinical practices within mental health treatments also evolve and grow with the human race. The purpose of this essay is to discus Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), as a useful method of treating mental and psychological issues.
First CBT will be discussed in general, and useful ideas presented about the approach will be introduced. A practical example of this therapy will also be highlighted to contextualize the information. Next, this essay will address CBT can be used specifically for the treatment for depression and the issues associated with that idea. Finally, this essay will address how computerized CBT software programs are assisting in treating these types of issues.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is simply a form of psychotherapy that…
Barlow, DH, Gorman, J.M., Shear, M.K., & Woods, S.W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Jama, 283(19), 2529-2536.
Boyes, A. (2012). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Techniques That Work. Psychology Today, 6 Dec 2012. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/in-practice/201212/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-techniques-work
Dobson, K.S. (Ed.). (2009). Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Guilford Press.
Martin, B. (2007). In-Depth: Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/000907
This essay discusses cognitive psychology and a specific scenario within that scientific term. It starts out with an introduction or definition of cognitive psychology, then discusses a specific scenario, and perspectives of the scenario. The body of this essay covers treatments, therapies, and interventions for the scenario, as well as effectiveness of therapies, before summing up the paper with a conclusion.
Cognitive Psychology: Modern Approach to Human Behavior
Cognitive Psychology Advancements
Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Psychology of Planning
B. Psychological Perspectives
C. Treatment, Therapies, Interventions
D. Effectiveness of Therapies
Title: Cognitive Psychology Scenario Essay
Cognitive psychology is a relatively new or modern approach to human behavior whose main focus is how people think. This approach in psychology focuses on how people think because of the belief that thought processes affect peoples behaviors. In essence, an individuals…
Importance of Cognitive-enhancing drugs
Methods of boosting an individual's brain power
esearch for cognitive enhancers
The interest in Cognitive enhancement
The neuroethics associated with cognitive enhancements
The article titled "Neuroethical issues in cognitive enhancement" was written by the authors Barbara Sahakian and Sharon Morein-Zamir and was first published online on March 8, 2010. Neuroethics is a field that addresses the applied ethical issues that are brought directly or indirectly about by neuroscience advancements. One area is on the research and development of enhancers in pharmaceutical cognition. These drugs are mainly developed for the treatment of cognitive disabilities and improving the quality of life of patients with brain injuries and neuropsychiatric disorders. This report endeavors to review the impact that such drugs have in both healthy and neuropsychiatric individuals and the overall implications on the society as a new development in the field of psychology (Sahakian & Morein-Zamir,…
Sahakian, B.J. & Morein-Zamir, S. (2011). Neuroethical issues in cognitive enhancement. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 25(2) 197 -- 204 originally published online 8 March 2010 DOI: 10.1177/0269881109106926
Cakic, V. (2009). Smart drugs for cognitive enhancement: ethical and pragmatic considerations in the era of cosmetic neurology. J Med Ethics, 35:611-615 doi:10.1136/jme.2009.030882
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study
K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…
Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from http://criticism.english.illinois.edu/2007%20Fall%20Documents/Affect%20Abstracts/Abstracts.htm
DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.
Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9
Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or (CBT) is currently the popular method to provide therapy to the client with weight control maladies. CBT is ostensibly necessary to assist binge eaters and those whom suffer from tendencies to bulimic episodes. According to Brody (2007), "Most popular at the moment is cognitive-behavioral therapy, with or without medication. Since binge eaters have highly irregular eating habits, the behavioral aspect introduces structure to their eating behavior: regular meals, including breakfast, and an afternoon snack if needed." (Brody, 2007)
apoport, Clark, & Wardle further ascribe CBT as a comprehensive methodology to address the psychological, not neurological, deficiencies with regard to how the client addresses their weight problem. According to apoport, Clark & Wardle (2000), "Cognitive -- behavioural treatment (CBT) for obesity also focuses on weight loss, but incorporates psychological strategies to promote lifestyle change. ecent reviews show that CBT programmes achieve weight losses…
Brody, J.E. (2007, Feb 20). Out of control: A true story of binge eating. New York Times, pp. F.7-F.7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/433509755?accountid=13044
Marchesini, G., Natale, S., Chierici, S., Manini, R., Besteghi, L., Domizio, S.D., . . . . (2002). Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life in obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.International Journal of Obesity, 26(9), 1261-1261-1267. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802073
Mefferd, K., Nichols, J.F., Pakiz, B., & Rock, C.L. (2007). A cognitive behavioral therapy intervention to promote weight loss improves body composition and blood lipid profiles among overweight breast cancer survivors.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 104(2), 145-145-52. doi:10.1007/s10549-006-9410-x
Rapoport, L., Clark, M., & Wardle, J. (2000). Evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural programme for weight management. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 24(12), 1726-1726-1737. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801465
It implies as well that most people react to things in a certain way because they want to repeat behaviors that worked well for them in the past (i.e. there was a positive experience created).
