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Statement of the Situation
When you asked me to pick you up at the airport, I agreed. I drove twenty miles to meet you and waited at the gate. The plane emptied out but you weren't on it. The airline couldn't give me a passenger list but they told me that another flight from that city was coming in three hours later. I decided to grab a bite to eat in the restaurant and watched TV there until the plane arrived. You weren't on that plane either. I grew concerned, but had no idea how to reach you. I had no choice but to drive home and wait. The next day, I saw you downtown and asked you what happened. You told me that you caught an earlier flight.
A statement of my reaction
I was first looking forward to seeing you. When you didn't come off the…
For example, if he was British I might try to respect his reserve, and try to curtail some of my stereotypically American gestures or bluntness towards him. I might also make some references to his culture that I found interesting. However, if Hodge came from a more highly emotive culture, I might still express my interest in aspects of his native land, but I might try to be more, rather than less reserved than is my custom.
In dealing with the reflective colleague whom I often disagreed with, I would try to make use of both of our common communicative styles, to establish a rapport. This might be difficult, because reflectives tend to be fairly uninterested in emotions, and more attuned to factual details. However, as both supportives and reflectives tend to be less confrontational, I would try to appeal to my colleague's fascination with facts, and emphasize our mutual…
Communication Styles: Chapter 4." Published by Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint.
2000. 14 Apr 2007. http://xnet.rrc.mb.ca/mariav/Downloads/BASIC%20SALES/Presentations/SELLING_today_3ce_ch04.ppt#277,2,LearningObjectives
Communication Styles" CEDA-Meta Professional Project. 14 Apr 2007. http://www.cedanet.com/meta/communication_styles.htm
Stakeholder Analysis of the National Health Service
The National Health Service (NHS) is the world's largest publicly funded health service (NHS, 2011). It provides high quality medical care free of charge to patients across England. NHS uses government funding to run operations and pay employees. Being a national public sector organization, the NHS influences and is influenced by several stakeholders including the government, patients, suppliers, the media and community members. Ethical behavior can help gain approval and cooperation from these stakeholders for the growth of the NHS.
Influence of Different Stakeholders on the NHS
The government is the largest source of funding for the oyal Blackburn Hospital and the National Health Service. The annual budget of the NHS for 2010-2011 was £105 billion (The King's Fund, 2012). The performance of the NHS determines the government's chances for re-election so it influences the NHS through policies for…
Martin, D. (19 January 2011). NHS Patients to be Offered Free Private Treatment…As Long as it doesn't Cost Any More. Health. Accessed on 12 May 2012 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1348442/NHS-patients-offered-free-private-treatment-long-doesnt-cost-more.html
NHS. (2011). About the NHS. Accessed on 12 May 2012 from http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/overview.aspx
The King's Fund. (2012). Frequently Asked Questions. Accessed on 12 May 2012 from http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/current_projects/general_election_2010/frequently_asked.html
The Star. (11 May 2012). Union Warning NHS Staff over Pay Cut Fears. Accessed on 12 May 2012 from http://www.thestar.co.uk/news/health/union-warning-nhs-staff-over-pay-cut-fears-1-4537267
communication style is being used by the following personnel. 1. Rashad attended the team meeting with all the rest. When the topic of role clarification for assistive personnel came up, he stated that he thought part of his role was to anticipate the needs of the patients for toileting and personal hygienic care. Robin, one of the staff RNs in their psychiatric care group home, raised her voice as she firmly stated, "You are only an aide. That is in the RN role. We don't expect you to think, just to do what we tell you to when we tell you." Rashad sat quietly without responding because he needed to keep his job but began his plan on how he'd make Robin pay for her statement. Maybe he wouldn't do anything without being told.
The psychiatric nurse was being aggressive. She was humiliating Rashad and belittling him. What she is…
Negotiation and Conflict Resolution
Most Valuable Communication Help
Communication is central to the management of conflict and organizational leaders know this too well (Jones & rinkert, 2008). Possessing the most brilliant ideas or translating them into action means little or nothing unless existing conflict is adequately dealt with. Conflict usually involves communication behaviors in relationships. Chapter 8 discusses the functions of communication in conflict, namely confrontation, confirmation, and comprehension and how coaches help their clients perform these functions. They enable clients to transmit the message on the need for conflict management, which is confrontation; respect and protect individual and cultural identity, which is confirmation; and establish understanding on both sides concerning the conflict, which is comprehension. The individual is the main focus. The client should be able to objectively understand his conflict and craft the correct strategies and skills to address and solve it. The authors propose a…
Jones, T.S. & Brinkert, R. (2008). Conflict coaching, conflict management strategies and skills for the individual. Sage Publications, Inc.
In intimate relationships, men still communicate through the same direct methods but they have tremendous difficulty expressing more personal thoughts and feelings to their partners. They may throw themselves into work to support their families as an expression of their love but they have a much harder time expressing their love verbally. Meanwhile, women tend to rely on the same metamessages such as by communicating their feelings and needs to men through a wider range of communication strategies many of which are lost on men.
This can cause significant problems in intimate relationships because from the woman's perspective, she has been trying to communicate her thoughts and needs. Eventually, she can become hurt, angry, and resentful, because she interprets his ignorance as a rejection rather than realizing that he genuinely does not understand what she has been trying to communicate. The man may also become frustrated because from his perspective,…
Deborah Tannen. "Talk in the Intimate Relationship: His and Hers"
Gender-Based Communication Styles
GENDER-BASED DIFFERENCES IN INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
This project consists of an observational study intended to identify and compare the differences in social interaction styles between the genders. The study endeavored to compare the various components of interpersonal communication, such as body language, eye contact and physical gestures among various subjects observed in a university courtyard frequented by students as well as by university instructors and visitors.
The experimenter monitored the ways men and women differ in communication styles. In order to minimize extraneous factors (such as larger group dynamics or sexual interest) that lie beyond the scope of this project, the experimenter observed only one-on-one interactions between groups of two same-gender subjects.
The background of the study was chosen because it provided the opportunity to observe numerous groups engaged in similar interactions in a relatively short period of time, in addition to several different seating options including a…
71) points out, "Excessive concern for economic development and materialism during a major part of the last century in most of the countries of the world relegated values having bearing on the qualitative aspect of life to the background." He notes that organizations are now taking a greater interest in the relevance of the quality of work life. Parker was delighted with her higher salary but felt the money would not be worth it unless she felt good about her work and her workplace. Ilies, Scott & Judge (2006, p. 561) point out that there is an increasing amount of research being done with respect to work behavior that goes beyond traditional measures of job performance. They found that people with positive affect and agreeable personalities exhibited greater levels of citizenship than people deemed less agreeable, or even disagreeable.
Parker's co-workers would probably all agree that she has a positive…
My personality and communication style
My personality and communication style is what Taylor (2010) would describe in "five factor" terms (447) as moderate extrovert, which implies significant introvert; moderate conscientious, which means that I can tolerate some deviation from form if content dictates; high on agreeability and openness, and low relative to the norm on neuroticism. My communication style is verbal, accomodative but not infinitely so, solution-oriented and not Machiavellian or vindictive (Taylor, 2010, p. 447), and I at least intellectually seek what Kotchemidova (2010) calls "egalitarian friendliness" (209).
