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Common Core State Standards and Gifted Learners
Education standards generally describe what should be known by students and their capability in every subject in every grade. Various states use state Board of Education to decide what standards should be followed by the entire students starting the kindergarten to high school. From 2010, most of the states have adopted similar standards for Mathematics and English. These came to be known Common Core State Standards (CCSS). When students have the same standards they get the opportunity to receive good education, regardless of changing schools or relocating to a different state. Educational experts, teachers, and parents took the responsibility of designing the standards in order to prepare students for success when they are in college as well as the workplace. These state's Department of Education assists schools to ensure that the entire students meets the standards.
The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have…
Catherine Gewertz (2013) A Common-Core Challenge: Learners With Special Needs. Retrieved April 19, 2013, http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2013/10/30/10cc-intro.h33.html
Edward Frenkel (2013). "Republicans Should Love Common Core." Wall Street Journal.
Greg Toppo (2012). "Common Core standards drive wedge in education circles." USA Today.
Kathleen Porter-Magee (2013). "The Truth About Common Core." National Review Online.
Green Eggs and Ham by Dr. Seuss is a terrific book for helping young learners develop phonemic awareness and for the teacher to help them decoding and encoding strategies. At the same time, it may be used in conformity with Common Core Standards so that students meet guidelines provided by the State.
As Ouellette and Haley point out, alphabetic knowledge and vocabulary can have a positive impact on phonemic awareness (29). When students better understand the letters of the alphabet and their common pairings, they are more likely to have a sense of how sounds (phenomes) are utilized in words that are spoken. Green Eggs and Ham can be a good tool for providing many different but easy to grasp phenomes that students can differentiate as they hear the sounds and see that pictures that reinforces the ideas that the sounds should convey. Segmenting (analyzing words for their sound components…
Teaching Using Common Core State Standards (CCSS)
The establishment of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is one of the most important components in the field of education that is geared towards enhancing student learning and outcomes. Common Core Standards are essential in enhancing student learning and outcomes since they are a set of objectives for students to accomplish by the conclusion of their school year. However, these standards are not curriculum and do not determine the techniques employed by teachers in the classroom year. Currently, I teach Business Marketing in Grade 9-12 in a school where we utilize Pennsylvania Common Core Standards. My classroom comprises of students from different backgrounds with different learning needs and in different stages in their growth and development. The students are usually very attentive during the lessons and participate in classroom discussions. My students are seemingly interested in pursuing a career in the marketing field…
Dintersmith, T. & Wagner, T. (2016, August 18). The Real Failure of Common Core. The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/ted-dintersmith/the-real-failure-of-common-core_b_7997912.html
Gill, E. (2013, January 5). What is Your Teaching Style? 5 Effective Teaching Methods for Your Classroom. Retrieved from Concordia University – Portland website: https://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/classroom-resources/5-types-of-classroom-teaching-styles/
Kahn. (2017, January 5). 5 Reasons to Study Marketing for Any Career Path. Retrieved from The Wharton School – University of Pennsylvania website: https://www.wharton.upenn.edu/story/5-reasons-study-marketing-career-path/
Pennsylvania Department of Education Standards Aligned System. (2012, April). Academic Standards for Business, Computer and Information Technology. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://static.pdesas.org/content/documents/BCIT_standards.pdf
The Teacher’s Academy. (2014, November 14). The Common Core in PA. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.theteachersacademy.com/blog/the-common-core-in-pa/
Grade 1 Math Standards in North Carolina
NCTM vs. Common Core
The most readily apparent distinction between the content and process standards for grade 1 math as outlined by the North Carolina Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards and the North Carolina Common Core state standards is primarily one of scope.
Comparison of Content and Process Standards.
The Common Core state standards are currently much broader in scope, ranging well beyond the a focus on addition and subtraction to include a beginning exploration of geometry and principles and techniques of measurement. Additionally, the Common Core state standards extend performance expectation in the areas of addition and subtraction to addition operations within 100 and subtraction of multiples of 10.
The North Carolina Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards tend to center around addition and subtraction operations, but it also articulates some specific performance expectations for commonly used fractions (1/4, 1/3, and 1/2) and…
Common Core State Standards Initiative. [Webpage]. Retrieved October 19, 2012 from http://www.corestandards.org/
Curriculum and Focal Points. North Carolina Teachers of Mathematics. [Webpage]. Retrieved October 19, 2012 from http://www.nctm.org/standards/
Common Core will have significant negative and positive impacts on my Social Studies teaching. These impacts can best be seen through a general analysis of Common Core and application of Common Core to a specific Social Studies lesson plan. The goals of Common Core are to align education with the best evidence of college readiness and career readiness, building on each state's best standards and maintaining educational focus on what matters most for readiness, both within the United States and globally. To those ends, Common Core standards are rigorous. Lessons must be focused and coherent, aligned through evidence and research with national and international college and work expectations, building on existing strengths and lessons of current state standards.
The four pillars and advancements provided by Common Core are deliberate emphases on: Reading; riting; Speaking and Listening; and Language. "Reading" balances literature and informational texts with sufficient but not overwhelming text…
While these four emphases are deemed considerable advances in education, Common Core standards lack some teaching essentials: they do not indicate how a teacher should teach; all that can/should be taught; the nature of advanced work beyond Common Core; required intervention for students performing significantly below grade level; the full range of support for ESL learners and special needs students; or the full gamut of requirements for college readiness and career readiness. Consequently, in their current state, Common Core standards are insufficient and must be partnered with a content-rich curriculum, robust and ongoing assessments and continual honing of the standards and their applications.
A clear example of the negative and positive impacts is illustrated by a lesson plan about President Lyndon Johnson's 1965 speech about Vietnam at John Hopkins University. The lesson plan calls for students to learn what was plainly stated by President Johnson in the subject speech, draw rational inferences from those statements, demonstrate those skills by writing a concise synopsis and finally paraphrase that summary in the student's own words. The positive advancements of the Common Core standards are all focused and evident: reading, writing, speaking and listening and language are all obviously employed in the lesson plan. Simultaneously, the four advancements are insufficient, in and of themselves. They do not indicate how a Social Studies teacher should teach about the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam war and all the rhetoric surrounding that turmoil; the standards do not indicate all that can/should be taught in Social Studies about that episode of U.S. History; the standards give no guidepost for advanced Social Studies education about that episode; the standards do not assist with interventions required to educate underperforming Social Studies students about the Vietnam episode; the standards do not provide sufficient support for the education of ESL learners and special needs students about that historical episode; and the standards do not adequately indicate the related requirements for college readiness and career readiness.
In sum, Common Core is both positive and negative for my work as a Social Studies teacher. Common Core is positive in that it offers significant clear advancements in Social Studies education through reading, writing, speaking and listening and language, with an eye toward college readiness and career readiness. Simultaneously, Common Core is negative in that it lacks content-rich curriculum, robust and ongoing assessments and continuous honing of the standards and their applications. Clearly, Common Core is a momentous step in the right direction of Social Studies education but must be meaningfully developed to efficiently educate today's Social Studies students.