Emotions are not too fast (or too mindless, for that matter) for cognitive appraisals. Emotions, no matter how small, lead to cognitive appraisals that help individuals make sense of certain events. Take breaking up with someone, for example. If someone is broken up with, this person could feel a certain amount of sadness and this emotion is elicited by the cognitive appraisal that something good or worthwhile has been lost and cannot be recovered (Scherer, Schorr & Johnstone, 2001). It has been suggested even that emotions can be elicited with an evaluation having taken place by an event in and of itself, physiological processes (e.g. brain activity), facial expressions (or other types of expressions), behaviors…
Scherer, K.R., Schorr, a., & Johnstone, T. (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion:
Theory, methods, research. (1st ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Wessler, R.L., Hankin, S., & Stern, J. (2001). Succeeding with difficult clients:
Applications of cognitive appraisal therapy (Practical resources for the mental health professional). (1st ed.). Salt Lake City, UT: Academic Press.
Cognitive ehavioral Therapy
In comparison with many different types of treatments that are available cognitive behavioral therapy (CT) has been used as a way to address a host of anxiety and depression disorders without the use of prescription medication. This is because; this approach is based on the fact that health care professionals are treating someone by: looking at how their thoughts are influencing the way that they are interacting with others. To fully understand the effectiveness of this kind of treatment requires examining the use of CT to deal with: a variety of issues / disorders, discussing the implications for treatment planning, understanding what aspects should be implemented when conducting a treatment program and the different ways that you can ensure that the therapy is useful at dealing with the objectives for each patient. Once this takes place, it will provide specific insights about the underlying effectiveness of CT…
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good. New York, NY: Avon Books.
Glossoff, H. (2005). Article 2. ACA Code of Ethics.
Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Wilson, R. (2010). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
It also relaxes them and helps build rapport, and it can give you ideas to use for treatment...Everybody has natural resources that can be utilised. These might be events...or talk about friends or family...The idea behind accessing resources is that it gives you something to work with that you can use to help the client to achieve their goal...Even negative beliefs and opinions can be utilised as resources. (p. 451)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy also works with negative aspects of the client's life as a way to increase the positive aspects of his or her life. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a more established therapy than in solution-based therapy, although the two are conceptually twinned. The major goal of cognitive behavioral therapy is to solve difficulties that arise in the client's life as the result of the presence of behaviors and cognitions (that is, thoughts) along with emotions that are dysfunctional (Albano…
Jones, D. (2008). Becoming a brief therapist: Special edition. London: Lulu Enterprises.
McCullough, J.P. (2003). Treatment for chronic depression: Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy. London: Guilford Press.
Miller, S.D., Hubble, M.A., Duncan, B.L. (1996). Handbook of solution-focused brief therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
O'Connell, B. (1998). Solution focused therapy. Los Angeles: Sage.
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.
New York: The Guilford Press.
Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
There is much irony to be found in the opinion that all illness begins in the mind, because many doctors and alternative healers make this claim but yet are unwilling to admit that psychic illnesses are real. The Japanese people struggle with an honest discussion of psychiatric illnesses, as they often come to their doctors with somatic complaints. Yes, they may have headaches, stomachaches, or other issues, but it is the goal of the doctor to determine what is causing these problems. Internal medicine doctors should look for physical reasons for these issues, but should also be open to the idea that no physical cause may be found (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001). If that is the case, it is possible that the person is depressed, and that mental health counseling can be beneficial (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001). Until the stigma of mental health and depression can be removed, however, Japanese people who need treatment…
Dale, J., Sorour, E., & Milner, G. (2008). Do psychiatrists perform appropriate physical investigations for their patients? A review of current practices in a general psychiatric inpatient and outpatient setting. Journal of Mental Health, 17(3): 293 -- 298.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2001). Gender differences in depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(5): 173 -- 176.
