Community Policing Essays (Examples)

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Building Trust Between Police and Communities Police

Words: 1148 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58441676

Police: Building Trust Between Police and Communities

Building Trust between Police and Communities: Police

Police Trust, Integrity and Ethics in Bridging the Gap in Community elations

The death of Eric Garner in the hands of New York police, and the shootings of 12-year-old ice Tamir and Michael Brown in Ohio and Missouri respectively, have and continue to brew a wave of public mistrust in the police service. Such incidences often spur massive public protests that eventually destroy relations between police and the communities they serve. A study conducted by euters on 3,600 citizens between December 2014 and January 2015 found that a significant 27.6% of adult Americans do not trust the police to be fair and just (euters, 2015). In December, 2015, President Barrack Obama signed an executive order creating the Task Force on 21st Century Policing, whose primary aim is to build confidence and trust in the local police.…… [Read More]

References

IACP. (2010). Building Trust between the Police and the Citizens they Serve. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (ICAP). Retrieved from http://www.theiacp.org/portals/0/pdfs/BuildingTrust.pdf

Miller, L. & Hess, K. (2007). Community Policing: Partnerships for Problem-Solving (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Raines, J. (2011). Ethics in Policing: Misconduct and Integrity. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Reuters. (2015). Do Americans Trust their Cops to be Fair and Just? New Poll Contains Surprises. Reuters.com. Retrieved from http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/2015/01/15/one-third-of-americans-believe-police-lie-routinely/
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Policing Policies Analysis This Study Seeks to

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50058097

Policing Policies Analysis

This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.

Zero tolerance Policing

Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to…… [Read More]

References

Wakefield, A., & Fleming, J. (2008). The SAGE Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage Publications.

Palmiotto, M. (2009). Community policing: A policing strategy for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.

Do-lling, D. (2013). Community policing: Comparative aspects of community oriented police work. Holzkirchen/Obb: Felix.

Ikerd, T.E. (2007). Examining the institutionalization of problem-oriented policing: The Charlotte-Mecklenburg police department as a case study.
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Community Oriented Policing

Words: 6694 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38020628

Community Oriented Policing

new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:

For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…… [Read More]

References

Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.

O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.

Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.

MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
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Police Function the Functions of Policing at

Words: 1068 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95497490

Police Function

The Functions of Policing at the Local, State and Federal Levels

The functions of police work are highly complex and filled with myriad unpredictable challenges. Officers must place their safety and their lives at risk every day in the interests of maintaining order, protecting the pubic and apprehending law-breakers. The result is an occupation that is filled with stressors, pressures and dangers. One way that the structure of modern police-work helps officers to contend with these conditions is through the division of jurisdictions. American law enforcement is a sector comprised of many interdependent and overlapping agencies. And correspondent to the broader structure of American governance, this overlapping is somewhat hierarchical in nature, with jurisdictions generally determined by the unit of civil incorporation with which a precinct or department is affiliated. Therefore, at the local, state and federal level, responsibilities are generally divided among these different types of policing…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gaines, L.K. & Kappeler, V.E. (2011). Policing in America. Elsevier.

Kappeler, V.E. & Gaines, L.K. (2009). Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective. Elsevier.

Wright, A. (2002). Policing: An Introduction to Concepts and Practices. Taylor & Francis U.S..
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Policing Operations Hidden Dangers Real Weapons and

Words: 1323 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54409918

Policing Operations:

Hidden Dangers, Real Weapons, and Potential Technologies

Police officers are, undoubtedly, society's primary protectors. These individuals undertake assignments knowing that they could be placed in lethal danger, and do so in order to help complete strangers and keep a community safe. For this reason, police officers ought to be very much admired. Despite the personal and professional satisfaction that comes with being a great police officer, these individuals are also well aware that, as mentioned above, there are various aspects affecting their daily professional routines, many of which are not present in other careers, and many of which involve great risks. Yet despite knowing this, many police officers absolutely love their job. The paragraphs below will thus discuss policing operations in detail in order to better understand this particular and very important field of work. The essay will be separated into five sections focusing on the dangers of…… [Read More]

Shreeve, J.L. (2012). CSI Foils Felons. Police Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .

Scheider, M. & Chapman, R. (2003). Community Policing and Terrorism. Homeland Security Wesite. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .

Simon, S. (2011). Former LAPD Chief Bill Bratton Predicts the Future of Policing. National Public Radio (NPR.com). Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
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Policing Roles What Is the Role of

Words: 372 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14372003

Policing oles

What is the role of police in society? What would happen if the role of the police were lessened as it applies to the theory and practice of community policing?

Generally, the most important roles that police play in civilized society are that of criminal deterrence (Schmalleger, 2009). More specifically, the public awareness of the presence and authority of law enforcement deters most members of the population from criminal conduct that they might otherwise consider if there were no negative consequences. In community policing, police serve a much wider role than criminal deterrence, prevention, and response (Schmalleger, 2009). Modern police also play important roles in ensuring public order and public safety, as well as in addressing contemporary counterterrorism (Schmalleger, 2009). They maximize opportunities to work with proactive members of the community to establish and maintain positive and mutually beneficial relationships (Ellison, 2006). If the role of police were…… [Read More]

References

Ellison, J. "Community Policing: Implementation Issues." Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75, No. 4 (Apr/06).

Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Police on Jupiter Madame Council

Words: 318 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73779958

In addition we have made, and continue to make, efforts to employ people of all backgrounds for Jupiter's police force so that people of all backgrounds see people from their cultures in law enforcement.

People, no matter where they are from, tend to fear the unknown (Carter, 1995), so we feel that a policy of community policing -- getting the officers into the various neighborhoods of Jupiter in positive ways -- is important. One of the things we have done to accomplish that is to put our officers in the vicinity of school crosswalks when children are traveling to and from school. This allows them to interact positively with children from an early age as well as allow the parents to see police officers in their most important role -- protecting all of Jupiter's inhabitants. I hope these comments will put any concerns to rest.

ibliography

Carter, Ronnie A. 1995.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carter, Ronnie A. 1995. "Improving minority relations." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, December.
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Policing in America As Compared to the

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74544890

Policing in America:

As compared to the 1920's, policing in the United States has had to change over the years in order to cope with the numerous changes in the society.

Most of these changes have occurred during the 20th Century because of the rapid technological advancements and globalization. During this period, telephones, car ownership, and use of personal computers have become commonplace in the society. While these are positive changes, they have also contributed to significant changes that are sometimes negative in relation to law enforcement.

With the innovations of computers and telecommunication technologies in America, the police force and other criminal justice practitioners has really improved in terms of opportunity and challenges. These technologies have empowered the police force in the sense that they can now collect, store, study, and share records with stakeholders within and outside administration. The innovations of these technologies have created opportunities in the…… [Read More]

Reference:

Reichert, K. (2001, December). Use of Information Technology by Law Enforcement. Retrieved from University of Pennsylvania website: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/jerrylee/programs/fjc/paper_dec01.pdf
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Policing Is an Essential Issue

Words: 1592 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34544021

Not only doe s this approach include the participation of the community it also incorporates organizational change. Both community involvement and organizational change is necessary if policing efforts are going to be effective. This approach also emphasizes the importance of trust between the police and the community. The community oriented approach to policing is the most effective in the solving and reducing of crime within a community.

Conclusion

For the purposes of this discussion: Two police officers are arguing about the policies of community-oriented and problem-oriented policing as opposed to zero-tolerance policing. The research analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches to policing. Both approaches seek to understand crime. However, both approaches had disadvantages related to the boundaries of community residents and the time required to solve crime using a problem oriented approach. The investigation also explained the ideologies that support these policy perspectives. The research will also…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Community Policing Defined."  http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36 

G Cordner, EP Biebel. Problem-Oriented Policing in Practice. Criminology & Public Policy, Volume 4, Issue 2 (p 155-180)

Lum, C. 2009 Community Policing or Zero Tolerance. British Journal of Criminology. http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/azp039v1

Maguire, M. 2004. 'The Crime Reduction Programme in England and Wales: Reflections on the Vision and the Reality', Criminal Justice 4(3): 213 -- 37.
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Police Recruitment and Hiring Has

Words: 1415 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38794168

(Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) Police forces became the fodder for systematic research on the need for and development of improved minority representation in public service as well as a frequently attached public entity with regard to minority status in the community. (Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) As early as the 1960s and 70s police forces all over the nation began to be scrutinized for limiting their hiring pool to white males and began to make changes to support the reduction of this reality. (Broadnax, 2000, p. xx)

The development of police forces within the guidelines of public scrutiny as one of the most significant and public hiring authorities in the public sector has created a hiring protocol that though variant to some degree is similar in most agencies and is reflective of public demand for diversity in representation. Many would likely call the last frontier of this more egalitarian hiring process…… [Read More]

References

Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.). (2000). Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Frederickson, H.G. (2000). Part One Representative Bureaucracy and Equal Employment Opportunity. In Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service, Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.) (pp. 1-4). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Hahn, H., & Jeffries, J.L. (2003). Urban America and Its Police: From the Postcolonial Era through the Turbulent 1960s. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.

