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Common Core Standard Essays (Examples)

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How New York State Presents Its Core Standards for Mathematics
Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77644030
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hat are the differences between the Common Core Standards for grade eight and the New York State standards of mathematics?

Common Core Standards

For one thing, the Common Core Standards offer narrative (rather than bullet points) and go into more specific and in depth instructions through narrative. The Common Core Standards expressly mentions three critical areas out in front: a) formulating and reasoning about "expressions and equations," which includes "modeling an association in bivariate data with a linear equation" -- and that includes being able to solve "linear equations and systems of linear equations"; b) students are asked to "grasp the concept of a function" and to use functions in order to understand "quantitative relationships"; and c) students must be able to apply the Pythagorean Theorem when it comes to being able to analyze two and three dimensional space and figures using "distance, angle, similarity, and congruence" ( These…

Works Cited

Common Core Standards. "Grade 8 -- Introduction / Common Core State Standards Initiative."

Retrieved July 31 from /Math/Content/8/introduction. 2011.

IXL -- New York Eighth-Grade Math Standards. "New York: Skills available for New York

Eighth-Grade Math Standards." Retrieved July 31, 2014 from .

Working with Common Core
Words: 1274 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28943321
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Deconstruction of a Standard
The purpose of this deconstruction of a standard exercise was to unpack a standard, examine it critically and identify the key words to help determine the level of cognitive demand (based on Bloom’s Taxonomy). A review of the standard as a whole was conducted to identify the type of achievement target. The standard selected was the 9th Grade Mathematics Common Core Standard CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.IC.A.1. The achievement target for the standard was understanding (comprehension) and therefore the lesson targets focused on weighting the different cognitive demands according to the place in the process of understanding at which they occurred. This paper provides a Deconstructing a Standard Table and a Reflection of the process overall—including my reaction to the process, identification of specific professional development that may be needed in my building, and my role as a leader.
Keywords: common core standards, math standards, understanding 9th grade math…

Standards Academic Standards in Education
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96069082
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Interestingly, this creation of "standards" began as a state effort, with each state creating its own standards for education, according to what was considered important for schools by citizens in each specific state. Challenges regarding consistency were therefore part and parcel of the standards issue to begin with. Later, a movement was established to create more common standards.

The historical ideal behind content standards is that they draw on relevant studies to determine and support the progressive development of conceptual understanding. In reality, however, there is only limited evidence to support the usefulness or even the need for standards.

Mathis (2010), for example, directly states that there is little evidence to support the notion that national academic standards in any way improve the quality of students produced by schools that follow these standards. According to the author, the focus on standards serve only to detract from other vital reforms faced…


Committee on Standards for K-12 Engineering Education (2010). Standards for K-12 Engineering Education? The National Academic Press.

Jones, J. (n.d.). The Standards Movement -- Past and Present. Retrieved from:

Mathis, W.J. (2010, Jul. 21). "Common Core" School Standards Roll On Without Supporting Evidence. National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from:

National and State Subject Matter Content Standards
Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21146694
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National and State Subject Matter Content Standards for Math

According to the California standards for high school students, the geometry curriculum contains six critical components: "to establish criteria for congruence of triangles based on rigid motions; establish criteria for similarity of triangles based on dilations and proportional reasoning; informally develop explanations of circumference, area, and volume formulas; apply the Pythagorean Theorem to the coordinate plan; prove basic geometric theorems; and extend work with probability" (Common Core Standards, California Department of Education: 69). The elucidated standards are often quite specific in terms of how students are asked to apply basic concepts such as measuring angles; understanding the different properties of parallel lines; and manipulating various polygons. Not only must the students prove theorems but they must also be able to construct such shapes using a variety of methods in a hands-on fashion (Common Core Standards, 2013, California Department of Education: 70).…

Works Cited

Common Core Standards. California Department of Education. [21 Oct 2013] 

Common Core Standards. Official Website. [21 Oct 2013] /Math/Content/HSG/introduction

State Standards
Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32025215
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States Standards

State Standards for Florida

Have the state identified the most important knowledge and skills that they expect a student to demonstrate from K. To 12?

The state of Florida has identified crucial and important knowledge and skills it expects students to demonstrate. This level of knowledge and skill requires demonstration from kindergarten to the grade 12 in the educational system. The main aim of the state standards for Florida is to prepare the children for future job expectations and career development. Since the standards draws from extensive consultation among teachers, school administrators, and experts within the state, they are important. The standards follow the college and work expectation demands. The standards are precise, consistent, and direct in their interpretation. The standards also follow the requirements of the state standards. The state standards for Florida borrow important information or lesson from the state standards hence they represent important…


NGACBP. (2010). Common Core State Standards. National Governors Association for Best Practices, Washington D.C.

New Mexico Common Core State Standards (2010). Retrieved from 

David Snow et al. (2005). The Influence of Standards on K-12 Teaching and Student Learning: A Research Synthesis.

The Pennsylvania Department of Education. Retrieved from,

Teaching Rubrics
Words: 903 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86244850
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Standards and Assessments

The Common Core Standard used for this project is Common Core State Standards Initiative, English Language Arts 7.7. This is in accordance with New Jersey State Standards. This standard is designed for 7th graders. The standard states "Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film)."

It is important that students remember how to identify different interpretations of a similar wording or story. It is important that students remember that there is more than one way to communicate an idea. It is important that students remember that different media presents different effects on learning and knowledge.

Explain: Explain who medium affects a story?

Interpret: How would you interpret a story from one medium to another ?

Application: Give…


Explain: Explain who medium affects a story?

Interpret: How would you interpret a story from one medium to another ?

Application: Give a few examples of books being turned into movies.

Perspective: How do you feel about a good book being turned into a bad movie?

Standards of Cultural Competent Care Emerging Standards
Words: 2144 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52199356
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Standards of Cultural Competent Care

Emerging Standards of Cultural Competent

This research paper is established to explore upon the emerging trends of culturally competent care in general organizational settings. However, the scope of this care will be narrowed down specifically to health care organization I am working with. All the bits and bytes allied with the phenomenon of cultural competent care have been included in this paper, including the overview of what this trend is all about, what are the standards being followed in this particular domain and how those standards are applicable within my workplace premises. All in all, this paper will serve as a primer for the culturally competent care that is required to be promoted within different workplace environments.

An Overview of Culturally Competent Care

As a matter of fact, United States has appeared to be one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world. esearchers…


Callister, L.C. (2005). What has the literature taught us about culturally competent care of women and children? MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 30(6), 380-388.