These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:
1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.
2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.
3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. Retrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22, 2003) "Learning theory: A fuller-fuller explanation of CBT" Retrieved at http://www.cognitivetherapy.com/learning.html Accessed on February 15, 2005
Cognitive Therapy for Depression" Retrieved at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/cognitive.htm . Accessed on February 15, 2005
Grohol, John M. (July 21, 1995) "Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists"
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question developed
The mindfulness meditation theory appears to have the potential to treat addictive disorder patients. Zgierska and coworkers (2009) state that such models seem to be safe if implemented within the context of clinical studies. One can find considerable methodological shortcomings in a majority of existing works on the subject. Further, which addiction-diagnosed individuals may derive maximum benefits out of mindfulness meditation isn’t clear. But, of late, related initiatives and practices in the role of complementary clinical aids for treating multiple physical and psychological ailments have grown in popularity. MBCT (mindfulness-based cognitive therapy) and MBSR (mindfulness-based stress reduction) as clinical initiatives have specifically been analyzed, with a sound evidential pool recording their efficacy. Integration of the latter initiative’s aspects and cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive psychology strategies resulted in the former’s creation. At first,…
Perceptions are generally based on the present, and therefore, the need to explore the past by delving into it in great detail becomes totally unnecessary. Glasser felt that even if the person exhibited bizarre and extremely strange types of behavior at a particular time, it was because of an innate reason of trying and attempting to find the best solution in order to meet the person's needs at that particular time in his life, and therefore, it was logical and sane to him, if not to others who would sometimes label him as strange or insane. (the Use of eality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools) delinquent would make choices based on the best way to meet his basic needs at that time, and therefore, must not be criticized. This, in essence formed the theory of eality Therapy of William Glasser, wherein the concept of 'Choice Theory' was emphasized…
Hazelden, Paul. "Reality Therapy" Retrieved at http://www.hazelden.org.uk/gr01/art_gr003_reality_therapy.htm . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Historic Overview of Psychiatric Care" Retrieved at http://www.jcjc.cc.ms.us/faculty/adn/jmcmillan/psychcl1.html. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "From Reality Therapy to Reality Therapy in Action" Retrieved at http://www.socc.ie/~wgii/articlebl.htm. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "The Use of Reality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools" Retrieved at http://www.ncge.ie/handbook_docs/Section1/Reality_Therapy_Guide_Sch.doc . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
In this paper, there is going to an examination of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic theories. This is accomplished by focusing on: the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. These elements will show how each one can address issues impacting the patient and the long-term effects upon them.
In the world of psychology, there are different theories which are used to explain how someone reacts to various stimuli. The result is that there has been contrasting ideas about the best way to understand human behavior. Two schools of thought which are very popular are the psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral approaches. (Okun, 2008)
To fully understand them requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by focusing on the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these…
Larson, P. (2012). How Important is an Understanding of the Clients Early Attachments. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (1), 10 -- 18.
Lucia, M. (2012). Therapeutic Activities and Psychological Interventions. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 12 (2), 118 -- 127.
Okun, B. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. New York, NY: Brooks and Cole.
Parpottis, P. (2012). Working with the Therapeutic Relationship. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (3), 91-97
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a form of psychotherapy that is similar to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The theory that ACT is based on is the Relational Frame Theory, which launched out of cognitive therapy, supplying missing "steps" in Skinner's behaviorism by exploring more deeply the connections between language and thought. Essentially, ACT explores the idea that what and how a person thinks is highly impactful in that individual's daily life and functioning -- and especially in how that person copes with stress, etc. But whereas CBT focuses on altering the content of one's thoughts in order to move the individual towards the target behavior, ACT focuses on changing the function of thoughts so that they do not oppress the individual. ACT, in other words, focuses on the way in which a person interacts with the interior life.