Kogut, C.A., & Short, L.E. (2007). Affirmative Action in Federal Employment: Good Intentions Run Amuck?. Public Personnel Management, 36(3), 197.
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Community Watch Impact on Colleges

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77027758

(COPS, 2005)

IV. A Multidisciplinary Approach

The work entitled: "Campus Threat Assessment Training: A Multidisciplinary Approach" states that it t has been recommended by the Florida Gubernatorial Task Force for University Campus Safety as follows: "That each college and university develop a multidisciplinary crisis management team, integrating and ensuring communication between the university law enforcement or campus security agency, student affairs, residential housing, counseling center, health center, legal counsel, and any other appropriate campus entities to review individuals and incidents which indicate "at-risk" behavior. The team should facilitate the sharing of information, timely and effective intervention, and a coordinated response when required." (Community Policing Dispatch, 2009) Colleges and universities in the United States are "recognizing the particular applicability of community policing in the campus environment. The community policing model helps to create the framework for a productive relationship between the officers and those whom they serve." (Wilson and Grammich, 2009)…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Campus Threat Assessment Training: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2009) Community Policing Dispatch. Vol. 2 Issue 4 April 2009. Online available at:  http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/April_2009/campus_threat.htm 

Campus Watch Program (nd) College of Lake County, Illinois. Online available at:  http://www.clcillinois.edu/depts/sec/CampusWatchBrochure.pdf 

Godfrey, Steven (nd) Assessing the Success of Community-Policing (Neighborhood Watch Program) Online available at: http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&q=cache%3AUvBqWMSAHI0J%3Awww.emich.edu%2Fcerns%2Fdownloads%2Fpapers%2FPoliceStaff%2FCommunity%2520Policing%2FAssessing%2520the%2520Success%2520of%2520Community%2520Policing.pdf+colleges+and+universities%3A+community+watch+volunteers&hl=en&gl=us&pli=1

Gummere, Sara Lippincott (2003) Making a Better Place: Planning, Implementing & Managing a Student Volunteer Program. University of Oregon June 2003. Online available at: http://aad.uoregon.edu/icas/project_thesis_pdf/gummere_s.pdf
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Community-Based Policing and Problem Solving Its History and Results

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80953563

Community-Based Policing, Problem-Solving History and esults

The objective of this study is to examine community-based policing, problem-solving history and results. Towards this end, this work will review literature in this area of study.

The Bureau of Justice Assistance document entitled "Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action" states that community policing is, "in essence, a collaboration between the police and the community that identifies and solves community problems." Additionally stated in the Bureau of Justice Assistance work is that problem-solving "is a broad term that implies more than simply the elimination and prevention of crimes. Problem-solving is based on the assumption that 'crime and disorder can be reduced in small geographic areas by carefully studying the characteristics of problems in the area and then applying the appropriate resources…" and on the assumption that "Individuals make choices based on the opportunities presented by the immediate physical and social characteristics of an…… [Read More]

References

Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action. Bureau of Justice Assistance. August 1994. Retrieved from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf

Philosophy and Principles of Community-Based Policing (2006) SEESAC 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.seesac.org/uploads/studyrep/CBP_ENG_3rd_edition_FINAL.pdf

Eck, John E., and William Spelman, et al. (1983) Problem Solving: Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum. 1987:pp.xvi -- xvii. See also Clarke, Ronald V. "Situational Crime Prevention: Its Theoretical Basis and Practical

Scope." Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, eds. Michael Tonry and Norval
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Police Describe the Impact of Sir Robert

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28937475

Police

Describe the impact of Sir obert Peel on American policing

Sir obert Peel was not an American police officer, or an American politician. He served twice as the Prime Minister of Britain as a Tory, passing a series of significant laws. Part of Peel's concern was in the field of criminal justice and law enforcement. He helped pass major prison reform legislation and also established the first significant metropolitan police force in the United Kingdom. In transforming British police organizations and law enforcement, Peel helped to lay the foundation for the modern American police force and its underlying philosophy.

