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Community Policing Efficacy
The Violent Crime Control & Law Enforcement Act of 1994 heralded the beginning of a massive effort to reform policing strategies in the United States, in part through implementation of community-policing programs at the local level. Congress has allocated billions of federal dollars over the years since to support such efforts and by the end of the 20th century, close to 90% of all police departments serving communities larger than 25,000 reported implementing community policing strategies. However, empirical studies examining the effectiveness of this style of policing are limited and most reveal a modest improvement. This report examines studies that have revealed some of the factors that contributed to the failure of community policing programs to meet the expectations of policy makers. A lack of police organizational commitment and citizen leadership are major factors that have undermined attempts to implement community policing more fully.
Community Policing Efficacy…
Bureau of Justice Assistance. (1994). Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 15 June 2012 from www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf.
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2012). National Crime Victimization Survey Violent Crime Trends, 1973-2008. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 16 June 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/glance/tables/viortrdtab.cfm.
CJCJ (Center on Juvenile & Criminal Justice). (1999). Chattering "broken window": An analysis of San Francisco's alternative crime policies. CJCJ.org. Retrieved 18 June 2012 from www.cjcj.org/files/shattering.pdf.
Clarke, Ronald, V. And Eck, John E. (2005). Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 16 June 2012 from www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/CrimeAnalysis60Steps.pdf.
One of the renowned names in community policing is Sir obert Peel who helped found the London Metropolitan Police unit that was meant to be closer to the people than any other time before. Sir obert had the objective of creating a community where "…the police are the public and the public are the police…" as indicated by Braiden, (1992). He envisioned a community where the idea of policing is closely linked between the formal police force and the community participation in the control, deterrence and termination of crimes in the entire England. This was a trend that was to be adopted in many parts of the world including the U.S.A.
Bearing the various successes that community policing has achieved, my support goes for the program and there is need to strengthen it and make it work better and more adaptable to the ever changing community. Initially, the…
Braiden & Chris (1992). "Enriching Traditional Police Roles." Police Management: Issues
and Perspectives. Police Executive Research Forum. 1992: p.108: Washington, D.C. Retrieved August 28, 2012 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
Conrad Adenauer, (2005). A Brief guide to Police History. Retrieved August 28, 2012 from http://faculty.ncwc.edu/mstevens/205/205lect04.htm
Jeffery Peterson, (2012). Early American Policing. Retrieved August 28, 2012 from http://www.lectlaw.com/files/cjs07.htm
Community policing is a strategy that requires both new attitudes and commitments from citizens and new attitudes and commitments from police officers. It builds on the basic practices of policing by emphasizing cooperation between the police department and the citizenry, by emphasizing the prevention of crimes as opposed to just catching perpetrators, and by developing long-term solutions to existing and potential problems in the community (U.S. Department of Justice [DOJ], nd). The goals of community policy include reducing crime; reducing the fear of crime; restoring and maintaining a sense of order to the community; and building and strengthening bonds between the citizens, police, and state and local governments (DOJ, nd).
The history of community policing goes as far back as the beginnings of governmental policing and the beginnings of law enforcement agencies. Sir obert Peel is generally acknowledged as the originator of modern law enforcement agencies as he spearheaded the…
Brennan, R.E., & Valcic, B. (2012). Shifting perspectives -- How the masks we wear can facilitate
and inhibit channels of communication in the social -- environmental policy context. Ocean & Coastal Management, 62, 1-8.
Densten, I.L. (1999). Senior Australian law enforcement leadership under examination. Policing and International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 22(1), 45-57.
Engel, R.S. (2003). Influence of supervisor style on patrol officer behavior. Washington, DC:
Community policing is a philosophy that endorses organizational strategies, which support the orderly use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime (Community Policing Defined, n.d.).
Customarily, police organizations have responded to crime after it takes place and, therefore, are planned to support routine patrol, rapid response to calls for service, arrests, and follow-up investigation. Community policing calls for a more strategic and thoughtful integration of these aspects of police business into an overall broader police mission focused on the proactive prevention of crime and disorder (The ole of Traditional Policing in Community Policing, 2008).
Community policing advocates for the strategic application of routine patrol that is conducted with an eye toward preferred outcomes. ather than just conducting routine patrol because that is how it has always done it, routine patrol…
About Neighborhood Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.usaonwatch.org/about/neighborhoodwatch.aspx
Community Policing Defined. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36
Law Enforcement Career Exploring. (2011). Retrieved from http://exploring.learningforlife.org/services/career-exploring/law-enforcement/
The Role of Traditional Policing in Community Policing. (2008). Retrieved from http://cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/march_2008/nugget.html
According to the United States Department of Justice's Community Oriented Policing Services Website, "Community policing is a philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime." Community policing is defined in similar ways throughout local police departments, although there are enough differences to make the concept of community policing difficult to pinpoint. Partnership and cooperation are the primary features of community policing, as are the goals of reducing crime through prevention and long-term public safety strategies. The Department of Justice's three main components of community policing include community partnerships, organizational transformation, and problem solving. Each of these components will ensure a successful implementation of a community policing program.
One of the drawbacks to community policing is its nebulous and ambiguous…
Bureau of Justice Assistance (1994). Understanding community policing: A framework for action. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
Bureau of Justice Statistics (2012). Community policing. Retrieved online: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=81
Friedmann, R.R. (1996). Community Policing: Some Conceptual and Practical Considerations. Home Affairs Review, 1996. Volume XXXIV ( No. 6): 114-23
Lincoln Police Department, Lincoln, Nebraska (n.d.). What is community policing? Retrieved online: http://www.lincoln.ne.gov/city/police/cbp.htm
Instructions: eview literature locate article study addressing a Criminal Justice Organization deals: Community Policing Changes operations a result terrorist attacks 9/11 if a corrections facility, operations a result technology, regulations, demographics.
Changes within a criminal justice organization:
Community policing article review
Lord, V.B., Kuhns, J.B., & Friday, P.C. (2009). Small city community policing and citizen satisfaction. Policing, 32(4), 574-594. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13639510911000713
Community policing has become a popular approach to improve neighborhood-police relations in many cities, but according to the article "Small city community policing and citizen satisfaction," few studies have been conducted to examine its efficacy in more intimate contexts. The article's profiled a small, Southern city which had implemented a community-oriented policing approach and surveyed citizen perceptions before and after the implementation (Lord, Kuhns, & Friday 2009). The research study was quantitative and used a comparative, longitudinal approach to analyzing the data.
The authors noted that measuring changes…
Lord, V.B., Kuhns, J.B., & Friday, P.C. (2009). Small city community policing and citizen satisfaction. Policing, 32(4), 574-594. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13639510911000713
SARA model. (2013). Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved from:
Situational crime prevention. (2013). Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved from:
he theory has been used as the basis for several reforms in criminal policy, including the reemphasis upon police foot patrols of neighborhoods and of community policing.
he broken windows theory is supported by several empirical studies. At the same time it has also been subjected to a huge amount of criticism from sociologists and nonsociologists alike. In Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities George L. Kelling and co-author Catharine Cole expand upon the original article develop it in much greater detail. hey discuss the theory in relation to crime and strategies that contain or eliminate crime from neighborhoods in urban centers and to explore the community aspects of the problem. A successful strategy for preventing vandalism is therefore to fix the problems when they are small and correctable. If the community repairs the broken windows within a short time vandals are less likely to…
This theory was introduced into the most recent discussion in a 1982 article in the Atlantic magazine by social scientists James Q. Wilson and George L. Killing. Since then it has been the subject of great debate both within the social sciences as well as in the public arena. The theory has been used as the basis for several reforms in criminal policy, including the reemphasis upon police foot patrols of neighborhoods and of community policing.