Giddings, L.S. (2005). A theoretical model of social consciousness. Advances in Nursing

Science, 28(3), 224-239.

International Council of Nurses (1998). Nurses and Human Rights. Retrieved September 2, 2012, from .

Core Components of the NIMS
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15811957
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Homeland Security

Two years prior to the devastating and tragic landfall of Hurricane Katrina on the Gulf Coast, President George W. Bush

Issued Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD-5) directing the Secretary of Homeland

Security to: create a comprehensive National Incident Management System (NIMS) to provide a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, and local governments to work effectively together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity (George W. Bush White N.D.P.1).

Later adopted in 2004, the NIMS provided a dedicated strategic initiative to prevent the very chaos and confusion which erupted out of Katrina's fury. Yet, the system proved desultory, unwieldy, and ineffective in its response to the disaster; the vivid portraits of New Orleans citizens trapped in the Superdome "amid a frightening scene of filth, violence and despair" ( September 3, 2005). Since 2005, efforts have focused on ensuring that…

Analysis of Inclusion in Special Education Curriculum
Words: 2205 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45085666
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inclusion" is not part of the law; instead, it states that each student must be educated in the least restrictive educational environment (LRE). Analyze all sides of "inclusion," (1. full inclusion; 2. inclusion in special classes like physical education, art, or lunch; and 3. inclusion in all classes except for reading or math).


The term 'inclusion' means complete acceptance of every student which leads towards sense of acceptance and belonging in the classroom. Over the years, there has not been any fixed definition of inclusion, but different groups and organizations have provided their own definitions. The most basic definition of 'inclusion' states that every student with special needs are supported in 'chronologically age appropriate general education classes' in schools and get the instructions specialized for them by the Individual Education Programs (IEPs) within the general activities of the class and the main curriculum. The idea of 'inclusion' is to…


Cologon, K. (2013). Inclusion in Education. Children with Disabiliity Australia.

Constable, S., Grossi, B., Moniz, A., & Ryan, L. (2013). Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students With Autism. Council for Exceptional Children.

Evers, T. (2011). Common Core State Standards for Literacy in all subjects. Madison: Wisconsin Department of Public Intrusion.

FDDC. (2012). What is Inclusion? Florida: Florida State Univeristy Center for Prevention and Early Intervention Policy.

Educational Development Choices by Teachers
Words: 722 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 85517564
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Professional Learning and Development -- the Teacher's Perspective

The recent debate over standards-based education has tended to focus upon student performance in regards to standardized testing and the rise of common core standards. However, an equally critical component of the question of improving our nation's schools is the training and education of teachers. eceiving a degree in education is only the beginning of the teacher's development as an educator. This proposed research project will examine teacher perceptions of professional development exercises and how they believe it has influenced their efficacy in the classroom and student performance.

According to the 2013 report issued by the Center for Public Education entitled Teaching the teachers, "recent education reforms have urged teachers to foster collaboration, debate and reflection amongst students, in order to develop cognitive processes like those called for in the new standards. Ironically, districts rarely apply these same learning techniques to developing…


Baxter, P. & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13 (4): 544-559. Retrieved from: 

Gulamhussein, A. (2013). Teaching the teachers. Center for Public Education. Retrieved from:

Educational Challenges Spelled Out in Specifics
Words: 3347 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37702565
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diversity of learning styles and needs represented in a typical 21st century classroom. As the United States continues to see an increase in multi-ethnic, multinational populations, the children of immigrants that bring diverse cultures and ethnicities to American shores are represented in the classroom. This presents a serious challenge for the educator, since the diversity of students reflect a wide range of competencies, skills and levels of intellectual comprehension. Within the context of that diversity the instructor must embrace a pivotal 21st century learning challenge -- meeting the learning needs of students who may fall behind without one-on-one instruction and the learning needs of more advanced students seeking to surge ahead while many students in the classroom may be struggling simply to stay up with the assignments.

In order for students to reach their optimum level of academic achievement, the system must change and the philosophy of instruction must change…


Ashford University (2014). Assessment in the 21st century. Retrieved November 30,

2014, from .

Framework for 21st Century Revision. Creativity and Innovation.

Leston-Banderia, C. (2013). Methods Teaching through a Discipline Research-Oriented

Effect that changes in Society has had on the Curriculum
Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 76196216
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Effect that changes in Society has had on the Curriculum
The issues that are faced in the society on a daily basis dictate the learning needs that should be met by the curriculum. Educational programs, therefore, have to be reviewed consistently to access if they meet the needs, obligations, and responsibilities of child learning (Barnhardt, 2018). The objective is to equip them with the knowledge necessary for subsequent classes, careers, and skills to carry them through their life experiences. Some of the indelible changes in the society that have impacted the curriculum include the increased consciousness on the human-environment relationship, increased reliance on technology and the need for awareness of national heritage. These changes have immensely impacted the society resulting incorporation into the school curriculum.

Over the last decade, there has been an immense reliance on technology with increased ownership of computing devices such as computers, cellular devices, and the…

Udl W Recommendations Deriving
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4928436
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Depending on his mood, Amos can be either uncooperative or silly.

Amos is given the opportunity to participate with his class. If he refuses to participate, or if he becomes silly, he will be removed from the circle. Amos and the classroom aide might use the "study buddy," a large cardboard box that was once used to ship a refrigerator.

If Amos has spent too much time at the circle area, he becomes restless and it is even more difficult than normal for him to pay attention. He may be silly, but then get angry when the teacher or paraprofessional tries to redirect him. He might try to hit or kick, or sometimes he just goes limp in his chair or on the floor. It often helps if Amos can take a few minutes away from the group and eat a few pretzel sticks. The salty taste and the crunch…


K-12 California's Common Core Content Standards for Mathematics. (2010). Retrieved



Recommendation #1

Does Testing Overlook the Importance of Long Term Learning
Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77396757
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No high-achieving nation tests every child, every year, in the way we're currently doing. They have much more intellectually ambitious assessments [or measuring not just memory but what students can do with knowledge].

-- Ed Finkel, 2010

As the epigraph above emphasizes, during an era when critical thinking skills have assumed new importance, young people's academic and professional careers are still being controlled by high-stakes standardized testing regimes and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for student performance. As a result, it is little wonder that there has been a growing tendency on the part of many educators to "teach to the test." Indeed, and as also underscored by the epigraph above, the classroom testing process itself can be viewed as being counterproductive to the extent that it detracts from long-term learning and the development of the critical thinking skills young people need today to be competitive in the workplace.…

Cooperative Learning Iterations Across Reforms
Words: 1949 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38328456
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Learning Environments

Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.