This will enhance their knowledge and improve the individual's ability to use these ideas in the future. (Pitler, 2007)
The guided practice is to ensure that all students master these concepts. This will make certain that everyone has a foundation of knowledge in these areas. Once the entire class is at the same point, is when they will use technology to provide greater repetition and practice. (Pitler, 2007)
The independent practices are offering additional support to students that are most challenged. Those who are having difficulty will use web tutorials and e-learning solutions to provide further instruction / preparation. This will prevent them from falling behind and it is reaching out to the individual using other styles of learning. (Pitler, 2007)
To close the session, the students will repeat to educators how these concepts work. This will be accomplished by having them take a practice…
Piaget and Vygotsky
Compare and Contrast Piaget and Vygotsky Ideas of math in common core
Numerous educators, parents, and students are not happy with the Common Core curriculum in math. One of the key disagreements against Common Core is that the standards are not developmentally suitable for students that are younger. Two of the most recognized cognitive psychologists, Lev Vygotsky, and Jean Piaget developed theories that spoke to cognitive development and learning among teenagers and children in regards to the common core. Even though there are similarities among the two theories, dissimilarities occur, and those dissimilarities are significant to the application and understanding of the theories in educational backgrounds. This paper will highlight those major differences in mathematics. With that said, this essay will discuss the comparison and contrast of Piaget and Vygotsky ideas of math in common core.
Common Core Standards in Math
The Common Core concentrates on a…
Gelman, R. M. (2010). Young children's numerical competence. Cognitive Development, 21(9), 1-29.
Tyminiski, A. (2010). Teacher lust: reconstructing the construct for mathematics. Journal of Math Teacher Education,, 13, 295-311.
Ylvisa-ker, M. H. (2010, March 31). What are Concrete and Abstract thinking? . Retrieved from http://www.projectlearnet.org/tutorials/concrete_vs_abstract_thinking.html
Deconstruction of a Standard
The purpose of this deconstruction of a standard exercise was to unpack a standard, examine it critically and identify the key words to help determine the level of cognitive demand (based on Bloom’s Taxonomy). A review of the standard as a whole was conducted to identify the type of achievement target. The standard selected was the 9th Grade Mathematics Common Core Standard CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.IC.A.1. The achievement target for the standard was understanding (comprehension) and therefore the lesson targets focused on weighting the different cognitive demands according to the place in the process of understanding at which they occurred. This paper provides a Deconstructing a Standard Table and a Reflection of the process overall—including my reaction to the process, identification of specific professional development that may be needed in my building, and my role as a leader.
Keywords: common core standards, math standards, understanding 9th grade math…
hat are the differences between the Common Core Standards for grade eight and the New York State standards of mathematics?
Common Core Standards
For one thing, the Common Core Standards offer narrative (rather than bullet points) and go into more specific and in depth instructions through narrative. The Common Core Standards expressly mentions three critical areas out in front: a) formulating and reasoning about "expressions and equations," which includes "modeling an association in bivariate data with a linear equation" -- and that includes being able to solve "linear equations and systems of linear equations"; b) students are asked to "grasp the concept of a function" and to use functions in order to understand "quantitative relationships"; and c) students must be able to apply the Pythagorean Theorem when it comes to being able to analyze two and three dimensional space and figures using "distance, angle, similarity, and congruence" (www.corestandards.org). These…
Common Core Standards. "Grade 8 -- Introduction / Common Core State Standards Initiative."
Retrieved July 31 from http://www.corestandards.org/ Math/Content/8/introduction. 2011.
IXL -- New York Eighth-Grade Math Standards. "New York: Skills available for New York
Eighth-Grade Math Standards." Retrieved July 31, 2014 from http://www.ixl.com/standards/new-york/math/grade-8 .
Two years prior to the devastating and tragic landfall of Hurricane Katrina on the Gulf Coast, President George W. Bush
Issued Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD-5) directing the Secretary of Homeland
Security to: create a comprehensive National Incident Management System (NIMS) to provide a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, and local governments to work effectively together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity (George W. Bush White House.gov. N.D.P.1).
Later adopted in 2004, the NIMS provided a dedicated strategic initiative to prevent the very chaos and confusion which erupted out of Katrina's fury. Yet, the system proved desultory, unwieldy, and ineffective in its response to the disaster; the vivid portraits of New Orleans citizens trapped in the Superdome "amid a frightening scene of filth, violence and despair" (MSNBC.com. September 3, 2005). Since 2005, efforts have focused on ensuring that…
Instead, spatial reasoning appears to be based on environmental inputs and old-fashioned cognitive development.
Why this should come as such a surprise to some researchers is uncertain. Core knowledge theorists claim that infants almost immediately express certain types of knowledge. But this suggestion assumes two things: one, that it is possible to measure infant cognition at the moment of birth; and two, that infants are incapable of learning before they are born. On the matter of the former point, it seems apparent that logistical and ethical concerns would make it exceedingly difficult, if not outright impossible, to test infant cognition immediately after birth. With regards to the second issue, we already have evidence that infants are capable of basic learning while still in the womb. Though developmentally unfinished, the basic sensory organs that the fetus develops permit it to learn information about its environment. Lecuyer (2006) reminds us that it…
Dehaene, S., Izard, V., Pica, P., and Spelke, E.S. (2006). Core knowledge of geometry in an Amazonian indigene group. Science, 311, pp. 381-384.
Haith, M.M. (1998). Who put the cog in infant cognition? Infant Behavior and Development, 21(2), pp. 167-179.
Hespos, S.J. And Spelke, E.S. (2004, July 22). Conceptual precursors to language. Nature, 430, pp. 453-456.
Hofsten, C., Feng, Q., and Spelke, E.S. (2000). Object representation and predictive action in infancy. Developmental Science, 3(2), pp. 193-205.
Organizational Theory #2
What core competences give an organization competitive advantage? What are examples of an organization's functional-level strategies?
Core competencies are those capabilities that are critical to a business achieving a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Typically, core competencies can be identified by certain common characteristics -- offering a benefit to the customer, difficult to imitate, uniquely identify the organization and easily leveraged to create many products or operate in many markets (Kern, 2010). The organization that is best able to use its resources to create value is in an ideal position to outperform the competition, thus creating advantage (Jones, 2010). Core competencies tend to change in response to changes in the environment. They are flexible, evolve over time and enable the company to enter apparently different markets with a clear and distinctive brand proposition. Examples of core competencies include manufacturing, research and development, new technology or organizational design…
Jones, G. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Terry, L.D., & Hoefer, R.A. (1995). Making politics and power respectable. Public Administration Review, 55(3), 298.
It is to common knowledge that good leaders are made but not born (Fletcher, 2009), but if the desire is driven by a sheer force of will and coupled with the inculcation of the necessary ambition, one can mould his personality into becoming an effective leader. It was history that taught us that the world famous leaders, despite the values they preached or the morals they stood out for, cultivated through an ongoing channel of education, experience, training and self-study. From Napoleon to Luther, it is clearly evident that it is the continuous hardship rather than resting laurels that makes one competent enough to reach for the heavens above.
Before my self-evaluation in context to leadership and its consequential predicaments, I would like to start off by the simple definition of leadership. Leadership is the mechanism that enables a person to inspire and motivate others in order to perform…
Fletcher, M. (2009). Overcoming Barriers to Church Growth: Proven Strategies for taking your church to the next level. Bethany House, 47.
Lawler, J. & Bilson, M. (2009). The individual manager and leader. Social work management and leadership: managing complexity with creativity. Taylor & Francis, 41.
Northouse, P.G. (2009). Leader -- Member Exchange theory. Leadership: Theory and Practice. SAGE, 155.
Zastrow, C. (2009). Strategies for resolving conflicts. The Practice of Social Work: A comprehensive work text. Cengage Learning, 198.
Social capital can have both positive and negative effects, as is evidenced in the benefits of 'teamwork,' of sharing ideas, of using distinct talents of different workers, and also of soliciting input from individuals with different experiences, both cultural and knowledge-based, that can add to the organization's efficiency. An it person, a person of Japanese-American background, and someone who has studied abroad, for example, could all add input to improve a marketing campaign directed to Far East clients.