Peel developed a law enforcement philosophy that was based on involving community residents in the process of crime prevention. The modern concept of community policing is in part based on Sir Peel's original "nine principles," which were outlined in the 19th century. The first of Peel's nine principles is that…… [Read More]

References

Larrabee, A.K. (2007). Law enforcement: Sir Robert Peel's concept of community policing in today's society. Yahoo! Nov 8, 2007. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/law-enforcement-sir-robert-peels-concept-community-638595.html

New Westminster Police Service (n.d.). Sir Robert Peel's Nine Principles. Retrieved onine: http://www.newwestpolice.org/peel.html

Sabath, D.O. (n.d.). The evolution of American policing. Retrieved online:  http://www.aphf.org/hist.html
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Police History the American System of Criminal

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1217712

Police History

The American system of criminal justice and investigations stem from English common law and practice, which advised colonial governments and gave rise to subsequent systems in the United States. In fact, the standing police force that most Americans take for granted did not always exist. Early Americans, like the English before them, were averse to the concept of a government-sponsored standing police force that could at any time be authorized to strip citizens of their rights and liberties. The current method of law enforcement, from apprehension to pre-trial investigations, also owes its roots to the English.

The first professional, paid American police forces started in the early seventeenth centuries: first in Boston in 1631 and about fifteen years later in New Amsterdam. Known initially as watchmen and later as constables, the officers did not enjoy the same level of responsibility or the same role in society as modern…… [Read More]

References

Engel, R.S. (2011)Police: History - Early Policing In England, The Beginning Of "modern" Policing In England, Early Policing In Colonial America." Retrieved online:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/1647/Police-History.html 

"Early Police in the United States." Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/467289/police/36619/Early-police-in-the-United-States

"History of Law Enforcement," (n.d.). Infosheet retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:q1n8bE8PqeYJ:teachers2.wcs.edu/high/rhs/maryc1/Criminal%2520Justice%2520I/History%2520of%2520Law%2520Enforcement%2520Info%2520Sheet.doc+law+enforcement+history+united+states&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjKuxGm5bbh8GjrtJ5yn4AHn2bIiIWlGBAWSGHopoH9f51uVsygxxkwB5I83si1CkPS_E4Ry83mW7oZ6hQqbjOlD6NYV1qH3lXjh3-T_vu58Mk4_-H6k2V9qchHrfRrO_hH5Nn2&sig=AHIEtbQPG0dtcbkFj_Q-1gi8wj6BmauLrg

Kelly, M. (n.d.). A brief history of the Pinkertons. About.com. Retrieved online: http://americanhistory.about.com/od/19thcentur1/a/allan_pinkerton.htm
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Policing Challenges to Policing in the 21st

Words: 888 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92231395

Policing Challenges

Challenges to policing in the 21st century

Policing has taken a different dimension from the traditional policing habits of maintaining law and order and combating the usual crimes to handling new forms of crime, which can be termed as white collar crimes. The society is faced with criminal activities which are as a result of the advanced level of technology use across the globe. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012). This is an era where the criminals are technologically savvy and use this as a tool to commit crimes without the use of force or inflicting any bodily harm to the victims…… [Read More]

References

Patricia Linn, (1999). what are the five types of Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 from  http://www.ehow.com/list_7245606_five-types-crime_.html .

Interpol, (2012). Cyber Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 fromhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime.
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Policing for the Past Several

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 428030

This model provided for a hierarchical chain of command based on rank but there are many experts who argue that such system is out-dated. New systems where command is much less centralized and individual police are allowed autonomy in their specific neighborhoods and areas. This is an attempt to integrate the police more heavily into their neighborhood and to develop the idea that police work is a community challenge and not the work of the police alone. The long-range goal of this type of policing is to have the public view policing as a service and the public as customers. Eventually this will result in the effectiveness being measured by public satisfaction and not by harsh statistics such as the number of crimes occurring and the number of arrests being made.

Whatever changes are eventually implemented in regard to policing in America such changes will not be easy. Police agencies,…… [Read More]

References

Butterfield, R. (2005). The New Public Management and Managerial Roles: the case of the Police Sergeant. British Journal of Management, 329-341.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). Investigations & Operations Support. Retrieved from the FBI.

