Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
First, Jessica will acknowledge that the girl's trick is clever and that the school could possibly even choose to suspend disciplinary action, especially if large number of students participate, and to simply revise the dress code policy for the future. Jessica will demonstrate that she gets the humor and that the stunt is completely harmless. She will even express that she might have allowed Julia to participate but for the fact that Julia has already used up her non-official disciplinary actions and that any future disciplinary issues will result in a suspension and a permanent negative entry in her record that could cause more problems than worth risking.
Jessica will remind Julia that Jessica was upset but did not overreact or punish her for her previous disciplinary actions and that Julia promised not to do anything else that school year that could possibly result in another disciplinary action because Jessica…
Communication Issues and Differences
Discuss the common communications issues that exist between business and IT. Provide examples from your organization if available to illustrate the impact of these issues. Discuss methods for avoiding these issues.
Information Technology departments often have a substantially different communication cultures and styles than business related departments such as finance or accounting, because of IT's difference of short-term organizational priorities. Although all departments within an organization ideally share the same vision of profit and expansion as the result of success an innovation, communication conflicts can occur when, for example, an IT department wishes to conduct a costly testing procedure upon a new system that the finance department deems unnecessary. hat seems necessary from a technical point-of-view seems financially spurious to one who does not understand the necessary software protocols of a new system's evolving development and lifecycle.
Likewise, when a HR department wishes to revise department…
Patterson, Beth & Steve Lindsey. (October 2000) Weighing Resources Technology can streamline workforce planning and cost analysis HR Magazine: 103.
Wiegers, Karl. (July 1994) "Creating a Software Engineering Culture." Originally Published in Software Development magazine. Process Impact Website. Retrieved 15 Feb 2005 at http://www.processimpact.com/articles/culture.html
The purpose of this paper is to explore how I can deal with situations in practice in a more effective way. There are many situations I have faced in my own experience in which I have dealt with communication difficulties and conflict in an organizational setting. It is definitely easy to get hooked on an emotional level with these encounters. For example, I have had one coworker who consistently invades my personal space on a regular basis. Whenever I see her, she gets uncomfortably close -- so close I can smell her breath. Another nurse fails to cleans up her work area after procedures and consistently leaves a mess for the next person to clean. This is not only irritating but potentially dangerous and not good practice.
Furthermore, other nurses seem to like to talk a lot about personal issues on the job. For example, one…
CRM Learning. (2007, November 16). Working With You Is Killing Me, Video Training Dealing with Difficult People. Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_pIMvP-otY
Curtin, L. (2002). Quantum leadership: Upside Down. American Nurse Today, 56-57.
Perkins, K. (2013). "Investigation"... An original leadership concept. Nursing Management, 34-39.
Insomuch, Angela felt that she was being penalized because she worked from home. Although alph tried to explain that this was not the case, he was unsuccessful in conveying the real issue of missing a deadline. Consequently, the focus shifted to more of a personal nature because Angela felt unappreciated so they decided to reconvene to another meeting two weeks later.
Unfortunately, the meeting started with some hostility from Angela. She was very cold and nonresponsive to alph's questions regarding her well-being. Because Angela did not feel positive about the last exchange, she missed another meeting, plus she failed to submit a report. Her actions are labeled as passive aggressive because her lack of apathy has now transferred into a performance issue. With her constant interruptions and frustrations, Angela refuses to communicate and wants to resign. Clearly, conflict is an issue in which resolution is needed in the form of…
Communication for Organizations. (2010). Communication process: The basics. Retrieved from http://communicationprocess.net/
Jehn, K.A., Greer, L., Levine, S., & Szulanski, G. (2008). The Effects of conflict types, dimensions, and emergent states on group outcomes. Group Decision & Negotiation, 17(6), 465-495. doi:10.1007/s10726-008-9107-0
Mind Tools. (2012). Active listening: Hear what people are really saying. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/ActiveListening.htm
Mind Tools. (2012). Conflict resolution: Resolving conflict rationally and effectively. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm
TANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS MODEL
Communication plays an extremely important role in the success of any organizational culture. How employees and management communicate with and respond to each other is what determines the level and type of communication that exists in the organization. In this connection, Transactional Analysis Model can help in identification of problems/conflicts that exist in communication method and offer useful suggestions. In short TA model can be effectively used to understand and analyze behavior of different organizational members. Transactional analysis Model was developed by Dr. Eric Berne MD in 1960s and it ruled the world of communication theories during the next two decades. It is still used widely to remove communication blocks. Transactional Analysis Model works on two important concepts: a) every person has three sides to his personality and b) when two people communication, one of these sides is evoked leading to a transaction.
It is important…
James, Muriel: Transactional Analysis for Moms and Dads. Addison-Wesley. Reading, 1974
Laurel J. Dunn Communication: Information Conveyed Through The Use Of Body Language, Department Of Psychology, Missouri Western State College, 1999
He listened attentively to my description, and waited until I had finished talking before responding. We maintained eye contact throughout this exchange. The salesman then showed me the range of what they had within my requirements, demonstrating the traits of each model. He accented these traits with explanatory hand gestures. The CR for both myself as customer and the salesman was complete, and thus I feel that the exchange was successful.
Another exchange that I experienced in my capacity as customer was at a cell phone dealer. As above, I entered, and was approached by a young salesman. This person looked nervous, but nonetheless smiled as he introduced himself. He did not shake my hand, but rather invaded my personal space. I must add that the shop was fairly crowded, which did not help to either ease the salesman's nerves or improve my increasingly irritated disposition. I however tried to…
Smeltzer, Larry R., Leonard, Donald J., and Hynes Geraldine E. Managerial Communication: Strategies and Applications. Second Edition. Boston: MacGraw-Hill Higher Education
Smeltzer, Leonard & Hynes 167
Smeltzer, Leonard & Hynes 47
Smeltzer, Leonard & Hynes 43
Discuss one principle you have learned in this class and already put into practice.
Unlike many other classes, it is relatively easy to see the applicability of the principles of this class in everyday life. Communication, as it is often observed, is something that takes place on a daily basis. One cannot escape the dialogue of communication with others and with the world. Even making the decision to be silent, when others are speaking, communicates something, if only sullenness. However, as 'easy' as it may be to communicate or to convey a message, it is not always easy to put into practice the principles learned in a communication class, such as the need not only to put forth one's own desired message, but to receive the communicative messages of other individuals.
One of the most key principles learned in this class is the need to respect other individual's…
However, gender expectations of different nations can impede free and open discussion in intercultural communications, if a particular culture has yet to accept that it is appropriate for women to confidently assume positions of authority.
Although cross-cultural communication presents a challenge, globalization has made understanding the difference between high-context and low-context cultures even more vital than ever before. Implied meanings in different cultures have different levels of signification, based upon relationships. "In relationship-oriented countries like Mexico, India and China, people tend to prioritize projects based on the hierarchy of the person who owns it" in contrast to the United States, where the project itself is viewed more important than the person in charge (Frase 2007).
Much like male-female communication tropes, social expectations rather than actual message or even delivery can affect the message conveyed and impede communication. An analysis of diverse work teams at international firms by Brett et al.…
Bond, J. (2007, December). Training in a diverse environment. Canadian HR
Reporter, 20(21), 19, 26. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global
through ProQuest (Document ID: 1410548371).