However, in our diverse society where culture is inexorably bound to one's identity, and personal and cultural identity are often seen as synonymous, it is difficult to 'put aside' one's identity at the door of a friendly, informal American company. The workers' diverse social networks outside the company have created a clash of diverse identities, rather than generated a workplace made strong by diversity. The manager must create a common mission statement…
The modern nurse must then be willing to move beyond a simple catch-all of medical jargon and bureaucracy and become someone who is both supportive and critical of the system. This may seem dichotomous, but in reality is not. The system is designed with beneficence in mind -- to help the patient at all costs. It is thus up to the nurse advocate to ensure that that actually happens (Sheldon, 2009).
Undertake assessments which are sensitive to the needs of the patient- Assessment is one of the key factors in management of clinical medicine. The nurse is often at the forefront of that process simply due to the logistical nature of the situation -- taking vitals, preparing the patient for blood work, etc. However, it is in two particular areas that the nurse can be most effective when assessing the actual needs of the patient; culturally and when questions are…
Edwards, N., et.al. (2003). Aging, Heart Disease, and Its Management. Humana Press.
Lundy, K. And Janes, S. (2003). Essentials of Community-Based Nursing. Sudbury, MA:
Jones and Bartlett.
Miller, C. (2009). Nursing for Wellness in Older Adults. Philadelphia, PA:
At the core of leadership is the interaction between the leader and the follower. Much of leadership theory can be understood in terms of how leaders and followers interact and what the underlying assumptions are with respect to the roles and nature of leadership. Because of the many different types of leaders, and successful examples thereof, leadership scholarship has developed multiple branches that seek to explain leadership, but no one branch has yet proved definitive. Instead of understanding leadership through a single paradigm, and it better to understand it in terms of multiple paradigms, and different leadership theories can be applied to the same situation, and any given leader might apply multiple leadership styles at the same time.
Part of the appeal of leadership scholarship is that it encompasses so many unique academic disciplines. Leadership scholarship began life as in business schools but has been studied in the psychological…
Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F. & Weber, T. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 60 (2009) 421-449.
Boyatzis, R., Smith, M., & Blaize, N. (2006). Developing sustainable leaders through coaching and compassion. Academy of Management Learning & Education. Vol. 5 (1) 8-24.
Falk, S. & Rogers, S. (2011). Junior military officer retention: Challenges & opportunities. Harvard University. In possession of the author.
Kocolowski, M. (2010). Shared leadership: Is it time for a change? Emerging Leadership Journeys. Vol. 3 (1) 22-32.
Skills must be honed that create a functional page that users will view and use as the client hopes them to.
Many new eb designers produce eb pages that seem to ignore fundamental principles of "good design": full of colored backgrounds, animated pictures, multiple colors and styles of text, and little to no navigation or eb-based structure. Even in courses devoted to eb design, students still produce pages that lack unity, coherence and emphasis: "though they [students] seem to understand (and can critique) others' efforts, they're stymied when it's time for production. Few have the skills or experience writing in this medium" (Yancey & ickliff, 2001, p. 180). Similarly, individuals working on their own or working from documentation struggle with being able to create eb pages due to the same lack of experience writing on the eb.
For this reason, relative examples, as explained in the previous subheading…
Chan, Henry, Raymond Lee, Tharam Dillon, and Elizabeth Chang. E-Commerce: Fundamentals and Applications. New York: Wiley, 2001.
Castro, Elizabeth HTML 4 for the World Wide Web Berkeley, CA Peachpit Press, 1998.
Dix, Alan. "3 Human-Computer Interaction and Web Design." Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design. Ed. Robert W. Proctor and Kim-Phuong L. Vu. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005. 28-46.
Profit Organization Interest
Identify the core functions of each department, their strengths and weaknesses, and make recommendations for improvement, as appropriate.
In the case of Rambus (the for profit organization we are investigating) there are conflicting accounting standards between: pro forma and generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). As Rambus is focused on three different areas to include: Digital Edge Clocking, the production of DRAM and LED chips. The strengths of these different segments are: the company is major component supplier to some the major electronics / computer manufacturers and they are diversified between different areas inside semi-conductors. The weaknesses include: they are using a pro forma based accounting system, they have no effective internal controls and their business model is not protected against sudden shocks to the economy. Possible recommendations to improve these issues are: the company should reduce their overall amounts of debt, they should switch to GAAP-based standards…
Rambus 10Q. (2010). Rambus. Retrieved from: http://investor.rambus.com/secfiling.cfm?filingID=950123-10-98137
Rambus 10K. (2009). Rambus. Retrieved from: http://investor.rambus.com/secfiling.cfm?filingID=917273-10-14
Mullins, R. (2010). Rambus Takes $200 Million Stock Option Hit. Tech World. Retrieved from: http://news.techworld.com/storage/7150/rambus-takes-200m-stock-option-hit/
Like most litigations on such complicated issues the company had little to do but show reasonable accommodation, adopt better surface practices and wait out a lengthy period before their liability was reduced substantially by the courts.
The key ethical issues of the case are pretty clear, did the captain knowingly endanger the environment by continuing to retain his position and navigate tankers through the area and did the company know that such was the case. Both ethical dilemmas are clear and were ruled upon by many hours of court time and subsequent appeals, though the final Supreme Court ruling on Exxon's liability for the spill was split 4:4 every other deciding body laid full responsibility on Exxon's lap. ("Exxon Valdez Damages educed," June 2008, NP). An additional ethical issue, though much less openly understood or known by the average American is weather it was ethical to pay fishermen…
Feinman, J.M. (2000). Law 101: Everything You Need to Know about the American Legal System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Exxon Valdez Damages Reduced," June 2008, Business Law Prof Blog Retrieved November 18, 2008. http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/business_law/2008/06/on-wednesday-th.html
Greely, J. (1989, May 29). Alaska over the Barrels: The Spills and Spoils of Big Oil. The Nation, 248, 721.
Jasanoff, S. (2006) "Transparency in Public Science: Purposes, Reasons, Limits." Law and Contemporary Problems 69.3, 21.
usiness Law Ethics
Ethics in Action
Common Characteristics of Poor Decision Making
In order to make ethically sound decisions, it is necessary to acquire and secure all the pertinent facts; therefore, one of the most common characteristics of a poorly made decision is the lack of necessary and relevant facts. Entering the decision making process with favor and bias toward a particular outcome is an additional trait of a decision that is poorly made (Mallor et al., 2009, p. 105). Seeking and hearing only facts that support the favored option, and averting the possibility of inconveniencing others to secure relevant and unbiased factual information is the mark of a lazy and unmotivated decision maker. A decision maker that is not thorough and persistent is not a good decision maker.
ecause of the level of diversity in the workplace and the necessity to take into consideration all the stakeholders, evidence of…
Mallor J., Barnes, A., Bowers, T., & Langvardt, A. (2009). Business law: The
ethical, global, and E-commerce Environment. Irwin: McGraw-Hill.
Hogan also suggest the increased use of event sponsorships to strengthen brands. and, Hogan discusses the use of brand agents who are different from spokespeople because they represent the brand in its totality-its positioning and its brand attributes -- and does not violate the limits to which a company can extend a brand beyond its core meaning
Hogan, S. Positioning a brand in the marketplace. http://www.lippincottmercer.com/insights/a_hogan01.shtml
Kotler, P. & Keller, K. (2003). Marketing Management (12th Ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.
Can brands last forever? There is no reason for a brand to ever become obsolete, if a company does a good job of positioning. What is positioning? "Positioning is the act of designing the company's offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market. The goal is to locate the brand in the minds of consumers to maximize the potential benefit to…
Can brands last forever? There is no reason for a brand to ever become obsolete, if a company does a good job of positioning. What is positioning? "Positioning is the act of designing the company's offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market. The goal is to locate the brand in the minds of consumers to maximize the potential benefit to the firm" (Kotler & Keller, 2006, p. 288).