Learning Theory and Its Importance

A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…


Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from 

Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from 

Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from 

Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from

Basic Facts
Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89389896
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Teach Geometry

Dear Parent,

This letter is in response to your question: Why are students in elementary school learning geometry when they do not yet know the basic facts and should be spending their time working on them instead?

There are two parts to the answer. The first is concerned with the learning of math facts. It is an ongoing process for students in the elementary grades. It begins with the development of number sense, which is a child's facility and flexibility in using and manipulating numbers (Chard, Baker, Clarke, Jungjohann, Davis, and Smolkowski, 2008, p. 12). Some students develop number sense in preschool or informally in familial settings before kindergarten; other children do not begin to develop number sense until their formal schooling begins, whether because of opportunity or because of developmental readiness. Developing number sense takes time. It does not happen quickly and it does not happen because…


Chard, D.J., Baker, S.K., Clarke, B., Jungjohann, K., Davis, K., and Smolkowski, K. (2008).

Preventing early mathematics difficulties: The feasibility of a rigorous kindergarten mathematics curriculum. Learning Disability Quarterly 31(1), pp. 11-20.

Common core standards adoption by state. (2012). ASCD. Retrieved from - adoption-map.aspx

Cooke, B.D., and Buccholz, D. (2005). Mathematical communication in the classroom: A teacher makes a difference. Early Childhood Education Journal 32(6), pp. 365-369).

United Federation of Teachers Uft Is the
Words: 2376 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41774826
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United Federation of Teachers (UFT) is the union that represents teachers in the New York City public schools, which is the largest public school system in the United States. The public school system in New York City serves 1.1 million students in more than 1,800 schools; the system pays 75,000 teachers and operates with a budget of about $24 billion[footnoteRef:1] (NYC Department of Education). The task of running 1,800 schools in a city with five boroughs and approximately 8.337 million residents is enormous, and while the UFT works hard to serve the teachers so they may do the most productive and effective job educating the children, the union is frequently involved in contentious interactions with the City's school officials. This paper covers the activities of the union, the ongoing issues between the City's bureaucracy and the union, the successes and challenges that impact the union, and the problem of anti-unionism…

Works Cited

Anderson, Noel. "Hostile Takeover: Antiunionism and the Neoliberal Politics of Urban

School Reform in New York." Working USA: The Journal of Labor and Society, 1089-7011

(9), 225-243.

Greenhouse, Steven. "For de Blasio, Contract Talks offer Problem." The New York Times.

Questions About Education and Leadership
Words: 2948 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 87840998
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shared vision allows for the fulfillment of common goals. Therefore, the first step in creating and maintaining a successful charter school will be to plan the vision with a common goals meeting and invite all stakeholders to the meeting in accordance with best practices ("Shared Vision and Common Goals," n.d.). The ELCC standard 1.1 clearly calls all educational leaders to "develop, articulate, implement, and steward a shared district vision of learning," (ELCC, 2011). This vision of learning is not limited to the confines of any one school or restricted to its building, its educators, and its students. ather, a comprehensive vision is one that takes into account the entire community. Other schools in the community may play a role in the evolution of our school's vision. Community stakeholders including parents and curriculum leaders need to attend the meeting to provide their input and feedback.

It should not be assumed that…


Beckner, W. (2004). Ethics for educational leaders. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Begley, P. T. & Johansson, O. (2003). The ethical dimensions of school leadership. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers

ELCC (2011). Education Leadership Program Standards. Retrieved online: 

Firestone, W. A., & Martinez, C. (2009). Districts, teacher leaders, and distributed leadership: Changing instructional practice. In K. Leithwood, B. Mascall, & T. Strauss (Eds.). Distributed leadership according to the evidence (pp. 61-86). New York: Routledge.

Gottfredson, D.C. (n.d.). School-based crime prevention. Retrieved online:

Understanding by Design Instructional Planning Framework
Words: 1005 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72183632
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Part 1: Understanding by Design - Stage 1

Established Goals:

What content standards and program or mission-related goals will this unit address?

The mission related-goal to be addressed in this unit is to enhance students’ ability to make sense of problems and work towards solving them. In this regard, the relevant ISTE Standard to be addressed in this unit is Standard 1: Creativity and Innovation. Additionally, the unit will address Pennsylvania’s Common Core State Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2 for Mathematics.
What standards, competencies, and outcomes will this unit address?

Based on PA’s Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2, the competency to be addressed in this unit is the use of understanding of fractions to partition shapes into halves, quarters, and thirds (Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014). Students are expected to be creative and innovative in partitioning shapes in different sizes based on insights they have obtained from fractions. Through this process, the unit is expected to…

Epistemology Teaching Pedagogy and Learning
Words: 1542 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51672220
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lessons observed varied depending on the school. In high school, the aims were to learn about the history of art, whereas in younger grades such as elementary and early middle school years, the aim was explorative creativity and self-expression.

Common Core Standards addressed: The National Core Art Standards (2015) were addressed including "generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work," "organize and develop artistic ideas and work," and "refine and complete artistic work."

The instructional strategies used included dialogue, coaching in the use of art supplies and materials in the younger grades, and engaging in discussions about art among the high school students.

The methods of assignments used included creative expression in elementary art classes, as well as written and oral presentations.

Teachers engaged students and fostered critical thinking via asking questions and allowing students to respond.

An educational theory that was put into practice is Gardner's (2011) theory of multiple…


Friere, P. (2005). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Online:

Hall, C.S., Lindzey, G. & Campbell, J.B. (1998). Theories of Personality. 4th Edition. Hamilton.

Gardner, H. (2011). Frames of Mind. New York: Basic.

Goldstein, D. (2014). The Teacher Wars. New York: Doubleday.

Early Childhood Reading Education
Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36866626
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common core state standards are a set of standards that have been adopted for K-12. States have the ability to adopt the federal CCSS. The CCSS intended to provide new expectations for each grade level.

There are a number of different instructional approaches for language. Meaning-based approaches are based on the idea that children learn about literacy mainly through activities, interaction and observation, with little need for formal education. Skills-based approaches are those rooted in five core skills that are related to literacy: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency. Students learn to read by learning skills related to these elements. The blended approach combines the two, where teachers help the students to build on the base that they acquire via the meaning-based approach.

Meaning-based and skills-based perspectives need to be interwoven to provide effective preschool and elementary school education. There are several traits of effective teachers that go along…


Christie, J., Enz, B., Vukelich, C., & Roskos, K. (2013). Teaching language and literacy: Preschool through the elementary grades, fifth edition. Pearson.