Gau, J.M. (2010). Procedural Justice and Order Maintenance Policing: A Study of Inner-City Young Men's Perceptions of Police Legitimacy. Justice Quarterly, 255-279.

Grabosky, P.N. (2007). Private Sponsorship of Public Policing. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 5-16.
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Police in Society Organizational Structure

Words: 1975 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24317557

Patrol crafts would be deployed along the coastal areas waiting to act upon any information provided to confiscate drugs and arrest drug traffickers. For this purpose, the city police would be armoured with 2 well-equipped fast patrol crafts. Communication services between the stations and the patrol crafts would be state of the art including GPS systems and radar networks to facilitate identifying and tracking down of suspicious activity in the coastal waters. Further, the use of latest thermal imaging and laser optics tools would provide effective supervision at nights.

Conclusion

The police department has immense responsibility in maintaining law and order and providing safety and security would necessitate a strong police force based on a clear and sound organizational philosophy. As a coastal city with its growing population, the urban city of Metropolis is faced with numerous problems, in particular the high drug trade activity along the coastal regions. The…… [Read More]

Bibliography

NCWC, " Police in Society," Accessed 16th Apr 2007, Available online at, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lects.htm

Author not Available, "Community Policing," Accessed 15th Apr 2007, available at  http://law.jrank.org/pages/1648/Police-Community-Policing-Definition-community-policing.html 

James T. Quinlivan, Burden of Victory: The Painful Arithmetic of Stability Operations, Available Online at, http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/summer2003/burden.html

City of Phoenix, 'Police Officer Processing Procedures', Accessed Apr 16th 2007, available at http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/POLICE/pdjob3.html
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Police History Structure and Functions

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71182572

Police: History, Structure, and Functions

The policing system's development in Britain was closely followed by a similar development in America. Policing by the initial colonizers assumed two forms: "The Big Stick" (for-profit, private agency policing) and the "Watch" (communal as well as informal) (Spitzer, 1979). Community volunteers primarily charged with warning citizens of imminent danger made up the latter system. The night watch was first implemented in the year 1636 in Boston. New York and Philadelphia implemented night watch system in the years 1658 and 1700, respectively. This system did not prove particularly successful in controlling crime. Supplementing the "watch" mode of policing was a group of official law enforcers, labeled "constables," who were often salaried by a fee system, based on number of warrants served by them. Policing's informal procedure continued for several years following the 1765-83 American evolution. Only in the 1830s did the U.S. first introduce a…… [Read More]

References

Davis, Rowenna. (2009). Policing the police, The Guardian. Retrieved from  https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/libertycentral/2009/feb/28/convention-modern-liberty-police  on October 5, 2016.

Lewis, M.A. (2011). "Perspective: Peel's Legacy," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. The FBI. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/2011/december/perspective-peels-legacy on October 5, 2016.

Lundman, Robert J. (1980). Police and Policing: An Introduction, New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Spitzer, Stephen, (1979). The Rationalization of Crime Control in Capitalist Society, Contemporary Crises 3, no. 1.
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Community Power Distribution

Words: 1538 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55565895

Community Power and Social Distribution: A Debate Over Social Stratification and Elitism from Hunter Onwards

Floyd Hunter was a sociologist whom identified himself as part of the early stages of a movement to enact greater systems of localized, community social justice. Such movements were to later grip the American nation during the 1960's. However, as early as the 1950's, Hunter sought to quantitatively and qualitatively measure who had 'political power' in the community of Regional City in the American South over the course of the early 1950's. Hunter stated in his text Community Power Structure that in Atlanta, ostensibly a regional power base of the time, he had 'found' an elite whom formed the core of the local political power nexus, an elite that was not institutional in nature, but personal. In other words, through Hunter's social excavation over the course of his doctorial dissertation, Hunter discovered a hidden elitist…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bachrach, Peter and Morton Baratz, (December 1962). "Two Faces of Power." American Political Science Review. Volume 56. December 1962. Pp.947-952.

Hunter, Floyd. Community Power Structure. (1953). Chapter 4: The Structure of Power in Regional City.

Polsby, Nelson. (1980). Community Power and Political Theory. Second Edition. Chapter 5: Power and Social Stratification: Theory or Ideology?