Brett, Jeanne, Kristin Behfar, & Mary C. Kern. (2006, November). Managing multicultural teams. Harvard Business Review, 84(11), 84-91. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global through ProQuest (Document ID: 1151916931).
This, perhaps, has made me more of an avid listener that is eager to appreciate what others have got to say rather than being a high decibel demagogue that would neither brook any resistance nor would tolerate any dissidence, however mild that may be.
Thus, the very essence of communication, which is nothing but a means of encouraging and stimulating others to share their views while attempting to skillfully shepherd them to veer around towards the speaker's perspectives, and the form it would finally acquire, is heavily influenced by the speaker's personal behavioral traits.
Listening as a Potent Tool for Effective Communication
We must have heard numerous times the exhortation, "Listen carefully, I don't want repeat myself," in some form or the other but in our excessive eagerness to make ourselves heard, we have ignored such requests and pleas and put an unceremonious end to many a potentially enriching communication.…
Carbonell, M. (2005). Extreme personality makeover: How to develop a winning Christ-like personality to improve your effectiveness! . Blue Ridge, GA: Uniquely You Resources.
Donahue, M.C. (1996, December 1). How active is your listening? (communication technique; includes advice for managing anger) . Current Health 2, a Weekly Reader Publication, pp. 23-25.
Frisk, B. (2007, May 11). Effective Listening a Forgotten Art That Can Open Many Doors. Daily Herald, p. 12.
Madrigal, D., & McClain, B. (2001, August). The secret of active listening. Tactical Response, pp. 50-52.
2. How important is it to "walk in the other person's shoes" when trying to avoid or resolve a conflict? Explain.
It would seem to be extremely important to be able to "walk in the shoes" of other people in any situation where the individuals involved might be prone to frustration or anger. In fact, the ability to appreciate the perspective of others in this way would help imagining the possible trigger points of the other person. Aside from getting a better view about the way we should communicate our anger, stepping into the shoes of another also allows us to consider more fairly the expectations or frustrations that anybody might feel in the same circumstances. We are less likely to experience anger if we believe that the other person is only responding in the same way we might if the situation were reversed.
3. How do you tend to…
Employees become frustrated and develop negative views concerning management. Any animosity that the employee may exhibit could result in workplace violence. If employees are terminated or laid off under such conditions, resentment could lead to violence (Chenier 1998)." stressful work environment can also lead to poor service and customer dissatisfaction (aner 1995). In severe cases, problems communicating in the workplace can lead to the demise of a business or enterprise. Therefore, it is vitally important that workplace communications problems are addressed in a timely and appropriate manner. Over the next few paragraphs, we will discuss how communication problems in the workplace can be resolves.
Resolving Communications Problems in the orkplace
Stoppler (2005) explains that problems communication in the workplace will always exist to some extent. Therefore, managers and employees alike must find ways to resolve these conflicts. The author argues there are ten ways that communication problems in the workplace…
Brownell, J. (1994). Managerial listening and career development in the hospitality industry. Journal of the International Listening Association, 8, 31-49.
Carmichael, K. (1996). Conceptualizing Business Communication. The Journal of Business Communication, 33(3), 327+. Retrieved Chenier E. (1998) the Workplace: A Battleground for Violence. Public Personnel Management. Page Number: 557.
Cooper, L.O. (1997). Listening Competency in the Workplace: A Model for Training. Business Communication Quarterly, 60(4), 75+..
The Application of Five Communication Theories
There are countless communication theories, with each one looking at a different aspect of communication or looking at communication in a new way. The number of theories that exist raises the question of how they can be used to understand communication. The answer is that every communication is complicated, with one single theory not being enough to understand every communication completely. For this reason, various theories can be applied to various situations, with each one helping us to understand something about the communication. To consider how real situations can be analyzed, five communication theories will be described. Each one will then be applied to a real situation to show how the theory helps create understanding of the communication events and processes that make up human life.
Theory of Feminine Style
The theory of feminine style argues that the difference in the way that…
Dow, B.J. & Tonn, M.B. "Feminine Style and Political Judgment in the Rhetoric of Ann Richards." Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79(1993), 286-302.
McLuhan, M. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Men. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.
Conflict Management: Strategies
Conflict is not necessarily a 'bad' thing, and regardless of your personal comfort level with conflict, it is a part of life. However, awareness of your personal style can make conflict, when it occurs, more productive rather than divisive. Understanding what is at stake and what is the real issue behind the conflict is essential: "You may recall that one of the fundamentals of interpersonal communication is the idea of meta- communication, where one tries to objectively look at interaction between people and talk about it intelligently. We might sit back, observe a couple of friends interact, and then describe their interaction pattern to them" (Abigail & Cahn 2011: 9). We can also strive to do this, as best we can, with our own conflicts -- we must try to gain a sense of dispassionate 'distance' from the conflict to create a compromise. An inability to understand…
Abigail, Ruth Anna & Dudley D. Cahn (2011). Managing conflict through communication.
I once was stationed with a company in which the department in which I worked was exceedingly small and consisted of me and one other individual who was my immediate superior. He took exception to some of my working habits and instead of personally conveying them to me, wrote a series of unpleasant emails. I initially attempted to ignore them, but after he failed to stop I eventually responded to him with a similar email that was unpleasant in tone. In this regard, the communication process was vital in both escalating the situation and in eventually resolving it, since communications is one of the four main principles of peace keeping (Myers, 2010, p. 499).
After seeing my email he eventually talked to me in person about the issues, which were less a matter of proprietary right and wrong and more a matter of personal preference. The result of that…
Myers, D.G. (2010). Social Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.
Osgood, D. (1999). Book review: Mediation and Conflict Resolution in Social Work and Human Services. The International Journal of Continuing Social Work Education. 1(2), 60.
On some level, art is communication. The artist creates a visual element that conveys complex ideas, emotions, and concepts. Therefore, learning good communication skills is essential for an artist. Communication also requires creativity. Negotiating difficult deals and addressing conflict depend on creative problem solving skills.
Animators are called upon even more to be solid communicators because of the nature of their job. An animator renders stories into visual form. Storytelling is a form of communication. An animator who can communicate well is one who can convey the story arcs and dialog in ways that are memorable and meaningful to the audience. On a more practical level, animators work with people as a matter of course throughout their job. hereas a painter could be holed up in a studio for six months out of the year, never talking to anyone, an animator will rarely live an isolated lifestyle. Communication is…
"Effective Communication Skills: The Art of Communication." Retrieved online: http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/1-13-2005-64148.asp
Scott, Elizabeth. "Communicate: Improve Your Relationships With Effective Communication Skills." About.com. Sept 18, 2011. Retrieved online: http://stress.about.com/od/relationships/ht/healthycomm.htm
Communication in organizations includes all the means, both formal and informal, by which information is passed up, down, and across the network of managers and workers in a business. These various types of communication may be used to distribute official information between workers and management, to trade hearsay and rumors, or anything in between. The dispute for businesses is to control these countless communications so they serve to advance customer relations, encourage employee satisfaction, build knowledge-sharing all through the organization, and most significantly, improve the firm's competitiveness (Communication in Organizations, 2012).