Teaching the Harlem Renaissance
Words: 926 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86096959
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Harlem Renaissance

How does literature contribute to history, and what does the Harlem Renaissance reveal about U.S. History?

Modern U.S. History

Content Learning Objective (content and product):

e.g., students will be able to [content analysis] by [product and activity].

What historical content will students know at the end of the lesson?

At the end of the lesson students will know the literary significance of the Harlem Renaissance within a historical context. Specifically, they will understand how the literary aspirations realized through the Harlem Renaissance contributed to United States history in terms of literature and the fine arts.

State using Formal Objective format.

Historical Thinking Learning Objective (thinking skill and product):

e.g., students will be able to weigh [historical thinking learning objective] by [activity].

Describe what students will know and be able to do at the end of the lesson related to your chosen historical thinking skill.

The students will be…

CEC Website Review
Words: 1722 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62795843
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CEC Website Review

Founded in 1922, Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) is an organization which works for the education of children with special needs. The professionals at CEC consist of a team of individuals who have devoted themselves to betterment of the lives of children with special gifts or disabilities. The website provides educational services and the organization itself conducts a host of webinars to for its cause. In addition to the aforementioned services, the CEC team also offers professional development and training courses to train individuals in order to ensure they are up to the tasks that lie ahead of them.

Usability Features

efore proceeding on with the main review, let's consider the usability features of the web site due to the fact that the primary audience includes people with special needs or disabilities. The main page loads at moderate speed. The interface view is suitable for mass audience,…


Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) (n.d.). Special Edition Topics.

Retrieved October 22, 2013, from Council for Exceptional Children web site: 

Chrysan (2012, May 7). How to Review A Website.

Retrieved October 22, 2013, from Hub pages web site:

analysis of organization with different lenses
Words: 1522 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 35048584
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Lens One: Structural Theories

Organizational structure refers to how work activities or tasks are divided, and how relationships are established and maintained (Corlett, n.d.). Bureaucratic organizations are structured formally and may result in a pyramidal shape with the bulk of employees at the bottom with the least amount of decision-making power (Corlett, n.d.). The bureaucratic organization can also take on the image of a machine (Morgan, 1998). Morgan (1998) adds that structural theories offer precision in the design and implementation of organizational details. For example, the work of teachers is highly formalized down to the details of lesson plans and the measurable outcomes in terms of test scores. A core goal of a mechanistic, bureaucratic organization is predictability. The machine image also demonstrates the ways an organization emphasizes speed, clarity, and efficiency. Structural theories illustrate how educators participate in chains of command, and there are legal and contractual bases of…


Barnett, M.N. & Finnemore, M. (1999). The politics, power, and pathologies of international organizations. International Organizations 53(4): 699-732.

Boyne, G.A. & Meier, K.J. (2009). Environmental turbulence, organizational stability, and public service performance. Administration and Society 40(8): 799-824.

Corlett, J. (n.d.). Systems theory applied to organizations. Retrieved online: 

Kramer, R.M. & Neale, M.A. (1998). Power and influence in organizations. Stanford Business. Retrieved online:

Use of technology in the'special education classroom
Words: 3364 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30650175
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Chapter 1: Introduction
The epigraph above is reflective of the views of many special educational needs teachers. Indeed, innovations in technology in recent decades have created a wide array of new opportunities for helping special needs student achieve their full academic potential. These trends are especially noteworthy today because tens of millions of young American learners are struggling with their academic pursuits due to their special educational needs. In this context, the term “special educational needs” can be defined as “children who have learning problems or disabilities that make it harder for them to learn than most children of the same age” (Special education needs, 2018, para. 2). The purpose of this grant proposal was to identify ways that special educational needs students can benefit from the introduction of technology in their classrooms based on the problem statement described below.
Statement of the Problem
According to the most recent estimates…

Instructional Leadership and Professional Development Plan Assessment
Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57355042
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Instructional leadership and professional development are some of the most important components towards enhancing the effectiveness of teachers with regards to learning outcomes and achievement of the required educational standards. This is primarily because instructional leadership and professional development are focused on student learning and achievement. School districts are increasingly recognizing the need to promote instructional leadership and professional development of educators in order to enhance student learning and achievement. Paterson Public School considers instructional leadership and professional development as the basic vehicles for generating the desired change in teaching practice, which in turn helps in enhancing learning outcomes and student achievement. As a result, the school utilizes several measures for conducting needs assessment in relation to instructional leadership and professional development. This paper examines the evaluation instruments utilized by Paterson Public School for needs assessment on instructional leadership and professional development.
Evaluation Instruments at Paterson Public School

Paterson Public…

A Reaction to Reading Plato S Republic
Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19212877
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Socratic dialogue allows us as readers to engage with Plato's text and the many diverse issues the philosopher raises in The Republic. Of the books contained in The Republic, the most engaging proved to be Books 5 and 7. Book 5 presents one of the earliest recorded feminist arguments, and Book 7 puts us in direct contact with one of the most famous philosophical analogies of all time: that of the cave. I was more surprised to encounter the former than the latter, but both offer rich fruit for discussion. Moreover, I completely agree with Plato's assessment of the fundamental value and function of education.

In a rare display of humor, Plato, through Socrates, points out one of the drawbacks of coeducational gymnasiums: " the most ridiculous thing of all will be the sight of women naked in the palaestra, exercising with the men, especially when they are no longer…

Critical Pedagogy and Analysis of Education
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40009786
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push towards greater inclusiveness has led to meaningful trends in American education, especially since the passing of federal legislation ranging from the Educate America Act and No Child Left Behind to the egular Education Initiative. To learn more about the ramifications of any federal legislation, parents, students, teachers, administrators, and community leaders can access the appropriate web portals to detailed information including full-text versions of the bills. Moreover, any interested parties can learn about how the federal legislation impacts educational practice, pedagogy, and curriculum in their state or district by visiting the web pages of those venues. Exploring the issues of legislation can be daunting without verbal supports, which is why some parents, students, and other stakeholders might want to attend public workshops and meetings related to education in their areas as part of the "comprehensive involvement plan" vision that coincides with Goals 2000 ("Goals 2000: Educate America Act," n.d.).…


"Goals 2000," (n.d.). Retrieved online: 

Jenkins, J.R., Pious, C.G. & Jewell, M. (1990). Special education and the regular education initiative. Except Child 56(6): 479-91.