Stone, Clarence N. (1980). "Systemic Power in Community Decision Making: A Restatement of Stratification Theory." American Political Science Review 74: 976-90
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police brutality and behaviorism

Words: 1826 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71293747

Police officers are authorized to use force when necessary, a policy that is generally used to protect innocent people from violence and abuse, and protect the general public from harm. However, the authorization to use force can be easily abused. Police abuse of power in the form of police brutality is an ethical problem because it constitutes abuse of power, and also leads to mistrust of law enforcement. Mistrust of law enforcement in turn undermines the authority and legitimacy of the police and prevents cooperative measures of stopping crime like community policing models. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015), 44 million people on average each year in the United States have some kind of face-to-face contact with police and of those 44 million, just under two percent experience use of threatening or nonfatal force. While this number may seem small, on the ground the high rate of police…… [Read More]

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Police the Philosophy and Role

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7736746

These people often lack familiarity with public safety operations. Campus chiefs of police and directors of security are often challenged by the opposing interests of their chief executive officers. Informing campus leaders about importance of public safety is vital to its success. Nonetheless, time constraints and other challenges and priorities imposed on these leaders make it difficult for them to devote any time to security and safety matters before the problems arise (National Summit of Campus Public Safety, 2005).

The look and feel of security on college and university campuses has changed dramatically since September 11th. Colleges and universities have implemented the following:

- updated their campus emergency management plans to include response protocols for an active shooter on campus, bomb threat, evacuation, lockdown and other high probability incidents that might occur.

- registered their campus emergency management plans with their local municipal police departments and county offices of emergency…… [Read More]

References

Canas, Richard. (2008). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from The New York Times Web site:

http://topics.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/04/16/rethinking-the-role-of-campus-police/

National Summit of Campus Public Safety. (2005). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from U.S.

Department of Justice Web site:
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Policing Community- and Problem-Oriented Policing Have Risen

Words: 1300 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56835327

Policing

Community- and problem-oriented policing have risen as the most important mediums for improving the efficiency of police efforts in communities and as ways of reformation of police organizations.

Community-oriented Policing

Community-oriented policing has turned out to the symbol of police in America. In every area of the United States, community policing has emerged as an adaptive style of policing. It is considered as a powerful organizing vehicle for the public protection. If truth be told, it has become an accepted principle for law enforcement agencies. Community-oriented policing promises to thoroughly change the relationship among the police department and the public, deals with community problems, and improves the living conditions of the neighborhoods (Greene, 2000).

The main idea behind community-oriented policing is that the enforcement of law should be focused, proactive and sensitive to the community. It tends to break down the barriers between the law enforcement department and the…… [Read More]

References

Greene, J.R. (2000). Community Policing in America: Changing the Nature, Structure, and Function of the Police. Criminal Justice, 3, 299-370. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from  https://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_3/03g.pdf 

Stephens, G. (2005). Policing the Future: Law Enforcement's New Challenges. The Futurist, 39(2), 51+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-129170684/policing-the-future-law-enforcement-s-new-challenges

The Key Elements of Problem-Oriented Policing (n.d.). In Center for Problem-Oriented Policing . Retrieved December 15, 2012, from  http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=elements 

"What is POP?" (n.d.). In Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from  http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=whatiscpop
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Police Management Throughout History Police Management Has

Words: 5721 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39703152

Police Management:

Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…… [Read More]

References:

Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.

"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."

(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from  https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf 

Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
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Policing The 21st Century Has

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12616969



There various technological measures that have been used to enhance the effectiveness of police officers include crime laboratories and finger printing. The other technological measures used in policing include the two-way radio used in police cars to help the officers to multiply their productivity in responding to and dealing with incidents. Police agencies across the nation are obtaining new technology that is developed to lessen response time and speed of information dissemination. The use of these efforts has helped in improving patrol function and capitalizes on the impact of community policing programs.

Homeland Security and Law Enforcement elationships:

The relationships between intelligence, law enforcement, and homeland security organizations at the federal, state, and local level have continued to experience a revolution since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Before these terrorist attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created the wall at the federal level between law enforcement and intelligence. Furthermore, none of…… [Read More]

References:

Foster, R.E. (n.d.). History of Police Technology. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from  http://www.police-technology.net/id59.html 

Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-than-lethal Weapons. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from  http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html 

Schmidt, M.S. & Goldstein, J. (2012, April 9). The Dangers of Police Work. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.professionalsecurityarkansas.com/cms/the-dangers-of-police-work/

Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Center for the Study of Intelligence, 53(3). Retrieved from  https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html