The broken windows theory is supported by several empirical studies. At the same time it has also been subjected to a huge amount of criticism from sociologists and nonsociologists alike. In Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities George L. Kelling and co-author Catharine Cole expand upon the original article develop it in much greater detail. They discuss the theory in relation to crime and strategies that contain or eliminate crime from neighborhoods in urban centers and to explore the community aspects of the problem. A successful strategy for preventing vandalism is therefore to fix the problems when they are small and correctable. If the community repairs the broken windows within a short time vandals are less likely to break more windows or do further damage. Clean up the sidewalk every day, and the tendency is for litter not to accumulate. Problems do not escalate, preventing the respectable residents from fleeing a neighborhood. The article deals more with the emphasis upon foot patrols and community policing.
The strength of the article in analyzing the effect of foot patrols and community policing is that it takes a historical approach and looks at the change in public perceptions of crime and disorder. According to the authors of the Atlantic article, the process we call urban decay has occurred for centuries in every city, but what is happening today is different two important ways. First, in the period before World War II, city residents because of money costs, transportation for many could rarely
Are community policing models an effective way of containing criminal activity and keeping neighborhoods safe? Should a city, town, or suburb adopt a "community policing model" as a way to take the pressure off the professional law enforcement resources? This paper takes the position that trained law enforcement personnel are best able to do the policing in communities. That said, it is true that alert citizens can keep their neighborhoods safer if they are being watchful, but this paper will present research that reflects concerns and doubts as to citizens' competence to police their own communities, and doubts as to the appropriateness of police interacting with neighborhood citizen groups in crime-prevention strategies.
A Case Study of Officer Perceptions
An article in The American Review of Public Administration describes community policing as being based on the notion that "…public safety is best achieved when police and community members work…
Glaser, Mark A., and Denhardt, Janet. (2010). Community Policing and Community
Building: A Case Study of Officer Perceptions. The American Review of Public
Administration. Vol. 40, 309-323.
Klausen, Jytte. (2009). British Counter-Terrorism After 7/7: Adapting Community
According to the U.S. Department of Justice is a "philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime" (cited in www.cops.usdog.gov). From the community's perspective, it means that the policy and organizations within the community form partnerships to increase the effectiveness of law enforcement. The gist is to provide opportunities for more dialog and communication so the community will trust the police, the police will trust the community, and there will be more opportunities to liaison between individuals and police (Miller, 2007).
Over the last four decades the philosophy of policing has undergone a dramatic change, especially in the United States. Ever since 1968 and the Kent State and Chicago Democratic Convention, the idea of use of force, public accountability,…
Barlow, D 2000, Police in a Multicultural Society, Waveland Press, Long Grove, IL.
Goldstein, H. (2001). What is POP? Center for Problem Oriented Policing. Retrieved from: http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=whatiscpop
Greene, J.R. (2000). Community Policing in America: Changing the Nature, Structure, and Function of the Police. Policies, Processes, and Decisions of the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_3/03g.pdf
Miller, L. And K. Hess, (2007), Community Policing: Partnerships for Problem Solving,
Police departments often need to address issues of organizational culture. That speaks to how things are done in the department. The culture is often focused on the procession of crime and criminals and not on prevention. An introduction of community policing can cause a shift in emphasis so that the culture of the organization mutates in response.
These changes also relate to resources and their management. The shift to community policing requires that the police themselves be trained to interface differently with the community. They need to consider how they discharge their power as officers. Even performance evaluation is given fresh consideration as the new view of evaluation will include a component on the interaction with the community and the degree of success achieved through that interaction.
The change also spills into the fiscal management of the service. The monetary resources are to be channeled in a direction that supports…
Bayley DH & Shearing, C.D. (1996).The future of policing. Law & Society Review
30 (3): 585-606.
Community oriented policing services. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=36
Community policing defined. (n.d.) U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community
Ellison distinguishes middle and upper-class neighborhood communities and suggests that middle-class neighborhoods are the most receptive to collaborative association with police agencies, while upper class neighborhoods tend to rally together in the immediate aftermath of specific criminal activity that affects the community, but are less likely to maintain a sustained community-police collaboration after the specific crime concern is resolved. Nolan refers indirectly to the same issue in characterizing different neighborhood community-police agency relationships as exhibiting elements of interdependence, dependence, and conflict. In Ellison's terminology, Nolan's interdependence corresponds to his characterization of homogeneous low-crime, middle class communities. Similarly, in Ellison's terminology, Nolan's dependence corresponds to his characterization of upper-class neighborhoods; finally Nolan's state of conflict corresponds to high-crime lower-class communities that are least receptive to community policing approaches according to both articles.
Both articles describe some of the difficulties often encountered in implementing community policing strategy, although differing in their…
Duff, H.W. Concerned Reliable Citizens' Program. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 75 No. 8 (Aug/06).
Nolan, J., Conti, N, McDevitt, J. Situational Policing. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 74 No. 11 (Nov/05).
Ellison, J. Community Policing: Implementation Issues. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 75 No. 4 (Apr/06).
One of the primary reasons for this was the ever-changing frameworks of the communities as well as the evolution of crimes and violent outbreaks in the world. In a relevant research, the ureau of Justice Assistance confirms that "Practitioners agree that there is a pressing need for innovation to curb the crises in many communities. oth the level and nature of crime in this country and the changing character of American communities are causing police to seek more effective methods. Many urban communities are experiencing serious problems with illegal drugs, gang violence, murders, muggings, and burglaries. Suburban and rural communities have not escaped unscathed. They are also noting increases in crime and disorder" (Monograph, 1994).
The fact of the matter is that community policing is an offshoot form the democratic philosophy. In such a dynamic and evolutionary atmosphere of societies, it is integral for the police authorities to establish a…
Lyons, W. (1999). The Politics of Community Policing: Rearranging the Power to Punish. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Mastrofski, S.D.; Parks, R.B.; Reiss, A.J., JR.; and Worden, R.F. (1998). Policing Neighborhoods: A Report from Indianapolis. Research in Brief Preview. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice.
Mastrofski, S.D.; Parks, R.B.; Reiss, A.J., JR.; and Worden, R.F. (1999). Policing Neighborhoods: A Report from St. Petersburg. Research in Brief Preview. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice.
Monograph (1994). Understanding Community Police: A Framework for Action. Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice.
Another interesting statistic is that youth belonging to gangs commit the greatest percentage of violent crime among the youth, with a figure as high as 89% of serious violent crimes by gang members reported for Denver, where only 14% of the youth population belonged to gangs. This is an issue that should be seriously addressed in Macom.