Woods, A., Dooley, K., Luke, A. & Exley, B. (2014). School leadership, literacy, and social justice. Chapter 28

2015 Corporate Governance'section Executive'summary
Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22264015
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Curriculum: Catch a Little Fox


Good afternoon Judge Jacobs, how is everybody doing? Today, we have a case that needs to be defended. ecently, my client, Donna Mills, used a book called "Cat in the Hat" by Dr. Seuss. Today, I stand to support the book. The reason for this defense is simple. The children's book is being accused of having not developing phonemic awareness. As we know, Phonemic awareness is important since it is critical to reading and spelling accomplishment. Children who cannot decide and operate the sounds inside spoken words have trouble distinguishing and learning the vital print=sound association that is critical to quick reading and spelling achievement. Phonological awareness is essential for learning to read any alphabetic writing system. And plenty of research shows that trouble with phoneme awareness and other phonological proficiencies are a predictor of poor reading and spelling growth.…


David J. Chard, Jean Osborn. Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading Programs: Guidelines for Accessibility. 2 November 2015. . 2 November 2016.

The Current State of Education in the United States Essay
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 Although the United States spends more on education than many other countries, the nation has failed to achieve the same positive outcomes than have been accomplished elsewhere, even in countries where per student spending is far less. Because education is widely regarded as the key to personal and professional success, it is important to identify current problems and potential opportunities for improvement in the nation’s approach to educational funding and delivery. Moreover, the arcane manner in which public schools are funded in different parts of the country, indeed within each state, combined with changing expectations concerning what curricular offerings are best suited for the 21st century marketplace has called into question the fundamental purpose of American schools today. The purpose of this paper is to consider what it means to be an educated person in America and the roles our high schools do, should, can play in American society and…

Language Barrier
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Sometimes students have obstacles to contend with as they enter school. One such barrier can be language. The student I worked with is a Chinese first year student who is attempting to assimilate to AP class schedules. He is a 14-year old interested in learning the English language and is having problems not only learning the language but balancing out the needs of his identity versus the American culture. English Language Learners often must contend with several influences and deal with a new culture that may seem dauting and stressful[footnoteRef:1]. His name is Bo. [1: Larry Ferlazzo, English Language Learners: Teaching Strategies That Work (Santa Barbara, Calif: Linworth, 2010)]
Bo recently immigrated to the United States with his family two years ago. While Bo has learned conversational English and some grammar, he still has problems writing in English. The way to write simplified Chinese is different than English and so…

Nice Standards Nice Compliance Standards Review Nice
Words: 2746 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 91738974
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NICE Standards

NICE Compliance Standards eview

NICE has developed a set of guidelines and standards to help minimize the risk of VTE and ensure healthcare protocols are in place to educate patients about the risks of VTE. The purpose of this literature review is to examine a tool to access a Hospital Trust compliance with the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) published standards on Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention. The tool will have the capability to monitor, report, and disseminate relevant information.

National Institute for Clinical Excellence

The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, or NICE, is an institution whose goals including providing clinical quality guidelines and standards to help manage a nationwide database. The purpose of this database includes help improve total healthcare at multiple levels, including at the cardiovascular, vascular, mental, neurological at other levels of health (NICE, 2011). The goals of NICE include prevention of disease,…


Department of Health (DH). (2010 March). "Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Risk

Assessment." Department of Health. Retrieved July 23, 2011: Publications PolicyAndGuidance

NHS Evidence. (2011). NHS Evidence: Evidence in Health and Social Care. NHS Evidence,

Retrieved July 23, 2011:

EMV Standard Implementation in Iranian
Words: 2202 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 41434288
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The rates of reduction of these cases were noted to be about 20% per year as from 2004 when the standards were introduced (UK Payments Administration LTD 2009). The exact phenomenon observed is as indicated in Appendix A.


The mechanism involved in the protection of the card details by means of the EMV technology is discussed by various scholars and organizations. SPA (2010, 1) clearly explains that the need for authenticating data in the various EMV systems is to ensure that the cars being used is genuine. This is made possible via a system referred to as the Card Authentication Methods that is dependent on the capabilities of the chip itself.

How the EMV system protects payment cards

EMV Implementation Challenges

Extant literature has been dedicated towards the study of the various challenges that face the implementation of the EMV technology. Gareth Ellis Solution Consultants (2007,1) clearly point out…


ATM Media,(2010).Challenges to migrating to EMV.

APACS (2007) Fraud -- The Facts 2007  publications/documents/FraudtheFacts2007.pdf

Profit Organization Interest Identify the Core Functions
Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73061628
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Profit Organization Interest

Identify the core functions of each department, their strengths and weaknesses, and make recommendations for improvement, as appropriate.

In the case of Rambus (the for profit organization we are investigating) there are conflicting accounting standards between: pro forma and generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). As Rambus is focused on three different areas to include: Digital Edge Clocking, the production of DRAM and LED chips. The strengths of these different segments are: the company is major component supplier to some the major electronics / computer manufacturers and they are diversified between different areas inside semi-conductors. The weaknesses include: they are using a pro forma based accounting system, they have no effective internal controls and their business model is not protected against sudden shocks to the economy. Possible recommendations to improve these issues are: the company should reduce their overall amounts of debt, they should switch to GAAP-based standards…


Rambus 10Q. (2010). Rambus. Retrieved from: 

Rambus 10K. (2009). Rambus. Retrieved from: 

Mullins, R. (2010). Rambus Takes $200 Million Stock Option Hit. Tech World. Retrieved from:

Instructional Leadership and Educational Standards
Words: 1136 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78987306
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Professional Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL)
The concept of instructional leadership posits that strong leadership in education focuses on curriculum and instruction (Mitchell, Kensler & Tschannen-Moran, 2015). As an instructional leader, therefore, it is important to have a deep understanding and personal sense of the Professional Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL). This paper will examine PSEL’s Standards 1-10, summarize each standard and describe my role in relation to each standard.
Standard 1: Mission, Vision, and Core Values
This standard holds that effective educational leaders create, promote and embody and mission, vision and core set of values that can be shared by all stakeholders within the educational system (Professional Standards for Educational Leaders, 2015). As I do not have a great deal of experience in creating such a vision, this is one standard that I need improvement in. For most of my educational career, I have followed others in the sense…

Cox on Universal Standards IFRS
Words: 933 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 52618532
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For the layperson who is likely to be invested in a stock, a company or a mutual fund, this does reflect a core obstacle to effective decision-making. Indeed, as with many aspects of globalization, the implications of international accounting standards as a concept would only arrive at many of its conflicting points after a period of unencumbered idealism. Again, as the more general discussion on globalization denotes, the implications of a multinational framework for commercial exchange had long been done with a pronunciation of interests to the benefit of the world public. Namely, the assistance which could be provided through the opening of trade barriers in a general sense to the developing sphere, for one instance of commonality, might be seen at the base of the philosophical impetus for both the process of globalization and the symbiotic drive to create universal standards for financial reporting. At this time, it faces…

Works Cited:

Barrett, M.E. (1971). Accounting for Intercorporate Investments: A Behaviors Field Experiment. Journal of Accounting Research, 9, 50-65.

