The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process. In cases where deception is justified, the goal should be to maximize benefit and minimize harm. Any resulting mistrust should then be corrected as soon as possible.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect) and feeling (the affective). It is then the task of the therapist to identify thoughts and beliefs that are inaccurate. This inaccuracy causes certain perceptions of a situation, which can further lead to disorders such as depression. The psychotherapist then corrects the inaccurate beliefs, and emotional healing is achieved.
In order to maintain ethics in professional research and practice when working with clients, the Psychology profession is subject to the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Three ethical concerns addressed in this document include: 1) Beneficence and Nonmaleficence; 2) Fidelity and Responsibility; and 3) Integrity. There are several other concerns and more specific ethical guidelines in the document.
Beneficence and Nonmaleficence are "Principle a" of the document. This means that Psychologists are to aim for the benefit of their clients and research subjects, while avoiding harm. This also has a wider application, in that all professional conduct and interaction -- also with colleagues -- should adhere to this principle. Conflicts that arise are to be resolved in a way that either avoids or minimizes harm. Under this principle, it is important that psychologists understand th eimportance of maintaining a healthy level of scientific and professional judgments and actions. When these are jeapordized by overwork or illness, the professional should take action to eliminate the problem.
Principle B. Of the document is Fidelity and Responsibility. This principle concerns the relationship of trust the psychologist cultivates with his or her professional associations. In a wider sense, this also translates to social and community responsibility. In addition, the principle of responsibility entails that the professional takes responsibility for his or her actions, while maintaining and upholding professional standards of conduct and research. This is accomplished by the professional's association and consultation with relevant institutions and professionals to help guide the adherence to this principle.
Principle C, Integrity, concerns the pschologist's research and his or her relationship with information and results. In this, it is the requirement of the principle to maintain accuracy, honesty and truthfulness in all apscts of the sience, teaching and practice of the psychological profession. In addition to obvious misconduct such as ...
Working with human beings is highly stressful, in addition to being an imprecise science.
Professionals in the field are therefore often subject to highly complex ethical problems, which should be resolved in order to maintain the ethical principles mentioned above. In order to avoid pitfalls, the psychological professional should then carefully consider any ethical pitfalls before engaging in potentially compromising actions.
One pitfall could relate to the professional relationship between the client and psychologist. Troubled clients build trust with the psychologist, which is required. However, this trust could become inappropriate when clients expect their psychologists to engage in actions outside of the professional office relationship. Sexual or financial bribery could for example form part of this. In order to avoid this, the professional should establish the ground rules of the relationship at the start of the meetings. The focus should be positive, upon what the aims of the sessions are, and how they are to be accomplished. When difficult situations arise, the professional should then remind the client of the reasons and nature of the contact sessions.
Another example of a dilemma that could face a psychologist is criminal offenses. The trust relationship requires the psychologist to retain confidentiality in the relationship with clients. However, if possible harm can come to the client or others, such as in the case of threatening murder, theft, or vandalism, the professional is ethically obliged to report this. The psychologist should strive to avoid harm and maximize beneficence. This cannot always be avoided, but once again, it is a good idea to establish the rules of meetings at the beginning, where the client knows what types of information can be divulged outside the contact sessions and what is subject to the confidentiality rule.
Not all difficult ethical situations can be avoided. Psychologists and other professionals in the cognitive sciences must at all times aim to protect themselves, clients, and the wider community involved from harm. Such protection helps to maintain an ethical basis.
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In cases where deception is justified, the goal should be to maximize benefit and minimize harm. Any resulting mistrust should then be corrected as soon as possible.
Perception Theory The issue of perception in various fields, including philosophy and psychology has been debated with vigor over the last fifty years. In fact, a large amount of experimental work has been completed regarding questions such as the object of perception, the relationship between perception and though, and the nature of perception representational. In general it is believed that perception occurs without apparent effort. What is seen is imposed upon the
It thus becomes the concern of CBT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into
Treatment Process To treat dysfunctional modes of either thinking or behaving in Cognitive Therapy three general approaches are applied: 1. Deactivation through distraction or reassurance 2, Modification of content or structure 3. The construction of more adaptive modes which "neutralizes' the maladaptive modes. These steps are fundamental in the process as each step is an aspect of the developed sense of self or core belief. To describe each process is also
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in
Psychology Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapeutic advance or a talking therapy, which tries to resolve troubles in regards to dysfunctional emotions, behaviors and cognitions by way of a goal-oriented, systematic process. This therapy is basically an amalgamation of basic behavioral and cognitive research. There is empirical confirmation that CBT is effectual for the treatment of a diversity of issues, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, and psychotic
Personality Theories in Psychology To the layperson, the term personality is a generic descriptor for an individual's traits. However, personality has a more specific meaning to psychologists. According to Dan McAdams, "Personality psychology is the scientific study of the whole person" (McAdams, 2006, p.12, para.1). While different psychologists and their theories have become well-known enough to be referenced in casual conversation, there is still some confusion among laypeople about personality