In terms of ethnic minorities, the statistics are far less conclusive than those related to gangs. According to a study of crime in Miami conducted by Liliana Cordero, ethnicity plays a far less significant role in the occurrence of homicide than factors such as drugs, alcohol, arguments, and killing in the course of other felonies such as robbery. In the case of Macom, it is then perhaps wise to make the primary target of investigation the youth in general rather than a specific ethnic group. This could have the concomitant advantage of remedying…
Berry, Tim. (2008) Writing a Mission Statement. Bplans.com http://articles.bplans.com/index.php/business-articles/writing-a-business-plan/writing-a-mission-statement/
Cordero, Liliana. The Perpetration of and Victimization by Violence in Ethnic Minorities- Issues, Findings, and Considerations. Texas Tech University. http://www.apa.org/divisions/div12/sections/section7/Diversity-Fact-Sheet.doc
Ellison, John. (2006, April). Community policing: implementation issues. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Article Database: FindArticles.com http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_4_75/ai_n16133604/print
National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center. (2008). Youth Gangs and Violence. http://www.safeyouth.org/scripts/faq/youthgang.asp
In an argument against this decentralization it is argued that "diminishing their importance would erode the privatized feel that now dominates the exercise of city power in America and, thereby, affect the life of every metropolitan resident." (Frug, 1999) it is argued that the community policing will create 'city power' which will be the forerunner of the decentralization of power to American cities. This would in the long run help the cities improve and become safe with more interaction between the citizens and in common aims. This will result also in community building. The police department which is more isolated from the public and views issues as 'us' and them angles will become more humane and cooperative in peaceful policing methods.
Community policing as a method of curtailing crime is being adopted by the police forces all over the globe. Even where the state and police show reluctance the local…
Crawford, Adam. (1999) "The Local Governance of Crime: Appeals to Community and Partnerships" Oxford University Press. Oxford, England.
Fielding, Nigel. (1995) "Community Policing"
Clarendon Press. Oxford.
Frug, Gerald E. (1999) "City Making: Building Communities without Building Walls"
New York City
New York City has typically been forced to take advantage of any innovative or highly publicized program in order to combat its high rate of both property crime and violent crime. One example of this is NYC 73rd Precinct's Clergy-Police program, which forms central committees of representatives from different denominations that focus on condemning gang violence and recruiting people who may be interested in professional police work. The focus of this program is at-risk juveniles and gangs. Several areas of NYC have taken advantage of citizens who are fed up with crime to form volunteer community citizen patrols such as Ministers of Islam. This initiative works well to address fear of crime, and the increased presence of vigilante groups is efficient at preventing property crime such as burglary and auto theft, and violent crime such as robbery.
1. COMSTAT - Complaint Statistics: a program where weekly community…
For example, once upon a time, consensual homosexual acts between adults or the use of birth control were both criminal activities, punishable by imprisonment or fines. Now these acts are not considered criminal violations, but personal behavior beyond the reach of the law. Smoking was once considered a normal social activity, especially when society was less aware of the health risks posed by smoking. Thus, there is a psychological tendency to generalize all legal constraints regarding personal behavior as trivial at best or unfair at worst.
Even though society is aware of the damage done to everybody's health by second-hand smoke, everyone must still live in a world where smoking is legal. A nonsmoker may be married to a smoker, or have an older family member who smokes. Such personal scenarios further normalize the behavior. Hence, even when someone is witnessing a crime like smoking in a non-smoking area, because…
New York State Smoking Ban Signed into Law." 27 Mar 2003. CNN.com.
Nov 2006] http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/27/smoking.ban.ap/
Wheeler, Cass. (21 Oct 2003). "New York Restaurant Survey Supports Smoking Ban."
American Heart Association. [8 Nov 2006] http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3016321
community policing unit?
The fact that crime levels have experienced significant progress in recent years alongside of organized crime groups growing stronger each day means that community policing units need to see similar growth and to direct their attention toward addressing these problems. In order for my policing unit to be as effective as possible, it is going to develop a strong connection with the community and to enable its members to acknowledge the important roles they can play in making the world a better place. A community policing unit has a particularly complex effect on society as a whole and it is thus essential for individuals collaborating with it to be well-acquainted with strategies they need to employ in order to help generate positive results.
Community policing takes control over resources and support present in the local community and organizes these respective concepts in making the community a safer…
Miller, L.S., Hess, K.M., & Orthman, C.M.H. (2010). Community Policing: Partnerships for Problem Solving: Partnerships for Problem Solving. Cengage Learning
Palmiotto, M. (2000). Community Policing: A Policing Strategy for the 21st Century. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
"Community Policing: The Line Officer's Perspective," Retrieved September 8, 2013, from http://www.cj.msu.edu/~people/cp/communit.html
"Understanding Community Policing," Retrieved September 8, 2013, from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
authorities argue that community policing is a successful and innovative law enforcement concept, while others maintain that the approach has become outdated in the 21st century and actually places officers' lives in unnecessary danger. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the success of community policing to date, including an analysis concerning what can be done to increase the chances that an innovation will succeed and a discussion concerning what factors increase the chances of failure. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the success or failure of the community policing model are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
There has been growing interest in community policing programs since the 1980s, including neighborhood-oriented policing, community-oriented policing, and problem-oriented policing (Pfeifer, 2006). According to Pfeifer, "Although these programs vary in terms of their approach, they tend to…
Allender, D.M. (2004, March). Community policing: Exploring the philosophy. The FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin, 73(3), 18-21.
Aragon, R. (2004, April). Excellence in community policing. Law & Order, 52(4), 66-71.
Brown, J. (2001, April). Community policing reality check. Law & Order, 49(4), 55-60.
Effect of Community Policing On Crime Rates
Recent studies have shown that community policing, as a whole, has not been shown to result in lower crime rates. (Sozer, 2008, p. 184). Instead, studies have found that certain community policing activities, such as the retraining of police officers, are actually correlated with higher crime rates. (Sozer, 2008, p. 184). However, when looking at only large agencies in large cities, the study found that a problem-solving partnership is associated with lower violent crime rates. (Sozer, 2008, p.185). Sozer concludes that in more complex social environments, the importance of collaboration appears to yield a crime reduction effect. (Sozer, 2008, p.185).
Critique of Crime Rate Statistics
Although the results of Sozer's study are somewhat surprising, they are not a conclusive statement on the efficacy of community policing. Crime statistics suffer from a number of reliability and validity issues, which may have skewed the…
Bureau of Justice Administration. (1994). Understanding community policing: A framework for action. Washington, D.C: The Bureau.
DeWitt, C.B. (1992). Community Policing in Seattle: A Model Partnership Between Citizens and Police. National Institute of Justice.
Bayley, DH (1991). Forces of order: Policing modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Morabito, M.S. (September 02, 2010). Understanding community policing as an innovation: Patterns of adoption. Crime and Delinquency, 56, 4, 564-587.
Traditional Policing vs. Community Policing
Community policing has been defined as a "philosophy, management style and organizational strategy" with the goal of building community partnerships and not simply eliminating crime but also addressing the causes of crime in the community. It may be applied to any policing environment where neighborhood residents, schools, churches, businesses, community organizations or any other members of the community are working in conjunction with police departments to not only identify potential problems in the community but also solve them (Goldstein, Bayley & Couper, n.d).
Traditional policing emphasizes the role of police officers and law enforcement agents to identify problems and solve them in the community (Goldstein, Bayley & Couper, n.d: 22). The emphasis has been more on fighting crime from an independent perspective. However, community policing emphasizes the importance of collaboration between community members and police departments to develop needs assessments and help facilitate problem solving…
Goldstein, H., Bayley, DH, & Couper, D.C. (n.d.). "Community Oriented Policing &
Problem Solving (COPPS) Definition and Principles." Attorney General's COPPS Advisory Committee.