Cox, C. (2007). Mutual Fund Prospectus Simplification. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Online at

Web Design Evolution for Common
Words: 3229 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 57367248
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Skills must be honed that create a functional page that users will view and use as the client hopes them to.

Many new eb designers produce eb pages that seem to ignore fundamental principles of "good design": full of colored backgrounds, animated pictures, multiple colors and styles of text, and little to no navigation or eb-based structure. Even in courses devoted to eb design, students still produce pages that lack unity, coherence and emphasis: "though they [students] seem to understand (and can critique) others' efforts, they're stymied when it's time for production. Few have the skills or experience writing in this medium" (Yancey & ickliff, 2001, p. 180). Similarly, individuals working on their own or working from documentation struggle with being able to create eb pages due to the same lack of experience writing on the eb.

Karper 340)

For this reason, relative examples, as explained in the previous subheading…

Works Cited

Chan, Henry, Raymond Lee, Tharam Dillon, and Elizabeth Chang. E-Commerce: Fundamentals and Applications. New York: Wiley, 2001.

Castro, Elizabeth HTML 4 for the World Wide Web Berkeley, CA Peachpit Press, 1998.

Dix, Alan. "3 Human-Computer Interaction and Web Design." Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design. Ed. Robert W. Proctor and Kim-Phuong L. Vu. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005. 28-46.


IT Operations Agree or Disagree Standard Financial
Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51002319
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IT Operations

Agree or disagree: Standard financial investment information and criteria are all that is needed to effectively evaluate IT outsourcing decisions.

Over the last several decades, outsourcing has become an effective tool for many companies to reduce their costs and increase their profit margins. As time went by the reduction in trade barriers and availability of highly skilled workers (in select locations) made these practices more acceptable. This has resulted in an increasing number of jobs being outsourced to different countries (i.e. China and India). (Buck, 2011)

Evidence of this can be seen with data provided by Statistics Brain. They found that in 2011 there were a total of 2.27 million American jobs outsourced to these locations. There are a number of different reasons as to why this is occurring. The below table is highlighting the most common factors influencing the decision to outsource various services. ("Job Outsourcing Statistics,"…


Job Outsourcing Statistics. (2012). Statistics Brain. Retrieved from: 

Bucki, J. (2011). Introduction to Outsourcing. Retrieved from 

Bucki, J. (2011). Top 6 Outsourcing Disadvantages. Retrieved from 

More, R. (2009). How GM Lost Its Focus. Ivy Business Journal. Retrieved from:

Exxon Valdez Case Analysis Common
Words: 3133 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 72188550
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Like most litigations on such complicated issues the company had little to do but show reasonable accommodation, adopt better surface practices and wait out a lengthy period before their liability was reduced substantially by the courts.

Ethical analysis:

The key ethical issues of the case are pretty clear, did the captain knowingly endanger the environment by continuing to retain his position and navigate tankers through the area and did the company know that such was the case. Both ethical dilemmas are clear and were ruled upon by many hours of court time and subsequent appeals, though the final Supreme Court ruling on Exxon's liability for the spill was split 4:4 every other deciding body laid full responsibility on Exxon's lap. ("Exxon Valdez Damages educed," June 2008, NP). An additional ethical issue, though much less openly understood or known by the average American is weather it was ethical to pay fishermen…


Feinman, J.M. (2000). Law 101: Everything You Need to Know about the American Legal System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Exxon Valdez Damages Reduced," June 2008, Business Law Prof Blog Retrieved November 18, 2008. 

Greely, J. (1989, May 29). Alaska over the Barrels: The Spills and Spoils of Big Oil. The Nation, 248, 721.

Jasanoff, S. (2006) "Transparency in Public Science: Purposes, Reasons, Limits." Law and Contemporary Problems 69.3, 21.

Education Over the Last Several Years Educators
Words: 1132 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39954832
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Over the last several years, educators have been facing considerable challenges in meeting rising expectations for performance. This is because a host of solutions (such as the No Child Left Behind Act) have not addressed the lack of student achievement. Instead, academic performance has continued to linger and become worse in some areas (i.e. mathematics and science). (Hannah, 2012)

In New Jersey, the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum standards is designed to provide clarity on specific subjects and topics students must learn in order to graduate from high school. To fully understand how this occurring requires examining the way it is related to the concepts from Mary Zimmerman's Metamorphoses and a contemporary issue. This will be accomplished by focusing on the modes of communication, its shape and the way the literature can provoke cultural insights. Together, these elements will highlight how the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum…


Science Standards. (2013). NJ. Retrieved from: 

Hannah, D. (2012). 5 Ways No Child Left Behind Act. American Progress. Retrieved from: 

Rich, M. (2012). U.S. Students Still Lag. New York Times. Retrieved from: /2012/12/11/education/us-students-still-lag-globally-in-math-and-science-tests-show.html?_r=0

Wandberg, R. (2000). Communication. Mankato, MN: Life Matters.

Goal of Indiana Students Reading
Words: 3549 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44891359
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Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson

Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education


Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where the first vowel is a long vowel and the final e is silent. By using the Clickers/esponses as a classroom game they will utilize them after hearing the correct sounds.

Students with the will be able to spell and write out some basic long vowel words that have c-v-c-e and v-c-e spelling patterns and will use the Clickers/esponses when they hear the right sound.

About the Concept:

There are several regular long vowel spelling patterns in the English language. The c-v-c-e pattern (consonant-vowel-consonant-final e) is a long vowel spelling pattern which occurs quite frequently in early reading and spelling. Essentially, the phonics rule for this design mentions that when a vowel and final e are separated by a single consonant, the…


Indiana Standards. (2010, March 3). Retrieved from Learniing Connection: 

Classroom Resources. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from ReadWritethink: 

Elementary K-5 Writing Curriculum. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Melrose Public Schools:

Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests® Online. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Online reading test:

Decisions by School Superintendents Improper Attitude and
Words: 7657 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31703614
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Decisions by School Superintendents

Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct of Teachers

To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society - President Theodore oosevelt.