Kotler, P. & Keller, K. (2003). Marketing Management (12th Ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.
Strong brands excel at delivering the benefits customers truly desires or need;
the brand stays relevant to the customer;
One of the common issues that all major sports are dealing with is effectively promoting themselves. In the case of NASCA, Horse acing and Professional Golf; there are specific strategies that are utilized to reach out to the target audience. To understand how this is achieved requires looking at the audience profile for each sport. This will be accomplished by: examining demographic, promotional strategies, the promotional mix and how to apply these tools. Together, these elements will provide specific insights as to how each sport has been able to effectively reach out to their core audience.
NASCA is focused on males and females who are between the ages of 15 to 60 years old. In general, the audience is from a middle class background and is located in suburban areas. The kind of promotional strategy that is being utilized in a pull-based philosophy. This is when advertisers will…
The Marketing Communications or Promotional Mix. (2010). Dave Dolak. Retrieved from:
NASCAR. (2012). NASCAR.com. Retrieved from: www.nascar.com
National Thoroughbred Racing Association. (2012). NTRA. Retrieved from: www.ntra.com
This springs from the inherent flaw to the logical and practical
underpinnings of the 2001 bill. Its twofold set of assumptions-that safety
can only be preserved through the sacrifice of personal liberties and that
terrorism is the product of bureaucratic obstacles to law-enforcement-both
proceed from a faulty ideological seedling that far predates 9/11.
In its forceful attainment of new authorities which have even further
removed it from the province of democratic process, the United States
government has implemented legislation that may usher in a new era of
sustained McCarthyism. ith the 'terrorist' tag supplanting the
'communist' label that was considered social, professional and political
anathema in the 40's and 50's, the Patriot Act is the first and broadest of
post-9/11 tools for the extension of ideological hegemony in an age of
highly charged philosophical division. Much like the witch-hunt that
McCarthyism engendered, the Patriot Act's impact on the Bill of…
107th Congress. (2001). United States Patriot Act, HR 3152 RDS. U.S.
ACLU. (2003). Surveillance Under the USA Patriot Act. American Civil
Liberties Union. Online at
Small Business Success
The author of this report is asked to offer a small business and human resources plan given a certain scenario. A small business with close to one hundred employees is still lacking a distinct and separate human resources department. This is where the author of this report is asked to step in and fill that void. The author of this report will use a company with which the author is familiar as a basis for this review and analysis. Overall, the points of analysis will include the direction and strategy of the company over the next five to ten years, an overall human resources strategy that will be used, the competitive advantage that can be associated with that strategy, and a human resources scorecard that includes the proper four dimensions of financial, customer service, internal process and learning/growth/sustainability. While human resources is not a distinct and focused…
Brann, M.J. (2015). Improving unit performance with a staff-driven peer review process. Nursing Forum, 50(2), 63-68. doi:10.1111/nuf.12082
EEOC. (2015). EEOC Home Page. Eeoc.gov. Retrieved 17 July 2015, from http://EEOC.gov
Reed, S. & Bogardus, A. (2012). PHR. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Stewart, G. & Brown, K. (2011). Human resource management. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
(Megan's Law Website: History of the Law and Federal Facts)
On the other hand, rights activists and organizations point out that the sexual offender is treated unfairly in a legal sense. As one study on the subject notes, the sexual offender registry is a "… double punishment of sex criminals and is applicable to too many offenses. For example, depending on the area, "sex offenders" can also include those guilty of streaking, burglary, surveillance, and kidnapping" (Does the Sex Offender egistry Offend Justice?).
This view is also supported by groups like Human ights Watch. They posit the view that while the seriousness of these types of crimes are appreciated, there are a number of variables that have to be taken into account in applying a law like Megan's Law. These include aspects such as the fact that many people are categorized as sexual offenders for relatively minor crimes, and may…
Does the Sex Offender Registry Offend Justice? Retrieved June 4, 2009, from http://www.mcgilldaily.com/blog/1829/entry/19136-does-the-sex-offender-registry
Major Human Rights Watch report about sex offender sanctions ( 2007)
Retrieved June 4, 2009, from http://sentencing.typepad.com/sentencing_law_and_policy/2007/09/major-human-rig.html
Megan's Law, Sex Offenders Nationwide. Retrieved June 4,
Over the last several years, educators have been facing considerable challenges in meeting rising expectations for performance. This is because a host of solutions (such as the No Child Left Behind Act) have not addressed the lack of student achievement. Instead, academic performance has continued to linger and become worse in some areas (i.e. mathematics and science). (Hannah, 2012)
In New Jersey, the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum standards is designed to provide clarity on specific subjects and topics students must learn in order to graduate from high school. To fully understand how this occurring requires examining the way it is related to the concepts from Mary Zimmerman's Metamorphoses and a contemporary issue. This will be accomplished by focusing on the modes of communication, its shape and the way the literature can provoke cultural insights. Together, these elements will highlight how the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum…
Science Standards. (2013). NJ. Retrieved from: http://www.nj.gov/education/cccs/standards/5/
Hannah, D. (2012). 5 Ways No Child Left Behind Act. American Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/news/2013/04/08/59542/5-ways-no-child-left-behind-waivers-help-state-education-reform/
Rich, M. (2012). U.S. Students Still Lag. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com /2012/12/11/education/us-students-still-lag-globally-in-math-and-science-tests-show.html?_r=0
Wandberg, R. (2000). Communication. Mankato, MN: Life Matters.
inclusion" is not part of the law; instead, it states that each student must be educated in the least restrictive educational environment (LRE). Analyze all sides of "inclusion," (1. full inclusion; 2. inclusion in special classes like physical education, art, or lunch; and 3. inclusion in all classes except for reading or math).
The term 'inclusion' means complete acceptance of every student which leads towards sense of acceptance and belonging in the classroom. Over the years, there has not been any fixed definition of inclusion, but different groups and organizations have provided their own definitions. The most basic definition of 'inclusion' states that every student with special needs are supported in 'chronologically age appropriate general education classes' in schools and get the instructions specialized for them by the Individual Education Programs (IEPs) within the general activities of the class and the main curriculum. The idea of 'inclusion' is to…
Cologon, K. (2013). Inclusion in Education. Children with Disabiliity Australia.
Constable, S., Grossi, B., Moniz, A., & Ryan, L. (2013). Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students With Autism. Council for Exceptional Children.
Evers, T. (2011). Common Core State Standards for Literacy in all subjects. Madison: Wisconsin Department of Public Intrusion.
FDDC. (2012). What is Inclusion? Florida: Florida State Univeristy Center for Prevention and Early Intervention Policy.
diversity of learning styles and needs represented in a typical 21st century classroom. As the United States continues to see an increase in multi-ethnic, multinational populations, the children of immigrants that bring diverse cultures and ethnicities to American shores are represented in the classroom. This presents a serious challenge for the educator, since the diversity of students reflect a wide range of competencies, skills and levels of intellectual comprehension. Within the context of that diversity the instructor must embrace a pivotal 21st century learning challenge -- meeting the learning needs of students who may fall behind without one-on-one instruction and the learning needs of more advanced students seeking to surge ahead while many students in the classroom may be struggling simply to stay up with the assignments.
In order for students to reach their optimum level of academic achievement, the system must change and the philosophy of instruction must change…
Ashford University (2014). Assessment in the 21st century. Retrieved November 30,
2014, from https://student.ashford.edu .
Framework for 21st Century Revision. Creativity and Innovation.