Kelling, G.L. And Bratton, W.J. (1993). "Implementing Community Policing: The
Administrative Problem." Perspectives on Policing, 17:32-42
m. Those kinds of things, and that kind of knowledge, is what makes community policing work so well for the citizens of the neighborhoods that are protected and the officers that watch over the people while they sleep.
Some of the efficiency tricks they learn from other officers who have worked that neighborhood before them; some they learn by trial and error and a little bit of exploration; some they may even learn by talking to the residents in the community. One may mention a shortcut, an abandoned house that is a drug lord's hideout, or almost anything else that is important for the efficient running of a community policing operation. The citizens of a neighborhood can be a very valuable source of information for many policemen who are trying to make the streets safer, but only if there is trust between the two groups. If there is no trust…
Banta, Bob. (1998, October 31). Promote minorities, ex-police chief says. The Austin American-Statesman. Metro/State.
Bittner, Egon. 1972. The Functions of the Police in Modern Society. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health.
Clearwater Police. (2001, October 29). Community Policing History. Retrieved at http://www.clearwaterpolice.org/cp/cp_history.html
Grisby, Lorna. (1997). Crime wave: Wesley Skogan knows why it's safer out there. People Weekly, 48, 93-95.
Community Policing in Today's Society:
Policing is a concept that has existed for several years though the view of these professionals has remained the same ever since. Throughout the existence of this concept, police officers are generally expected to deal with several calls for service. Notably, most of the calls received by police officers are usually directly related to enforcement of the law. The other calls for service that account for a significant portion of police work include dealing with minor disturbances, administrative responsibilities, and service calls. While police officers are primarily required to deal with criminal issues, they have developed to become social handymen that are called to resolve social problems that are prevalent in the society. As a result of the shift in the nature of police work, the concept of community policing has emerged to help these officers deal with several issues in the modern society.
Berlin, M.M. & Peak, K.J. (2013). Community Policing, Evolution of. Retrieved March 10, 2014,
Cole, G., Smith, C., & DeJong, C. (2013). Criminal justice in America (7th ed.). Stamford, CT:
Frequent town meetings where residents can air concerns to representatives of the force likewise fosters a sense of community empowerment.
Finally, it goes without saying that officers must, to establish trust, always seem ethical and not act as if they are above the law. Not abusing police privileges, not accepting things 'on the house' such as free food, upholding the law when engaging in searches, stops, and seizures, and including ethics training as a part of the education of new officers are all positive steps in this direction. Having a strong and impartial internal affairs department within the force and minimizing events that can generate bad publicity and erode community trust and damage relations with community leaders is likewise essential.
School Safety." (2008). COPS: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jun 2008 at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?Item=106
Newman, Grahame. (2008). "Check and Card Fraud." COPS: U.S. Department of Justice.
School Safety." (2008). COPS: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jun 2008 at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?Item=106
Newman, Grahame. (2008). "Check and Card Fraud." COPS: U.S. Department of Justice.
Retrieved 22 Jun 2008 at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/RIC/Publications/e07042442.pdf
Police integrity." (2008). COPS: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jun
Later, the two male officers should be taken aside and reminded of the gender-inclusive nature of the police force, the department policy on sexual harassment, and warned that such language, even in jest, is not acceptable while they are on the job, and in uniform.
Scenario 3: Officer Smith
Although Officer Smith may be a productive officer, his attitude and demeanor is a detriment to the productivity of others and to the cohesion of the police force. Although the other officers may like him, by belittling another officer, and not showing respect for department policy, Smith is making policing more difficult in the long run. Mediation through a third party, ideally provided by the department for such purposes, is needed between Smith and those persons he has a personality conflict, before the conflict…
Community policing arose from dissatisfaction with traditional policing. According to Brogden (1999), traditional police work focuses primarily on fighting serious crime. Proponents of community policing claim that this framework of policing has failed to serve the needs of the community and that traditional police work ignores the factors that most communities regard as priority. Fleming (2005) adds that traditional crime control methods failed to adequately address crime. Brogden (1999) explains that traditional policing "has been faced with several inter-linked crises -- of operations (policing practices are highly ineffective at dealing with crime): of efficiency in crime prevention, especially in the failure to enlist the potential of citizens and communities in this process of crime prevention, and in dealing with the symptoms rather than the causes of crime; of professionalism (the lack of relations between higher police pay, codes of conduct, and effectiveness); and of accountability" (p. 173). Fleming (2005) adds…
Alldredge, P. (2009). The Contradictions of Neighborhood Watch: The Growth and Success of a Failed Crime Prevention Strategy. Conference Papers -- American Sociological Association, 1. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Bennett, T., Holloway, K., & Farrington, D. (2006). Does neighborhood watch reduce crime? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2(4), 437-458. doi:10.1007/s11292-006-9018-5
Brogden, M.M. (1999). CHAPTER 10: Community Policing as Cherry Pie. In, Policing Across the World (pp. 167-186). Taylor & Francis Ltd. / Books. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Community policing. Office of Justice Programs: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=81#terms_def
Community Policing: Successful Implementation of Change
The adoption of a community policing strategy within police agencies is often a change that is instituted with much protest and unrest among officers. In order for community policing to be successful however, it has to be presented to organizations and individual police agents as a mechanism of positive change and law enforcement improvement.
Community policing is often in fact adopted by police agencies as a mechanism for improving internal and external relations and delivering optimal service to communities within a given area (Fielding, 1995). According to Fielding (1995) community policing can "evoke images of police-community relations in stable, consensus based and homogenous neighborhoods where crime is a mere irritant" (p.25). However, it is sometimes met with resistance among agents and officers alike.
Thus a suitable environment for change has to be created in order to ensure successful implementation of community policing aims. A…
Davis, J.J. & Gianakis, G.A. "Reinventing or repackaging public services? The
Case of community-oriented policing." Public Administration Review, 58(6): (1998)485
Fielding, N.C. "Community policing." Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1995.
Hartnett, S. & Skogan, W.G. "Community policing, Chicago style." New York: Oxford
The History and Concept of Community Policing in the U.S.
Community Policing Origins
Community Policing Philosophy
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services
Community policing is as much a philosophy as it is a practice. At the heart of the concept lies a deep level of collaboration between the community and the police. However, to form such a relationship many intermediary goals must first be achieved. Most likely, one of the primary values that must be established is a sense of trust between both the community and the police force. If the community perceives the police force as corrupt or ineffective then will generally remain apathetic to the goals of community policing. At the same time, if the police force is not fully engaged with the public then are not likely to benefit from the communities assistance. Therefore, to establish effective community policing efforts a balance between…
AA County Police. (2007, July 7). POLICE DISCRETION & ALTERNATIVES TO ARREST. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Police Rules and Regulations: http://www.aacounty.org/Police/RulesRegs/Sections01-06/0105.2DiscretionAlternArrest.pdf
Bureau of Justice Assistance. (1994, August). Understanding Community Policing. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from U.S. Department of Justice: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
COPS. (2011). Community Policing Defined. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Community Oriented Policing Services: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36
Sherman, L. (1990). POLICING FOR CRIME PREVENTION. American Journal of Police, 43-74.