That teaching is at one and the same time an intellectual as well as a moral endeavor, is an idea that is well entrenched in the minds of men since centuries past. The sayings of great teachers of ancient times bear ample testimony to this premise, which continues to hold sway across nations and vastly differing civilizations over the years.

In the sense that it takes care of the general well being of young students entrusted to the care of an educational institution and ensures that they are treated fairly and accorded the respect they are due as persons, teaching is most certainly a moral activity. It is concerned with building and maintaining relationships of trust with pupils…


Anderson, D.S., & Biddle, B.J. (Eds.) (1991). Knowledge for Policy: Improving Education through Research. New York: The Falmer Press.

Ave, M. (2002, April 24). Jesuit High teacher fired amid misconduct claim. Retrieved December 19, 2002 at .

Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Benson, P. (1997). All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Ilo International Labour Organization the
Words: 3260 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32573087
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During that time he was director of labour market policies, coordinated technical work in eastern Europe following the collapse of the erlin wall and was director of the ILO's Socio-Economic Security Program. In 1998-99, he served as a member of the transition team of the new Director General Juan Somavia. It would be fair to say that he knows the ILO inside out. Now Professor of Economic Security at the University of ath in the UK, he is well placed to reflect on the organization's potential and failings. (Standing)

Focus of the ILO

The roots of the ILO's current problems began in the 1970s, according to Standing, with the rise of economic philosophies that tended to view any kind of regulation as a 'market distortion'. It was not long before the ILO was seen as a symbol of an antiquated way of thinking. The U.S.A. actually pulled out from 1977…


Alston, Philip 2. "Core Labour Standards' and the Transformation of the International Labour

Rights Regime." 2004. Oxford Journals. 29 January 2009 .

Alston, Philip. Facing up to the Complexities of the ILO's Core Labour Standards Agenda.

Working Paper. New York: New York University School of Law, 2005.

Is Standardized Education Good for Students
Words: 1261 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15508869
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No Child Left Behind and Common Core, a set of required standards does not improve but rather limits education for ALL students in state schools (Kober, entner, 2011). The assumption inherent in the system of standardized education is that a one-size-fits-all method of education in which every student is expected to be at the same level. This type of assumption does not reflect the actuality of the situation (Haycock, 2012). Some learners are special education, some have learning disabilities that go undiagnosed, some are English language learners, and some are gifted. Standards can be implemented to improve the quality of education for all students in all levels and types of classrooms -- but they should be more accommodating and reflective of the diverse range of students represented in the classroom. In other words, standards should be available for every type of student and not just in a one-size-fits-all model.



Haycock, K. (2012). Implementation of Common Core State Standards: Roles for advocates. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Kober, N., & Rentner, D. (2011). States' progress and challenges in implementing

Common Core State Standards. Center on Education Policy. Retrieved from

Percussion Teacher in Forty-Five Hours of Teaching
Words: 2493 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80280279
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Percussion Teacher

In forty-five hours of teaching percussion, I have learned to apply various learning theories to my work. I believe a greater understanding of these theories has improved my pedagogy and enhanced communications and interpersonal connections with my students, who are both male and female and range in age from child to adult. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on my own learning experience as a teacher, including application of learning theories, effective communication techniques, use of formative and summative assessments, and incorporating language literacy and numeracy in the lessons. By reflecting on the teaching experience, I hope to gain insight that will inform my approach in the future and help me better meet the needs of all my students.

Learning Theories

For many of my students, I use the London College of Music series that has a graded course (1-8) for drum kit. Each handbook includes…


Cook, G. (1988). Teaching Percussion, New York (USA): G. Schirmer.

Criswell, C. 2009, 'Drum circles and the national standards', Teaching Music, vol. 16, no. 4, pp.


Fidyk, S. 2010, 'Percussion: Adapting drumming for students with special needs', Teaching

Integration of Students Moving Schools
Words: 875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 7358199
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Integrating Students Who Change Schools

When students change schools often, and particularly when they enter and exit schools at times other than the actual starting and ending dates, they can experience academic, psychological, and social setbacks. When a student body is in a relatively constant state of flux, the impact is felt by all students in the classrooms, and not just by students who are referred to as frequent movers. While the size of the stable core of students ranges widely, the mobility of frequent movers generates a chaos factor -- a term used to identify the inevitable disruption that occurs from having to constantly adapt to the unexpected change.

The literature shows a negative correlation between school switching and academic achievement; a correlation that is evident in schools that have experienced multiple years of non-compliance with federal academic achievement regulations due to high numbers of students who are frequent…

Ethical Caring's Great Contribution Is to Guide
Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94673859
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Ethical caring's great contribution is to guide action long enough for natural caring to be restored and for people once again to interact with mutual and spontaneous regard" (Noddings 1998: 187).

Noddings believes that rather than ethics shaping moral behavior, our moral, spontaneous caring is what is more important and must come first. This impulse is sometimes interfered with, which is why we need ethical systems, but caring comes before the creation of ethical systems.

Statement: "All human communities are founded upon specific shared information, and the basic goal of education in a human community is acculturation - the transmission to children of the specific information shared by the adults of the group or polis" (Hirsch cited by Coppola 2011).

Comment: This reflects Hirsch's belief in the need for a common curriculum, or shared values that must be transmitted to all students to create a more homogeneous and cohesive society.…


An interview with Bill Ayers. (2006). Revolution Newspaper. Retrieved: 

Coppola, Jen. (2011). The Educational theory of E.D. Hirsch. New Foundations. Retrieved:

American Education Current State of American Education
Words: 1891 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66870839
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American Education

Current state of American education

In the United States of America, both the public and private schools are liable for the provision of education within the entire nation. In accordance with funding and the full control by the local, state, and federal government, there is universal availability of public schools across the whole nation (Orland, 2011). Empowered by the jurisdictions over school districts, the locally elected school boards are responsible for setting the education policies, funding, employment, teaching, and the formulation of the public schools' curriculum (Frank, 2012). Additionally, the state governments control the standardized tests and educational standards for public school systems. On the other hand, private schools are free to determine their own staffing policies, as well as their curriculum via voluntary accreditation available with the regional independent accreditation authority. Educational statistics reveal that approximately 85% of school age children go to public schools, 10% attend…


David, B.S. (2008). College affordability about future. Burlington: Burlington Free Press.