Communication is one of the most prevailing and important activities in organizations. Basically, relationships grow out of communication, and the functioning and survival of organizations is based on effectual relationships amid individuals and groups. Additionally organizational capabilities are developed and carried out through intensely social and communicative processes. Communication helps people and groups manage activities to attain goals, and…
Aul, P. & Siira, K. (2010). Organizational Communication and Conflict Management
Systems. Nordicom Review, 31(1), p. 125-141.
Berger, B.K. (2008). Employee/Organizational Communications. Retrieved from http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/employee-organizational-communications/
Boesky, J. (2011). Active Listening. Retreived from http://www.johnboesky.com/activelistening.php
Conflicts and Communication at the Work Place
a) The conflict scenario as narrated in Case 10-2 has the following key elements that were important to analyze before an actual model for conflict resolution was taken:
The cause of the conflict provided in the scenario would have been the first element to be considered before any conclusions were jumped at by the conflict resolver. The paramount mode this could have been done was through giving an ear to each of the parties involved in the conflict, in this case, eese and Patel. This element would have ensured that the conflict was entirely solved other than the temporal act just to fulfill the company's and boss' objective (Borisoff, 1997).
The extent of conflict was supposed to be analyzed to help the resolver know the intensity of conflict resolution to be applied.
Time pressure for the defined job was an influence…
Boin, F. (2009, April 2). The Power of Technology in Marketing. Retrieved from http://home.snu.com/~hculbert/comintboin.htm
Terrence, H. (2010, August 21). The Essence of Mobile Technology. Retrieved from http://.mobcommnu.edu/~hculbert/comint.htm
Budjac, C. (2006). Conflict Management: A Practical Guide to Developing Negotiation
Strategies. New York: Prentice Hall.
This is exacerbated by the problem that Carmen is close friends with the owner Kenneth. Kenneth has a similar conflict management style to Carmen. He can be extremely nice when dealing with people casually, but whenever a problem arises like Carmen he makes excuses, avoids the problem, tries to pass it on to someone else, or resorts to texting or faxing messages rather than confronting complaints. Their favorite 'nonverbal' communication strategy is simply not being there.
A failure to listen is one of the most common workplace communication problems. "When people or groups are in conflict, communication between them tends to get worse and worse. As a conflict escalates, people limit their direct contact with people on the other side, because such conflict is uncomfortable or threatening….Eventually all direct communication between parties may be cut off. Sometimes, communication is cut off in protest" (Lack of communication channels/avoided communication, 2005, OTPIC).…
Craig, Suzanne. (2012). What restaurants know (about you). The New York Times. Retrieved:
Lack of communication channels/avoided communication. (2005). Online Training Program
on Intractable Conflict (OTPIC). Retrieved:
Make her see how much her input is valued, and that a greater amount of time is needed for the two of you to bring the project to successful completion for both of your sakes at work.
Step 4: Be fair.
Try to allocate responsibilities differently in a way that works with both of your schedules
Step 5: Educate as you negotiate
Show how if she spends more time on the project, the project will be completed more quickly, and in a fashion that is better for both of your futures at work. If she is having personal problems, try to accommodate them with a different schedule that still balances the project needs in a more fair and balanced manner between the two of you.
Rath, Katie. "Five Steps to Conflict Resolution." Adapted from illiam Ury's Getting
Past No. est Carolinian News Magazine Features. 17 April 2007. 13…
Rath, Katie. "Five Steps to Conflict Resolution." Adapted from William Ury's Getting
Past No. West Carolinian News Magazine Features. 17 April 2007. 13 May 2007. http://media.www.westerncarolinian.com/media/storage/paper265/news/2007/04/17/Features/Five-Steps.Toward.Conflict.Resolution-2847205.shtml
Conflict in the orkplace
orkforce within organizations, whatever the level, constitutes one of the most important resources within such environments. Harmony among the human resource and shared vision among employees is one mandatory factor in ensuring that goals are appropriately met. Conflict if however, one inevitable occurrence in the workplace and organizational leaders has to deal with it appropriately (Flagan & Craig 8). Conflict in organizations neither occurs nor happens in a vacuum. Usually, there are some underlying issues which instigate the conflicts either between workmates or teams. Fortunately, the capacity of conflict management can help in such situations and even turn the organization into a better place. This can be achieved either through preventing the conflicts or resolving them. Personally, I have been in a conflict situation within the office; a state which was handled appropriately by the management but would however been avoided had appropriate prevention structures been…
Alberta Employment and immigration, let's talk: a Guide to Resolving Workplace conflicts, Alberta: government of Alberta, Department of Employment and Immigration, 2007
Flagan, Tim. A & Runde, Craig.E, Hidden Potential: Embracing Conflict can Pay Off for Teams in, Leadership in Action, 28(2), 2008
Communication and Conflict Management
Communication and conflict
There are varying communication patterns that are used within organizations and even in daily communication between parties privy to the subject matter under discussion or contested. The most commonly used communication patterns within organizations, corporate world and even among individuals can be condensed into four major patterns which are usually determined by the main source of information;
The wheel pattern- this is a pattern where the source of information is at the center of the communication circle and passes information in all directions in a radial manner to the recipients. One example of such a pattern is the CEO who may be passing instructions to managers who are at the same level though in different departments.
Y-Pattern- in this case the communication starts from a central source but along the way it splits up into two or more different directions. One good example…
Conflict and Its esolution in the eal Estate Industry
In real estate, all experienced sales people will have an unhappy customer to deal with at some point in their careers. Those who are most skilled know how to utilize specific techniques that will defuse or reduce the intensity of the situation. In every instance, conflict and resolution techniques will often work in conjunction with each other. (Tamper, 1999) (Furlong, 2010)
For real estate professionals, the key is being able to avoid one and use the other to satisfy complaints. To fully understand these variables requires focusing on relevant issues and key questions. Together, these elements will offer specific insights which are highlighting how the two work in conjunction with each other. It is at this point, when they can reduce conflicts and provide more effective resolution techniques. (Tamper, 1999) (Furlong, 2010)
In real estate, the customer relationship is…
Beirne, M. (2006). The Property Management Tool Kit. New York, NY: American Management Association.
Dent, P. (2012). Real Estate. New York, NY: Routledge.
Filho, W. (2008). Conflict Resolution. Oxford: Peter Lang.
Furlong, F. (2010). The Conflict Resolution Toolbox. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…
Cunningham, Lawrence, and Reich, John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. London: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Foster, William, Lockhart, Melissa, and Lockhart Darrell. Culture and Customs of Argentina. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Qingxue, Liu "Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West," 2003. Web.10/06/2012, < http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~inveling/pdf/liu_quingxue_inve9.pdf
Shivji, Issa, & Kapinga, Wilbert. Maasai rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Nairobi; Longhorn Publishers. 1998.
COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL -- PIESTLEY'S PAADOX
Introduction to Priestley's Paradox
According to Priestley's Paradox, there may be an inverse relationship between the quality of communications and the complexity and variety of modern methods of communication (Hodge 1993, 4; Eunson 2008, 17). More specifically, Priestley suggested that the richest and most effective means of communications is the process of face-to-face verbal communication between two individuals. Every additional variable, such as adding more individuals to the communications chain or introducing artificial technological mechanism necessarily reduces the quality and accuracy of the communications process. In principle, therefore, direct face-to-face communications between two people is more effective than direct, face-to-face communications among larger groups of individuals. Likewise, face-to-face communications are preferable to telephonic communications, written communications, and other forms of remote communications (Hodge 1993, 6; Eunson 2008, 18).