Leston-Banderia, C. (2013). Methods Teaching through a Discipline Research-Oriented
The 56th Heavy Brigade Combat Team is suffering from a shortage of effective leadership, a factor that appears to be impacting nearly every functional aspect of the brigade. Hard-wired coordination has given way to fractured, piece-meal functioning that is particularly in evidence within and across S1, S3, and S4. Several variables appear to be associated with the diminished leadership, including the following issues that I observed or noted during my review.
The Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) study conducted for the 56th in Afghanistan indicated that "leadership performed well given the circumstances" but this qualification pointed to several substantive challenges that need to be addressed. Communication was hampered by the number of communication systems in use and the fact that many of them were incompatible; the digital networks were insufficiently robust, causing frequent lost communication between the brigade and subordinate battalion headquarters. The historical unit status reports (US)…
Professional Learning and Development -- the Teacher's Perspective
The recent debate over standards-based education has tended to focus upon student performance in regards to standardized testing and the rise of common core standards. However, an equally critical component of the question of improving our nation's schools is the training and education of teachers. eceiving a degree in education is only the beginning of the teacher's development as an educator. This proposed research project will examine teacher perceptions of professional development exercises and how they believe it has influenced their efficacy in the classroom and student performance.
According to the 2013 report issued by the Center for Public Education entitled Teaching the teachers, "recent education reforms have urged teachers to foster collaboration, debate and reflection amongst students, in order to develop cognitive processes like those called for in the new standards. Ironically, districts rarely apply these same learning techniques to developing…
Baxter, P. & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13 (4): 544-559. Retrieved from: http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR13-4/baxter.pdf
Gulamhussein, A. (2013). Teaching the teachers. Center for Public Education. Retrieved from:
Letter From the Principal
Why Andrew is best suited to Receive the Award
For the reasons I highlight in this text, Andrew has my full backing as recipient of the award. This particular candidate has over time demonstrated that he has the ability to not only enhance student learning, but to also spearhead the progress of learners. On this front, in addition to efficiently making use of formal and informal assessments to guide instruction, Andrew is also an avid user of student tracking systems (the Engrade online system to be particular).
The candidate also stands out in classroom instruction. This is more so the case given that he continues to meet student expectations (particularly by grading them on the same level regardless of Gen Ed. Or IEP) and demonstrate academic rigor by ensuring that all essays and work are common core aligned. I also dare say that the candidate's rapport…
Integrating Students Who Change Schools
When students change schools often, and particularly when they enter and exit schools at times other than the actual starting and ending dates, they can experience academic, psychological, and social setbacks. When a student body is in a relatively constant state of flux, the impact is felt by all students in the classrooms, and not just by students who are referred to as frequent movers. While the size of the stable core of students ranges widely, the mobility of frequent movers generates a chaos factor -- a term used to identify the inevitable disruption that occurs from having to constantly adapt to the unexpected change.
The literature shows a negative correlation between school switching and academic achievement; a correlation that is evident in schools that have experienced multiple years of non-compliance with federal academic achievement regulations due to high numbers of students who are frequent…
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…
Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.
Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-
Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
Ethical caring's great contribution is to guide action long enough for natural caring to be restored and for people once again to interact with mutual and spontaneous regard" (Noddings 1998: 187).
Noddings believes that rather than ethics shaping moral behavior, our moral, spontaneous caring is what is more important and must come first. This impulse is sometimes interfered with, which is why we need ethical systems, but caring comes before the creation of ethical systems.
Statement: "All human communities are founded upon specific shared information, and the basic goal of education in a human community is acculturation - the transmission to children of the specific information shared by the adults of the group or polis" (Hirsch cited by Coppola 2011).
Comment: This reflects Hirsch's belief in the need for a common curriculum, or shared values that must be transmitted to all students to create a more homogeneous and cohesive society.…
An interview with Bill Ayers. (2006). Revolution Newspaper. Retrieved:
Coppola, Jen. (2011). The Educational theory of E.D. Hirsch. New Foundations. Retrieved:
National and State Subject Matter Content Standards for Math
According to the California standards for high school students, the geometry curriculum contains six critical components: "to establish criteria for congruence of triangles based on rigid motions; establish criteria for similarity of triangles based on dilations and proportional reasoning; informally develop explanations of circumference, area, and volume formulas; apply the Pythagorean Theorem to the coordinate plan; prove basic geometric theorems; and extend work with probability" (Common Core Standards, California Department of Education: 69). The elucidated standards are often quite specific in terms of how students are asked to apply basic concepts such as measuring angles; understanding the different properties of parallel lines; and manipulating various polygons. Not only must the students prove theorems but they must also be able to construct such shapes using a variety of methods in a hands-on fashion (Common Core Standards, 2013, California Department of Education: 70).…
Common Core Standards. California Department of Education. ca.gov. [21 Oct 2013] http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/ccssmathstandardaug2013.pdf
Common Core Standards. Official Website. [21 Oct 2013]
Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson
Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education
Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where the first vowel is a long vowel and the final e is silent. By using the Clickers/esponses as a classroom game they will utilize them after hearing the correct sounds.
Students with the will be able to spell and write out some basic long vowel words that have c-v-c-e and v-c-e spelling patterns and will use the Clickers/esponses when they hear the right sound.
About the Concept:
There are several regular long vowel spelling patterns in the English language. The c-v-c-e pattern (consonant-vowel-consonant-final e) is a long vowel spelling pattern which occurs quite frequently in early reading and spelling. Essentially, the phonics rule for this design mentions that when a vowel and final e are separated by a single consonant, the…
Indiana Standards. (2010, March 3). Retrieved from Learniing Connection: https://learningconnection.doe.in.gov/Standards/About.aspx?art=11
Classroom Resources. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from ReadWritethink: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/
Elementary K-5 Writing Curriculum. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Melrose Public Schools: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:aLFi5i1eLl4J:www.melroseschools.com/lincoln/MPS_Writing_Curriculum_K_5.pdf+writing+curriculum+for+elementary&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShGXpwCDU3mdB2rQVO2e3Dav6AgQn-3Ng2vDjsDa_f50Pd5k8wDn4zmQH2cTwV3P7kAA2v9zu
Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests® Online. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Online reading test: http://www.riversidepublishing.com/products/gmrtOnline/index.html
As Jeffrey Stout has it, following James' "Will-to-Believe," "We need not agree on all matters of moral importance to agree on many, and where our judgments happen to coincide we need not reach them for the same reasons." (Fackre, 2003)
Fackre states that there are five pluralist views as follows:
View 1: Common Core. At the center of all the great religions of humankind is found a common core of divine (however conceived) doing, disclosing and delivering. Each faith approaches it through its own heroes, expresses it in its own language, celebrates it in its own rituals, formulates it in its own rules of behavior, and passes it on in its own communal forms. While the rhetoric of each religion may claim that its way, truth and life are for all, these absolutist professions are, in fact, "love talk," the metaphors of commitment, not the metaphysics of reality. Jesus is,…
Marmion, Declan (2005) Rahner and His Critics: Revisiting the Dialogue. Australian EJournal of Theology. February 2005, Issue 4. Online available at: http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/research/theology/ejournal/aejt_4/marmion.htm
Thiselton, Anthony C. (2007) the Hermenutics of Doctrine. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007.
Th, Anthony C. (2007) the Hermenutics of Doctrine. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007
No high-achieving nation tests every child, every year, in the way we're currently doing. They have much more intellectually ambitious assessments [or measuring not just memory but what students can do with knowledge].