Community policing comes from the service-oriented policing school. The focus of community policing is to have police in the community, an active presence with a storefront, so that people in the community can interact more directly with police. The traditional policing model is more a situation where there is a headquarters, and police fan out through the city or their districts from a handful of such headquarters. They are detached from specific neighborhoods and communities will find it generally more difficult to interact with police in a traditional policing model.
There are three different components to community policing: community partnership, organizational transformation and problem solving (COPS, no date). The first, partnerships, reflects that community policing involves forming partnerships with different stakeholders within the community. This can be business groups, homeowner groups or other stakeholders. The community has a better sense of what is going on in its neighborhood, and that…
COPS (no date). Community policing defined. U.S. Department of Justice. . Retrieved March 12, 2016 from http://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p157-pub.pdf
Police: Building Trust Between Police and Communities
Building Trust between Police and Communities: Police
Police Trust, Integrity and Ethics in Bridging the Gap in Community elations
The death of Eric Garner in the hands of New York police, and the shootings of 12-year-old ice Tamir and Michael Brown in Ohio and Missouri respectively, have and continue to brew a wave of public mistrust in the police service. Such incidences often spur massive public protests that eventually destroy relations between police and the communities they serve. A study conducted by euters on 3,600 citizens between December 2014 and January 2015 found that a significant 27.6% of adult Americans do not trust the police to be fair and just (euters, 2015). In December, 2015, President Barrack Obama signed an executive order creating the Task Force on 21st Century Policing, whose primary aim is to build confidence and trust in the local police.…
IACP. (2010). Building Trust between the Police and the Citizens they Serve. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (ICAP). Retrieved from http://www.theiacp.org/portals/0/pdfs/BuildingTrust.pdf
Miller, L. & Hess, K. (2007). Community Policing: Partnerships for Problem-Solving (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Raines, J. (2011). Ethics in Policing: Misconduct and Integrity. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Reuters. (2015). Do Americans Trust their Cops to be Fair and Just? New Poll Contains Surprises. Reuters.com. Retrieved from http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/2015/01/15/one-third-of-americans-believe-police-lie-routinely/
September 11, local law enforcement like Javier's department became more responsible for participating in and ensuring homeland security. While the role of police in homeland security might seem natural or obvious, diverting the attention and resources of police towards the federal concerns of homeland security can have some detrimental outcomes. One of the most important changes Javier noticed was the breakdown in the community policing model that the department had worked so hard to establish. Focusing more on counterterrorism efforts than on building relationships with community members damages the relationships between police and members of the community in serious ways. Police officers are expected to become keen observers of human behavior, to the point where they revert to the antagonistic role in the community. Instead of interacting positively with members of the community, police were being viewed increasingly with suspicion. Javier and his fellow officers had also been responding more…
According to ohe and his colleagues, though, "Over time, however, there has been a tendency for departments to expand their programs to involve a larger number of officers and to cover wider geographic areas. Besides these special units, a number of police departments also expect all of their officers to embrace the principles of community policing and to undertake at least some community problem-solving activities" (ohe et al., 1996, p. 78).
Constraints to Implementation study by Sadd and Grinc in 1994 concluded that, of all the implementation problems these programs faced, "the most perplexing... was the inability of the police departments to organize and maintain active community involvement in their projects" (p. 442). Hartnett and Skogan suggest that because every community is unique, the implementation problems will likewise be local in nature but there have been some consistent problems reported with implementation across the country that can serve as a…
Bass, S. (2001). Policing space, policing race: Social control imperatives and police discretionary decisions. Social Justice, 28(1), 156.
Comey, J.T., Hartnett, S.M., Kaiser, M., Lovig, J.H., & Skogan, W.G. (1999). On the beat: Police and community problem solving. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Davis, G.J., III, & Gianakis, G.A. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Fielding, N. (1995). Community policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
The idea of community policing is guided by a philosophy grounded in certain principles (Coquilhat, 2008). The principles are anchored on the thought that if there are positive changes now, communities will be guaranteed safety in the future. It is about cooperation and agreeing to work so that specific objectives that are commonly agreed on can be achieved. The concept of community policing is meant to move policing services closer to the people; with the people contributing towards the strategies employed in achieving the policing objectives. According to Palmitto, community policing is a game that the police should never afford to lose. He says that cooperation between the police and communities leads to more successful and reliable crime investigation techniques which lead to more accurate arrests and hence lower rates of crime. Such a scenario will help to improve the perception of police performance which will imply that they will…
Performance Gap Policing
A performance gap exists when the police department's performance does not meet organizational expectations or citizens expectations. Management is a critical success factor for managing a performance gap when it exists. Many police administrators are contemplating community policing projects due to performance gaps. In order to solve the problem of a performance gap, police agencies must look internally and externally for solutions. They must develop an action plan that includes organizational goals and community goals in order to narrow the gap and foster a collaborative and successful work environment.
Many view community policing as an answer, as a means of "developing communication with the public and interest groups" and encouraging active participation from community members and police agents to further the best interests of the community as a whole (Fielding, 1995). Community policing strategies are being widely adopted in many police agencies as a means of improving…
Bouckaert, G. & Halachmi, A. "Organizational performance and measurement in the public sector: Toward service, effort and accomplishment reporting." Westport: Quorum: 1996.
De Vries, M.S. & Van Der Zijl, V.DH "The implications of community policing for police-citizen relationships." International Journal of Public Administration 26(8-9), 2003:1017.
Fielding, N.C. "Community Policing." Oxford: Clarendon Press:1995
Reiner, R. The Politics of the Police; Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2000
Broken Windows" discussed the causes of fear and crime among urban neighborhoods. Beginning with a case of police walking the beat in crime-ridden neighborhoods, the authors evolved their article to an understanding of how the presence of a patrolman on the street can make residents feel safer. By studying the effect of patrolmen, the authors began to understand the cause of crime and the effect it can have on neighborhood residents. The authors asserted that crime, and more importantly the community's perception of it, began with general disorder and evolved eventually into complete fear of the neighborhood.
While studying crime and disorder, researchers have made an interesting discovery, the "Broken Window" effect. As the authors described "if a window in a building is broken and is left unrepaired, all the rest of the windows will soon be broken." (Kelling, 1982) When applied to crime and disorder this theory states that…
Kelling, George, and James Wilson. (1982). "Broken Windows." The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken-windows/304465/
Community Oriented Policing
Today's society is characterized by a drastic increase in gangs, crime, and drugs. Studies focusing on crime detective and rapid response are now criticizing the effectiveness of traditional policing practices. The perception that the core police function involves arresting law violators and combating crime has been slowly fading. These studies have convinced the American police unit to re-examine traditional policing practices considered as unsuccessful. This has led to the birth of community policing, which is currently making a significant contribution to the United States policing strategy.
Components of community policing
Community-oriented policing (COP) consists of two essential components. They include problem-solving and community partnership. Community partnerships are created through developing positive relations with the community (The United States & Community Policing Consortium, 1994). This requires the police to involve community members in the pursuit of better crime prevention and integrate their resources with existing community resources to…
The United States & Community Policing Consortium (1994). Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action. Washington, D.C: The Bureau.