Two articles that discuss ACT are "Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction" by…
It assumes a person is in control of their own fate and not a victim to it. Starting at an early age, a unique style of life is created by the person and that life-style stays relatively constant throughout the remainder of life. Working toward success, connectedness with others, and contributions to society are considered hallmarks of mental health, as well as being motivated by goals, dealing with the tasks faced in life, and social interest. Birth order is considered important in understanding a person's current personality, yet the therapy is future-minded, rather than retrospective. (Psyweb Pro, 2006)
In Adlerian therapy, the therapist will gather as much family history as possible. This data will be used to help set goals for the client and to get an idea of the clients' past performance. This will help ascertain whether the goal is too low or high, and if the client has…
Adlerian Psychology, Psyweb.com 2006, http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
Corey, Gerald (1991) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Carlson, Neil R. (1995) Foundations of Physiological Psychology
CTA: Cognitive Therapy Associates, http://www.cognitive-therapy-associates.com/therapy/adlerian-therapy.php
For example, Jones and Charlton note that it is possible to develop appropriate problem-solving techniques in the following four major areas:
1. Identifying the goal which is appropriate and achievable;
2. Identifying exceptions to the usual pattern of problems;
3. Measuring the student's progress towards achieving the goal; and,
4. Providing useful and positive feedback.
Finally, SFBT can be used either as a "stand-alone" counseling approach or in tandem with other techniques. For example, Linton (2005) emphasizes that SFBT ". . . can operate as a stand alone approach or in conjunction with traditional models of treatment. Solution-focused mental health counselors do not view SFBT and traditional models of treatment as incompatible. Collaborating with clients to create counseling goals, be they directed towards abstinence, self-help group attendance, changes in thinking errors, or some other goal of the client's choosing, selves to enhance motivation to change" (p. 298). Likewise, Jones and…
de Shazer, S. (1979, Summer). Brief therapy with families. American Journal of Family
de Shazer, S. (1986). An indirect approach to brief therapy (Family Therapy Collections, Vol.
19, pp 48-55, Aspen Systems). Milwaukee, WI: Brief Family Therapy Center.
personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (amey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact…
Beck, J. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstitute.org/ cognitive-behavioral-therapy/#q-n-a-1773
"Cognitive Behavior Therapy." (n.d.). Beck Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstituteblog.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/
Hays, P.A. (2012). Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy in practice. Washington,
D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…
Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
Also known as person-centered or client-centered, Rogerian therapy, it "places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role" Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders). However, although effective with some clients: "Person-centered therapy, however, appears to be slightly less effective than other forms of humanistic therapy in which therapists offer more advice to clients and suggest topics to explore," as the client may use the therapy sessions more to complain or go over old grievances, than use the therapy to move forward in his or her life (Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders).
Another type of therapy that has radically escalated in popularity is that of family or marital therapy, which, like cognitive-behavioral therapy, tends to be focused on specific problems and of a fairly short duration. "Marriage and family therapists regularly practice short-term therapy; 12 sessions on average" FAQs, 2009, AAMFT). The…
FAQs about marriage and family therapy. (2009). American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://www.aamft.org/faqs/index_nm.asp
Mulhauser, Greg. (2009). An introduction to cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Counseling Resource. Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://counsellingresource.com/types/cognitive-therapy/
Park, C. (2006, October 18). Best evidence summaries of topics in mental healthcare.
BEST in MH clinical question-answering service.
Chaney Allen Cognitive-Behavior Therapies
One approach that has gained a great deal of attention, particularly in the treatment of substance abuse, is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Originating with classical conditioning and operant learning, combined with social learning theory and the role of cognitive experiences in determining behavior, CBT merges into a model that assumes most psychological and psycho-social problems derive from a fault coping or thinking process. There are, of course, any number of observable and latent factors that contribute to substance abuse, most early non-cognitive therapies focusing then on only the observable dynamics. Over time, however, research and mediation models have shown that CBT represents more of an integration of principles derived from both behavioral and cognitive theories, and allows for the treatment of a broader range of issues through social learning, cultural framing, and the appraisals, self-efficacy expectations, and individual attributions (an individual's explanation of why an event occurred)…
Chaney Allen Women's Continuum of Care. (2011). The Crossroads Center. Cited in:
Allen, C. And Mayfield, E. (1976). I'm Black and I'm Sober. Center City, MN:
The therapist, who withholds judgment and criticism, ceases to be perceived in the mind of the prisoner like an adjunct of the guard or police, but as a facilitator of positive changes in the lives of the prisoners (p. 102).