-- Ed Finkel, 2010
As the epigraph above emphasizes, during an era when critical thinking skills have assumed new importance, young people's academic and professional careers are still being controlled by high-stakes standardized testing regimes and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for student performance. As a result, it is little wonder that there has been a growing tendency on the part of many educators to "teach to the test." Indeed, and as also underscored by the epigraph above, the classroom testing process itself can be viewed as being counterproductive to the extent that it detracts from long-term learning and the development of the critical thinking skills young people need today to be competitive in the workplace.…
United Federation of Teachers (UFT) is the union that represents teachers in the New York City public schools, which is the largest public school system in the United States. The public school system in New York City serves 1.1 million students in more than 1,800 schools; the system pays 75,000 teachers and operates with a budget of about $24 billion[footnoteRef:1] (NYC Department of Education). The task of running 1,800 schools in a city with five boroughs and approximately 8.337 million residents is enormous, and while the UFT works hard to serve the teachers so they may do the most productive and effective job educating the children, the union is frequently involved in contentious interactions with the City's school officials. This paper covers the activities of the union, the ongoing issues between the City's bureaucracy and the union, the successes and challenges that impact the union, and the problem of anti-unionism…
Anderson, Noel. "Hostile Takeover: Antiunionism and the Neoliberal Politics of Urban
School Reform in New York." Working USA: The Journal of Labor and Society, 1089-7011
Greenhouse, Steven. "For de Blasio, Contract Talks offer Problem." The New York Times.
Standards and Assessments
The Common Core Standard used for this project is Common Core State Standards Initiative, English Language Arts 7.7. This is in accordance with New Jersey State Standards. This standard is designed for 7th graders. The standard states "Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film)."
It is important that students remember how to identify different interpretations of a similar wording or story. It is important that students remember that there is more than one way to communicate an idea. It is important that students remember that different media presents different effects on learning and knowledge.
Explain: Explain who medium affects a story?
Interpret: How would you interpret a story from one medium to another ?
Explain: Explain who medium affects a story?
Interpret: How would you interpret a story from one medium to another ?
Application: Give a few examples of books being turned into movies.
Perspective: How do you feel about a good book being turned into a bad movie?
Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.
Learning Theory and Its Importance
A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from http://moodle2.cs.huji.ac.il/nu14/pluginfile.php/179670/mod_resource/content/1/Bandura_2001.pdf
Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1506936575?accountid=12085
Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203654515?accountid=12085
Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205061045?accountid=12085
This letter is in response to your question: Why are students in elementary school learning geometry when they do not yet know the basic facts and should be spending their time working on them instead?
There are two parts to the answer. The first is concerned with the learning of math facts. It is an ongoing process for students in the elementary grades. It begins with the development of number sense, which is a child's facility and flexibility in using and manipulating numbers (Chard, Baker, Clarke, Jungjohann, Davis, and Smolkowski, 2008, p. 12). Some students develop number sense in preschool or informally in familial settings before kindergarten; other children do not begin to develop number sense until their formal schooling begins, whether because of opportunity or because of developmental readiness. Developing number sense takes time. It does not happen quickly and it does not happen because…
Chard, D.J., Baker, S.K., Clarke, B., Jungjohann, K., Davis, K., and Smolkowski, K. (2008).
Preventing early mathematics difficulties: The feasibility of a rigorous kindergarten mathematics curriculum. Learning Disability Quarterly 31(1), pp. 11-20.
Common core standards adoption by state. (2012). ASCD. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/common-core-state-standards/common-core-state-standards - adoption-map.aspx
Cooke, B.D., and Buccholz, D. (2005). Mathematical communication in the classroom: A teacher makes a difference. Early Childhood Education Journal 32(6), pp. 365-369).
Decisions by School Superintendents
Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct of Teachers
To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society - President Theodore oosevelt.
That teaching is at one and the same time an intellectual as well as a moral endeavor, is an idea that is well entrenched in the minds of men since centuries past. The sayings of great teachers of ancient times bear ample testimony to this premise, which continues to hold sway across nations and vastly differing civilizations over the years.
In the sense that it takes care of the general well being of young students entrusted to the care of an educational institution and ensures that they are treated fairly and accorded the respect they are due as persons, teaching is most certainly a moral activity. It is concerned with building and maintaining relationships of trust with pupils…
Anderson, D.S., & Biddle, B.J. (Eds.) (1991). Knowledge for Policy: Improving Education through Research. New York: The Falmer Press.
Ave, M. (2002, April 24). Jesuit High teacher fired amid misconduct claim. Retrieved December 19, 2002 at http://www.sptimes.com/2002/04/24/TampaBay/Jesuit_High_teacher_f.shtml .
Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Benson, P. (1997). All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
What Sony needs to do is concentrate on creating a mobile Web-enabled series of devices, supporting services, and segmented digital content in both music-based and video content. In short, Sony needs to create an economic ecosystem that rivals the Apple ecosystem as shown in Figure 2, Apple Digital Content Ecosystem:
Figure 2: Apple Digital Content Ecosystem
Source: (Apple Investor elations, 2009)
The most critical objective for the three-year planning horizon for Sony is to emulate the model shown in Figure 2 and apply entirely new series of metrics to how they evaluate integration and cross-model compatibility of their entire product line. The strategic objective for the coming three years has to be centered on creating a scalable ecosystem that can deliver a continual stream of revenues through the licensing of digital music and video content in addition to the introduction of entirely new devices into this ecosystem that have not…
Apple, Investor Relations (2009). Investor Relations. Retrieved May 21, 2009, from Apple Investor Relations and Filings with the SEC Web site: http://www.apple.com/investor/
Kemal Altinkemer, Wendi Shen. (2008). A Multigeneration Diffusion Model for it-Intensive Game Consoles*. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 9(8), 442-461.
Steven Cherry. (2008). Blu-ray's Empty Victory. IEEE Spectrum, 45(3), 16. ).
Lee G. Cooper. (2000). Strategic marketing planning for radically new products. Journal of Marketing, 64(1), 1-16.
State Standards for Florida
Have the state identified the most important knowledge and skills that they expect a student to demonstrate from K. To 12?
The state of Florida has identified crucial and important knowledge and skills it expects students to demonstrate. This level of knowledge and skill requires demonstration from kindergarten to the grade 12 in the educational system. The main aim of the state standards for Florida is to prepare the children for future job expectations and career development. Since the standards draws from extensive consultation among teachers, school administrators, and experts within the state, they are important. The standards follow the college and work expectation demands. The standards are precise, consistent, and direct in their interpretation. The standards also follow the requirements of the state standards. The state standards for Florida borrow important information or lesson from the state standards hence they represent important…
NGACBP. (2010). Common Core State Standards. National Governors Association for Best Practices, Washington D.C.
New Mexico Common Core State Standards (2010). Retrieved from http://newmexicocommoncore.org/students/
David Snow et al. (2005). The Influence of Standards on K-12 Teaching and Student Learning: A Research Synthesis.