Foot Patrol Effectiveness
Community policing strategies are oriented towards establishing and maintaining a working relationship between the police and community residents, in order to identify and solve problems that foster disorder and criminal activity (Community Oriented Policing Services, n.d.). One policing strategy favored by community residents is foot patrols, but police administrators have been reluctant to implement them because they are considered expensive, ineffective, and obsolete (Police Foundation, 2012). This essay will examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support police administrators' reluctance to adopt foot patrols for community policing.
Foot Patrol Efficacy
The Police Foundation (2012), an organization supporting community policing implementation, agrees with the generally-accepted view that foot patrols increases the sense of safety by neighborhood residents and their satisfaction with police services. However, they argue that foot patrols should be implemented only when police departments are flush with money. Given the current fiscal crisis, foot…
Community Oriented Policing Services. (n.d.). Community policing defined. Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=36.
Klein, Allison. (2007, Jan. 16). D.C. police heeding calls for foot patrols. Washington Post, p. B1.
Police Foundation. (2012). The Newark Foot Patrol Experiment. PoliceFoundation.org. Retrieved 31 Jan. 2013 from http://www.policefoundation.org/content/newark-foot-patrol-experiment .
Ratcliffe, Jerry H., Taniguchi, Travis, Groff, Elizabeth R., and Wood, Jennifer D. (2011). The Philadelphia Foot Patrol Experiment: A randomized controlled trial of police patrol effectiveness in violent crime hotspots. Criminology, 49(3), 795-831.
Policing Policies Analysis
This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.
Zero tolerance Policing
Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to…
Wakefield, A., & Fleming, J. (2008). The SAGE Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage Publications.
Palmiotto, M. (2009). Community policing: A policing strategy for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.
Do-lling, D. (2013). Community policing: Comparative aspects of community oriented police work. Holzkirchen/Obb: Felix.
Ikerd, T.E. (2007). Examining the institutionalization of problem-oriented policing: The Charlotte-Mecklenburg police department as a case study.
.....justice' transcends the scope of a majority of arguments. A discourse on its many connotations offers dynamic players on opposite sides of law enforcement lines a peaceful way to promote fairness via exchanges and interface. The requisite interface transcends the "no justice, no peace" principle. However, defining the term 'justice' would be a fine way to begin (Walton 10).
State and federal level regulation safeguards citizens of the nation against abuse as well as other similar violations on the part of law enforcers and other governmental authorities. Police abuse victims may individually sue both policemen and the local governmental bodies employing those officials (Advice Company Staff 3).
Usually, law enforcement officers are sued by society under the 1871 Civil Rights Act, §1983. The Act expressly forbids individuals who act on legal authority against infringing others' civil rights. Further, law enforcers are provided legal safeguards (e.g., "qualified immunity" that often shields…
Community Oriented Policing
new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:
For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…
Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.
O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.
Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.
MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
The Functions of Policing at the Local, State and Federal Levels
The functions of police work are highly complex and filled with myriad unpredictable challenges. Officers must place their safety and their lives at risk every day in the interests of maintaining order, protecting the pubic and apprehending law-breakers. The result is an occupation that is filled with stressors, pressures and dangers. One way that the structure of modern police-work helps officers to contend with these conditions is through the division of jurisdictions. American law enforcement is a sector comprised of many interdependent and overlapping agencies. And correspondent to the broader structure of American governance, this overlapping is somewhat hierarchical in nature, with jurisdictions generally determined by the unit of civil incorporation with which a precinct or department is affiliated. Therefore, at the local, state and federal level, responsibilities are generally divided among these different types of policing…
Gaines, L.K. & Kappeler, V.E. (2011). Policing in America. Elsevier.
Kappeler, V.E. & Gaines, L.K. (2009). Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective. Elsevier.
Wright, A. (2002). Policing: An Introduction to Concepts and Practices. Taylor & Francis U.S..
Hidden Dangers, Real Weapons, and Potential Technologies
Police officers are, undoubtedly, society's primary protectors. These individuals undertake assignments knowing that they could be placed in lethal danger, and do so in order to help complete strangers and keep a community safe. For this reason, police officers ought to be very much admired. Despite the personal and professional satisfaction that comes with being a great police officer, these individuals are also well aware that, as mentioned above, there are various aspects affecting their daily professional routines, many of which are not present in other careers, and many of which involve great risks. Yet despite knowing this, many police officers absolutely love their job. The paragraphs below will thus discuss policing operations in detail in order to better understand this particular and very important field of work. The essay will be separated into five sections focusing on the dangers of…
Shreeve, J.L. (2012). CSI Foils Felons. Police Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Scheider, M. & Chapman, R. (2003). Community Policing and Terrorism. Homeland Security Wesite. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Simon, S. (2011). Former LAPD Chief Bill Bratton Predicts the Future of Policing. National Public Radio (NPR.com). Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
What is the role of police in society? What would happen if the role of the police were lessened as it applies to the theory and practice of community policing?
Generally, the most important roles that police play in civilized society are that of criminal deterrence (Schmalleger, 2009). More specifically, the public awareness of the presence and authority of law enforcement deters most members of the population from criminal conduct that they might otherwise consider if there were no negative consequences. In community policing, police serve a much wider role than criminal deterrence, prevention, and response (Schmalleger, 2009). Modern police also play important roles in ensuring public order and public safety, as well as in addressing contemporary counterterrorism (Schmalleger, 2009). They maximize opportunities to work with proactive members of the community to establish and maintain positive and mutually beneficial relationships (Ellison, 2006). If the role of police were…
Ellison, J. "Community Policing: Implementation Issues." Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75, No. 4 (Apr/06).
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
In addition we have made, and continue to make, efforts to employ people of all backgrounds for Jupiter's police force so that people of all backgrounds see people from their cultures in law enforcement.
People, no matter where they are from, tend to fear the unknown (Carter, 1995), so we feel that a policy of community policing -- getting the officers into the various neighborhoods of Jupiter in positive ways -- is important. One of the things we have done to accomplish that is to put our officers in the vicinity of school crosswalks when children are traveling to and from school. This allows them to interact positively with children from an early age as well as allow the parents to see police officers in their most important role -- protecting all of Jupiter's inhabitants. I hope these comments will put any concerns to rest.
Carter, Ronnie A. 1995.…
Carter, Ronnie A. 1995. "Improving minority relations." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, December.
Policing in America:
As compared to the 1920's, policing in the United States has had to change over the years in order to cope with the numerous changes in the society.
Most of these changes have occurred during the 20th Century because of the rapid technological advancements and globalization. During this period, telephones, car ownership, and use of personal computers have become commonplace in the society. While these are positive changes, they have also contributed to significant changes that are sometimes negative in relation to law enforcement.
With the innovations of computers and telecommunication technologies in America, the police force and other criminal justice practitioners has really improved in terms of opportunity and challenges. These technologies have empowered the police force in the sense that they can now collect, store, study, and share records with stakeholders within and outside administration. The innovations of these technologies have created opportunities in the…
Reichert, K. (2001, December). Use of Information Technology by Law Enforcement. Retrieved from University of Pennsylvania website: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/jerrylee/programs/fjc/paper_dec01.pdf
Not only doe s this approach include the participation of the community it also incorporates organizational change. Both community involvement and organizational change is necessary if policing efforts are going to be effective. This approach also emphasizes the importance of trust between the police and the community. The community oriented approach to policing is the most effective in the solving and reducing of crime within a community.