Correctional practitioners often speak of "getting back to basics." eality Therapy and Choice Theory, which is an excellent tool for either classroom or self-study, is about just that. In the mid-1970s as a young juvenile correctional officer, I was trained in reality therapy as it was the cornerstone of treatment at the New Mexico Girls School. Since that time, many new approaches have been implemented, but if one closely examines all the "innovative juvenile treatment approaches," reality therapy is a basic component of each, and to this day, is the cornerstone of the most effective methods of working with youths. This process teaches youths to stop placing blame on others…
Brown, N.W. (1996). Expressive Processes in Group Counseling: Theory and Practice. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27985548 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002544140
Clark, K. (2003). Bringing Back Compassion, Counseling and Mental Health: Featured Presenter Dr. William Glasser Discusses Choice Theory, the New Reality Therapy with Annals. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 6(2), 11+. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002544140 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104722137
Hardcastle, D.A., Powers, P.R., & Wenocur, S. (2004). Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104722138 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007703291
Dana is a young and beautiful woman with family members that seem to constantly put her down whenever they get together. They appear to be self-centered and attention seeking. The mother has set expectations she places on her family and seems angry whenever they do not meet those expectations. For example, the mother suggested Dana get breast enlargement surgery to appease her boyfriend Matt. Her sister, Joanie also commented on Dana's appearance, making sure to let Dana know she appeared overweight or had a large rear end. These comments can and do affect people's self-esteem especially when the source of such comments are from people that person loves or is supposed to trust.
Dana takes everything and says nothing, agreeing with the remarks and feeling like she truly is overweight even if objectively people see her as very attractive. She also cannot say how she feels even around her boyfriend.…
Arendt, K., Thastum, M., & Hougaard, E. (2015). Homework Adherence and Cognitive Behaviour Treatment Outcome for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders. Behavioural And Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44(02), 225-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1352465815000429
Gingerich, W. & Peterson, L. (2013). Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Controlled Outcome Studies. Research On Social Work Practice, 23(3), 266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049731512470859
Hayes, S., Levin, M., Plumb-Vilardaga, J., Villatte, J., & Pistorello, J. (2013). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of a Distinctive Model of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy. Behavior Therapy, 44(2), 180-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2009.08.002
Hofmann, S., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I., Sawyer, A., & Fang, A. (2012). The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy And Research, 36(5), 427-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1
There are multiple theories for effecting change in therapeutic settings; it is largely advantageous for practitioners to become well versed in all of these. Nonetheless, it is necessary for therapists to decide what sort of theory of change pathways is most natural for him or her to deploy. In deciding which one is most efficacious in this regard, it is necessary to consider a plethora of factors that can potentially impact the way change theory is utilized by the potential therapist. Firstly, he or she should understand that the most commonly used theories for change pathways involve affective, behavioral, and cognitive mechanisms of change. Significantly, these approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive; it very well could be beneficial to utilize combinations of these approaches while working with various clients. Moreover, it is also essential to consider the patient's input in which sort of mechanism is used. Based on…
Cohen, L. H., Butler, A. C., Wenze, S. J., Gunthert, K. C., Parrish, B. P., Beck, J. S. (2008). Negative affective spillover from daily events predicts early response to cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. (76)6 955-965.
Feller, C.P., Cottone, R.R. (2003). The importance of empathy in the therapeutic alliance. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development. 42(1), 53-61.
Paivio, S.C., Shimp, L.N. (1998). Affective change processes in therapy for PTSD stemming from childhood abuse. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 8(4), 211-229.
Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Early Stages of Dementia
With an aging population, issues related to cognitive abilities and impairment, including dementia, are increasing in relevance to public health officials. Being able to delay the negative results of dementia can contribute to increased quality of life for a number of aging individuals and their families. At present, many health care professionals view dementia as a condition that will deteriorate over time and do not view it as something that can be effectively stalled or reversed (Hodges & Graham, 1999). Many of the programs available for individuals dealing with cognitive deterioration or dementia are designed to provide for their safety and contentedness, but do not focus much on improving or maintaining cognitive abilities. Furthermore, the emphasis of many day programs is on providing a safe place for individuals so that their caregivers can have the much-needed respite in their care routines. Caregivers…
Banks, M.R., & Banks, W.A. (2002). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on loneliness in an elderly population in long-term care facilities. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 57(7), M428-M432.
Barker, S. & Dawson, K.S. (1998). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on anxiety ratings of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Services, 49, 797-801.
Breuil, V., De Rotrou, J., Forette, F., et al. (1994). Cognitive stimulation of patients with dementia: preliminary results. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9, 211-217.