The Pennsylvania Department of Education. Retrieved from, http://www.education.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/pennsylvania_department_of_education/7237
Teaching is one of the most important, although also the most underrated, professions in the world. Teachers today prepare young people not only for their next level of schooling, but also for tertiary education and ultimately to become gainfully employed and contributing citizens themselves. The problem is that there are so many varying levels of education today, ranging from the extremely poor to the extremely excellent. One factor that plays a major role in how well teachers are able to present materials in the classroom is the education they receive themselves. Although the quality of teacher education depends on several factors, one major argument revolves around whether they should be exposed to unproven theory or not. On the one hand, the argument may be that exposing them to unproven theory may only detract from the central purpose of their education, which is to provide them with the tools…
Chye, T.E. (2008, Jul.) Learning to Teach, Teaching to Learn: A handbook for NUS teachers. Retrieved from: http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/handbook/home/foreword.htm
The Critical Thinking Community (2013). The Role of Questions in Teaching, Thinking and Learning. Retrieved from: http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/the-role-of-questions-in-teaching-thinking-and-learning/524
National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) (2007, Jul.) Quality Indicators for Teacher Education. Retrieved from: http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/PUB_QITE.pdf
Porter-Magee, K. (2013, Feb. 8). Common Core v. The false promise of leveled literacy programs. Common Core Watch. Retrieved from: http://edexcellence.net/commentary/education-gadfly-daily/common-core-watch/2013/common-core-v-the-false-promise-of-leveled-literacy-programs.html
As the world becomes more populous, busy, and interconnected, the need for good leadership will grow. Furthermore, this leadership will be needed in a number of different social and cultural contexts. (Gibson & McDaniel, 2010, 451-452). Fortunately, we are undergoing a renaissance in the study of leadership and our notions of leadership are becoming more diverse and, at the same time, more fundamental.
Leaders are produced by their environment, which includes their personality, their experiences, and their organizations. Leaders tend to grow out of organizations in which they embody the core values and ambitions shared by the organization.
The Traditional Models of Leadership
The traditional view of a leader is someone who is dominant, competitive, and authoritarian. (Medina, et. al., 2008, p.249). Although most leaders do exhibit these qualities, that does not mean that a leader must have such qualities. The reason these types of leaders are prevalent is…
Bell, A.H., & Smith, D.M. (2010). Developing leadership abilities. Boston: Pearson.
Cheung, M.F.Y., & Wong, C.-S. (September 28, 2011). Transformational leadership, leader support, and employee creativity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32, 7, 656-672
Medina, F., Munduate, L., & Guerra, J. (January 01, 2008). Power and conflict in cooperative and competitive contexts. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17, 3, 349-362.
Gibson, C., & McDaniel, D. (January 01, 2010). Moving Beyond Conventional Wisdom: Advancements in Cross-Cultural Theories of Leadership, Conflict, and Teams.Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 4, 450-462.
School Counseling in a Multicultural Society: An Overview
More and more diversity is becoming the buzzword in society at large and within educational facilities across the nation. As the population in the United States continues to become increasingly diversified and representative of individuals from varying ethnic, socioeconomic and racial backgrounds, educators are realizing an increased need for attention to the specific needs of diverse student populations.
The need for multicultural competencies development among school counseling professionals has recently been acknowledged by the American Psychological Association (1992) and the American Counseling Association (1995) whose ethnical standards dictate that school counselors should achieve a certain level of multicultural competence prior to embarking on a professional career in student counseling.
Despite the acknowledgment of a need for increased awareness and training to ensure a positive student/counselor relationship, there is little evidence that much is being done in the way of establishing a core…
American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice [Brochure]. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611
Arredondo, P., Cheatham, H., Mio, J.S., Sue, D. & Trimble, J.E. (1999). Key words in multicultural interventions: A dictionary. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Atkinson, D.R., Morten, G., & Sue, D.W. (1998). Counseling American minorities: A
shared vision allows for the fulfillment of common goals. Therefore, the first step in creating and maintaining a successful charter school will be to plan the vision with a common goals meeting and invite all stakeholders to the meeting in accordance with best practices ("Shared Vision and Common Goals," n.d.). The ELCC standard 1.1 clearly calls all educational leaders to "develop, articulate, implement, and steward a shared district vision of learning," (ELCC, 2011). This vision of learning is not limited to the confines of any one school or restricted to its building, its educators, and its students. ather, a comprehensive vision is one that takes into account the entire community. Other schools in the community may play a role in the evolution of our school's vision. Community stakeholders including parents and curriculum leaders need to attend the meeting to provide their input and feedback.
It should not be assumed that…
Beckner, W. (2004). Ethics for educational leaders. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Begley, P. T. & Johansson, O. (2003). The ethical dimensions of school leadership. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers
ELCC (2011). Education Leadership Program Standards. Retrieved online: http://www.ncate.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=tFmaPVlwMMo%3D&tabid=676
Firestone, W. A., & Martinez, C. (2009). Districts, teacher leaders, and distributed leadership: Changing instructional practice. In K. Leithwood, B. Mascall, & T. Strauss (Eds.). Distributed leadership according to the evidence (pp. 61-86). New York: Routledge.
Gottfredson, D.C. (n.d.). School-based crime prevention. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/works/chapter5.htm
Learning Objectives and Rigor
The common core learning standards in grade 8 English for the mentioned lesson were set as the determination of a theme or central idea of the text and analysis of its development over the text course. It also included its relationship to the characters, setting and plot; determination of the meaning of words and phrases as the area used in the text, in addition to figurative and connotative meanings along with the analysis of the specific words' impact on meaning and tone. Effective engagement in a range of collaborative discussions with diverse partners on grade 8 topics and texts so that building on ideas and creating expressions become easy for the students was another common core learning standard addressed. As the lesson objectives indicate that word choice in the poetry is essential to express what the poet is feeling about, the word meanings and their usage…
No Child Left Behind and Common Core, a set of required standards does not improve but rather limits education for ALL students in state schools (Kober, entner, 2011). The assumption inherent in the system of standardized education is that a one-size-fits-all method of education in which every student is expected to be at the same level. This type of assumption does not reflect the actuality of the situation (Haycock, 2012). Some learners are special education, some have learning disabilities that go undiagnosed, some are English language learners, and some are gifted. Standards can be implemented to improve the quality of education for all students in all levels and types of classrooms -- but they should be more accommodating and reflective of the diverse range of students represented in the classroom. In other words, standards should be available for every type of student and not just in a one-size-fits-all model.
Haycock, K. (2012). Implementation of Common Core State Standards: Roles for advocates. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Kober, N., & Rentner, D. (2011). States' progress and challenges in implementing
Common Core State Standards. Center on Education Policy. Retrieved from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:GOrM4hD4s_AJ:files.e ric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED514598.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
Part 1: Understanding by Design - Stage 1
What content standards and program or mission-related goals will this unit address?
The mission related-goal to be addressed in this unit is to enhance students’ ability to make sense of problems and work towards solving them. In this regard, the relevant ISTE Standard to be addressed in this unit is Standard 1: Creativity and Innovation. Additionally, the unit will address Pennsylvania’s Common Core State Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2 for Mathematics.
What standards, competencies, and outcomes will this unit address?
Based on PA’s Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2, the competency to be addressed in this unit is the use of understanding of fractions to partition shapes into halves, quarters, and thirds (Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014). Students are expected to be creative and innovative in partitioning shapes in different sizes based on insights they have obtained from fractions. Through this process, the unit is expected to…
Interestingly, this creation of "standards" began as a state effort, with each state creating its own standards for education, according to what was considered important for schools by citizens in each specific state. Challenges regarding consistency were therefore part and parcel of the standards issue to begin with. Later, a movement was established to create more common standards.
The historical ideal behind content standards is that they draw on relevant studies to determine and support the progressive development of conceptual understanding. In reality, however, there is only limited evidence to support the usefulness or even the need for standards.
Mathis (2010), for example, directly states that there is little evidence to support the notion that national academic standards in any way improve the quality of students produced by schools that follow these standards. According to the author, the focus on standards serve only to detract from other vital reforms faced…
Committee on Standards for K-12 Engineering Education (2010). Standards for K-12 Engineering Education? The National Academic Press.