For the purposes of this discussion: Two police officers are arguing about the policies of community-oriented and problem-oriented policing as opposed to zero-tolerance policing. The research analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches to policing. Both approaches seek to understand crime. However, both approaches had disadvantages related to the boundaries of community residents and the time required to solve crime using a problem oriented approach. The investigation also explained the ideologies that support these policy perspectives. The research will also…
"Community Policing Defined." http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36
G Cordner, EP Biebel. Problem-Oriented Policing in Practice. Criminology & Public Policy, Volume 4, Issue 2 (p 155-180)
Lum, C. 2009 Community Policing or Zero Tolerance. British Journal of Criminology. http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/azp039v1
Maguire, M. 2004. 'The Crime Reduction Programme in England and Wales: Reflections on the Vision and the Reality', Criminal Justice 4(3): 213 -- 37.
(Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) Police forces became the fodder for systematic research on the need for and development of improved minority representation in public service as well as a frequently attached public entity with regard to minority status in the community. (Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) As early as the 1960s and 70s police forces all over the nation began to be scrutinized for limiting their hiring pool to white males and began to make changes to support the reduction of this reality. (Broadnax, 2000, p. xx)
The development of police forces within the guidelines of public scrutiny as one of the most significant and public hiring authorities in the public sector has created a hiring protocol that though variant to some degree is similar in most agencies and is reflective of public demand for diversity in representation. Many would likely call the last frontier of this more egalitarian hiring process…
Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.). (2000). Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Frederickson, H.G. (2000). Part One Representative Bureaucracy and Equal Employment Opportunity. In Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service, Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.) (pp. 1-4). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Hahn, H., & Jeffries, J.L. (2003). Urban America and Its Police: From the Postcolonial Era through the Turbulent 1960s. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
Kogut, C.A., & Short, L.E. (2007). Affirmative Action in Federal Employment: Good Intentions Run Amuck?. Public Personnel Management, 36(3), 197.
IV. A Multidisciplinary Approach
The work entitled: "Campus Threat Assessment Training: A Multidisciplinary Approach" states that it t has been recommended by the Florida Gubernatorial Task Force for University Campus Safety as follows: "That each college and university develop a multidisciplinary crisis management team, integrating and ensuring communication between the university law enforcement or campus security agency, student affairs, residential housing, counseling center, health center, legal counsel, and any other appropriate campus entities to review individuals and incidents which indicate "at-risk" behavior. The team should facilitate the sharing of information, timely and effective intervention, and a coordinated response when required." (Community Policing Dispatch, 2009) Colleges and universities in the United States are "recognizing the particular applicability of community policing in the campus environment. The community policing model helps to create the framework for a productive relationship between the officers and those whom they serve." (Wilson and Grammich, 2009)…
Campus Threat Assessment Training: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2009) Community Policing Dispatch. Vol. 2 Issue 4 April 2009. Online available at: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/April_2009/campus_threat.htm
Campus Watch Program (nd) College of Lake County, Illinois. Online available at: http://www.clcillinois.edu/depts/sec/CampusWatchBrochure.pdf
Godfrey, Steven (nd) Assessing the Success of Community-Policing (Neighborhood Watch Program) Online available at: http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&q=cache%3AUvBqWMSAHI0J%3Awww.emich.edu%2Fcerns%2Fdownloads%2Fpapers%2FPoliceStaff%2FCommunity%2520Policing%2FAssessing%2520the%2520Success%2520of%2520Community%2520Policing.pdf+colleges+and+universities%3A+community+watch+volunteers&hl=en&gl=us&pli=1
Gummere, Sara Lippincott (2003) Making a Better Place: Planning, Implementing & Managing a Student Volunteer Program. University of Oregon June 2003. Online available at: http://aad.uoregon.edu/icas/project_thesis_pdf/gummere_s.pdf
Describe the impact of Sir obert Peel on American policing
Sir obert Peel was not an American police officer, or an American politician. He served twice as the Prime Minister of Britain as a Tory, passing a series of significant laws. Part of Peel's concern was in the field of criminal justice and law enforcement. He helped pass major prison reform legislation and also established the first significant metropolitan police force in the United Kingdom. In transforming British police organizations and law enforcement, Peel helped to lay the foundation for the modern American police force and its underlying philosophy.
Peel developed a law enforcement philosophy that was based on involving community residents in the process of crime prevention. The modern concept of community policing is in part based on Sir Peel's original "nine principles," which were outlined in the 19th century. The first of Peel's nine principles is that…
Larrabee, A.K. (2007). Law enforcement: Sir Robert Peel's concept of community policing in today's society. Yahoo! Nov 8, 2007. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/law-enforcement-sir-robert-peels-concept-community-638595.html
New Westminster Police Service (n.d.). Sir Robert Peel's Nine Principles. Retrieved onine: http://www.newwestpolice.org/peel.html
Sabath, D.O. (n.d.). The evolution of American policing. Retrieved online: http://www.aphf.org/hist.html
Community-Based Policing, Problem-Solving History and esults
The objective of this study is to examine community-based policing, problem-solving history and results. Towards this end, this work will review literature in this area of study.
The Bureau of Justice Assistance document entitled "Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action" states that community policing is, "in essence, a collaboration between the police and the community that identifies and solves community problems." Additionally stated in the Bureau of Justice Assistance work is that problem-solving "is a broad term that implies more than simply the elimination and prevention of crimes. Problem-solving is based on the assumption that 'crime and disorder can be reduced in small geographic areas by carefully studying the characteristics of problems in the area and then applying the appropriate resources…" and on the assumption that "Individuals make choices based on the opportunities presented by the immediate physical and social characteristics of an…
Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action. Bureau of Justice Assistance. August 1994. Retrieved from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
Philosophy and Principles of Community-Based Policing (2006) SEESAC 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.seesac.org/uploads/studyrep/CBP_ENG_3rd_edition_FINAL.pdf
Eck, John E., and William Spelman, et al. (1983) Problem Solving: Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum. 1987:pp.xvi -- xvii. See also Clarke, Ronald V. "Situational Crime Prevention: Its Theoretical Basis and Practical
Scope." Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, eds. Michael Tonry and Norval
Challenges to policing in the 21st century
Policing has taken a different dimension from the traditional policing habits of maintaining law and order and combating the usual crimes to handling new forms of crime, which can be termed as white collar crimes. The society is faced with criminal activities which are as a result of the advanced level of technology use across the globe. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012). This is an era where the criminals are technologically savvy and use this as a tool to commit crimes without the use of force or inflicting any bodily harm to the victims…
Patricia Linn, (1999). what are the five types of Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/list_7245606_five-types-crime_.html.
Interpol, (2012). Cyber Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 fromhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime.
The American system of criminal justice and investigations stem from English common law and practice, which advised colonial governments and gave rise to subsequent systems in the United States. In fact, the standing police force that most Americans take for granted did not always exist. Early Americans, like the English before them, were averse to the concept of a government-sponsored standing police force that could at any time be authorized to strip citizens of their rights and liberties. The current method of law enforcement, from apprehension to pre-trial investigations, also owes its roots to the English.