Applying Priestley's Paradox to the Educational Environment
Priestley's Paradox is more relevant to the contemporary educational…
Allen, J (Ed) 2004, Sociology of Education: Policies and Practice, 3rd ed. Thomson
Learning, Australia, Victoria
Dufficy, P 2005, Designing Learning for Diverse Classrooms. Primary English Teaching
Additional research showed that those who were frequently exposed to these movies were also inclined to develop risk-taking behavior (Greene and Kromar).
Vulnerable young women who had long-term exposure to sexually objectifying media could suffer from decreased self-esteem, according to another study (Aubrey 2006). A group of 149 female undergraduates in a big mid-Western university was surveyed for their responses after having been exposed to such media. The study revealed that the exposure could dent their global self-esteem if they already possessed the vulnerability to these media materials. An example is Seventeen Magazine, which is an example of a sexually objectifying medium (Aubrey).
The media are an effective instrument of war (Payne 2005). Recent conflicts clearly demonstrate that the transmission of information plays a significant part in warfare. Winning a war is considered as decisive as actually beating the enemy at the battlefield. Winning the medial war is, therefore, a…
Aubrey, J. S, (2006). Exposure to Sexually Objectifying Media and Body Self-Perceptions Among College Women.16 pages. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Springer
Greene, K.and Kromar, M. (2005). Predicting Exposure to, and Liking of, Media Violence. 17 pages. Communication Studies: Central States Speech Association
Holts, S. (2005). Establishing Connections. 2 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
Kariithi, N. (2007). Connecting the Continent. 4 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
Because they ignored those concerns and chose to save a very small amount of money, they ended up costing their organization much more money for placing an entirely new advertisement that reflected the additional wording that the two team members had originally tried to propose.
On a much smaller scale, this is precisely the same thing that happened on the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform: namely, junior-level team members expressed specific concerns to management; those concerns were ignored and further contribution of those team members discouraged by management. Ultimately, the organization suffered exactly the type of harm those team members had envisioned and it cost the organization much more than the relatively inexpensive fixes that would have been recommended by the dissenting team members if their opinions had been take more seriously by management.
Barsa, M. And Dana, D.A. "Learning from Disaster: Lessons for the Future from the Gulf…
Barsa, M. And Dana, D.A. "Learning from Disaster: Lessons for the Future from the Gulf
of Mexico." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, 38(2) 2011: 219-
Charvatova, D. And van der Veer, C.G. "Communication and Human Resource
Management and its Compliance with Culture." International Journal of Human
Communication Islamic Countries
Freedom in all its forms is a highly contested topic across all areas of politics, not only in countries where freedom has been traditionally repressed, but even in the most democratic of states, such as the United States and the UK. When freedom extends to the press, the contestability of the topic gains an extra dimension. Some critics, for example, advocate freedom of the press only to such an extent as its ability to promote a peaceful existence and harmony among citizens and their government. Others, however, would see the press gaining complete freedom, regardless of its consequences for personal and collective peace. In Muslim countries such as Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, freedom extended to the press and the media is yet further muddied by the importance of religious and state rule in these countries. In both environments, Islam remains the main ruling force in…
Article 19. (2005, Dec.). Freedom of Expression aand the Media in Indonesia. Alliance of Independent Journalists. Retrieved from: http://www.article19.org/data/files/pdfs/publications/indonesia-baseline-study.pdf
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates Profile: Media. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14704229
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates: Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14703998
El-Baltaji, D. (2009, Fall). Emirates Press Law. Arab Media & Society, Iss. 9. Retrieved from: http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=727
Our interpretations, Mediation Strategies and Communication Types
The Nature of Conflict -- an introduction
hat is Conflict?
Conflict as Perception
Conflict as Feeling
Conflict as Actions
hat causes conflict?
Link between Interpersonal Conflicts and Effective Communication
Mediation and Dispute Resolution
The Nature of Conflict -- An introduction:
Conflict is a naturally existing problem in our society and the world as a whole. Conflict exists at all levels and it is so a certain extent quite natural and inevitable. ith a functionalist approach, it can be said that the existence of conflict is somewhat important for the society. It is however an understatement to say that we live amidst conflict. Conflict is present at every level in society and people at every second are reassuring each other as to how they are having a "discussion" instead of a conflict when…
Bellafiore, Donna. 2010. Interpersonal Conflict and effective communication. Journal.
Bolton, R. (1986). People skills: How to assert yourself, listen to others, and resolve conflicts
(2nd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 067162248X
Cesaratto, T., (2006). The Good Will Hunting technique. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 3, 307.328.
Conflict and Communication Issues in Marriage and Sex
Communication lies at the root of all our conflict and resolutions. Without communication in all its forms, we as a race would be destined to live solitary and unhappy lives with very little social interaction. When conflicts enter a marriage, two people find themselves trying to engage in forms of communication that in most cases ends up making the situation worse rather than better. "Most people have a "purpose," which aligns itself with the motives behind their conflicts. Second is their "position," which often appears as their stance or strategy for trying to get their own way.
One way to resolve conflict is to identify each person's true purpose rather than argue about positions" (Warrum, 2003). Communication breaks down as a couple try to establish their own points and misinterpret their partner's point, or purpose at the same time. Misread body language…
Gray, P. What Signals Do You Send?
GP, London: May 5, 2003, pg53.
Druckman, A Words That Wound.
Psychology Today, Sept 1999.
India is a diverse country in terms of religion. The Hindu population constitutes 828 million people (80%), the Muslim population constitutes million (13.5%), the Christian population constitutes 24 million (2.5%), the Sikh population constitutes 19 million (2%), while other religious groupings including Jains and Buddhists constitute 19.5 million. eligion is an important aspect of Indian political scene. Although India maintains that it is a secular nation, Indian politics has had a deep religious flavor at all times. This has resulted in religion being an important component of the identity of many Indians. There are many cases of religious identity being elicited in response to the communalism politics. Communalism connotes the functioning of organizations or religious communities, or the bodies which state they represent them, in a manner which is prejudices to the nation as a whole or interests of other groups. Historical evidence shows that communalism in the…
Avruch, K. (2001), "Constructing ethnicity: culture and ethnic conflict in the New World Disorder," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 71 No. 23, pp. 281-90.
Avruch, K. (2003), "Type I and II errors in culturally sensitive conflict resolution practice," Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 351-71.
Avruch, K. And Wang, Z. (2005), "Culture, apology, and international negotiation: the case of the Sino-U.S. 'spy plane' crisis," International Negotiation, Vol. 10, pp. 337-53.
Dalal, R. (2006), The Penguin Dictionary of Religion in India, Penguin Books, New Delhi.
Conflict in the Workplace
One of the things that makes us human is our need and ability to form groups. We thrive in groups, merge into groups, and even the process of civilization and moving from hunter-gatherers to cities was part of group behavior. owever, when groups form, any number of interesting psychological issues occur: behaviors change, organizational issues occur, bonds and alliances are formed and lost, and even individual leadership behaviors change (Johnson and Johnson, 2008). Whether it be individuals, small groups, or large groups -- sometimes behavioral issues arise that cause conflict. Breaking one or more of these rules, however, or disagreeing with them to the point where it becomes unbearable or makes the group ineffective then becomes "conflictual" (Corey, 2008, pp. 149-51). This conflict happens in most cultures and some time or another. We see it in animal behavior as internal aggression. In some human cultures, while…
Let the record show that I am James X., Human Resource Manager for Zycon Corporation, a privately held corporation located in the City of Brisbane, Australia. Today is the 28th of June, 2011, and we are meeting with Mr. B., an employee of Zycon since March, 2001. Mr. B. has steadily worked his way up from a process worker to a section Forman since Spring 2008. Our meeting today is the result of a letter sent by Mr. B. demanding a review of a recent hiring decision made for Factory Manager. According to Mr. B's letter of June 10, 2011, Mr. B. feels that he did not receive the desired position promotion because of "discriminatory and unfair" labor practices, especially those from the Operations Manager. Reviewing the situation we find the following:
In April, 2011, due to corporate growth and efficiency studies, Zycon Corporation created a new position for our Brisbane Factory -- that Zycon believed it necessary to have an overall person who would be
Ken and Jane
How do you perceive Jan's effort to convince Ken to forgive her? Based on what you have learned in this chapter, suggest two ways she might more effectively seek Ken's forgiveness.
She could have used a time based intervention to talk about the instance further when the conversation would have not been as heated. If they both had a chance to calm down then the conversation might have went smoother. Another tactic Jan could have tried would be to apologize and to address Ken's concerns so that it could be formed into a win-win. For example, Jan could have said that she was sorry if she did ruin his chances with the girl, but she would try to help him find an even more suitable match.
What are two nonverbal cues used by Jan. What are two nonverbal cues used by Ken? In what ways…
The change, to improve the way one manages conflict, needs to come from a deeper place and that is the most important lesson I take from this chapter. Some of my past conflicts might not have happened had I known about this.
Chapter 7 is about managing stress. The authors note that stress is "experienced subjectively as a biochemical reaction within the body" (p. 121) -- the key being that stress is a reaction, not the cause of a reaction. The author defines four types of stress -- eustress (short-term intense stress), hypostress (underload), hyperstress (being overwhelmed) and distress (lack of control over a situation, or unclear source).
I found this chapter to be very insight, even from the basic definitions of the four types of stress. Just understanding that there are different types of stress helps one to understand where stressful feelings come from, so that the source may…
Conflicts in the workplace are a common phenomenon and people are usually anything but shocked to find themselves or their colleagues in such conflicts. But the ubiquity of such conflicts doesn't follow we are equally ready to tackle them properly. In fact on the contrary, most people have absolutely no idea what needs to be done when conflict arises. Conflict resolution and management are certainly the key words these days because of intensely competitive and diverse workforce of today yet it appears that most companies hardly pay any attention to conflict resolution training and thus are not properly prepared to handle such situations.
In my workplace, I have noticed that despite diversity training and supposedly polite and healthy working environment, conflicts are almost a norm and most of them are grounded in interpersonal problems. Personality clashes are common and on numerous occasions, we find employees complaining about…
Elisabeth Seaman: Can Conflict In Nonprofits Be Managed Successfully? Retrieved online 26th September 2004:
Daniel Dana, Ph.D. What's a Conflict? Retrieved online 26th September 2004:
I was embarrassed, and I felt betrayed. My co-worker used the information to make herself more powerful through information, and this created the conflict. I of course told her I was angry, but by that point, I could do little else. She used her power to gain recognition in the manager's eyes, while diminishing my position. Our work relationship has deteriorated because of it, and I no longer trust, or even particularly like this woman. Thus, power can transform a relationship if it is used to hurt, and it could also transform an organization if it is used the wrong way. A classic example is the situation at Enron, where the leaders of the organization used their power to better themselves, and financially ruined the organization in the process. Power is like a two-edged sword. In the wrong hands, it can be devastating to people or organizations, and unfortunately, I…
... Paents' expectations had a stong and positive diect effect on adolescents' expectations and indiect effects though school-based paental involvement and though students' high school involvement. (Tusty, 2002)
All in all, Afican-Ameican gils appeaed to be positively influenced in almost evey measue of achievement, if those desiable behavios wee einfoced by positive goup inteactions. Such a study pesents clea evidence that the psychology of the goup, and the assumptions made by society, play a lage and significant ole in shaping oppotunities fo Afican-Ameican women. Those who do not have the suppot of thei families, fiends, and educatos, will not eceive the encouagement necessay to make the pope choices in egad to caee. They will not pusue the education that is equied fo advancement to positions with highe eanings potential. Even moe likely, lacking sufficient encouagement, young Afican-Ameican gils will find themselves locked into unfulfilling "caees" that bing little in the…
references for Job Attributes Associated with Work and Family: A Longitudinal Study of Career Outcomes. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 53(5-6), 303+.
Phillips, S.D., & Imhoff, a.R. (1997). Women and Career Development: A Decade of Research. 31+.
Trusty, J. (2002). African-Americans' Educational Expectations: Longitudinal Causal Models for Women and Men. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(3), 332+.
Conflict in DC (Case Study)
Conflict in DC
Conflict in the Democratic epublic of Congo
Background of DC Conflict
The Democratic epublic of Congo (DC), otherwise also known as epublique Democratique du Congo from their French masters and formerly Zaire is a nation situated in Central Africa boasting of a very brief coastline that runs approximately 37 Kms. DC is the third largest country in the entire Africa and stands at 12th position in terns of size in the world scale with 2,345 Square Kms (U.S. Department of State, 2010). It is the eight in the world in terms of population and fourth in Africa with the 71 million populations.
DC is neighbored by Central Africa epublic and Sudan from the northern side, the Atlantic Ocean is on its West, to the south Zambia and Angola border it and wanda, Uganda and Burundi are its neighbors to the East.
Claudia Rodriguez, (2007). Sexual Violence in South Kivu, Congo, Forced Migration
Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://www.vday.org/drcongo/background
Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa, (2011). Democratic
Republic of the Congo. Retrieved February 10, 2011 from http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/drc.htm
Conflict Resolution in it Management
What is the importance of having rules of engagement to successfully support a virtual team when using collaborative technologies? Can you come up with any other rules that could be added?
Rules of engagement within a virtual team using collaborative technologies are crucial to the success of any major team project for several reasons. For example, business units and team members in different areas typically utilize very different systems and procedures to accomplish their component tasks and responsibilities. Changes made and commitments promised to clients by one business unit or team member without consulting other business units and team members can radically affect those business units or team members or even make it impossible for them to complete their respective contributions to the project.
Some other helpful types of rules of engagement that could be added might include:
The appointment of designated team or unit…
The 5 stages of group development are: Forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. (GMU, n.d.) Stage 4 is the only stage where the group is actually productive.
Stage 1: In this stage, the group leader is sought after for guidance. The group is more or less feeling out the situation and looking for safety. The group is attempting to get acquainted with the task at hand and the other group members. To move on to the next stage, each group member must give up the insecurities associated with the first stage.
Stage2: In stage two, competition and conflict takes over. It is crucial for the group members and the leader to allow for the group to take in new personalities, to show flexibility and to allow for the group members attitude adjustments. The most difficult part of this stage is group patience. If and when conflict occurs, the group…
The European actions against the natives were in error, because they were committed by Protestant Christians, who, unlike Catholics or savages, should have known better and responded with higher forms of faith and feeling. The Indian atrocities were seen as inevitable, the result of "undesigned provocation" (even though esley acknowledges that the settlers are interlopers) rather than a response in defense of their land (ard, 1872).
Thus, although the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights may proclaim religious separation from all churches, America was actually founded by individuals seeking to create what today we would call a theocracy. Despite early amicable relations with the natives, eventually conflicts over territory caused the two populations to be hostile. The violence that ensued was justified by the religious rhetoric and beliefs of the Puritans, as they strove to create a New Jerusalem in a land that was inhabited by people whose civilization…
Atkins, Scott Eric. (2008) "Pilgrims and puritans." American Studies at the University of Virginia. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/puritan/purhist.html
Native Americans of North America." (2007). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://encarta.msn.com
Religious tolerance in Colonial America (2008). Geocites. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://www.geocities.com/crownac/religious_tolerance.htm
Ward, Nathanial. (1647). "Against toleration." E-text of American History Told by Contemporaries. Vol. 1. pp. 393-96. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://personal.pitnet.net/primarysources/ward.html
"I am always concerned about corruption" Kelly said. "For me, myself, personally, it is absolutely critical to the good order, to the function of this department, that we have a well-staffed, a well-trained, a proactive Internal Affairs Bureau, and that's what we have" (Baker & McGinty 2010, p.2).
This policy has not always proved to be popular, and many officers are still resistant to the idea of heavily policing the department internally, stating that it makes officers overly cautious on patrol that the NYPD will not 'back them up' in their decision-making. However, Kelly and others state that it was vital to give Internal Affairs "equal footing with the detective, patrol and personnel bureaus" to ensure that the police department upheld its ideals " (Baker & McGinty 2010, p.2). The relationship between Internal Affairs and other departments has often been fraught. There has been resistance to the notion of 'ratting…
Baker, Al & Jo Craven McGinty. (2010, March 28). NYPD confidential. The New York Times.
Retrieved October 7, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/28/nyregion/28iab.html?pagewanted=all
Becker, Andrew. (2010, March 30). Homeland Security IG in conflict with agencies on corruption probe. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 7, 2010 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/03/29/AR2010032903207.html
Conflict resolution. (2003) M&A Capital Solutions. Retrieved October 7, 2010 at http://www.macapitalsolutions.com/information/conflict.asp
(Feldman and Slattery 201)
In this environment, it is likely that the people of Somalia would welcome the devil himself if he was carrying food and water, and these circumstances have not been lost on those who would exploit them for their own political agenda.
Historical Role of NGOs in Somalian Reconstruction.
The experiences of the United Nations and other relief agencies in Somalia are proof positive that even the best intentioned humanitarian efforts cannot succeed if nongovernmental organizations are targeted by political forces that deem their presence counterproductive for their political agendas. According to Boulden (2001), "The UN response to the Somalia crisis ran the gamut from the extreme of total disregard to total involvement then back to total disregard. During the first year of anarchy, the situation within the country became so dangerous that most nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and UN humanitarian agencies left the country" (54). This author…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Boulden, Jane. Peace Enforcement: The United Nations Experience in Congo, Somalia, and Bosnia. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
De Waal, Alex. (1998). "U.S. War Crimes in Somalia." New Left Review a (230):132.
Doh, Jonathan P., Hildy Teegen and Sushil Vachani. (2004). "The Importance of Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) in Global Governance and Value Creation: An International Business Research Agenda." Journal of International Business Studies 35(6):463.
Using step two, we should find out more about each other. Rather than just being group participants, we should get to know more about one another so that we do not make each other enemies. Using step three, we should invite the other members of our group project to talk with us and hear each of our ideas about what direction the project should take. Also in the group setting, we should discuss the behaviors and activates that led to our fighting and disagreement. For example, I felt that she was being unreasonable to expect those of us who were taking the class as an elective to treat it like our first priority. I would also get to hear what activities of mine added resentment for her. Finally, while lines of communication are open (and our group is present) we should make sure to talk about any other problems we…
Five Steps to Mediating Conflict." Workforce 78.10 (Oct. 1999): 30.
The same might be said for those who committed torture in the Nazi camps.
Importantly, Austin et al. (2004, p. 161) note that both violence and non-violence are cumulative in nature. It is therefore important to recognize that the existence of violence perpetuates further violence, while the same is true for non-violence. This is also an important recognition in the international sphere.
Schelling (1960, p. 53) notes that international violence an also be manifest in terms of the concept of "limited war." This means that short conflicts could result when agreements cannot be reached within a certain amount of time. On the other hand, the limited war also requires some degree of mutual recognition or acquiescence. Once war begins, negotiation and communication among adversaries become difficult. The recent situation and Egypt and the current situation in Libya appear to be cases in point for this assertion.
Finally, in international relations,…
Baldwin, D.A. (2002). Power and International Relations. Handbook of International Relations, editors Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T. And Simmons, B.A. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
Schelling, T. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Barak, G. (2003). Violence and Nonviolence: Pathways to Understanding, Sage Publications.
Azar, E. (1990) the Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and Cases. Bookfield, VT: Gower Pub. Co.
While it is impossible to know exactly what went on behind the closed doors of the Oval Office and other meeting points during the near-lockdown in D.C., one thing is clear: the government of the United States was engaged in dysfunctional conflict. Dysfunctional conflict "hinders group performance" because no dialogue or effective communication occurs (text p. 455). There was an insufficient amount of collaboration among the parties involved. There was also task conflict, such as disagreement over the content and the goals of the project. The one point of agreement was that neither party wanted Washington to shut down; it would have been a poor public relations move. Therefore, both parties hurried to a solution that was based much more on compromise than on collaboration. Collaboration would have first clarified what each party needed -- and what their differences were, in order to reach a win-win solution. Instead,…
Kane, P. (2011). Budget battle came down to 3 men and their weaknesses. Washington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/budget-battle-came-down-to-3-men-and-their-weaknesses/2011/04/09/AFLotbAD_story.html
From the experiences, I have had in organizations that work to combine autonomy, mastery and purpose, the level of performance goes up and becomes the new norm of corporate performance. The many studies of motivation underscore that when autonomy, mastery and purpose are combined, long-term learning and motivation occur (amsey, 2010). The communication networks and channels within organizations are accentuated and made more effective when these three attributes become the foundation of long-term learning and growth over time.
In conclusion, the culture, incentive, and leadership within a given organization have a major impact on the effectiveness of communication networks and channels within organizations. When there is a transformational mindset about aggregating content, data and information then transforming it from a system of record to competitive advantage, companies can use their expertise to compete more effectively. In many respects, this ability to compete more effectively based on better use of information…
Andriole, S. (2010). Business Impact of Web 2.0 Technologies. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(12), 67.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Billington, C., & Davidson, R.. (2010). Using knowledge brokering to improve business processes. The McKinsey Quarterly,(2), 110.
Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
Communication in Organizations
Define organizational culture and provide analysis of organizational culture relating to role, power, people and task culture as discussed by Charles B. Handy (1994) "Understanding Organizations"
Organizational culture is many things including the values and behaviors an organization and its members adopt to create the environment in which they work. esearchers have struggled for decades to define organizational culture as one thing or another. They have also worked diligently to define what skills or components are necessary to promote a successful 'culture' within an organization. To understand how organizational culture can benefit any enterprise one must first define organizational culture.
Organizational culture is defined differently depending on who you talk to. There are several consensus opinions however about what organizational culture includes. Organizational culture includes the morals, values, beliefs and strategies a firm and its employees or managers adopt to conduct business successfully (Bonache & Cabrera, 1999).…
Bonache, J., Cabrera, E.F. (1999). "An expert HR system for aligning organizational culture and strategy." Human Resources Planning, 22(1): 51.
Handy, C.B. (1994). Understanding Organizations. New York: Penguin.
Hansen, D.A. (2005 -- March). "Total Quality Management." Available:
Potapchuk goes on to say that communities need centers of support for collaborative work, including the facilities, tools, and staff needed. There is merit in this suggestion, especially considering that many of the people involved in community collaboration efforts may not be trained or skilled in conflict management, collaboration, and communication. Effective tools and trained staff could help to ensure collaborators are able to work together effectively.
Potapchuk also says that communities need to continue their work on issues of race, class, and culture. This statement links back to Potapchuk's argument that underlying issues limit progress. However, it is unclear whether this is really a problem limiting progress. In fact, it seems that this is a much larger issue and one that collaborative community groups may not be able to overcome. Instead, it seems like it would be more reasonable for groups to be given the tools to work together…
Potapchuk, W. (1999). "Moving From Collaborative Processes To Collaborative Communities Building Our Agenda." Mediate.com. Retrieved October 21, 2005. URL:
Weiss, J.F. (2005). "You Never Can Tell." Mediate.com. Retrieved October 21, 2005. URL: http://www.mediate.com/articles/weissJF1.cfm
There is only so far Google Translate can take a person hoping to achieve social harmony across cultures. Language barriers are enhanced, and exacerbated, by the differences in non-verbal communication across cultures. Whether for business or personal interactions, non-verbal communications characterize a culture's values and social norms. This is why places like Sweden feel completely different from places like Saudi Arabia; and places are dramatically different in terms of how the society is structured, who is in power, and what norms govern behavior. Understanding the complex facets of cross-cultural communication can greatly enhance a travel experience, or a business interaction.
Of the innumerable sociological and anthropological frameworks used to understand and explain cross-cultural differences in communication, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions are among the most useful and well used. Power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term vs. short-term orientation, and indulgence vs. restraint are important and…
In a travel article about Stockholm, Alford (2012) relates tales that reveal the unique communication styles of Sweden. These styles can be conceptualized in terms of Hoftstede's cultural dimensions. For example, Swedish society has quite a low power distance; its culture is not hierarchical and is self-defined as being "socialist" in spirit (Alford, 2012, p. 2). Moreover, as Alford (2012) points out, most people in Stockholm also have a cabin in the woods or on an island -- highlighting the relatively flat social structure that has a low distance between haves and have-nots (p. 2). The power distance factor in Sweden can be readily compared to more hierarchical societies, such as India, in which the haves and the have-nots are separated by wide and usually insurmountable chasms. Even the United States has a higher power distance factor than does Sweden, as many Americans are fundamentally opposed to social institutions and structures that generate equality such as free higher education for all citizens, and free healthcare funded by taxpayer dollars. As American onlooker Alford (2012) describes it, " New parents get 480 days of parental leave?! Everyone I talk to seems to have a summer house on an island?!" (p. 2).
As Allwood (1999) points out, Sweden shares many communication traits in common with other Nordic countries like Finland. However, there are a few culture-specific variables that should be taken into account to better understand non-verbal communication patterns. One is specific to social gatherings in which alcohol is involved. Allwood (1999) notes that in Sweden, it is customary for each guest to bring and drink his or her own alcoholic beverages rather than expect the host to provide it. Moreover, the guests will not start drinking until a communal toast has been proposed (Allwood, 1999). This is somewhat similar to the Jamaican custom of not starting to eat at a party until the host makes an invitation to do so; which is ironic given the informal nature of Jamaican communication styles in general ("Jamaica: Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette," n.d.). Swedes appreciate informality, but do not appreciate superficiality in terms of conversation topics and styles ("Sweden: Conversation," 2009).
Allwood (1999) also notes that Swedish teaching styles are noticeably different from those in other cultures including other Nordic cultures. There is less authoritarian teaching styles in
"The monkey's larynx, while quite distinct from that of the human being, is not as much so as that of parrots, which clearly can speak. As to their brains, the comparison with that of the latter banishes all doubts." As the narrator tries to teach the title ape to speak, he swears that Yzur takes on a more contemplative expression. The narrator compares the ape to "ancient men of the forest, who were forced into silence and submission" as well as the mentally deficient. But because the monkey is not fully human and does not speak like him, the man sees him as inferior and ultimately drives the monkey man.
The tendency to see 'the other' as inferior is manifest in prejudice against native people as well as animals. esnick's allegorical story shows how human violence and prejudice is an endless cycle. The relationship between humans and animals is more…
Lugones, Leopoldo. (2007). Yzur. ERBZine. 1869. Retrieved December 13, 2010 at http://www.erbzine.com/mag18/yzur.htm
Naess, Arne & George Sessions. (2010). Deep Ecology Platform. Foundation for Deep Ecology.
Retrieved December 13, 2010 at http://www.deepecology.org/platform.htm
Resnick, Mike. (2001). The Elephants on Neptune. Asimov's Science Fiction.
B: No you didn't.
A: You just weren't listening.
A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?
B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.
A: Thank you
Prompt (2) Stereotypes:
Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.
The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.
Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.
We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.
Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any…
Center for Nonviolent Communications. "Founder." Retrieved online: http://www.cnvc.org/about/marshall-rosenberg.html
On the organizational side, consensus decision making that involves everyone working together to develop an agreement that all of the people can accept is preferred to totalitarian rule. Unfortunately, the later may be a reality that employees must cope with. In this instance, tolerance will probably be necessary to accept the orders of another even though they are contrary to what one actually believes. The use of persuasion may be useful to convince an authoritative figure to change his/her mind. Knowledge and mutual respect are two of the most valuable factors in persuading a leader. Playing office politics is the most dangerous form of persuasion because managers who ignore the views of others are typically insecure and lack self-confidence. Therefore, they will be threatened by an employee who they feel is going behind their backs or are trying to undermine their authority. Diplomacy, acting in a way that does not…
Building Trust and espect through Constructive Conflict esolution
One of the most significant advantages of genuine conflict resolution (i.e. through effective communication, validation, and specific methodologies that address underlying causes of conflict) in the workplace is that it typically generates increased mutual respect and trust among coworkers (Blair, 2003; Kinicki & Williams, 2005; Wisinski, 1993). Whereas superficial (i.e. supervisor-imposed) solutions to isolated conflicts tends only to resolve those specific conflicts in the short-term, more in-depth resolutions can eliminate conflicts at a more fundamental level by addressing and actually resolving the underlying sources of those conflicts in principle (Blair, 2003; Kinicki & Williams, 2005; Wisinski, 1993).