Jones, J. (n.d.). The Standards Movement -- Past and Present. Retrieved from: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/stndmvt.html
Mathis, W.J. (2010, Jul. 21). "Common Core" School Standards Roll On Without Supporting Evidence. National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from: http://nepc.colorado.edu/newsletter/2010/07/common-core-school-standards-roll-without-supporting-evidence
movie Stand and Deliver (Menendez & Musca, 1988), which is based on the true story of Jamie Escalante, an individual who overcame ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic issues to become a highly successful mathematics teacher. Discuss the beliefs he held and the strategies he employed in his classroom that contributed to high achievement levels in his students.
The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) presents a three-pronged argument for an effective math curricula: 1) It must foster the successful mathematical performance of students in algebra and beyond; 2) it must be taught by experienced teachers of mathematics who instructional strategies that are research-based; and, 3) the instruction of the math curriculum must accomplish the "mutually reinforcing benefits of conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and automatic recall of facts" (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008, p. xiv). Jamie Escalante began teaching before this report was released, but he knew from experience…
____. (2004, April 13). "Hero'" Teacher Escalante Addresses Students At Wittenberg Commencement May 9. Wittenberg University. Retrieved http://www4.wittenberg.edu/news/1998/commspeaker.shtml
____. (2008). National Mathematics Advisory Panel, Foundations for Success. The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. Retrieved http://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/final-report.pdf
Barley, Z., Lauer, P.A., Arens, S.A., Apthorp, H.S., Englert, K.S., Snow, D., & Akiba, M. (2002). Helping at-risk students meet standards: A synthesis of evidence-based classroom practices. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning [Web]. Retrieved http://www.mcrel.org/PDF/Synthesis/5022RR_RSHelpingAtRisk.pdf
Berkas, N., & Pattison, C. (2007, November). Manipulatives: More than a special education intervention. NCTM News Bulletin. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [Web] Retreived http://www.nctm.org/news/release_list.aspx?id=12698
Characteristics did Jenny have as a child that are common in individuals who develop hoarding disorder?
Hoarding usually involves having difficulty getting rid of items and also issues on the maintenance of control over belongings. This behavior affects school and social functioning and appeared to Jenny when she was aged eight (Sorensen, 2011). Jenny also experienced problems at school as the teacher often sent notes stating that her desk is messy and she appeared to be absent minded in class. By the time she was in second grade, she had started being left behind in some subjects.
Literature points out that hoarding has been higher among children having ADHD than in children who are relatively healthy (Sorensen, 2011). In the case of Jenny, she was diagnosed with ADHD by a neuropsychologist. Dr. Davis said that she had neurodevelopment disorder that ensured it was hard for her to sustain her attention…
American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Hoarding Disorder. Retrieved 26 February 2015, from
Frost, R., Tolin, D., & Maltby, N. (2010).Insight-Related Challenges in the Treatment of Hoarding. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 17(4), 404-413. doi:10.1016/j.cbpra.2009.07.004
Pogosian, L. (2010). Treatment of Compulsive Hoarding: A Case Study. The Einstein Journal of Biology and Medicine, 8-11. Retrieved from http://www.einstein.yu.edu/uploadedfiles/ejbm/page8_page11.pdf
Sorensen, R.J. (2011). Hoarding Disorder (Compulsive Hoarding): A Comprehensive Literature Review and Professional Training to Prepare Clinicians to Treat Problematic Hoarding. Retrieved from
common core state standards are a set of standards that have been adopted for K-12. States have the ability to adopt the federal CCSS. The CCSS intended to provide new expectations for each grade level.
There are a number of different instructional approaches for language. Meaning-based approaches are based on the idea that children learn about literacy mainly through activities, interaction and observation, with little need for formal education. Skills-based approaches are those rooted in five core skills that are related to literacy: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency. Students learn to read by learning skills related to these elements. The blended approach combines the two, where teachers help the students to build on the base that they acquire via the meaning-based approach.
Meaning-based and skills-based perspectives need to be interwoven to provide effective preschool and elementary school education. There are several traits of effective teachers that go along…
Christie, J., Enz, B., Vukelich, C., & Roskos, K. (2013). Teaching language and literacy: Preschool through the elementary grades, fifth edition. Pearson.
Effect that changes in Society has had on the Curriculum
The issues that are faced in the society on a daily basis dictate the learning needs that should be met by the curriculum. Educational programs, therefore, have to be reviewed consistently to access if they meet the needs, obligations, and responsibilities of child learning (Barnhardt, 2018). The objective is to equip them with the knowledge necessary for subsequent classes, careers, and skills to carry them through their life experiences. Some of the indelible changes in the society that have impacted the curriculum include the increased consciousness on the human-environment relationship, increased reliance on technology and the need for awareness of national heritage. These changes have immensely impacted the society resulting incorporation into the school curriculum.
Over the last decade, there has been an immense reliance on technology with increased ownership of computing devices such as computers, cellular devices, and the…
These exams would also tap teaching performance and other capabilities unlikely to be adequately assessed using conventional paper along with pencil instruments." (Shulman, 1986, pp. 4 -- 14)
These different elements are important, because they are providing a foundation for helping the schools to become more competitive in mathematics. As, they are working together to create a basic standard for: improving learning comprehension and provide the ability to solve more complex issues. Over the course of time, this will help to increase the student's ability to understand a wide variety of concepts. This is the point that they will be more prepared to deal with the various challenges that they are facing in the 21 century. Once this occurs, it will help them to establish a foundation for adapting to the changes that they will have to deal with from: shifts in technology and through these transformations because of globalization.…
Content Knowledge for Teaching. (2010). Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Diagnostic Mathematics Assessment. (2011). University of Louisville. Retrieved from: http://louisville.edu/education/research/centers/crmstd/diag_math_assess_middle_teachers.html
Elementary and Secondary Education. (2004). NSF. Retrieved from: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind04/c1/c1s1.htm#c1s1l3a
Frequently Asked Questions. (2011). Core Standards. Retrieved from: http://www.corestandards.org/ frequently-asked-questions
America, having the perfect schools has long been thought to be the panacea of all our nation's social troubles. If only we could teach our children to master America's social values while still in school, we could produce a population of perfect engineers for our future society. Injustice, racism, poverty, and all the other social illnesses of America would be cured by this new generation of progressive thinkers. The quality of our nation's education system needs to be improved, and President Bush's education reform plan will do just that.
It is obvious that the so-called "progressive" educational approach has failed. The academic knowledge of our children has fallen in comparison to other industrial nations. In an attempt to stem our nation's slide in educational rankings, government expenditures for education have risen dramatically. Every year, billions of taxpayer dollars are poured into the U.S. education system. The government seems to believe…
Digest of Education Statistics, 1991." National Center for Education Statistics. http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2002/digest2001/ch6.asp .
Economic & Social Data Ranking. http://web.hhs.se/personal/suzuki/o-English/UnitedStates.html.
Frase, Larry E, and William Streshly. Top Ten Myths in Education. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2000.
Hirsch, E.D. The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. New York: Doubleday, 1996
Political gridlock in the United States is nothing new, but it can be helpful to review the current state of affairs under a new theoretical rubric: that of moral foundations theory. Moral foundations theory focuses on the moral underpinnings of political values, political philosophies, and political behaviors (ie. voting, and/or lawmaking). The gulf between liberals and conservatives in the United States may be insurmountable, but it would be helpful to gain understanding of the underpinnings of the core arguments in order to create a more effective and responsive system of government. As Graham, Haidt & Nosek (2009) point out, liberals and conservatives clash because they do not share the same vision for America. Yet diversity is inevitable, and even desirable in America. Therefore, to resolve political and cultural gridlock and promote shared values and ideals, it is imperative to discover and capitalize on the points of convergence in divergent…
Graham, J., Haidt, J. & Nosek, B.A. (2009). Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96(5): 1029-1046
Rozin, R., et al. (1999). The CAD triad hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76(4): 547-586.