Cochran, S.D., Mays, V.M., Bown, D., Gage, S., Bybee, D., Roberts, S.J, Goldstein, R.S., Robinson, A., Rankow, E.J., & White, J. (2001). Cancer-related risk indicators and preventative screening behaviours among lesbian and bisexual women. American Journal of Public Health, 91(4), 591-597.
In addition, small frequent feeds, and a large amount of fluid is provided to maintain the nutritional needs of the patient and prevent dehydration. The r suctioning of secretions proves necessary in preventing aspiration of secretions. The loss of voluntary muscle's activity increases the risks of accumulation of secretions hence, the need for regular suctioning. Bulbar involvement often results in communication complications such as dysarthria and muscle paralysis of the muscles of the face, throat, and tongue. As such, it requires the provision of management strategies such as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) techniques and other forms of speech therapy that improves the communication abilities of patients with ALS. Pseudobulbar effects that often accompany those brought by the frontotemporal lobe degeneration often require the administration of antidepressants. The antidepressants manage mood disorder that presents through disproportionate crying, and inappropriate response to the external stimuli. Maximizing patients' comfort and…
Brettschneider, J., Libon, D.J., Toledo, J.B., Xie, S.X., McCluskey, L., Elman, L., & #8230;
Trojanowski, J.Q. (2012). Microglial activation and TDP-43 pathology correlate with executive dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acta Neuropathologica, 123(3),
395 -- 407. doi:10.1007/s00401-011-0932-x
Crespi, C., Cerami, C., Dodich, a., Canessa, N., Arpone, M., Iannaccone, S., & #8230; Cappa, S.F. (2014). Microstructural white matter correlates of emotion recognition impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Cortex, 53, 1 -- 8
Dysfunctions and Their Therapies
Dysfunctions and emedies involved
Treatment and Control of Dysfunctions
The Thought Focused Treatment System
The thought focused treatment systems are those which narrow down to thought processes and systems of belief. The system believes in the child developing process being the cause of dysfunction. Social learning and modeling of ideas result to the personalities of an individual. The personalities result to experiences such as thoughts and feelings, critical learning, and the imitation of these behaviors. For instance, the child develops thoughts and behaviors from the parents. If the parents hide their feelings and never cry, the child grows knowing that crying is not the solution. The environment directly affects the child's thoughts. Therefore, if an individual's development is distorted in any manner, there is likely to be an experience of dysfunctional issues or poor health. An individual learns how to cope with stress and problems in…
Grohol, J.M. (2004, September 21). Types of Therapies: Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/therapy.htm
Grohol, J.M. (2011). 15 Common Cognitive Distortions. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2009/15-common-cognitive-distortions/
Evidence has been cited suggesting that ECT is particularly efficacious with psychotic depression. Experimental research and reviews of the literature tend to conclude that ECT is either equal or superior to antidepressant medication in the treatment of severe depression. In one study both depressed men and women were helped by ECT, but women tended to improve more with ECT than with imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. Men tended to improve more with imipramine. Both men and women improved more with ECT than with phenalzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It has been suggested that MAOIs and serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSIs) may be less clinically effective than heterocyclic antidepressants for severe depression. Thus, ECT's favorable comparison with imipramine is a strong endorsement.
The side effect of ECT that has received the most attention is memory loss. ECT results in two kinds of memory loss. The first involves quick forgetting of…
Breggin, P.R. (n.d.). Electroshock: Scientific, ethical, and political issues. Retrieved from http://www.sntp.net/ect/breggin1.htm
Electroconvulsive therapy. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). (2011). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com /health/electroconvulsive-therapy/MY00129' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.
ognitive Theory of Learning
The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…
Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.
Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.
Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
eparative Therapy for Homosexuals
The issue of homosexuality needs to be a major controversy within the social environment. All across the world people are still struggling with the idea that they may or may not be, homosexual, especially within the context of society that tends to look down and discriminate against individuals based on sexual orientation. In the light of this controversy, there are some therapeutic methods which have been created and regarded by many within conservative or religious institution as being effective in helping remold one's sexual identity. Also known as reparative therapies, these are psychological or other style implementations of therapeutic methods designed at rewiring one's sexual identity. Still, the majority of psychologists and professionals view these therapies as more harmful than beneficial; this makes it crucial for pastor therapist to help guide potentially concerned individuals towards more productive use of therapeutic models that would focus on self-acceptance…
Herek, Gregory M. (2012). APA council of representatives passes resolution on so-called reparative therapy. Resolution 97. Web. http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/resolution97.html
National Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues. (2000). Reparative and conversion therapies for lesbians and gay men. National Association of Social Workers. Web. http://www.naswdc.org/diversity/lgb/reparative.asp
Schumacher-Matos, Edward. (2012). The furor over gay conversion therapy. NPR. Web. http://www.npr.org/blogs/ombudsman/2011/08/05/138963061/the-furor-over-gay-conversion-therapy
Cognitive Restructuring on Rape Victims
Recently, the growing numbers of research have been focused on psychological trauma which can be caused by physical, sexual and life threatening events. he survivors of traumatic events would exhibit great variation of symptoms, especially, self-blaming, guilt, negative beliefs about self and others, cognitive distortions, and inaccurate thoughts related to their traumatic experiences. Sobel, Resick and Rabalais (2009) proposed a cognitive processing therapy (CP) to reduce the posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and increase the positive thought and accurate cognition of the survivors. In this seminal paper, they reviewed the literature, classified the syndromes before and after the CP, reported the statistical results and suggested a cognitive restructuring method. Cognitions are assessed using coding and analyzing the participants' statements before and after the therapy and the scaling systems used are the Clinician-Administered PSD Scale and PSD Symptom Scale. hey scaled two cognitive processes, accommodation, and assimilation…
The writers suggested that it was possible to observe, record, and reliably code the number and percentage of assimilated, overaccommodated, and accommodated statements that rape survivors produced in their impact statements at the beginning and end of a course of CPT. As hypothesized, there were significant decreases in the overaccommodated and assimilated processes from start to the end of therapy whereas there was an increase in the accommodated processes. Although there was a clear relationship between decreased PTSD and accommodation, this study was not able to make a clear statement about the relationship between assimilation and PTSD. Another limitation of this study is the ethnicity classification because of the limited number of participants.
This study is parallel to the studies of Foa and Rothbaum (2001), and Koss, Jose Figueredo, & Prince (2002) and the results are compatible. However, these two studies employed self-report inventories of cognitive distortions, which limited the response options available to participants and focus on content rather than process. Sobel et al. (2009) developed a more flexible strategy to evaluate the effects of CPT.
Overall, the study by Sobel et al. (2009) is chosen because it is up-to-date, rich in the literature review and very clear to provide results and limitations of the study.
Constructivist Perspective of Brief Therapy
Understanding the basis of theories and therapy is a necessary element of the therapist's trade. Without some knowledge of why certain therapies are practiced, or where they came from, it is difficult to develop a personal theory and a personal view of how to conduct therapy. Since one of the basic concepts presently is that of brief therapy, it is necessary to see how that concept was formulated by other concepts. Thus, this paper examines how constructivist perspectives underlie brief therapy. This paper also gives the author the opportunity to voice a personal statement about how these findings coincide with personal constructions of therapy.
It is first necessary to understand the terms that are to be discussed. The two primary phrases to be discussed are constructivism and brief therapy. However, it is also necessary to grasp what brief therapies exist.
Fritscher, L. (2009). Brief therapy. Retrieved from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/brieftherapydef.htm
Levenson, H., Speed, J., & Budman, S.H. (1995). Therapists' experience, training and skill in brief therapy: A bicoastal survey. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49(1), 95-106.
Maturana, H.R. & Varela, F, J. (1998). The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding (Revised Edition). boston: Shambhala
Presbury, J.H., Echterling, L. G, & McKee, J.E. (2008). Beyond brief counseling and therapy: An integrative approach (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson/Merill Prentice-Hall.
cognitive approach of Azy arak
In an era when technology has changed the way society functions psychologists are realizing that previous theories have become limited in their approach and conventional counseling methods need to be reassessed. The social dynamics are changing as are interpersonal relationships and direct communication is being reduced as virtual societies are being created. In this changing society vocational psychologists are realizing the need for a more innovative approach. Previous theorists suggested that multiple roles created a stress that enhanced the lives of the people and this allowed a generalization of the vocational theories.
Through understanding life roles, work satisfaction and motivation could be understood. (Yalom, 1995) Counseling was then given in group or individual basis which took place in an immediate physical environment. However, with the advent of the Internet the society no longer seeks traditional therapy. The new generation is so Internet savvy that solutions…
Yalom, I.D. (1995). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (4th ed.). New York: Basic Books.