The problem is that isolated, superficial, and primarily operational solutions that focus only on the outcome of the negotiation do not address the respective sentiments of the individuals involved (Kinicki & Williams, 2005). Conversely, when more thorough solutions address the underlying issues at the root…
Blair, G. (2003). Groups that Work. Washington, DC: IEEE Press.
Daft, R. (2005) Management. 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
Kinicki, a. And Williams, B. (2005). Management: A Practical Approach. New York:
However, such strategy has the outcome in compliance in absence of commitment and feelings of frustration and resentment.
The fourth strategy is I lose a little, you win a little. The placate yield style represents a concern for the effects of conflict on the welfare and durability of all relationships that is entered. The hypothesis is that human relationships are so flexible that they cannot endure the trauma of working through normal differences. Therefore, the inclination is towards withdrawing from the conflict and pleases others by ignoring, denying and avoiding conflict. When the differences continue it is found worthwhile in placating and submitting oneself to ones objectives being seen as effective modes of self-protection and safeguarding our relationships with others. One-sided domination in ones relationship is evident in such type of strategies.
Finally, the strategy is 'I win, you win'. This approach to conflict resolution is regarded as the dominant…
Conflict Management Styles" (2002) Retrieved at http://www.njit.edu/activities/conflict.pdf . Accessed 14 September, 2005
Hartwick, Jon; Barki, Henri. "Conflict Management Styles of Users and Analysts, and Their
Impact on Conflict Resolution" (1999) Retrieved at http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/1999/0001/07/00017036.PDFAccessed 12 September, 2005
Lingren, Herbert G. "Managing Conflict Successfully" Retrieved at http://ianrpubs.unl.edu/family/heg181.htm . Accessed 12 September, 2005
However, there were a number of influential employee leaders who objected to this approach and who made their position widely known through channels both formal and informal. The latter dissemination of discontent was particularly problematic as murmurings filled the company concerning the presence of some internal resistance. Most importantly for our company was the removal of the impulse for resistance. It was our view, and the view of the present text, that any such dissension could lead to serious morale issues. Therefore, it was incumbent upon us to at least weight the position offered by our dissenting colleagues.
Our strategy for navigating the conflict toward compromise -- as this is defined by our primary text -- would be to select those opposition leaders who had been most vocal and influential to form internal teams and develop competing proposals. These proposals would require that the selected representative developed and delineated plans…
"Divorce mediation confronts one of the most difficult conflicts that exist on earth, the breakdown and ending of the intimate, complex marriage relationship." The desire of individuals to remove divorce from the adversarial legal arena is fundamental to the growth of conflict resolution options for couples leaving a marriage. There is nothing more frightening than change, especially when the emotional stakes of the outcome of such change are so engendered in the emotions of the individuals involved, seeking a non-adversarial approach, is foundational to managing the situation effectively while attempting to avoid the pitfalls of making life altering decisions in a highly charged emotional situation, while still maintaining a sense of voice and control, a possibility the legal system does not usually allow as once again the individual must appoint a spokesperson and then trust that this spokesperson has the interest of all as their overriding goal.
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105950196
Aureli, Filippo and Frans B.M. De Waal, eds. Natural Conflict Resolution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=105950220' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Conflict resolution, conflict management, and mediation are essential components for the success of an organization. Given the diversity of the workplace and the varying needs of individual organizations, developing an approach to conflict management can be tricky. The three articles: Work 911's "Organizational Conflict: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly," and Tim Hicks' "What Is Mediation And How Does It Fit Into The Workplace?" And "Steps for Setting Up an Effective Conflict Management System" examine the ways organizations can manage conflict effectively. Each article offers something new for the reader to ponder when designing and implementing a conflict management system.
"Organizational Conflict: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly" offers a unique perspective to conflict management. According to the author, there are two ways of looking at conflict. The traditional way is to see it as something to be avoided, as something inherently negative. This view of…
Hicks, Tim (2000). Steps for Setting Up an Effective Conflict Management System. Retrieved October 3, 2005 from http://mediate.com/articles/hickst4.cfm
Hicks, Tim (2000). What Is Mediation And How Does It Fit Into The Workplace? Retrieved October 3, 2005 from http://mediate.com/articles/hickst5.cfm
Organizational Conflict: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. (n.d.) Retrieved October 3, 2005 from http://www.work911.com/articles/orgconflict.htm
This naturally tends to exacerbate the tension and increase the potential for conflict; as with many competing visions and views there are bound to be differences of opinion and consequently conflict between different individuals." As a result many people in many organizations are forced to invent their own corporate vision. When you have different versions of goals, direction, and values among different individuals and groups, you increase the probability of unproductive conflict. " (Landau, Landau, and Landau 9)
An example given by Landau et al. illustrates this important point. The authors describe a situation where each individual working in a museum visualized the aims and goals of the institution differently.
One visualized the museum as primarily an educational institution, whereas the other saw its primary goal as entertainment. The business of the museum could not be carried out without the collaboration of these two officers, but unfortunately the difference in…
Figure 1. Numbers of Unauthorized Foreign-Born in the United States, 1980-2005
Source: ( http://www.prb.org/Template.cfm?Section=PRB&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=13774 )
Another factor to consider is that globalization has also increased the national and cultural diversity in the workplace. (Landau, Landau, and Landau 22) "People of different cultures, genders, ages, and professions may have different attitudes toward work and family, equality
(c) Based on what you learned in T205A concept file 02, and T551 Linear Programming:
what is meant by conflict, its nature and sources?
Conflict in psychological development theory offered by Erik Erikson is a dichotomy. It can act both as a means of moving ahead towards growth and development or on the other hand lead to a dead stop. A situation that one finds oneself in causes internal emotions that are in direct opposition to each other (Cherry). A conflict can hence result in decisions that are least anticipated, even by the individual afflicted by it. Individuals working in organizations, specially, face conflicting situations regularly even though they may not realize it. The participants in the ADEA Leadership Workshop sought out the sources of conflicts. In organizational behavior, it was evident that the younger generation was not disposed to aligning with the values professed by the senior…
1) Cherry. What Is Conflict. Available: http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/conflict.htm . Last accessed 25 Mar 2015.
2) Hoelscher & Comer. (2002). Case II: Conflict Recognition -- The Case of the Misdirected Faculty. Journal of Dental Education. 6 (4), 526-532
3) Collani. (2010). "Response to 'Desired and Feared -- What Do We Do Now and Over the Next 50 Years' by Xiao-Li Meng." The American Statistician. 64 (1), 23-25.
4) Tschiesche. (2012). Logical Thinking: How to use your brain to your advantage . Available: http://bookboon.com/blog/2012/02/logical-thinking-how-to-use-your-brain-to-your-advantage/ . Last accessed 25 Mar 2015.
However, the type of training format isn't the only thing the trainer must deal with. There are times when a trainee can present conflict in the training class which causes unwanted disruption. The trainer must be familiar with the various methods of dealing with conflict.
In each training class, there will be different types of trainees. The quiet type does not contribute to the class at all; the talkative trainee tries to talk more than the trainer which disrupts the class; the know-it-all thinks he can do a better job of training the class than the trainee; the negative trainee criticizes everything the trainer does; and the aggressive trainee does not possess the social skills to converse appropriately or argue constructively. In each case, the trainer must know how to handle the situation.
When dealing with the quiet trainee, the trainer should not try to force the person to speak.…