David, L. (2011). The American education system is in crisis. Retrieved on 30th Sept, 2013 from

Frank, D. (2012). The current state of the U.S. higher education. Top to bottom. The American

Education Journal, 7(3), 45-48.

Postliberal Theology and Its Relationship
Words: 3627 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47705288
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As Jeffrey Stout has it, following James' "Will-to-Believe," "We need not agree on all matters of moral importance to agree on many, and where our judgments happen to coincide we need not reach them for the same reasons." (Fackre, 2003)

Fackre states that there are five pluralist views as follows:

View 1: Common Core. At the center of all the great religions of humankind is found a common core of divine (however conceived) doing, disclosing and delivering. Each faith approaches it through its own heroes, expresses it in its own language, celebrates it in its own rituals, formulates it in its own rules of behavior, and passes it on in its own communal forms. While the rhetoric of each religion may claim that its way, truth and life are for all, these absolutist professions are, in fact, "love talk," the metaphors of commitment, not the metaphysics of reality. Jesus is,…

Marmion, Declan (2005) Rahner and His Critics: Revisiting the Dialogue. Australian EJournal of Theology. February 2005, Issue 4. Online available at:

Thiselton, Anthony C. (2007) the Hermenutics of Doctrine. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007.

Th, Anthony C. (2007) the Hermenutics of Doctrine. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007

School Counseling in a Multicultural Society
Words: 3075 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13196920
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School Counseling in a Multicultural Society: An Overview

More and more diversity is becoming the buzzword in society at large and within educational facilities across the nation. As the population in the United States continues to become increasingly diversified and representative of individuals from varying ethnic, socioeconomic and racial backgrounds, educators are realizing an increased need for attention to the specific needs of diverse student populations.

The need for multicultural competencies development among school counseling professionals has recently been acknowledged by the American Psychological Association (1992) and the American Counseling Association (1995) whose ethnical standards dictate that school counselors should achieve a certain level of multicultural competence prior to embarking on a professional career in student counseling.

Despite the acknowledgment of a need for increased awareness and training to ensure a positive student/counselor relationship, there is little evidence that much is being done in the way of establishing a core…


American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice [Brochure]. Alexandria, VA: Author.

American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611

Arredondo, P., Cheatham, H., Mio, J.S., Sue, D. & Trimble, J.E. (1999). Key words in multicultural interventions: A dictionary. Westport: Greenwood Press.

Atkinson, D.R., Morten, G., & Sue, D.W. (1998). Counseling American minorities: A

Middle School Math Teachers Over
Words: 3112 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Introduction Chapter Paper #: 44093332
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These exams would also tap teaching performance and other capabilities unlikely to be adequately assessed using conventional paper along with pencil instruments." (Shulman, 1986, pp. 4 -- 14)

These different elements are important, because they are providing a foundation for helping the schools to become more competitive in mathematics. As, they are working together to create a basic standard for: improving learning comprehension and provide the ability to solve more complex issues. Over the course of time, this will help to increase the student's ability to understand a wide variety of concepts. This is the point that they will be more prepared to deal with the various challenges that they are facing in the 21 century. Once this occurs, it will help them to establish a foundation for adapting to the changes that they will have to deal with from: shifts in technology and through these transformations because of globalization.…


Content Knowledge for Teaching. (2010). Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Diagnostic Mathematics Assessment. (2011). University of Louisville. Retrieved from:

Elementary and Secondary Education. (2004). NSF. Retrieved from: 

Frequently Asked Questions. (2011). Core Standards. Retrieved from: /frequently-asked-questions

Foundations of Leadership
Words: 1385 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58202576
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As the world becomes more populous, busy, and interconnected, the need for good leadership will grow. Furthermore, this leadership will be needed in a number of different social and cultural contexts. (Gibson & McDaniel, 2010, 451-452). Fortunately, we are undergoing a renaissance in the study of leadership and our notions of leadership are becoming more diverse and, at the same time, more fundamental.

Leaders are produced by their environment, which includes their personality, their experiences, and their organizations. Leaders tend to grow out of organizations in which they embody the core values and ambitions shared by the organization.

The Traditional Models of Leadership

The traditional view of a leader is someone who is dominant, competitive, and authoritarian. (Medina, et. al., 2008, p.249). Although most leaders do exhibit these qualities, that does not mean that a leader must have such qualities. The reason these types of leaders are prevalent is…


Bell, A.H., & Smith, D.M. (2010). Developing leadership abilities. Boston: Pearson.

Cheung, M.F.Y., & Wong, C.-S. (September 28, 2011). Transformational leadership, leader support, and employee creativity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32, 7, 656-672

Medina, F., Munduate, L., & Guerra, J. (January 01, 2008). Power and conflict in cooperative and competitive contexts. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17, 3, 349-362.

Gibson, C., & McDaniel, D. (January 01, 2010). Moving Beyond Conventional Wisdom: Advancements in Cross-Cultural Theories of Leadership, Conflict, and Teams.Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 4, 450-462.

Jaime Escalante Hero Teaching Hope
Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4316610
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movie Stand and Deliver (Menendez & Musca, 1988), which is based on the true story of Jamie Escalante, an individual who overcame ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic issues to become a highly successful mathematics teacher. Discuss the beliefs he held and the strategies he employed in his classroom that contributed to high achievement levels in his students.

The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) presents a three-pronged argument for an effective math curricula: 1) It must foster the successful mathematical performance of students in algebra and beyond; 2) it must be taught by experienced teachers of mathematics who instructional strategies that are research-based; and, 3) the instruction of the math curriculum must accomplish the "mutually reinforcing benefits of conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and automatic recall of facts" (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008, p. xiv). Jamie Escalante began teaching before this report was released, but he knew from experience…


____. (2004, April 13). "Hero'" Teacher Escalante Addresses Students At Wittenberg Commencement May 9. Wittenberg University. Retrieved 

____. (2008). National Mathematics Advisory Panel, Foundations for Success. The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 

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Analyzing Lesson Plan Questions
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Learning Objectives and Rigor

The common core learning standards in grade 8 English for the mentioned lesson were set as the determination of a theme or central idea of the text and analysis of its development over the text course. It also included its relationship to the characters, setting and plot; determination of the meaning of words and phrases as the area used in the text, in addition to figurative and connotative meanings along with the analysis of the specific words' impact on meaning and tone. Effective engagement in a range of collaborative discussions with diverse partners on grade 8 topics and texts so that building on ideas and creating expressions become easy for the students was another common core learning standard addressed. As the lesson objectives indicate that word choice in the poetry is essential to express what the poet is feeling about, the word meanings and their usage…