Interactions with differing styles cause difficulties at work
This causes episodic difficulties and stress for me at the restaurant where I work as pantry chef, with some employees with different traits and communication styles. These are the minority however, and other co-workers provide examples that are free of conflict even though our character endowments and communication styles differ. Jeff…
de Vries, R., Bakker-Pieper, A., and Oostenveld, W. (2010). Leadership =
communication? The relations of leaders' communication styles with leadership styles, knowledge sharing and leadership outcomes. Journal of Business Psychology 25, 367-380. Retrieved from: DOI 10.1007/s10869-009-9140-2
Kotchemidova, C. (2010, Apr.). Emotion culture and cognitive constructions of reality.
Communication Quarterly 58 (2), 207-234. Retrieved from: DOI: 10.1080/01463371003717892
.....interpersonal skills in the workplace cannot be underestimated, as organizational performance depends on the ability of employees to communicate, solve problems, and make ethical decisions. Employers value interpersonal skills as much as technical skills, and like technical skills, interpersonal skills can be taught and learned in formal and systematic ways (Reece & Reece, 2016). However, interpersonal relations in the workplace often proceed informally. People form alliances and allegiances based on structural factors like formal team membership, or informal alliances based on factors as diverse as gender and ethnicity or personality orientation.
Individuals define themselves in terms of group membership (Ellemers, et al., 2003, p. 11). When individuals feel they are "under surveillance from in-group members," they may not be fully honest in group communications or feel threatened, silenced, or cut off from the group in ways that can impede performance (Ellemers, et al., 2003, p. 11). Therefore, leaders need to…
Bridging the Gap
(Between Communication Styles)
In Management in Two Cultures, author Eva S. Kras discusses many differences between Mexican and U.S. cultures and their effects on business dealings. She describes differences in cultural values, customs, and attitudes that lead to misunderstandings when the two countries meet in the workplace. Perhaps most significant are communication styles, which are learned by socialization in childhood and so habitual to both cultures that they almost go unnoticed. The work of Deborah Tannen (1995) on feminine and masculine communication styles is helpful as a way to look at differences in the communication styles of Mexicans and Americans.
Tannen argues that American girls and boys are socialized so differently, they almost grow up in two different cultures. Socialization begins at birth. For example, when we hold baby girls, we position them so that they can see directly into our faces as we talk to them.…
Kras, E.S. (1995). Management in two cultures: Bridging the gap between U.S. And Mexican managers. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Tannen, D. (1995). Talking from 9 to 5. New York: HarperCollins.
Sir Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic expedition might very well have been viewed as a tremendous disaster. When he and his crew found their ship trapped by ice, they remained for nine months waiting for enough of a thaw that they might be able to escape, until the ship was crushed by the ice. They then lived for six months on top of the ice, in an encampment, until the water was sufficiently clear that a journey on lifeboats could be attempted. Shackleton and the crew made it finally to land at the edge of Antarctica, on Elephant Island, where they had no chance of rescue. So Shackleton selected five men to join him in a single lifeboat and cross the open ocean for 800 miles, where they reached South Georgia Island, then had to cross unmapped mountains and glaciers on foot for 26 miles until they reached a Norwegian whaling station.…
Harmon, MB. (2002). Antarctic quest: Ernest Shackleton's splendid failure. Biography Magazine, April 2002.
Headland, R. (1999). Sail of the century. Geographical, April 1999.
However, gender expectations of different nations can impede free and open discussion in intercultural communications, if a particular culture has yet to accept that it is appropriate for women to confidently assume positions of authority.
Although cross-cultural communication presents a challenge, globalization has made understanding the difference between high-context and low-context cultures even more vital than ever before. Implied meanings in different cultures have different levels of signification, based upon relationships. "In relationship-oriented countries like Mexico, India and China, people tend to prioritize projects based on the hierarchy of the person who owns it" in contrast to the United States, where the project itself is viewed more important than the person in charge (Frase 2007).
Much like male-female communication tropes, social expectations rather than actual message or even delivery can affect the message conveyed and impede communication. An analysis of diverse work teams at international firms by Brett et al.…
Bond, J. (2007, December). Training in a diverse environment. Canadian HR
Reporter, 20(21), 19, 26. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global
through ProQuest (Document ID: 1410548371).
Brett, Jeanne, Kristin Behfar, & Mary C. Kern. (2006, November). Managing multicultural teams. Harvard Business Review, 84(11), 84-91. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global through ProQuest (Document ID: 1151916931).
3. If you feel threatened by what the other person has to say, take a break and formulate a reasoned response later.
IV. The third sign of miscommunication is not appreciating differences in communication styles.
A. The popular book Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus illustrates some different communication styles.
1. Although the differences are not necessarily related to gender, they are related to healthy relationships in general.
2. Some people prefer long periods of silence, while others like to talk a lot.
3. Some people need frequent positive feedback.
B. especting the other person's unique needs is crucial for healthy relationships.
1. When in doubt, ask the other person what they need from you to be a better communicator.
2. Be patient; it takes time to learn what the other person needs
3. Become more aware of your own communication styles and express what they are.
Duerksen, C. (2009). Communication skills for lifelong relationships. Discovery Health. Retrieved Nov 18, 2009 from http://health.discovery.com/centers/loverelationships/articles/communicate.html
Gray, J. (1992). Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus. New York: HarperCollins.
"Relationships and Communication" (nd). Better Health Channel. Retrieved Nov 19, 2009 from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Relationships_and_communication?OpenDocument
The Application of Five Communication Theories
There are countless communication theories, with each one looking at a different aspect of communication or looking at communication in a new way. The number of theories that exist raises the question of how they can be used to understand communication. The answer is that every communication is complicated, with one single theory not being enough to understand every communication completely. For this reason, various theories can be applied to various situations, with each one helping us to understand something about the communication. To consider how real situations can be analyzed, five communication theories will be described. Each one will then be applied to a real situation to show how the theory helps create understanding of the communication events and processes that make up human life.
Theory of Feminine Style
The theory of feminine style argues that the difference in the way that…
Dow, B.J. & Tonn, M.B. "Feminine Style and Political Judgment in the Rhetoric of Ann Richards." Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79(1993), 286-302.
McLuhan, M. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Men. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.
In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…
Cunningham, Lawrence, and Reich, John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. London: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Foster, William, Lockhart, Melissa, and Lockhart Darrell. Culture and Customs of Argentina. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Qingxue, Liu "Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West," 2003. Web.10/06/2012, < http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~inveling/pdf/liu_quingxue_inve9.pdf
Shivji, Issa, & Kapinga, Wilbert. Maasai rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Nairobi; Longhorn Publishers. 1998.
Sociolinguistics - How gender influences the way people speak?
Definition of keywords
Sociolinguistics: This is a study of language in respect of social, class, regional, gender and occupational factors.
Gender: It is the condition of being a female or a male and is mostly used in relation to cultural and social differences.
Gender Equality: A condition in which the opportunities and rights are not affected by the change of gender.