Barak, A. & move Schwartz, M. (1999). Empirical evaluation OF letter Group Therapy Through at InterNet Chat Room. [online ones]. Available: http://construct.haifa.ac.il/~azy/cherapy.htm
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a more current theory than classical psychotherapy. This theory is based upon the reaction of the mind to external stimuli, and how this is internalized. The cognitive reaction to stimuli then manifests as behavior. When behavior becomes extreme or destructive, it is unacceptable, and therapy becomes necessary.
Therapy focuses upon finding the stimuli that originally caused the behavior. Much like client-centered therapy, the responsibility for healing lies with the client. The therapist's role is merely to guide the client towards the target behavior. One of the ways in which to do this is to provide the client with gradual behavior modification exercises until the target behavior is reached.
The role of the subconscious is based upon habit-forming cognitive activities. Perpetual external stimuli will for example form habits. Good habits can be formed by means of gradual cognitive-behavioral therapy.
My tendency is to prefer the cognitive-behavioral theory. The…
The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.
In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief,…
Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(1): 35.
Diemer, R.A., Hill, C.E., Lobell, L.K., & Vivino, B.L. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1): 99.
Fine, M.A. & Schwebel, a.L. (1994). Understanding and helping families: A cognitive-behavioral approach. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
James, M. & Jongeward, D. (1996). Born to win: Transactional analysis with gestalt experiments. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners
ESEACH QUESTION AND JUSTIFICATION
On average, women make up about 7% of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women's Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60% of the population. In fact, over 30% of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men -- issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).
Ethical Research Guidelines. (2012). Marketing Research Association. Retrieved from: http://www.marketingresearch.org/
National Women's Law Center. (2012). retrieved from: http://www.nwlc.org/our-issues
Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
Women in the Criminal Justice System. (2012). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from:
1. The term “depth psychology” is appropriate for referring to psychoanalysis, but not for all types of psychotherapy. Any psychotherapy that involves in-depth self-assessments through the exploration of unconscious or subconscious urges, dreams, or childhood memories can be considered depth psychology. As the term suggests, depth psychology presumes that psychological issues have deep roots, requiring a process of systematic digging. Self-awareness is only possible through an understanding of all psychic content that has been and still is being repressed or suppressed (Axelrod, 2012). Depth psychology is therefore important for persons who experienced childhood traumas, or people seeking to understand the causes of their lingering anxiety or depression. Other therapeutic models like cognitive-behavioral therapy or positive psychology do not focus on the subconscious or unconscious but mainly on manifest behaviors.
According to Firestone (2009), depth psychology has its detractors because of the long periods of time required to complete the therapeutic…
Cog Beh Therapy
With respect to the businessman who comes to see the therapist about the problems in his marriage, there are two issues immediately apparent from the brief case history. The first is the man's unwillingness to accept any responsibility for the success of the relationship. He is immediately defensive, blaming his wife for all their problems. He claims that she is hypercritical and that she is "probably" suffering from PMS. Without getting the wife's side of the story, it is impossible to know the extent of her complaints against her husband, the degree to which she feels they need help, and the amount of effort she is willing to expend -- and has already expended -- to put the marriage back on track, if that is in fact what she wants. It is unlikely she has had a formal diagnosis of PMS. Used in this context, "PMS" is…
"Alcoholism: Definition." (2012). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com
Hodge, D.R. (2011). Alcohol treatment and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Social Work 56(1),
A teen might be asked to tell their own story from the point-of-view of other people they know, looking at themselves from other viewpoints. These clients are freed to invent stories and play parts in that serve the purpose of providing a framework of meaning and direction for themselves. The stories are never singled out as "true" or "false," but a recognition that truth is complex and no one story can encompass all of the truth aids the client in seeing him or herself as a complex and meaningful role-player. And in that context, since one story may not be claimed to be the whole truth, no one story may not dominate a person's life. Life, to the client and narrator of these "stories" becomes an adventure in which trials are meant to be overcome and designed to prepare one for the future, rather than to defeat. The religious story…
Brown, Laura S. Feminist Therapy, Part of the Systems of Psychotherapy, APA Psychotherapy Video Series (2006)
Brown, L.S. (1994). Subversive dialogues: Theory in feminist therapy. New York: Basic Books.
Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, Possible Worlds, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dutton-Douglas, M.A., & Walker, L.E.A. (Eds.). (1988). Feminist psychotherapies: Integration of therapeutic and feminist systems. Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing.