Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Colorectal cancer is said to be one of the most common cancers in the U.S. In this text, I largely concern myself with this type of cancer. In so doing, I will amongst other things take into consideration not only its pathophysiology but also its clinical manifestations, treatment options, interventions, and expected outcomes.
Colorectal Cancer: A Brief Overview
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- CDC (2011) observes that "of cancers that affect both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second leading cancer killer in the United States…" In basic terms, this type of cancer as CDC (2011) further points out affects the colon (large intestine) or the rectum.
The exact causes of colorectal cancer remain unknown. However, it is important to note that a number of risk factors do exist. These include but they are not in any way limited to age. Indeed, according to the…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- CDC (2011, July 18). Basic Information about Colorectal Cancer. Retrieved January 6, 2013, from the CDC website: http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/colorectal/basic_info/index.htm
Davey, P. (Ed.). (2010). Medicine at a Glance (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Medifocus (2011). Medifocus Guidebook On: Colorectal Cancer. Medifocus.com, Inc.
National Cancer Institute -- NCI (2012, September 11). Colon Cancer Treatment. Retrieved January 6, 2013, from the National Cancer Institute Website: http://www.cancer.gov/ cancertopics/pdq/treatment/colon/Patient/page1/AllPages
Tobacco use or cigarette smoking is also linked to the development of colorectal cancers most especially after more than 35 years of smoking. but, there is no biological explanation for this link.
Colorectal cancer is often incidentally found in screening procedures and may be completely asymptomatic. ut approximately half of patients with colorectal carcinoma experience abdominal pain, this is the most common symptom. About 35% of patients have altered bowel habits, 30% with occult bleeding, and 15% with intestinal obstruction. For right-sided colon cancers, there is a tendency that they are larger and more likely to bleed, whereas left-sided tumors tend to be smaller and more likely to be obstructing.
Presenting symptoms of Colorectal Cancer vary with the anatomic location for the tumor. Stool is generally liquid and passes through the ileocecal valve into the right colon. Cancers arising in the cecum and ascending colon may become quite large but…
Braunwalk, et. al.. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine." 15th ed., McGraw Hill, Vol.1, pg 581-586, 2001.
University of Missouri. "Anatomy and Function of the Gastrointestinal Tract" Health Care, 2008. May 9, 2008 http://www.muhealth.org/weightlosssurgery/anatomy.shtml
Wafik S. El-Deiry, MD, PhD. "Colon Cancer, Adenocarcinoma," eMedicine, Oct 11, 2006. May 9, 2008 http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic413.htm www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6915"Dennis Lee, MD. "Colon Cancer Screening and Surveillance," MedicineNet.com, March 25, 2005. May 9, 2008. http://www.medicinenet.com/colon_cancer_screening/article.htm
While the most important factor in colorectal cancer is early detection, treatment is an important component. Treatment is driven by how advanced the cancer is. The cancerous tumor must be removed along with adjacent tissue. After this is done, the two ends of the intestines are joined. This is markedly invasive surgery and often will require a temporary colostomy. A colostomy is an opening in the abdomen through which feces are expelled while the patient recovers from the surgery. If the surgery is not too extensive, the colostomy can be reversed in later surgery, and the intestinal tract re-connected to the anus. However, in some cases, the colostomy will be permanent.
Supportive treatments are required following the surgery, especially if the cancer was advanced when diagnosed. These can include radiation and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancerous cells. Other interventions may include therapies designed to stimulate the body's immune…
Colon Cancer." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
Editors. 2000. "Colon Cancer Screening: Latest Recommendations." Consultant, July 12.
Nuovo, Jim. 2001. "Detection of Colon Cancer with a Magnetic Resonance Technique." American Family Physician, Jan. 15.
Seppa, N. 2004. "Early warning? Inflammatory protein is tied to colon cancer risk." Science News, Feb. 7.
The study was conducted using patients waiting in outpatient settings. They wee given a packet that outlined the vaious methods of sceening and asked the patients to choose which method they would pefe. It also asked questions about whethe they would pefe sceening o no sceening o diffeent sceening. It had a section fo demogaphic infomation as well fo the pupose of analysis.
Cuently, the oveall numbe of patients sceened is low. (15,16,18) With emphasis on shaed decision-making and the new eimbusement appoval by Medicae, colonoscopy is moe likely to be offeed as a sceening pocedue to aveage-isk patients. We expected that moe patients would opt fo colonoscopy as the moe complete and less fequent examination. The esponse ate to ou questionnaies was 64%, which is compaable to othe studies. (22,23) Most of ou patients who had not been sceened in the past pefeed sigmoidoscopy (Raina, 2004)."
In my opinion…
references for colorectal cancer: a patient demographic study.(Original Article) Southern Medical Journal; 3/1/2004; Raina, Ashu
Health Care (PHC) and Colorectal Cancer
Authorities around the world have expressed the need for development of an incorporated health care system with augmented emphasis on primary health care, and integration of principles and practices of health promotion. Primary health can be defined as the care provided at the first point of contact with the health care system, the point at which health services are assembled and synchronized to promote health, prevent illness, care for common illness, and manage health problems. This definition includes a focus on a primary care model, typically provided by family physicians, and a broader notion that includes a range of health and social services offered by way of multidisciplinary teams. Primary health care is the natural entry-point to reorient a health system towards health promotion. Health promotion is the procedure of facilitating people to amplify control over, and to advance, their health and well being…
Colon and Rectal Cancer. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/ cancertopics/types/colon-and-rectal
Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP). (2011). Retreived from http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/crccp/demonstration.htm
Colorectal Cancer Health Center. (2011). Retreived from
This research applies to elderly patients primarily that hold strong beliefs about certain healthcare practices. The researchers concluded that information about colorectal procedures needs to be presented to patients in a culturally sensitive manner. This information could be applied equally well to other culturally diverse populations even though the population sample is relatively small. This research also helps the nursing practice by suggesting new avenues for education and patient care delivery in the future. This research article would benefit from additional or lengthier analysis of the literature to support the conclusions drawn from the researcher, based mostly on the small sample size used in the survey.
Colon cancer screening among older caregivers - Article 3
This article discusses colorectal cancers among older women. The purpose of the study is to describe participation in cancer screening among older women whose mean age is 65 years who are primary caregivers for a…
Bush, S. (2003). "Elderly African-American women's knowledge and belief about colorectal cancer." Tucker Publications, Inc.
Frank, D., Swedmark, J. & Grubbs, L. (2004, July - Aug). "Colon cancer screening in African-American women." ABNF Journal, 15(4): 67.
Sarna, L., Chang, B.L. (1999-Aug). "Colon cancer screening among older women
Immunotherapists can provide sensitive and accurate cancer diagnostic tools for the successful treatment of the disease and to stop it well in its tracks (cancerresearch.org, 2009). The outward advantages of immunotherapy are as follows: certain drugs have fewer side effects and offer patients a higher quality of life, bolstered anti-cancer effectiveness and rates of survival, benefits are often reaped quickly for the patient (cisncancer.org). The disadvantages are as follows: some varieties of this treatment have serious side effects, are very expensive and occasionally offer just a short-term efficacy (cisncancer.org)
5. An overexpression of proto-oncogenes can cause cancer as mutated forms of these genes can promote unrestrained cell proliferation: "oncogenes actively promote proliferation (analogous to the gas pedal of the cell cycle). Mutations that convert proto-oncogenes to oncogenes typically increase the activity" (Hyland). An underexpression of tumor suppressor genes can also put an individual in a precarious situation. Tumor suppressor genes…
Cancer.gov. (n.d.). Understanding Cancer Series. Retrieved from Cancer.gov: http://www.cancer.gov/ cancertopics/understandingcancer/cancergenomics/AllPages
Cancer.gov/topics. (n.d.). Tumor Markers. Retrieved from Cancer.gov:
diet and cancer. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.
Food, Diet and Cancer
Diet is fuel for our body. On the same account a balanced nutritious intake is what a human body needs more than anything. Hence food is one of the most cardinal factors that determine the quality of our healthy as well as the longevity of our lives. Knowing which food to eat in what quantity and how food helps us in building our defence mechanisms is essential.
This argumentative essay based on thorough analysis as well as extensive research revolves around and proves the following thesis statement:
There is a correlation between diet and cancer
Correlation between milk as well as other dairy products and Cancer
There are several forms of cancer killing thousands of people worldwide. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer affecting women under the age of 50…
Got breast cancer. Available at: http://www.milksucks.com/breast.html (March 20,2003)
Cancer fighters for food. Available at: http://www.umdnj.edu/umcweb/hstate/fall99/cancer_f99.htm (March 20,2003)
Fried Food Link to Some Cancers Disputed. Available at: http://forum.lowcarber.org/t82676.html (March 20,2003)
Study doubts acrylamide in food causes cancer. Available at http://bhagh.nhshealth.org/HealthNews/reuters/NewsStory0128200320.htm (March 20,2003)
Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin
a) EFFECTS ON KIDNEYS, HEART AND BRAIN
Cytotoxic metabolites are created when bio-reductive drugs go through a metabolic process because they contribute to curing cancer by lowering oxygen to areas where the cancer affects the body. The local auto regulation process of the body provides the oxygen to all parts of the body where it is needed. The arterioles supplying that tissue for oxygen dilate to supply more oxygen than usual. This happens also in the case of the tumor when it demands more oxygen; it is supplied by the body and anaerobin affects the auto regulation process in all areas as it reduces the blood flow to all organs, except the lungs. It can reduce the oxygen and supply of nutrients to the tumor by up to 99%. Therefore this bio-reductive drug can help in treatment of cancer in modern therapy.
Anti-cancer drugs reduce the cell…
Linda Bren, 2005. Cancer Drugs: weighing the Risks and Benefits. FDA Consumer, 41(1), pp.10+.
Nootropic. Available at: Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nootropic#Vitamins_and_supplements (Accessed at 2 December 2011)
Paual Ravasco, Isabel Monterio-Grillo, Pedro Marques Vidal & Maria Ermelinda Camilio, 2005. Dietary Counseling Improves Patient Outcomes: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(7), pp. 1431-1438.
Dietary Fibers on the Risk of Developing Cancer
Cancer is a genetic and complex disease caused mainly due to environmental elements. Carcinogen is a cancer agent that and can be present in water, food, air and in sunlight and chemicals as well. Almost ninety percent of the cancer occurs in epithelia because the epithelia cells cover the human's skin, lines the alimentary and respiratory tracts, and also metabolize ingested carcinogens. Currently, the causes of diseases are changing and infection can cause problems like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. There were more than ten million cancer cases in 1996 globally while six million people died from cancer. Unhealthy lifestyle like smoking cigarettes and adopting modern diet that includes fiber content and high fat is causing increased incidences of cancer in humans (Alison).
Development of Cancer
Cancer cells are different from normal cells and they continue to grow other abnormal cells in the…
ACS. "Genes and Cancer." American Cancer Society (2014).
-- . "Wilms Tumor ." American Cancer Society (2015).
Alison, Malcolm R. "Cancer." NCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES (2001): 1.
Harras, A. "CANCER RISK FACTORS." NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SENIOR SERVICES (2002).
Etiology of Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer has emerged as the most lethal human cancers. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has termed it an unresolved health problem of the 21st century. The disease presently causes about 30,000 deaths in the U.S. per year (Yarbro et al. 2015). Despite past efforts, conventional interventions like radiation, surgery, chemotherapy and combination of these had minimal success in the course of this aggressive disease. It is imperative to develop an in-depth understanding of the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer to help us effectively diagnose, prevent and treat the disease. Nearly all pancreatic cancer patients experience metastases and die due to the frustrating metabolic effects of their unrestrained growth (Shrikhande et al. 2010). Hence, a crucial requirement for progress is the establishment of effective systemic interventions, can reverse the aggressive biology of the disease.
According to the WHO, pancreatic cancer is the fifth most…
Casil, A. S. (2011). Pancreatic Cancer: Current and Emerging Trends in Detection and Treatment. New York: Rosen Pub.
Gress, T. M. (2010). Molecular Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer. Amsterdam [U.A.: IOS Press.
Hoff, D. D., Evans, D. B., & Hruban, R. H. (2015). Pancreatic Cancer. Sudbury: Mass.
Jeruc, J., Kos, I., & Vodovnik, A. (2012). Pancreatic Cancer: Epidemiology and Risk Factors. International Conference on Diseases of Pancreas, Biliary Tract and Duodenum, 17-19.
[Donaldson S, 2004] A diet rich in refined sugar creates a high glycemic load. The present culture of eating packaged and fast foods on a regular basis implies the consumption of high levels of refined sugar in our diet. This results in induced dysregulation of glucose metabolism, which is reported as a high risk factor for cancer. [Donaldson S, 2004] A recent European study by Dr. Par Stattin et.al (2007) has confirmed abnormal glucose metabolism as a high risk factor for cancer. Red meat is associated with cancer. Many recent studies such as Bingham SA (2002) and Norat T. et.al (2002) have attested this correlation between red meat consumption and cancer.
In conclusion we can say that the chemopreventive effects of a diet comprising of vegetables and fruits is due to the synergestic effects of many plant-based nutrients. While most of the phytochemicals act as effective antioxidants, some nutrients such…
9. Padayatty SJ, Sun H & Wang Y et.al (2004), 'Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use', Ann Intern Med 2004, 140:533-537
10. Butt M.S & Sultan MT, (2009), 'Green tea: nature's defense against malignancies', Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009 49(5): 463-73
11. OSU, 'Cruciferous Vegetables', Accessed Apr 27th 2009, Available at, http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/foods/cruciferous/
Colon cancer is defined as a cancer that begins in the rectum or colon. The cancers are referred to as colon or rectal cancer with reference to their orientating point. Colon and rectal cancers share different features and ultimate diagnosis procedures. The disorders are discussed collectively in this paper including their treatment approach.
In case cancer forms within polyps, they eventually start growing into the colon or rectal walls. While cancer cells attach to the wall, they continue growing within blood and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels are relatively thin, and tiny channels are carrying away fluid and waste (Acton, 2013). They occasionally drain into subsequent lymph nodes that are bean-shaped structures and contain immune cells to helping fighting the infections. Immediately the cancer cells start spreading to lymph or blood vessels, they travel to the lymph nodes and other distant body parts like the liver. The…
Acton, Q.A., (2013). Colon Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013. New York: ScholarlyEditions.
Peterson, E., (2014). The Colon Cancer. New York: Sea Salt.
Young, A., Hobbs, R., & Kerr, D., (2011). ABC of Colorectal Cancer. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…
Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/
Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.
McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
According to the National Institute of Health (NIH) "Brazil nuts may contain as much as 544 micrograms of selenium per ounce. They also may contain far less selenium. It is wise to eat Brazil nuts only occasionally because of their unusually high intake of selenium."
The reasons that selenium is so effective in cancer prevention are uncertain, although it has been speculated that it possesses anti-oxidant properties, "especially when used in conjunction with vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene" and "works to block chemical reactions that create free radicals in the body (which can damage DNA and cause degenerative change in cells, leading to cancer)" (Black 2006). Selenium has also been found to prevent damaged DNA molecules from reproducing, thus preventing the development of tumors as well (Black 2006). This is supported by a University of Arizona-Cornell research team which linked low selenium levels in the blood to increased risk…
Black, Alexis. "The mineral selenium." Natural News. January 4, 2001. October 18, 2010.
"Dietary supplement fact sheet: Selenium." National Institutes of Health. NIH. October 18, 2010.
There are several criteria that can go into a decision to initiate screening for a disease. The disease that I have chosen as an example is colorectal cancer. The prevalence of the disease is one factor. Diseases with a relatively high prevalence are more likely to require screening, as mass screening for rare diseases is not necessarily a good use of funds.. Other consideration is the availability of reliable tests. In the case of colorectal cancer, this is a disease with relatively high prevalence, but also a number of reliable tests ranging from barium tests to colonoscopy.
The value of early detection is also an important variable. For something like ALS, the prognosis will not change with early detection, but with colorectal cancer the prognosis changes a lot if you find polyps, or even Stage 1 tumors. So setting up a screening program is important for diseases where there…
Burt, R., Barthel, J., Dunn, K.., David, D., Drelichman, E., Ford, J., Giardello, F., Gruber, S., Halverson, A., Hamilton, S., Ismail, M., Jasperson, K., Lazenby, A., Lynch, P., Martin, E., Mayer, R., Ness, R., Provenzale, D., Rao, M., Shike, M., Steinbach, G., Terdimann, J. & Weinberg, D. (2010). Colorectal cancer screening: Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Vol. 8 (1) 8-60.
Bretthauer, M. (2011). Colorectal cancer screening. Journal of Internal Medicine. Vol. 270 (2) 87-98.
Promoting community awareness of the need for colorectal cancer prevention and screening," which was written by Causey and Greenwauld, is appropriate. It clarifies the purpose of the research study on which this article is based and provides an effective summary of the particular area of nursing and science that the authors are writing about. Nonetheless, it does not allude to the key variables that influence the study, its results, nor the particular model it utilizes, which is reflective of the principle area in which a sufficient title could be improved.
he abstract for the aforementioned paper is extremely effective. In a paragraph of just a few sentences, the authors are able to identify the key factors related to this study: the problem, the methods and the model used to gather data, the results and the conclusion gathered from those results. he writing is relatively terse and straightforward, and is bolstered…
There really was no intervention in this study, other than the educational session that all of the participants received. Nonetheless, the data collection method was not biased and the authors seemed appropriately trained to collect this data.
Other than the unusual way in which the paper was structured in which the literature review combined various aspects of a general overview of CRC (some of which was not germane to the research question) this document was well written presented in an accessible manner to nurses. Since one of the researchers had done a previous study on a topic closely related to this subject, the credibility of the authors was not dubitable and was enhanced by their professional and academic credentials. The validity of the study findings is also considerably compromised by the fact that the researchers "knew" (Causey and Greenwauld. 2011, p. 39) a percentage of the participants. Still, the study does function as a launching point for future research in this area as it specifically applies to nurses and educating the population regarding CRC.
Pathologists are often called 'the doctor's doctor ' -- when other doctors are experiencing an impasse, they go to a pathologist for advice, to provide clarity. As someone who has always enjoyed working as a teacher and preparing teaching materials, I look forward to this role in relation to my fellow physicians.
pon arriving in the nited States to practice medicine, I gained experience in the field of pathology-related research, collecting data about survival rates of patients with colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. I came to learn how pathology touches all fields of medicine. Even in my work with patients suffering substance abuse and psychiatric problems, I saw how the progression of the addiction created a pathology in terms of the way that the body responded to the patient's negative behaviors. I hope that this residency program will expose me to the laboratory and clinical aspects of the field,…
Upon arriving in the United States to practice medicine, I gained experience in the field of pathology-related research, collecting data about survival rates of patients with colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. I came to learn how pathology touches all fields of medicine. Even in my work with patients suffering substance abuse and psychiatric problems, I saw how the progression of the addiction created a pathology in terms of the way that the body responded to the patient's negative behaviors. I hope that this residency program will expose me to the laboratory and clinical aspects of the field, and give me the ability to learn from -- and perhaps to teach -- others who are grappling with issues spanning from cancer to nephrology to infertility to lifestyle-related illnesses.
From birth to death, I have seen the many varied states the human body can take in health and illness. My desire to engage in a pathology rotation is based upon these past, formative experiences and my desire to place this diversity within the uniquely helpful paradigms particular the discipline. By the end of the residency I know I shall not have realized my goal of becoming a 'doctor's doctor' but I am eager to enter upon the path and begin this lifelong journey.
J. Carlos Manivel, "Choosing pathology as a specialty," the University of Minnesota, May 2, 2010, [August 21, 2010] http://residency.pathology.umn.edu/
3. Growth factors can induce apoptosis by binding to their respective receptors (TKs). When activated, TKs in turn activate the as, af, MEK, MAPK, MKK, EK, Fos, JNKs, and Jun pathway, which can lead to the induction of AF via gene upregulation. AF in turn suppresses mdm2, a suppressor of p53 activity. The resulting increase in p53 activity can induce Bax, Mt, and thus apoptosis.
4. Adenomatous familial polyposis is caused by a truncated APC protein, which results from inherited mutations in the APC gene (Segditsas and Tomlinson, 2006). However, the activity of the wild-type or normal APC allele is usually sufficient to maintain tumor suppressor activity. For this reason, and because the wild-type allele is often found to have acquired somatic mutations, it is assumed that both alleles must be mutated before tumors can form. The vast majority of mutations found in colorectal tumors have retained 0 to 3…
Libby, Peter, Ridker, Paul M., and Hansson, Goran K. (2011). Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature, 473, 317-325.
Segditsas, S. And Tomlinson, I. (2006). Colorectal cancer and genetic alterations in the Wnt pathway. Oncogene, 25, 7531-7537.
Minde, David P., Anvarian, Zeinab, Rudiger, Stefan G.D., and Maurice, Madelon M. (2011). Messing up disorder: How do missense mutations in the tumor suppressor protein APC lead to cancer? Molecular Cancer, 10, 1-9.
Producing a Healthier iscuit: Evidence for Adding Dietary Fiber
The importance of fiber
One common way to improve the health profile of baked goods is to add fiber, usually in the form of whole grain products vs. refined white flour. It is important to note when developing the nutritional profile of the proposed biscuit that not all types of fiber are created equal. There are two basic kinds of fiber: soluble and insoluble. The main difference between the two is that "soluble fiber dissolves in water. Insoluble fiber does not" (Zelman 2012). Soluble fiber attracts water and contributes to the body's sense of fullness, making dieting easier for many people. Insoluble fiber passes through the body undigested and thus is important for regular bowel movements. Oatmeal is a good source of soluble fiber; whole wheat is a good source of insoluble fiber and both could be tasty additions to a…
Brock, K.E., Ke, L., Gridley, G., Chiu, B.C. -., Ershow, A.G., Lynch, C.F., . . . Cantor, K.
2012. Fruit, vegetables, fiber and micronutrients and risk of U.S. renal cell carcinoma. The British Journal of Nutrition, 108(6), 1077-1085
Dietary fiber. 2012. Report by the Australian Ministry of Health. Available:
http://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/dietary%20fibre.htm [9 Jan 2012]
Patient Guide to the Worldwide Web
Mr. Atkins, 64, arrives at the hospital with his wife complaining that he has not had a bowel movement in over a week, and that he has significant pain in his abdomen. Mr. Atkins has an MI which shows a significant blockage in his colon. Surgery is suggested and when this is completed Mr. Atkins is told that he has colon cancer and a mass was removed from his colon along with eight inches of the diseased organ. It is then relayed that the cancer has also metastasized to his liver. The Atkins are farmers who have very little to do with computers other than checking weather reports. They both want to learn about the diagnosis and what can be done, but with their limited knowledge of the internet ask a nurse for help.
The patient is very motivated to learn how to…
Johns Hopkins. (n.d.). Colorectal cancer that has spread to the liver. Retrieved from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/liver_tumor_center/conditions/cancerous_liver_t umors/colorectal_liver_metastases.html
Joy, K. (n. d.). Liver metastasis from colon cancer treatments. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_6618908_liver-metastasis-colon-cancer- treatments.html
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). (2006). Evaluating web-based health resources. Retrieved from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/webresources
In 2003, another study conducted by researchers at Harvard University showed that drinking red wine in moderate amounts may help prevent or postpone diseases like Alzheimer's, a disorder associated with the brain's ability to store information and retain long-term and short-term memories, Parkinson's disease and other forms of dementia related to the brain and the central nervous system. In addition, a 2003 study published by the American Journal of Gastroenterology demonstrated that drinking moderate amounts of red wine "decreases the risk of peptic ulcers and may help to rid the body of the bacteria suspected of causing them." Also, the Harvard School of Public Health, after conducting a 14-year-long study involving more than 100,000 women aged 25 to 42 from 14 different states, found that women who drank red wine in moderate amounts (1 or 2 drinks a day) "had a 58% lower likelihood of developing diabetes." This study also…
Glanze, Walter D., Ed. Mosby's Medical Encyclopedia. St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby & Company, 2005.
LaMar, James. "Wine and Health." 2008. Internet. Accessed December 5, 2009 from http://www.winepros.org/wine101/wine-health.htm .
"Red Wine and Resveratrol: Good for Your Heart?" Mayo Clinic. 2009. Internet. Accessed December 5, 2009 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/red-wine/HB00089/
Decision of Uncertainty
One of the important features of medicine is diagnostic testing. The companies that produce diagnostic tests are multi-billion dollar companies. Not only is the effectiveness of their tests important for their bottom line, but it is also important for the health and well-being of those who rely on the tests for their health. One such test important diagnostic test is the test for colorectal cancer known as the fecal occult blood test. When analyzing the effectiveness of such tests, we consider the sensitivity and the specificity of the test. In this case, the sensitivity of the test is the proportion of results that correctly identify people with colorectal cancer. In symbolic terms, P (testing positive | have colorectal cancer). The specificity is the proportion of tests that correctly identify those people who do not have colorectal cancer. Symbolically, it is P (testing negative | do not have…
Niv Y, Sperber AD.(1995). Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of fecal occult blood testing (Hemoccult II) for colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic patients. Retrieved July 7, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7485003
As a result of these experiments, researchers realized that this is the mechanism by which nighttime lighting increased cancers in nighttime shift workers.
Nighttime shift work disrupts the normal rhythm of the circadian clock, which suppresses melatonin production; suppressed melatonin levels correspond to decreased resistance to cancers in tissues with melatonin receptor sites and to increased growth rates in tumors with melatonin receptor sites. Colorectal cancer is probably the type of cancer affected most by melatonin levels, because the same modern lifestyle that causes exposure to nighttime lighting also includes a high-fat, low fiber diet that is a known factor in rectal cancers.
The two final piece of the puzzle fell into place when researchers also determined that: (1) mice exposed to very low levels of light, even during nighttime sleep, also had higher cancer growth rates; and (2) people who are completely blind have lower rates of the same…
Pauley, S. (2004) Lighting for the Human Circadian Clock: Recent Research Indicates that Lighting Has Become a Public Health Issue.
Medical Hypotheses 63, 588-596.
Pro and Cons of the Paleo Diet
It is widely accepted that some basic changes in lifestyle and diet that took place, following the Neolithic evolution, and mostly following the Industrial evolution and the Modern Era, are very recent, when weighed on an evolutionary time-measuring scale. This mismatch that exists between western lifestyles and diet, and our ancient physiology, triggers several modern day diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, epithelial cell cancers, etc., which were rarely or never seen in ancient non-westernized populations. It has therefore been proposed that one way of reducing these degenerative chronic diseases is to copy the diets and lifestyles of the ancient men. This research seeks to add to these issues by carrying out the analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of the Paleo diet to the health of humans through the nutrients it contributes to the human body (Coerdain 2011).
Purpose and Scope…
Berardi, J. (Nov 17, 2014). The Pros and Cons of the Paleo Diet. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-berardi-phd/paleo-diet_b_5774200.html on 6 February 2016
Carrera-Bastos, P., Fontes-Villalba, M., O'Keefe, J.H., Lindeberg, S. & Cordain, L. (2001). The western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization. Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology. 2:15-35.
Cerling, T.E., Manthi, F.K., Mbua, E.N., Leakey, L.N., Leakey, M.G., Leakey, R.E, Brown, F.H., ... & Woodi, B.A. (2013). Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins. Proc Natl Acad Sci .110 (26):10501-6.
Cordain L. (2011). The Paleo Diet Lose Weight and Get Healthy by Eating the Foods You Were Designed to Eat. Rev. ed. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Lack of physical activity and exercises increase the risk of early death by 23%, hence, showing the significance of physical activity and exercise. Incorporating other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, abusing alcohol, and abuse of other drug complexes the health status of an individual; hence, a premature death (Tarnopolsky, 2010).
A strong relationship exists between physical activity and exercises and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Poor lifestyles contribute to a variety of risk factors such as high levels of lipids in the blood, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure that causes cardiovascular complications. Significant evidence shows that reducing these risk factors reduces the risks of an individual having cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and coronary heart disease. egular exercises and physical activity reduce these risk factors in a number of ways. For instance, it promotes the reduction of the body weight that helps in the reduction of…
8 Benefits of exercising. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u - _NNCL_eXA&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Benefits of Exercise for your Health. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC7qpvhhCL0&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. (n.d.). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Fulltext/2005/03000/Exercise_and_well_being__a_review_of_mental_and.13.aspx
Medical aspects of exercise: benefits and risks.. (1991). London: Royal College of Physicians of London.
3). While additional research is needed in this area, these findings suggest that the attributes of non-thermal plasma hold significant promise for the regulation of mammalian cell activity and inducement of apoptosis in targeted cells. In this regard, Sensenig et al. conclude that, "Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies" (2010, para. 4).
The foregoing findings were also congruent with previous research by Kligman et al. (2007). According to these researchers, the floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma (FE-DBD) plasma treatment has been found to invoke apoptosis in melanoma cancer cell lines, and it accomplishes this without causing necrosis while still possessing the ability to initiate apoptosis in the targeted cells (Kligman et al., 2007). The "floating" designation in this application is derived from the manner in which the plasma is generated. Simply…
Clark, W.R. (2002). A means to an end: The biological basis of aging and death. New York:
Cleveland, C.J. & Morris, C. (2006). Dictionary of energy. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Di Quinzio, M.L., Dewar, R.A., Burge, F.I. & Veugelers, P.J. (2005). Family physician visits and early recognition of melanoma. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96(2), 136-139.
Fridman, G., Shereshevsky, a., Jost, M.M., Brooks, a.D., Fridman, a., Gutsol, a., Vasilets, V. & Friedman, G. (2007). Floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge plasma in air promoting apoptotic behavior in melanoma skin cancer cell lines. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 27(2), 163-176.
Deployment Methods for Disease
Individual Writing Assignment 3: 10 Discoveries in the War on Cancer
Scientists have always dissected lymph nodes nearby a cancerous tumor to see if the cancer has begun to spread to other areas of the body. The most obvious nearby lymph node is chosen. Scientists have discovered that in women with breast cancers that are 5 cm in diameter or smaller, nothing is gained by additional lymph node dissections in the axillary region (armpit) of the body. Dissecting the node nearest the tumor provides adequate information by itself. (A).
Malignant brain tumors in adults are fast-growing cancers with median survival rates of 15 months, even with aggressive treatment. Researchers have been searching for genetic "signatures" (characteristic groups of cancer-causing genes) that could help in defining the kind of brain tumor the patient has. They hope to be better able to predict the course of the disease…
In order to understand the implications of reference pricing, the drivers of demand for colonoscopies has to be understood. Colonoscopies are used to detect cancers and precancerous polyps, and they are a recommended technique for this, being that the physician can examine the colon visually. Other techniques are not as effective. The reality is that polyps and even early stage colon cancer are often asymptomatic, but of course early detection has the best outcomes for patients. For this reason, the most effective early detection technique and for the ability to detect and remove precancerous polyps, the colonoscopy is recommended (ACA, 2015). Other techniques exist, but they are not perfect substitutes for a colonoscopy -- the fecal test is not as effective as a colonoscopy and is therefore not a substitute for one. That said, patients do not always make their decisions based on medical data, but economic analysis…
ACA (2015). Colorectal cancer prevention and early detection. American Cancer Society. Retrieved September 17, 2015 from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/moreinformation/colonandrectumcancerearlydetection/colorectal-cancer-early-detection-screening-tests-used
Investopedia (2015) Price elasticity of demand. Investopedia. Retrieved September 17, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/priceelasticity.asp
Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light Pauley, 2004).
Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive…
Recent research into sleep and the way sleep patterns are affected by light suggest that sleeping in complete darkness is much more beneficial than sleeping in less than complete darkness (Pauley, 2004). Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer (such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers (Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light (Pauley, 2004).
Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive some light (Pauley, 2004). The researchers eventually determined that nighttime work is detrimental to human health partly because night workers are much less likely to sleep in absolute darkness since they sleep during daylight hours. Compounding the problem is the fact that the wavelengths common to blue television light and electronic equipment status lights are particularly bad in that regard. The research suggests that it is essential for night workers to sleep in entirely blacked-out rooms.
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf
3%) are very satisfied with their health care services, compared to only 41.5% of Canadians; a lower proportion of Americans are dissatisfied (6.8%) than Canadians (8.5%).
Atlas (2009) acknowledge that Americans have much better access to important new technologies like medical imaging than patients in Canada or the U.K. Maligned as a waste by economists and policymakers naive to actual medical practice, an overwhelming majority of leading American physicians identified computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI) as the most important medical innovations for improving patient care during the previous decade (Fuchs & Sox, 2001). This is justifiable in the presented table showing the most important recent medical innovations, below. Hence, Atlas (2009) claim that the United States has nearly 27 MI machines per million compared to about 6 per million in Canada and Britain.
According to" The U.S. Health Care System as an Engine of Innovation," 2004 Economic…
Association of American Medical Colleges. (2010). Healthcare Innovation Zones: A True
Platform for Reform. Retrieved on 29th March, 2010 from http://www.aamc.org/
Atlas, S. (2009). Ideals Changing the World: 10 Surprising Facts about American Health Care.
National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA) No. 649
Few hospitals offered both the expertise and the necessary facilities.
Location of the donor and the recipient also impacted availability. Human organs cool and degenerate quickly when removed from the donor. Transportation in the 50s, 60s, and 70s was in the early stages of rapid jet aircraft travel and was too slow for the transportation of organs. The donor needed to be in close proximity to the recipient which was possible with living family members and donors. Research during this time focused on immunosuppressant drugs and on methods to maintain a viable organ outside the host.
In his discussion of justice in respect to the allocation of scarce goods, Jon Elster (1992) identified three levels of scarcity: natural, quasi-natural and artificial. The availability of twins with one needing a kidney transplant and one willing to donate a kidney generates a natural scarcity similar to the availability of natural black pearls.…
Web Health Care
Located in Wichita, Kansas, Via Christi Health is the agency that serves the eponymous region through the site via-christi.org. Via Christi provides care through hospitals, outpatient centers, senior communities, and in-home care for individuals in Kansas. The services the agency provides a VCMA directory, which encompasses a search for physicians through Via Christi Medical Associates and the Via Christi Clinic, along with the Via Christi Hospitals. Via Christi Medical Associates is a group of fifty family practitioners, while Via Christi Clinics offer family care and immediate care. The thirteen clinics have been in place since 1948, 160 hired physicians, and encompassed 40 specialties. Via Christi agency offers a directory and location of special centers, which includes burn center, cancer care, cardiac care, and cystic fibrosis. As well, there's epileptology, neurosciences, obstetrics and gynecology, and occupational health services. Moreover, individuals are able to look up care for pediatric…
Via Christi Hospitals: VCFM Residency. (n.d.). VCFM Residency. Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.vcfm.net/details/via-christi/
HMR Clinic Program Weight Loss Surgery Weight Loss Class Corporate Wellness HMR at Home Meal Replacements ~ Via Christi Weight Management Wichita Kansas. (n.d.). HMR Clinic Program Weight Loss Surgery Weight Loss Class Corporate Wellness HMR at Home Meal Replacements ~ Via Christi Weight Management Wichita Kansas. Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.viachristiweightmanagement.com/
Via Christi Clinic - Multi-practice medical care in Wichita, KS . (n.d.). Via Christi Clinic - Multi-practice medical care in Wichita, KS . Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.viachristiclinic.com/
Via Christi to open cancer center | Wichita Eagle. (n.d.). Local and breaking news for Wichita and Kansas | The Wichita Eagle and kansas.com. Retrieved December 3, 2011, from http://www.kansas.com/2011/06/24/1906153/via-christi-to-open-cancer-center.html
Expanding Traditional Definition of a Gene
Expands Traditional Definition A Gene
Expanding the traditional definition of a gene through epigenetics:
Changes to the human gene through exposure to external forces in the environment
Increasingly, the field of epigenetics is challenging traditional conceptions of what constitutes the human gene. While it has long been acknowledged that parents can pass their DNA onto their offspring, epigenetics acknowledges the potential for changes in human DNA which subsequently causes a change in the genetic composition of the child. Epigenetics acknowledges "the external environment's effects upon genes can influence disease, and some of these effects can be inherited in humans" (Simmons 2008). While it is difficult to design a study to test environmental factors, historical and experimental research does support this hypothesis. "For example, Swedish scientists recently conducted investigations examining whether nutrition affected the death rate associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes and whether these…
Egger, G. (et al. 2004) Epigenetics in human disease and prospects for epigenetic therapy. Nature 429, 457 -- 463. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/scitable/content/Epigenetics-in-human-disease-and-prospects-for-13630
Roseboom, T. (et al. 2001). Effects of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine on adult disease in later life: an overview. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 185 (2001) 93 -- 98.
Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/epigenetic-influences-and-disease-895
Herrera, B. (et al. 2011). Genetics and epigenetics of obesity. Maturitas, 69(1): 41 -- 49.
Digestive Disorder: Diverticulitis
The patient is a 37-year-old female with a family history of colorectal cancer mandating regular colonoscopies before the age of 40. The patient's diverticulosis was discovered during a routine colonoscopy at age 35. She was asymptomatic for 2 years, but developed diverticulitis at age 37. When she began experiencing significant pain her lower left abdominal area, she suspected diverticulitis, called her gastroenterologist who referred her to the emergency room for a cat scan, which confirmed the diagnosis, and then given a course of antibiotics, which resolved the issue.
"Diverticulitis develops when feces become trapped in pouches (diverticula) that have formed along the wall of the large intestine. This allows bacteria to grow and cause an infection or inflammation and pressure that may lead to a small perforation or tear in the wall of the intestine. Peritonitis, an infection of the lining of the abdominal…
Davis B.R. & Matthews, J.B. (2006). Diverticular disease of the colon. In M. Wolfe et al., eds., Therapy of Digestive Disorders, 2nd ed., pp. 855-859. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Maconi, G., Barbara, G., Bosetti, C., Cuomo, R., & Annibale, B. (2011). Treatment of diverticular disease of the colon and prevention of acute diverticulitis: A systematic review. Dis. Colon Rectum, 54(10), 1326-38.
Martin, S.T., & Stocchi, L. (2011). New and emerging treatments for the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis. Clin. Exp. Gastroenterol., 4, 203-212.
Unlu, C., Daniels, L., Vrouenraets, B.C., & Boermeester, M.A. (2011). A systematic review of high-fibre dietary therapy in diverticular disease. Int. J. Colorectal Dis. doi: 10.1007/s00384-011-1308-3. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-011-1308-3
Soon thereafter, she started working with CNN channel in handling their Washington bureau. For the forthcoming seven years, Couric was engaged with CNN bureaus across the nation as a producer and also as an on-air reporter. She returned to Washington in 1987 taking up job as a reporter at an NBC affiliate station. She rose from her ranks to hold the number two position as a reporter at the Pentagon for the Washington bureau of the NBC news. ("Katie Couric Biography," n. d.)
For the next three years she was in charge of covering the U.S. invasion of the Panama as also Persian Gulf War in her Pentagon position as also as a new post at the NBC's morning newspaper, Today. In the early part of 1991, she discharged her role as a co-anchor of Today. Her immense popularity with the viewers was because of her pleasant and charming demeanor…
Banting, Erninn. (2007) "Katie Couric"
Weigl Publishers Inc.
Clarke, Kristin. (2002) "First Among Equals: Barbara Walters on Leadership" Executive
Update, Retrieved 21 March, 2009 at http://www.asaecenter.org/PublicationsResources/articledetail.cfm?ItemNumber=13267
At the primary level of active listening are administrative personnel, especially at hospitals, who need to direct patients to the correct physicians for their ailments. Administrative personnel at doctors' offices are also important, as these personnel are often engaged in decision-making processes regarding the length of appointments and the care that is needed.
6. oles, responsibilities and relationships of project team members
The team leader will administer the responsibilities of each team member, as well as collocating the data gathered during interviews. The team leader will also determine the final format and content of the report.
Several roles will cover the various interviews to be conducted. Physicians, nurses, administrators, and patients will be interviewed. Within these groups, the type of illness and cultural context should also be investigated. Where doctors operate in a multi-cultural context, the potential exists to investigate the effectiveness of active listening, or its absence, can be…
Butow, P., Cockburn, J., Girgis, A., Bowman, D., Schofield, P., D'Este, C., Stojanovski, E. And Tattersall, M.H.N. (2007). Increasing oncologists' skills in eliciting and responding to emotional cues: evaluation of a communication skills training program. Psycho_Oncology. Retrieved from: http://www.newcastle.edu.au/Resources/Research%20Centres/CHERP/publications/Previous%20pdf%20papers/PsychOncCUES%20paper.pdf
Fassaert, T., Van Dulmen, S., Shcellevis, F., Van der Jagt, L. And Bensing, J. (2008). Raising positive expectations helps patients with minor ailments: A cross-sectional study. BMC Family Practice, Iss. 9. Retrieved from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2296/9/38/
Fassaert, T., Van Dulmen, S., Schellevis, F. And Bensing, J. (2007, June). Active listening in medical consultations: Development of the Active Listening Observation Scale (ALOS-global). Patient Education and Counseling Vol 68. Retrieved from: http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/fss/2008-0714-200810/bensing_2007_active.pdf
Ferguson, W.J. And Candib, L.M. (2002). Culture, language, and the doctor-patient relationship. University of Massachusetts Medical School. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1060&context=fmch_articles&sei-redir=1#search=%22active%20listening%20doctor%20patient%20relationship%22
business model canvas developed by Osterwalder and Pigneur in order to evaluate and diagnose Pfizer Inc. organizational model. This is done to provide recommendations for improvements as identified using the canvas model. Key areas of internal assessment include its products and services offerings, key resources, capabilities and competitive advantages. Key areas of external assessment include Porter's five forces, including but not limited to, key products, major competitors, new entry and market dynamics, suppliers and customers.
Pfizer Inc. has its headquarters in New York City. It has a staff of about 115,000 people. It is involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products for both animals and humans.
Principal Services and Product-line
The company manufactures 31 different products, which are categorized into ten different divisions. Each division has a major product that it promotes as follows:
Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases (Lipitor, Caduet, Norvasc)
Central Nervous System Disorders (Aricept, Geodon, Lyrica,…
Grant, R. (2010). Contemporary Strategy Analysis. Blackwell Publishing: Malden, MA.
MarketLine. (2014). Company Profile: SWOT Analysis. Accessed from: http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.vlib.excelsior.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=8df88857-0b4b-446b-8527-53d27ea4d339%40sessionmgr4004&vid=1&hid=4105
Research and Markets. (2012). Pfizer Inc. - Company Analysis: a Strategic Insight into the Prospects for Pfizer over the Next Six Years. Business Wire, Regional Business News.
Research and Markets. (2013a). Research and Markets: Comprehensive Company and Financial Analysis of Pfizer 2013. Business Wire, Regional Business News.
Current Health Debate: Cow’s Milk and Human Consumption
So many people grew up hearing repeated slogans and promotions from the dairy industry that were so consistent and repetitive, they seemed almost like a part of life. “Milk does a body good.” “Milk builds strong bones.” “Got Milk?” For decades, no one questioned the power of milk and the necessity of giving children milk. However, in the last ten or so years, the mentality has shifted and a product that was once unquestioned as a staple of human consumption, has now become controversial. This paper examines some of the pros and cons of the dairy industry and milk consumption from a strictly health perspective. The benefits of cow’s milk are examined lucidly, as are the criticisms that the dairy industry and milk consumption receive. Finally, each side’s argument is concluded succinctly, and recommendations for future protocol are presented for consideration.
The Act creates a positive balance between government interests to save money and the interests of Medicare recipients to receive a wide range of drugs for their specific needs. The current ban on government negotiations with pharmaceutical companies serves to protect Medicate recipients by using the positives of the free market, such as the experience and purchasing power of PBMs. hile there are serious potential problems with this approach, such as the potential for fraud between pharmaceutical companies and private interests, overall the ban on government negotiations with pharmaceutical companies provides a good balance between recipient and government interests.
American Legislative Exchange Council. Prescription Drugs. 19 October 2005. http://www.alec.org/2/4/talking-points/7.html
Barry, Patricia. New Salvos in the Prescription Drug ars: Class action suits are exposing schemes that gouge consumers. AARP Bulletin, January 2005.
19 October 2005. http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/a2005-01-06-salvos.html
Dealey, Sam. Drug Dealings: Democrats had it right before. National Review Online, May…
American Legislative Exchange Council. Prescription Drugs. 19 October 2005. http://www.alec.org/2/4/talking-points/7.html
Barry, Patricia. New Salvos in the Prescription Drug Wars: Class action suits are exposing schemes that gouge consumers. AARP Bulletin, January 2005.
19 October 2005. http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/a2005-01-06-salvos.html
Dealey, Sam. Drug Dealings: Democrats had it right before. National Review Online, May 05, 2004, 9:12 A.M. 19 October 2005. http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/dealey200405050912.asp
Kaiser Permanente Quality Assurance Program
Facility description. Kaiser Permanente is a healthcare organization that had its origins in the pre-war industrial sector. The program offered health care for workers in the steel mills, the shipyards, and the construction companies in a nation just recovering from the depression and attempting to stand apart from the conflict and volatility evidenced across the globe.
A young surgeon, Sidney Garfield, borrowed money to build Contractors General Hospital with the idea of serving the thousands of contractors building the Los Angeles Aqueduct near Desert Center -- which was in the middle of the Mojave Desert. The 12-bed hospital found it difficult to get insurance companies to pay for the treatment of injured and ill contractors. Some of the workers did not have insurance, but Dr. Garfield treated them anyway and the hospital's debts piled up. With the help of man named Harold Hatch,…
Kaiser Permanente leads the nation in eight quality measures. (2009, October 8). Clinical Excellence, Kaiser Permanente. Retrieved http://xnet.kp.org/newscenter / clinicalexcellence/2009/100809qualitycompass.html
Quality Compass. (2009). National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA).
Thompson, R.G., and Moss, F.M. (2008). QIR and SQUIRE: continuum of reporting guidelines for scholarly reports in healthcare improvement, Quality Safety in Health Care, 17, i10-i12. Doi:10.1136/qshc.2008.029074. Retrieved http://qualitysafety.bmj.com/content/17/Suppl_1/i10.full
Laiteerapong, N., Keh, C.E., Naylor, K.B., Yang, V.L., Vinci, L.M., Ovler, J.L. And Arora, V.M. (2011). A resident-led quality improvement initiative to improve obesity screening, American Journal of Medicine Quality, 26 (4), 315-322. Doi: 10.1177/1062860610395930. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21447835
acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)
The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.
This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…
Author Unknown) (n.d) Chronic Diseases, Risk Factors, and Preventive Services, Alabama. Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/owh/reg/4/overview.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Health Disparities and Non-insulin Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved at http://www.medicalnewsservice.com . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) HHS Awards more than 65 Million to eliminate health disparities. Retrieved at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/BurdenBook/DeathCause.asp?state=alAccessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Overview of Region lV. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/exemplary/racial.htm . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Tea as an Antioxidant
Tea is an aromatic drink that is usually prepared by soaking or pouring water over plant products, typically the tea plant, but also may be infused with other dried herbs, roots, or extracts. After plain water, tea is consumed more than any other drink globally, including soft drinks. It has a slightly bitter, astringent flavor, sometimes floral, sometimes metallic, that people find enjoyable and often relaxing or, in some cases, medicinal (Martin, 2007). The consumption of tea is said to have a number of beneficial health effects based on the properties it has including antioxidants, flavinols, flavonoids, polyphenols, and catechins. The catechins, particularly, are known for anti-inflammatory and cellular detoxicity. In addition, these catechins have proven neuroprotective activities that can bond with cannabinoid receptors and suppress pain and nausea and provide a relaxing effect (Korte, G., et.al., 2010). Medical studies have also shown that green tea…
AAICAD. (2010, July 12). Large-Scale, Long-Term Studies Support Roles of Physical Activity and Diet in Dementia and Cognitive Decline. Retrieved from Medical News Today: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/194407.php
Biotech Week. (2011, January 19). Protective Properties of Green Tea Uncovered. Retrieved from High Beam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-247694008.html
Feruzzi, M. (2010). The influence of beverage composition on delivery of phenolic compounds from coffee and tea. Physiological Behavior, 100(1), 33-41.
Fontaine, K. (2010). Complementary & Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Prentice Hall.
This can also include aspects such as taboos, perceptions of pain as well as concomitant factors such as education and socioeconomic status, language barriers, and advance health care planning. ( Mitty and Post, 2008).
Good examples that can be given are the strategies employed by the nurse in oncology in helping cancer patients to make informed decisions about their treatment. The nurse can assist these patients by providing access to informed decision making; which implies making sure that the patient understands both the nature as well as the risks of cancer treatment. This can include explaining to the patient the risks and benefits of aspects such as alternatives to screening for cancer; and by helping the patient to make various decisions in relation to his or her values and preferences. For example, the nurse can clarify the difference between screenings for various types of cancer; for instance the fact that…
Marquis B. And Huston C. ( 2008) Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Oncology nurses are key to ensuring that patients' decision making is truly informed.
Retrieved from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Oncology+nurses+are+key+to+ensuring+that+patients%27+decision+making+is...-a0187773050
Mitty E. And Post L. (2008) HEALTHCARE DECISION MAKING: Nursing Standard of Practice Protocol. Retrieved from http://consultgerirn.org/topics/treatment_decision_making/want_to_know_more
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…
Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.
Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.
Magnetic esonance Imaging
History of MI
The Magnetic esonance Imaging (MI) was first tested in Budapest Hungry in 1882. Later in 1937, Professor Isidor abi of Columbia University assembled a Nuclear Magnetic esonance. This tool was effective because it could absorb and emit radio waves after exposure to a strong magnetic field. Professor Carr Herman produced one-dimensional MI imaging processor in 1952. The nuclear powered NM was instrumental in experiments developed to detect the presence of tumors in normal cells. However, the technology was fully adopted in 1973 when Lauterbur Paul successfully produced the first NM image (Lauterbur, 1973). Previously, Damadian created the NM imaging machine in 1972, but not until 1973 did Lauterbur apply it for imaging. Following the success, Peter Mansfield developed an arithmetical methodology that was vital in integrating the concept to real-time problems.
Before the emergence of this concept, magnetic scans took hours to process. However,…
Cambridge University Press. (2007). RI from Picture to Proton. Cambridge: Cambridge
Joyce, A.K. (2008). Magnetic Appeal: MRI and the Myth of Transparency. New York: Cornell
Lauterbur, P. (1973). "Image Formation by Induced Local Interactions: Examples of Employing
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance." Retrieved February 19th, 2014 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2F242190a0
More times than not, a patient will argue that he did not understand what the physician stated to him; even amidst documented proof the medical professional and the patient did engage in an informed conversation. "The fact that a meeting took place does not necessarily mean that there was a meeting of the minds" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 5). This issue leads some health care providers to assert that informed consent forms possess little value, particularly when a legal battle ensues and the professional cannot prove the patient did, in fact, understand the informed consent process.
Currently, lawyers routinely challenge informed consent forms in courtrooms throughout the United States (U.S.). "The model consent forms incorporate substantial details of anesthesia techniques, risks and other elements of 'informed consent', so that a strong presumption is established on its face" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 7). During the informed consent process, to help inoculate…
Anaesth, B.J. (2009). Perioperative visual loss: What do we know, what can we do? Department
of Anesthesia and Critical Care. University of Chicago. Retrieved January 25, 2010 from http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/103/suppl_1/i31
Booth, B. (2008). Informed consent at the heart of New York lawsuit. Retrieved January 26,
2010 from http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2008/03/10/prca0310.htm
¶ … buy Bristol Squib Meyers stock today? Why?
Investing the pharmaceutical industry is always a dicey prospect. Although the drug industry has the advantage that many of its customers cannot opt out of buying its product, there are also many disadvantages to buying pharmaceutical stocks. First of all, drug patents are finite, which means that even a successful drug is likely to have a short life of generating a great deal of money for the company, as was seen with Pfizer's Prozac. The new type of antidepressant eventually spawned many spin-offs from Pfizer's competitors, as well as a generic version. The same thing is likely to happen to Glucophage, now that its patent has ended. Also, a company can spend a great deal of money on a new drug's development, only for the drug to fall flat in terms of its effectiveness, as was seen in the case of…