Speak: To say in order to express or convey feelings or conversation (oxforddictionaries.com)
Within the study of discourse, comparative analysis of the way women and men use language has been a topic of interest for quite some time. However, to date no coherent framework for gender differences in language and its use has been established empirically, despite relatively extensive theorizing. One reason for this lack of framework lies in the absence of a consensus in how language, whether written or…
Bridges of Madison County.(2010). Daily Motion.com. (Video) Retrieved from: http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xehubk_the-bridges-of-madison-county-1995_music
Cameron, D., 2007. The Guardian. [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/oct/01/gender.books [Accessed 29 November 2014].
Carli, L.L. (1999). Gender, interpersonal power, and social influence. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 81-99.
Freilino, J.P., Caswell, A. & Laasko, E., 2012. The Gendering of Language: A Comparison of Gender Equality in Countries with Gendered, Natural Gender, and Genderless Languages. Springer, pp. 268-281
Wolf's book, based on a number of scholarly articles she wrote during the last several years, looks at the manner in which women have been portrayed in the Broadway musical, and the references and relevance of those portraits to society's expectations of the time.
Communication Studies. (2012). etrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). esearch Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
8 (1): 247-63.
Gehrke, P. (2009). The Ethics and Politics of Speech: Communications and hetoric in the 20th Century. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press
Hesse-Biber, S., ed. (2011). Handbook of Feminist esearch: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Leung, K., et.al. (2008). Global Trends in Communication Education and esearch. Boston, MA: Hampton Press.
Levinson, W., et.al. (2010). Developing Physician Communication Skills…
Communication Studies. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
There is only so far Google Translate can take a person hoping to achieve social harmony across cultures. Language barriers are enhanced, and exacerbated, by the differences in non-verbal communication across cultures. Whether for business or personal interactions, non-verbal communications characterize a culture's values and social norms. This is why places like Sweden feel completely different from places like Saudi Arabia; and places are dramatically different in terms of how the society is structured, who is in power, and what norms govern behavior. Understanding the complex facets of cross-cultural communication can greatly enhance a travel experience, or a business interaction.
Of the innumerable sociological and anthropological frameworks used to understand and explain cross-cultural differences in communication, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions are among the most useful and well used. Power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term vs. short-term orientation, and indulgence vs. restraint are important and…
In a travel article about Stockholm, Alford (2012) relates tales that reveal the unique communication styles of Sweden. These styles can be conceptualized in terms of Hoftstede's cultural dimensions. For example, Swedish society has quite a low power distance; its culture is not hierarchical and is self-defined as being "socialist" in spirit (Alford, 2012, p. 2). Moreover, as Alford (2012) points out, most people in Stockholm also have a cabin in the woods or on an island -- highlighting the relatively flat social structure that has a low distance between haves and have-nots (p. 2). The power distance factor in Sweden can be readily compared to more hierarchical societies, such as India, in which the haves and the have-nots are separated by wide and usually insurmountable chasms. Even the United States has a higher power distance factor than does Sweden, as many Americans are fundamentally opposed to social institutions and structures that generate equality such as free higher education for all citizens, and free healthcare funded by taxpayer dollars. As American onlooker Alford (2012) describes it, " New parents get 480 days of parental leave?! Everyone I talk to seems to have a summer house on an island?!" (p. 2).
As Allwood (1999) points out, Sweden shares many communication traits in common with other Nordic countries like Finland. However, there are a few culture-specific variables that should be taken into account to better understand non-verbal communication patterns. One is specific to social gatherings in which alcohol is involved. Allwood (1999) notes that in Sweden, it is customary for each guest to bring and drink his or her own alcoholic beverages rather than expect the host to provide it. Moreover, the guests will not start drinking until a communal toast has been proposed (Allwood, 1999). This is somewhat similar to the Jamaican custom of not starting to eat at a party until the host makes an invitation to do so; which is ironic given the informal nature of Jamaican communication styles in general ("Jamaica: Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette," n.d.). Swedes appreciate informality, but do not appreciate superficiality in terms of conversation topics and styles ("Sweden: Conversation," 2009).
Allwood (1999) also notes that Swedish teaching styles are noticeably different from those in other cultures including other Nordic cultures. There is less authoritarian teaching styles in
Communication Management and Organizational Change
Communication management in the organization and most specifically in the organizational change environment is critically important. The work of Heathfield entitled "Communication in Change Management" state that it is impossible to "over-communicate when you are asking your organization to change." (2011, p.1) According to Heathfield, there are four critical components of effective communication as follows:
(1) The person sending the message must ensure that the message is presented clearly with great detail and that the message be perceived as containing integrity and that the message be authentic;
(2) The individual reading the message must make the decision to listen and to ask questions to ensure clarity and finally must trust the message's sender;
(3) The method of delivery must be chosen as appropriate for the context and for the needs of the sender and receiver of the message;
(4) The message content must resonate and…
Albrecht, Karl G. The Northbound Train. N.Y.: AMACON, 1994.
Blake, R. And Mouton J. Corporate Excellence Through Grid Organizational Development. Houston, 1968 Gulf Publishing Co.
Cohen, Eli and Tichy, Noel. "How Leaders Develop Leaders" in Training in Development. May 1997 pp. 58-73
DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1998). A tale of two corporations: managing uncertainty during organizational change. Human Resources Management, 37, 295-303. Retrieved May 10, 2006, from the LIRN, ProQuest database.
Communication Competence Between Male and Female College Athletes Survey Questions
How old are you?
Are you male or female?
What is your ethnicity?
F. Native American
The next 8 questions are on a scale from 1 to 7, 1 being strongly disagree, 4 being no opinion, and 7 being strongly agree
Do you think coaches are an important part of a team's success?
Do you think females exaggerate injury symptoms?
Do you think most coaches have your interest in mind?
Do coaches put the needs of the team above the need of the individual?
Are males are expected to be strong and invulnerable in athletics?
Do you think that being honest with your coaches is important for individual and the team welfare?
Can you go to your coach for guidance and help?
communication chapter 3 Maximum Performance, describe develop enhance communication abilities skills future (15 marks). Part 2: EITHE: imagine brought a consultant offer advice communication processes business/organisation work ( worked recently).
The modern day business society is extremely dynamic and competitive. In the context of increasing forces of globalization, economic agents transcend boundaries and strengthen their competitive positions. This virtually means that the companies are presented with two different situations. For once, within the global community, they become able to access wider consumer markets and enhance their sales levels. On the other hand however, within the domestic community, they encounter increased competition as more foreign players enter the local market.
The business community as such becomes more and more competitive. But the complexities of the economic climate do not end with globalization, as these are enhanced by other elements as well. For instance, the demands of the customers exponentially increase…
Forster, N.S., 2011, Maximum performance: a practical guide to leading and managing people, Edward Eldar Publishing
Active listening, Mind Tools, http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/ActiveListening.htm last accessed on January 11, 2012
2003, Managing people -- communication, Business Town, http://www.businesstown.com/people/communication-improving.asp last accessed on January 11, 2012
2004, Strategies for developing listening skills, National Capital Language Resource Center, http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/listening/stratlisten.htm last accessed on January 11, 2012
Communication Skills Needed for Effective Collaboration
Communication is the process of relaying information from the source to the recipient. The essential elements in a communication process include the message, channel, encoder and the decoder. The message is the intended information that is passed by the communicator to the listener. From the source, the message is made meaningful through the encoder. Once the message reaches the other end of the communication channel, it gets meaning to the recipient when has passed through the decoder stage (Agarwal, 2010). This also means that the message can be made use of once the message passes through all these stages.
The audience cannot make much out of the communication because of a breakdown. The reasons for these include inappropriate message, wrong medium used as well as presence of detractors in the channel of communication.
The audience has a difficulty following the communication…
Agarwal, O. (2010). Effective communication (Rev. ed.). Mumbai [India: Himalaya Pub. House.
Decker, B. (2007). How to communicate effectively. London: Kogan Page
Mambert, W. (2013). The elements of effective communication; idea, power, tactics. Washington: Acropolis Books.
McQuail, D. (2011). Communication. London: Longman.
During the process of conducting an interview there is are selected approaches that are utilized to set the tone of the conversation. Depending upon the style, this can have an effect on the kind of questions and the answers that are provided. In the case of the interview between Michael Parkinson and Meg yan, his style had an effect on what was learned in the process. To fully understand what is taking place requires looking at how the interview was conducted. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the style, seating arrangement, questioning approach, purpose and how this could be improved. Together, these different elements will provide specific insights about how to conduct an effective interview. (Mestherie, 1999, pp. 93- 100) ("Meg yan on Parkinson," 2011)
The interview Parkinson and Meg yan is taking a very confrontational style. This occurred when Parkinson began to have condescending responses…
Meg Ryan on Parkinson. (2011). You Tube. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VF6l6k-3ods
Andrews, P. (2005). Sports Journalism. London: Sage.
Ansell, G. (2005). Introduction to Journalism. Johannesburg: Jacana.
Eadie, W. (2009). 21st Century Communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
Communication and Perception Processes
Communication models simplify the descriptions of complex communication interactions
Transmission- a linear one-way process in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Barriers / Noise
Environmental noise- physical noise
Semantic noise- noise in encoding process
Interaction- participants alternate positions as senders and receivers of messages
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Feedback- messages sent in response to other messages
Physical context- environmental factors
Psychological context- mental and emotional factors
Transaction- a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.
Carey, J. (Unk). "A cultural approach to communication." Communication as culture.
Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Northern Illinois University website: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/gunkel/coms465/carey.html
"Communication and Perception Processes." (Unk.) In, A primer on communication studies, pp.
1-21. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Lardbucket website: http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/a-primer-on-communication-studies/s01-02-the-communication-process.html
Effective written communication is necessary in a number of different situations. In the first section of this paper, I discuss my areas of personal weakness in written communication. Those areas include improving my tone and voice, understanding my audience's point-of-view, and improving my self-confidence. Effective persuasive communication depends on rhetorical strategies like pathos, ethos, and logos. In the second section of this paper, I suggest how to solve a specific problem using effective written communication.
Whether dealing with a casual conversation with a friend about the need for sidewalks to improve community safety, an email to a boss proposing a new safety procedures, or an academic persuasive essay about the community's need for a free spay/neuter program, I will need to know how to communicate effectively. Effective written communication depends on choosing the most effective tone, voice, and style for each situation. One of the three aspects of my…
"Basic Rhetoric and Writing Strategy," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.wpi.edu/Images/CMS/Diversity/Basic_Rhetoric_and_Writing_Strategy.pdf
Pepper, M., Brizee, A. & Angeli, E. (n.d.). Visual rhetoric: Analyzing visual documents. Retrieved online: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/725/
"What is Effective Writing Communication," (n.d.). Your Dictionary. Retrieved online: http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/style-and-usage/what-is-effective-writing-communication.html
On some level, art is communication. The artist creates a visual element that conveys complex ideas, emotions, and concepts. Therefore, learning good communication skills is essential for an artist. Communication also requires creativity. Negotiating difficult deals and addressing conflict depend on creative problem solving skills.
Animators are called upon even more to be solid communicators because of the nature of their job. An animator renders stories into visual form. Storytelling is a form of communication. An animator who can communicate well is one who can convey the story arcs and dialog in ways that are memorable and meaningful to the audience. On a more practical level, animators work with people as a matter of course throughout their job. hereas a painter could be holed up in a studio for six months out of the year, never talking to anyone, an animator will rarely live an isolated lifestyle. Communication is…
"Effective Communication Skills: The Art of Communication." Retrieved online: http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/1-13-2005-64148.asp
Scott, Elizabeth. "Communicate: Improve Your Relationships With Effective Communication Skills." About.com. Sept 18, 2011. Retrieved online: http://stress.about.com/od/relationships/ht/healthycomm.htm
Additional research showed that those who were frequently exposed to these movies were also inclined to develop risk-taking behavior (Greene and Kromar).
Vulnerable young women who had long-term exposure to sexually objectifying media could suffer from decreased self-esteem, according to another study (Aubrey 2006). A group of 149 female undergraduates in a big mid-Western university was surveyed for their responses after having been exposed to such media. The study revealed that the exposure could dent their global self-esteem if they already possessed the vulnerability to these media materials. An example is Seventeen Magazine, which is an example of a sexually objectifying medium (Aubrey).
The media are an effective instrument of war (Payne 2005). Recent conflicts clearly demonstrate that the transmission of information plays a significant part in warfare. Winning a war is considered as decisive as actually beating the enemy at the battlefield. Winning the medial war is, therefore, a…
Aubrey, J. S, (2006). Exposure to Sexually Objectifying Media and Body Self-Perceptions Among College Women.16 pages. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Springer
Greene, K.and Kromar, M. (2005). Predicting Exposure to, and Liking of, Media Violence. 17 pages. Communication Studies: Central States Speech Association
Holts, S. (2005). Establishing Connections. 2 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
Kariithi, N. (2007). Connecting the Continent. 4 pages. Communication World: International Association of Business Communicators
This is exacerbated by the problem that Carmen is close friends with the owner Kenneth. Kenneth has a similar conflict management style to Carmen. He can be extremely nice when dealing with people casually, but whenever a problem arises like Carmen he makes excuses, avoids the problem, tries to pass it on to someone else, or resorts to texting or faxing messages rather than confronting complaints. Their favorite 'nonverbal' communication strategy is simply not being there.
A failure to listen is one of the most common workplace communication problems. "When people or groups are in conflict, communication between them tends to get worse and worse. As a conflict escalates, people limit their direct contact with people on the other side, because such conflict is uncomfortable or threatening….Eventually all direct communication between parties may be cut off. Sometimes, communication is cut off in protest" (Lack of communication channels/avoided communication, 2005, OTPIC).…
Craig, Suzanne. (2012). What restaurants know (about you). The New York Times. Retrieved:
Lack of communication channels/avoided communication. (2005). Online Training Program
on Intractable Conflict (OTPIC). Retrieved:
Now I realize that we both ignored feedback because of our anger. I was angry I couldn't do what I wanted to do, and my mother was angry that I was not doing what I was told. We did not have a meaningful dialogue, and I never asked why she wanted me home by a certain time. She never told me, either. Today, I would have asked her why she wanted me home earlier than I thought I should be home, and I would give her my reasons for wanting to stay out later. We did not use feedback effectively; we let our emotions rule instead.
Finally, I'm remembering a conversation I had with a friend that totally broke down. We were just hanging out, talking about stuff, and I said something that he misconstrued. I didn't realize it at the time, and did not realize I had offended him.…
Electronic communication has become one of the most important methods for people to communicate with one another in recent years. Spielberg (1999) noted that patients have sought to utilize electronic communication with their physicians. In the past, he argued, a variety of exchanges were utilized, including in-person visits, telephone, pagers and voicemail, so it was only natural that communication between patients and those within the medical profession would be extended to the realm of electronic communication. Thus, the market has driven the need for health care organizations to begin to explore how they can use electronic communication methods such as email, the Internet, online chats or even SMS messaging to bridge the communication gap with their patients. hile the market may demand new methods of communication be developed, there are risks inherent to the medical profession that present challenges or obstacles to facilitating the market-demanded electronic communication methods.
Spielberg, A. (1999). Online without a net: Physician-patient communication by electronic mail. American Journal of Law & Medicine. Vol. 15 (1999) 267-295.
Hassol, A.; Walker, J.; Kidder, D.; Rokita, K.; Young, D.; Pierdon, S.; Deitz, D.; Kuck, S. & Ortiz, E. (2004). Patient experiences and attitudes about access to a patient electronic health care record and linked web messaging. Journal of the American Medical Information Association. Vol. 11 (6) 505-513.
Winkelman, W.; Leonard, K. & Kossos, P. (2005). Patient-perceived usefulness of electronic medical records: Employing grounded theory in the development of information and communication technologies for use by patients living with chronic illness. Journal of American Medical Information Association. Vol. 12 (3) 306-314.
Wager, K.A., Lee, F.W., & Glaser, J.P. (2009). Health care information systems: A practical approach for health care management (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
From the experiences, I have had in organizations that work to combine autonomy, mastery and purpose, the level of performance goes up and becomes the new norm of corporate performance. The many studies of motivation underscore that when autonomy, mastery and purpose are combined, long-term learning and motivation occur (amsey, 2010). The communication networks and channels within organizations are accentuated and made more effective when these three attributes become the foundation of long-term learning and growth over time.
In conclusion, the culture, incentive, and leadership within a given organization have a major impact on the effectiveness of communication networks and channels within organizations. When there is a transformational mindset about aggregating content, data and information then transforming it from a system of record to competitive advantage, companies can use their expertise to compete more effectively. In many respects, this ability to compete more effectively based on better use of information…
Andriole, S. (2010). Business Impact of Web 2.0 Technologies. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(12), 67.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Billington, C., & Davidson, R.. (2010). Using knowledge brokering to improve business processes. The McKinsey Quarterly,(2), 110.
Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
This became a major roadblock for the project with opposing views on the problem.
Finally, the manager spoke to the client and explained the situation. They agreed to extend the due date by a couple of months and the developers and testers felt that time was good enough to make the changes. So, communication helped to clear this stand-off between the team members.
Leadership style of the manager
The manager followed a democratic style of leadership. According to Daft (2007, p.44), "A democratic leader delegates authority to others, encourages participation, relies on subordinates' knowledge for completion of tasks, and depends on subordinate respect for influence." This is the exact approach that was followed by my manager and it proved to be effective. He could manage the entire project and could communicate easily with those located in different parts of the world.
Such a style of leadership was comfortable for all…
Daft, Richard. L. (2007). The Leadership Experience. Publication: Cengage Learning.
Hartley, Peter. Bruckmann, Clive. G. (2002). Business Communication. Publication: Psychology Press.
Collaboration and Communication among different personality types can also be optimized by knowledge. The three personality types identified include the Thinker, the Organizer, and the Giver. Thinkers tend to reflect independently upon new information. They are good at analysis and abstract thinking, and devising new approaches to complex issues. The organizer in turn prefers clear, concrete task definitions in a structured, stable environment. They tend to carefully organize both their work and their schedules, and require feedback to ensure that they are on the right path. They are responsible and reliable and work well within social settings. The Giver enjoys studying with others, as well as teaching them. Their main aim is to be helpful to others, while also being honest and clear in expressing their feelings. They are also good at negotiation and aim to communicate openly.
In a group setting, these three personality types can work well together…
Communication Upgrade Plan
Communications Upgrade Plan
The Abco Company wishes to upgrade its telecommunications technology to a system that is more efficient than the outdated Centrex system now in place. As part of the upgrade plan, the CEO has asked for an explanation of the various systems and technologies available for the upgrade. This research explores various technologies and recommends the proper solution for the business problem at hand.
Communications Upgrade Plan
The Centrex phone system has been the standard in business telecommunications since the 1960s. The system has been the only system of this type for many years. usinesses, such as Abco have had their Centrex System for many years. However, aside from being outdated technology, the Centrex System is no longer the most cost effective solution for businesses. The Abco Corporation has had its Centrex system for as long as anyone can remember. Until recently, no one had…
Callahan, R. (2008). Businesses Move to Voice-over-IP. 12 September 2008. Forbes.com.
Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2008/12/09/skype-vonage-ringcentral_leadership_clayton_in_rc_1209claytonchristensen_inl.html
This article explores the advantages and move towards VoIP in many businesses.
CISCO. (2011). Quality of Service for Voice over IP. Cisco Systems. Retrieved from http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./docs/ios/solutions_docs/qos_solutions/QoSVoIP/QoSVoIP.html
Communication and Leadership
hat makes a great leader? How is a great leader made? There is no single answer to that question because there are as many different kinds of great leaders as there are problems in society that need to be overcome. hile certainly it is true that many important and effective leaders share a number of the same qualities, it is also imperative to remember that each leader has different challenges that face him or her because of the particular historical circumstances that call that person to be a leader.
This research proposal maps out a plan to study the ways in which African-Americans become leaders in the United States today, looking at the struggles that they have to overcome in terms of the general level of background racism that still exists in this nation. But this is certainly not a research project designed to cast pity on…
We now turn away from recent history to contemporary American society to look at the ways in which some contemporary African-Americans are becoming leaders in their communities, despite the racism that they face from the surrounding world. http://www.twbookmark.com/books/33/0446675466/chapter_excerpt9276.html
This is thought to be negative reinforcement. Oftentimes various manipulative strategies may be used. One of these is impression management. This is where one tries to make one's side look good. Authority involves stating one's right to make a decision. Emotion involves making an emotional display to get one's way (Families and Family Decision Making, 2008).
I think that negotiation is the best method. This allows everyone to have their opinions heard and then the best decision can be made. This gives everyone the opportunity to participate in the decision making process and feel as if they are contributing the well being of the family as a whole. If everyone is allowed to feel as if their ideas and thoughts count for something then they are more likely to listen to others. The best decisions are usually made when all of the information and choices are laid out for everyone…
Centralization vs. Decentralization.(2007). Retrieved May 9, 2010, from Web site:
Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Attachment Styles. Retrieved from About Web site:
The proposed merger between Riordan Manufacturing and JJJ Company is detailed in four company memorandum written from the perspective of the accounting department, and addressed to a select group of individuals as well as the committee responsible for the decision on moving forward with the acquisition. Each memo contains a review of material which ultimately leads to a recommendation on the feasibility of the venture. Yet, a review of these messages reveals writings which are poorly organized, composed, and incomplete.
How well did the communication convey the intended message?
The four memorandums convey the accounting department's viewpoint that the proposed merger between the two organizations would not be in the best interest of Riordan given the financial stability of the JJJ Company. The two memos which state this point most forcefully are the Ad Hoc Committee memo and the Mark, Sales Manager memo. The main concern however, is…
mGAMES would benefit from sure and reliable contracts, help in adapting to the new requirements and additional research funds. The benefits adherent to a process of negotiation are sometimes considered synonyms with the goals of a negotiation process. However a distinction must be made in that the goals refer to the future, or the expected benefits, whereas the actual benefits are more realistic and secure.
A mutual benefit would be that of generating a combined ability to strengthen the market position. This would ultimately result in a superior position relative to the competition. "Competition in the emerging handled device industry was fierce. Essentially well established PC manufacturers, every telecom manufacturer, most electronics manufacturers and many other sought to become players in this multi-billion dollar segment. New technologies and new models were constantly being released. Color capability, communication capabilities, screen, size, processor speed, AM capacity, overall size of the unit and…
Hill, S., 2002, mGAMES, Richard Ivey School of Business, the University of Western Ontario
Maiese, M., 2003, What Is Negotiation? Beyond Intractability, http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/negotiation/last accessed on November 17, 2008
Volkema, R.J., 1999, the Negotiation Toolkit, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn
Welsh, S.G., 2003, Managing and Leading: 52 Lessons Learned for Engineers, American Society of Civil Engineers
3. What can be done to alleviate the difficulty in maintaining both text-based and 'normal' web sites?
It is important to provide websites that are accessible to all individuals and at times this involves creating a text-based version of a graphical website. Often designers fall behind on updating these alternate versions of their websites, thus leaving disabled individuals with inadequate access to the information they are searching. There are, however, many ways that designers can make this job easier for themselves, including the use of database driven websites where they need only update the information in one place, but all versions of the site draw their information from the same site, and thus present the same information to all users. Other solutions suggested by the authors (Gregorr, et al., 2005) involve the use of style sheets that allow Internet users to select the specific features of a site to suit…
Gregor, P., Sloan, D., & Newell, a.F., 2005. Disability and Technology: Building Barriers or Creating Opportunities? Advances in Computers, 64, pp. 283-347.
Lay, M. et al., 2000. Technical Communication. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
Schement, J.R.. ed., 2002. Economics of Information. In J.R. Schement, ed. 2002. Encyclopedia of Communication and Information, vol. 1. USA: Macmillan Reference. 271-272.
Communication in Organizations
Define organizational culture and provide analysis of organizational culture relating to role, power, people and task culture as discussed by Charles B. Handy (1994) "Understanding Organizations"
Organizational culture is many things including the values and behaviors an organization and its members adopt to create the environment in which they work. esearchers have struggled for decades to define organizational culture as one thing or another. They have also worked diligently to define what skills or components are necessary to promote a successful 'culture' within an organization. To understand how organizational culture can benefit any enterprise one must first define organizational culture.
Organizational culture is defined differently depending on who you talk to. There are several consensus opinions however about what organizational culture includes. Organizational culture includes the morals, values, beliefs and strategies a firm and its employees or managers adopt to conduct business successfully (Bonache & Cabrera, 1999).…
Bonache, J., Cabrera, E.F. (1999). "An expert HR system for aligning organizational culture and strategy." Human Resources Planning, 22(1): 51.
Handy, C.B. (1994). Understanding Organizations. New York: Penguin.
Hansen, D.A. (2005 -- March). "Total Quality Management." Available:
The 5 stages of group development are: Forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. (GMU, n.d.) Stage 4 is the only stage where the group is actually productive.
Stage 1: In this stage, the group leader is sought after for guidance. The group is more or less feeling out the situation and looking for safety. The group is attempting to get acquainted with the task at hand and the other group members. To move on to the next stage, each group member must give up the insecurities associated with the first stage.
Stage2: In stage two, competition and conflict takes over. It is crucial for the group members and the leader to allow for the group to take in new personalities, to show flexibility and to allow for the group members attitude adjustments. The most difficult part of this stage is group patience. If and when conflict occurs, the group…
The author tries to take credit for making those two movies into hits.
2. Disinterested -- there is no compelling reason provided as to why the audience should care. The writer does not address the needs of the audience. Moreover, the writer has obviously not proofread the letter. The entire presentation is sloppy and unprofessional.
WHAT DOES the AUDIENCE NEED to KNOW?
What is the main idea of your message in relation to audience need?
That I offer a service that is of value to the audience
What are the additional ideas of your message that respond to audience needs?
The author has a positive history with the audience
The author was a success when employed by the audience
The author has enhanced their skills
The author has built a track record of success
The author would like to renew the business relationship
It is to the benefit of the…
Effective communications between doctors and nurses has always been a high priority in the medical field, especially in an arena such as a hospital, health clinic or hospice. Communicating effectively between the nurses and the doctors is especially important in a hospice setting due to the fact that the patient is usually suffering the most; both with the physical and the emotional pain and suffering that is being experienced as the patient nears death.
One recent study determined that "doctors and nurses have different but complementary roles in what, when and how treatment choices are negotiated with patients" (Mccullough, Mckinlay, Barthow, Moss, Wise, 2010, p. 482) and the treatment choices when facing death are decisions that should not be taken lightly, either by the involved nurses or the doctors. The decisions taking place in the hospice setting will often determine how much pain and suffering the patient will endure…
Basch, E.; (2010) The missing voice of patients in drug-safety reporting, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 362, Issue 10, pp. 865-869
Bezzina, A.J.; (2009) Prevalence of advance care directives in aged care facilities of the Northern Illawarra, Emergency Medicine Australia, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 379 -- 385
Byrnes, J.; Braden, J.; James, G.; Broadus, T.; Owen, R.; (2011) Implementing an electronic medical record (EMR) in an integrated delivery system Sharp Healthcare (SHC) San Diego, California, accessed on September 25, 2011 at http://proceedings.amia.org/1alo2n/
David, S.E.; Ahmed, Z.; Salek, M.S.; Finlay, A.Y.; (2005) Does enough quality of life related discussion occur during dermatology outpatient consultations? The Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 153, pp. 997 -- 1000
... Paents' expectations had a stong and positive diect effect on adolescents' expectations and indiect effects though school-based paental involvement and though students' high school involvement. (Tusty, 2002)
All in all, Afican-Ameican gils appeaed to be positively influenced in almost evey measue of achievement, if those desiable behavios wee einfoced by positive goup inteactions. Such a study pesents clea evidence that the psychology of the goup, and the assumptions made by society, play a lage and significant ole in shaping oppotunities fo Afican-Ameican women. Those who do not have the suppot of thei families, fiends, and educatos, will not eceive the encouagement necessay to make the pope choices in egad to caee. They will not pusue the education that is equied fo advancement to positions with highe eanings potential. Even moe likely, lacking sufficient encouagement, young Afican-Ameican gils will find themselves locked into unfulfilling "caees" that bing little in the…
references for Job Attributes Associated with Work and Family: A Longitudinal Study of Career Outcomes. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 53(5-6), 303+.
Phillips, S.D., & Imhoff, a.R. (1997). Women and Career Development: A Decade of Research. 31+.
Trusty, J. (2002). African-Americans' Educational Expectations: Longitudinal Causal Models for Women and Men. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(3), 332+.
Situational Overview - The situation involves two individuals within a department inside a large industrial organization, Bing (employee) and Hart (supervisor). It appears that Bing is taking 2-3 electronic panels to his workbench, inspecting them together, and charging double or triple set-up time for his work. Hart has received a number of complaints about this and finally confronted Bing. Bing was upset about the confrontation, and brought in the Union representative.
Bing's view is that Hart is negatively focused on him directly, jealous because he has musical talent and works outside of the job. He portrayed Hart's comments as sarcastic and puerile, without anything constructive to say. Hart's view is that Bing is cheating and has been asked several times to stop the behaviors, but refuses to do so. Hart believes that he has the responsibility to the company to ensure honesty, and simply can no longer tolerate…
Gregory, N. (February 26, 2010). 12 Secrets of Effective Business Communication. NOUPE. Retrieved from: http://www.noupe.com/how-tos/12-secrets-of-effective-business-communication.html
Shaw, M. (September 8, 2003). Hearing vs. Listening. Network World. Retrieved from: http://www.networkworld.com/newsletters/2003/0908manage1.html
Communication Memo - Protest of Health Insurance Fees
What is the purpose of your memo?
This memo presents the position of the Campus WHATEVER Club that single employees should not be charged the same insurance fees as married people paying for family coverage.
Describe your primary audience.
The primary audience is the president of the University.
Is there a secondary audience for the memo?
The memo could also be sent to the Board of Trustees, Vice President for Administration and the head of the Human Resources department, who are all responsible for decisions regarding employee insurance benefits.
Brainstorm for a few moments, jotting down points to be covered in the memo.
The proposal discriminates against single employees.
Married people with those with family coverage will incur more medical expenses and should be asked to pay additional premiums per family member. The proposal causes low morale among single employees. Some may…
The world of advertisement has greatly revolved and there are several changes that each company must follow in order to have the market presence and be at par with the competition that are in the same market. This particular marketing and campaign strategy will be on electronics line that is yet to be produced.
The primary objective is to reach as many as possible people within the U.S.A. And across the world with the brand name hence sensitizing them of the entry of the brand name.
The new line will get involved in Sports sponsorship to give it a global platform to showcase some of its latest inventions and act as a brand ambassador for the company. Millions of dollars will be spent over years in aggressive advertisement at such sports events which will give the customers a chance to see the products hence creating more…
Macdermott, (2011). Modern Marketing Methods. Retrieved October 12, 2013 http://www.flyingsolo.com.au/marketing/business-marketing/modern-marketing-methods
The change, to improve the way one manages conflict, needs to come from a deeper place and that is the most important lesson I take from this chapter. Some of my past conflicts might not have happened had I known about this.
Chapter 7 is about managing stress. The authors note that stress is "experienced subjectively as a biochemical reaction within the body" (p. 121) -- the key being that stress is a reaction, not the cause of a reaction. The author defines four types of stress -- eustress (short-term intense stress), hypostress (underload), hyperstress (being overwhelmed) and distress (lack of control over a situation, or unclear source).
I found this chapter to be very insight, even from the basic definitions of the four types of stress. Just understanding that there are different types of stress helps one to understand where stressful feelings come from, so that the source may…
B: No you didn't.
A: You just weren't listening.
A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?
B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.
A: Thank you
Prompt (2) Stereotypes:
Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.
The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.
Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.
We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.
Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any…
Center for Nonviolent Communications. "Founder." Retrieved online: http://www.cnvc.org/about/marshall-rosenberg.html
However, the type of training format isn't the only thing the trainer must deal with. There are times when a trainee can present conflict in the training class which causes unwanted disruption. The trainer must be familiar with the various methods of dealing with conflict.
In each training class, there will be different types of trainees. The quiet type does not contribute to the class at all; the talkative trainee tries to talk more than the trainer which disrupts the class; the know-it-all thinks he can do a better job of training the class than the trainee; the negative trainee criticizes everything the trainer does; and the aggressive trainee does not possess the social skills to converse appropriately or argue constructively. In each case, the trainer must know how to handle the situation.
When dealing with the quiet trainee, the trainer should not try to force the person to speak.…
To him, his approach was perfectly acceptable, while my place in the social group was such that I did not associate with strange people like him.
Some examples of applied symbolic interaction are creating reality, naming, and self-fulfilling prophecy. According to Erving Goffman, social interaction is like a dramaturgical performance where we are all actors, and all constantly negotiating with everyone else to publicly define our identity and the nature of the situation. "the impression of reality fostered by a performance is a delicate, fragile thing that can be shattered by minor mishaps." (62)
Baal has actually identified himself as that mishap which shatters the impression of reality. He rather specifically chooses to ignore the definitions that other people are trying to achieve, which is part of why he dresses so strangely and takes on an odd demeanor. Because he did cooperate with me or my associates to sustain the…
As a result, consumers again have choices. y limiting media exposure, and being aware of media techniques used to brand and market pop stars, we can make educated choices. Rather than choosing what to listen to by turning on the radio and television, we now have the choice to investigate on our own, on the Internet. It will be interesting to see how pop music responds.
Daly, Steve. "ritney Spears inside the heart and mind (and bedroom) of America's new teen queen." Rolling Stone, 15 April 1999, 60-70.
Fox, Mark A., and Paul Kochanowski. "Models of Superstardom: An Application of the Lotka and Yule Distributions." Popular Music & Society 27, no. 4 (2004): 507-522.
Larson, Charles U. Persuasion: Perception and Responsibility, 9th ed. elmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson Learning, 2001.
Lelanc, Larry. "A Revival At Top 40 Radio rings Wave Of New Teen Acts In Canada." illboard, 17 June…
Daly, Steve. "Britney Spears inside the heart and mind (and bedroom) of America's new teen queen." Rolling Stone, 15 April 1999, 60-70.
Fox, Mark A., and Paul Kochanowski. "Models of Superstardom: An Application of the Lotka and Yule Distributions." Popular Music & Society 27, no. 4 (2004): 507-522.
Larson, Charles U. Persuasion: Perception and Responsibility, 9th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson Learning, 2001.
LeBlanc, Larry. "A Revival At Top 40 Radio Brings Wave Of New Teen Acts In Canada." Billboard, 17 June 2000, 75.
Although interpersonal and group level communications reside at a lower level than organizational communication, they are major forms of communication in organizations and are prominently addressed in the organizational communication literature. Recently, as organizations became more communication-based, greater attention was directed at improving the interpersonal communication skills of all organizational members. Historically, informal communication was primarily seen as a potential block to effective organizational performance. This is no longer the case is modern times, as on-going, dynamic, and informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work
It is also widely accepted that top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors and that immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports. In regard to issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. The Communication Accommodation Theory supports this rationale. In terms of supervisor-employee communication, one researcher argues the difficulty of trusting…
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147.
Blumberg, A. (1970). A system for analyzing supervisor-teacher interaction. In A.
Simon & G. Boyer (Eds.), Mirrors for behavior, 3, 29-45.
Davis, T. & Landa, M. (1999). The trust deficit. Management Accounting, 71(10), 12-
Negotiations and Communications
Negotiation is the art and science of finding a way to agree between two or more groups. All of us know how to negotiate, we do it constantly during our days; between family, friends, colleagues, retailers, etc. Essentially, we are performing a communications duty that is part of group behavior. We use our communications tools -- both verbal and non-verbal, to express a viewpoint, to elicit a response, and to find a way to cooperate. Individuals who wish to improve their negotiating skills have a number of tools they can use. One of these, the Personal Bargaining Inventory, measures the five cognitions and their range of importance to the individual:
Planning -- Anticipation, rehearsal, monitor a plan in advance how conversations will occur.
Presence -- Awareness of the other's reactions, how to change resistance, etc.
Modeling -- Sizing up the environment, paying closer attention to how others…
Doyce, D., Love, R., & Hyer, T. (2004, January). Negotiation Strategies. Retrieved from Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Services: http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-1676/F-198web.pdf
Mitchell, O. (2010, August). Six Secrets from a Professional Speaker on Audience Participation. Retrieved from Speaking about Presenting: http://www.speakingaboutpresenting.com/audience/six-secret-audience-participation/
Richmond, V., & McCroskey, J. (1998). Communication Apprehension, Avoidance and Effectivness. Boston, MA: Alllyn and Bacon.
Schuman, S. (2005, October 28). Conflict, Negotiation and Collaboration. Retrieved from Exedes.com: http://www.exedes.com/NYSCMA-workshop.htm
Communication and Interaction
Many of the problems that occur in an organization are the direct result of people failing to communicate. Faulty communication causes the most problems. It leads to confusion and can cause a good plan to fail. (Clark, 2000)
In any kind of profession and industry, communication plays a vital role in the smooth operation and management of a work environment. In a hospital environment, it is a very important element to observe proper communication and interaction to allow an effective workflow and service that hospitals must render to its patient.
One example of communication technique is gender communication. This type of communication involves an interaction between males and females. Gender communication is usually demonstrated in work-related interactions of the hospital staffs such as the male doctors and the female nurses. This communication technique was effectively shown by the doctors and nurses during discussion of patient status. Through…
Clark, D. 2000. Leadership - Communication.
Retrieved on 19 October 2004, from NWLINK.COM.
Web site: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcom.html
Cozzens, M. Persuasive Communication for Leaders.
The Japanese man may fail to make eye contact, mumble his responses, and stand far away from his negotiating opposite, while, in frustration with this apparent diffidence, the Lebanese man may raise his voice, lean across the table, nod vigorously, do anything to raise the energy level of the room, potentially intimidate his opponent, but simply look weak because of his force and high level of animation. The plethora of courses in cross cultural communications show there is a need for future original study and analysis in this area, but it is an area that has not been addressed, except in passing, or in brackets, as of yet.
Describe what you envision as your own contributions to knowledge in these areas.
The use of body language, I believe, must be studied more not only in terms of how it is deployed, but also the question of how mutable it is,…
When there is enough time, and perhaps some reason to communicate, team communication neither retards nor enhances team performance" (Schraagen & asker, 2003, p. 761). Thus, freedom to communicate is essential, and for the team's survival, all team members must feel the freedom to communicate and to listen, as well.
In addition, there may be some team members who simply refuse to "get on board" with the team. They may not communicate, they may not understand the goals, and they may not feel comfortable or included in the team. For success, it is essential to include these members in the team, even if they seem to resist. First, a team leader should make sure the team member is on board and understands the goals. The team leader should also try to find out if there are other reasons for non-participation before the team meets. If there are problems or arguments,…
Douglas, C., Martin, J.S., & Krapels, R.H. (2006). Communication in the transition to self-directed work teams. The Journal of Business Communication, 43(4), 295+.
Fleming, J.L., & Monda-Amaya, L.E. (2001). Process variables critical for team effectiveness. Remedial and Special Education, 22(3), 158.
Schraagen, J.M., Chipman, S.F., & Shalin, V.L. (Eds.). (2000). Cognitive task analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schraagen, J.M., & Rasker, P. (2003). 31 Team Design. In Handbook of cognitive task design, Hollnagel, E. (Ed.) (pp. 753-784). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
When individuals feel honored and respected, they are more likely to take pride in their work and be as productive as possible.
Communication benefits leaders and their organizations by cutting costs. Miscommunication is at the root of interpersonal conflict, which can lead to absenteeism or a lack of productivity. Also, miscommunication can mean costly lawsuits or imbroglios with clients. Leaders often mediate problems within an organization and between the organization and third parties. Mediation depends on effective communication. When a team leader evaluates the actual time spent engaged in communication activities, he or she appreciates the need for effective communication. As Blalock (2006) notes, communication is "crucial" in the modern organization because as much as 80% of a manager's time may be spent in some form of verbal or written communication.
The global marketplace introduces complex issues that make communication skills absolutely essential for leaders to have. Gender, culture, and…
Benefits of Leadership Training." University of Calgary. Retrieved Jan 30, 2009 at http://www.ucalgary.ca/ose/uclbenefits
Blalock, M. (2006). Listen up. Wisconsin Business Alumni. Retrieved Jan 30, 2009 at http://www.bus.wisc.edu/update/winter05/business_communication.asp
Business Communication." Retrieved Jan 30, 2009 at http://www.hodu.com/business-communication-menu.html
Communication and Leadership." Retrieved Jan 30, 2009 at http://www.skagitwatershed.org/~donclark/leader/leadcom.html
He can be articulate, but often complains about managerial policy, and I do not want to seem to be condoning backbiting. It is also difficult to be enthusiastic about a task, when someone is constantly complaining.
Select at least three strategies to enhance your relationships with these three people for a more productive workplace environment
egarding my boss that plays favorites, the best strategy is to simply 'stick with the facts.' Instead of focusing on personalities, I should try to make my conversations with this boss issue-based, and try to win points based upon the issues. If the bosses' directions are unclear, I must demand clarification, and if she is impatient, I will try to frame this as a positive, saying that it is because of my desire to do a good job that I am asking for clarification.
egarding my 'over-sharing' colleague, allowing her to vent occasionally may be…
DuBrin, A. (2004). Applying psychology: Individual and organizational effectiveness (6th Ed.).
Upper Saddle River: Pearson / Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0130971154