The first professional, paid American police forces started in the early seventeenth centuries: first in Boston in 1631 and about fifteen years later in New Amsterdam. Known initially as watchmen and later as constables, the officers did not enjoy the same level of responsibility or the same role in society as modern…
Engel, R.S. (2011)Police: History - Early Policing In England, The Beginning Of "modern" Policing In England, Early Policing In Colonial America." Retrieved online: http://law.jrank.org/pages/1647/Police-History.html
"Early Police in the United States." Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/467289/police/36619/Early-police-in-the-United-States
"History of Law Enforcement," (n.d.). Infosheet retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:q1n8bE8PqeYJ:teachers2.wcs.edu/high/rhs/maryc1/Criminal%2520Justice%2520I/History%2520of%2520Law%2520Enforcement%2520Info%2520Sheet.doc+law+enforcement+history+united+states&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjKuxGm5bbh8GjrtJ5yn4AHn2bIiIWlGBAWSGHopoH9f51uVsygxxkwB5I83si1CkPS_E4Ry83mW7oZ6hQqbjOlD6NYV1qH3lXjh3-T_vu58Mk4_-H6k2V9qchHrfRrO_hH5Nn2&sig=AHIEtbQPG0dtcbkFj_Q-1gi8wj6BmauLrg
Kelly, M. (n.d.). A brief history of the Pinkertons. About.com. Retrieved online: http://americanhistory.about.com/od/19thcentur1/a/allan_pinkerton.htm
This model provided for a hierarchical chain of command based on rank but there are many experts who argue that such system is out-dated. New systems where command is much less centralized and individual police are allowed autonomy in their specific neighborhoods and areas. This is an attempt to integrate the police more heavily into their neighborhood and to develop the idea that police work is a community challenge and not the work of the police alone. The long-range goal of this type of policing is to have the public view policing as a service and the public as customers. Eventually this will result in the effectiveness being measured by public satisfaction and not by harsh statistics such as the number of crimes occurring and the number of arrests being made.
Whatever changes are eventually implemented in regard to policing in America such changes will not be easy. Police agencies,…
Butterfield, R. (2005). The New Public Management and Managerial Roles: the case of the Police Sergeant. British Journal of Management, 329-341.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). Investigations & Operations Support. Retrieved from the FBI.
Gau, J.M. (2010). Procedural Justice and Order Maintenance Policing: A Study of Inner-City Young Men's Perceptions of Police Legitimacy. Justice Quarterly, 255-279.
Grabosky, P.N. (2007). Private Sponsorship of Public Policing. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 5-16.
Patrol crafts would be deployed along the coastal areas waiting to act upon any information provided to confiscate drugs and arrest drug traffickers. For this purpose, the city police would be armoured with 2 well-equipped fast patrol crafts. Communication services between the stations and the patrol crafts would be state of the art including GPS systems and radar networks to facilitate identifying and tracking down of suspicious activity in the coastal waters. Further, the use of latest thermal imaging and laser optics tools would provide effective supervision at nights.
The police department has immense responsibility in maintaining law and order and providing safety and security would necessitate a strong police force based on a clear and sound organizational philosophy. As a coastal city with its growing population, the urban city of Metropolis is faced with numerous problems, in particular the high drug trade activity along the coastal regions. The…
NCWC, " Police in Society," Accessed 16th Apr 2007, Available online at, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lects.htm
Author not Available, "Community Policing," Accessed 15th Apr 2007, available at http://law.jrank.org/pages/1648/Police-Community-Policing-Definition-community-policing.html
James T. Quinlivan, Burden of Victory: The Painful Arithmetic of Stability Operations, Available Online at, http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/summer2003/burden.html
City of Phoenix, 'Police Officer Processing Procedures', Accessed Apr 16th 2007, available at http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/POLICE/pdjob3.html
Police: History, Structure, and Functions
The policing system's development in Britain was closely followed by a similar development in America. Policing by the initial colonizers assumed two forms: "The Big Stick" (for-profit, private agency policing) and the "Watch" (communal as well as informal) (Spitzer, 1979). Community volunteers primarily charged with warning citizens of imminent danger made up the latter system. The night watch was first implemented in the year 1636 in Boston. New York and Philadelphia implemented night watch system in the years 1658 and 1700, respectively. This system did not prove particularly successful in controlling crime. Supplementing the "watch" mode of policing was a group of official law enforcers, labeled "constables," who were often salaried by a fee system, based on number of warrants served by them. Policing's informal procedure continued for several years following the 1765-83 American evolution. Only in the 1830s did the U.S. first introduce a…
Davis, Rowenna. (2009). Policing the police, The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/libertycentral/2009/feb/28/convention-modern-liberty-police on October 5, 2016.
Lewis, M.A. (2011). "Perspective: Peel's Legacy," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. The FBI. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/2011/december/perspective-peels-legacy on October 5, 2016.
Lundman, Robert J. (1980). Police and Policing: An Introduction, New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Spitzer, Stephen, (1979). The Rationalization of Crime Control in Capitalist Society, Contemporary Crises 3, no. 1.
Community Power and Social Distribution: A Debate Over Social Stratification and Elitism from Hunter Onwards
Floyd Hunter was a sociologist whom identified himself as part of the early stages of a movement to enact greater systems of localized, community social justice. Such movements were to later grip the American nation during the 1960's. However, as early as the 1950's, Hunter sought to quantitatively and qualitatively measure who had 'political power' in the community of Regional City in the American South over the course of the early 1950's. Hunter stated in his text Community Power Structure that in Atlanta, ostensibly a regional power base of the time, he had 'found' an elite whom formed the core of the local political power nexus, an elite that was not institutional in nature, but personal. In other words, through Hunter's social excavation over the course of his doctorial dissertation, Hunter discovered a hidden elitist…
Bachrach, Peter and Morton Baratz, (December 1962). "Two Faces of Power." American Political Science Review. Volume 56. December 1962. Pp.947-952.
Hunter, Floyd. Community Power Structure. (1953). Chapter 4: The Structure of Power in Regional City.
Polsby, Nelson. (1980). Community Power and Political Theory. Second Edition. Chapter 5: Power and Social Stratification: Theory or Ideology?
Stone, Clarence N. (1980). "Systemic Power in Community Decision Making: A Restatement of Stratification Theory." American Political Science Review 74: 976-90
Police officers are authorized to use force when necessary, a policy that is generally used to protect innocent people from violence and abuse, and protect the general public from harm. However, the authorization to use force can be easily abused. Police abuse of power in the form of police brutality is an ethical problem because it constitutes abuse of power, and also leads to mistrust of law enforcement. Mistrust of law enforcement in turn undermines the authority and legitimacy of the police and prevents cooperative measures of stopping crime like community policing models. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015), 44 million people on average each year in the United States have some kind of face-to-face contact with police and of those 44 million, just under two percent experience use of threatening or nonfatal force. While this number may seem small, on the ground the high rate of police…
These people often lack familiarity with public safety operations. Campus chiefs of police and directors of security are often challenged by the opposing interests of their chief executive officers. Informing campus leaders about importance of public safety is vital to its success. Nonetheless, time constraints and other challenges and priorities imposed on these leaders make it difficult for them to devote any time to security and safety matters before the problems arise (National Summit of Campus Public Safety, 2005).
The look and feel of security on college and university campuses has changed dramatically since September 11th. Colleges and universities have implemented the following:
- updated their campus emergency management plans to include response protocols for an active shooter on campus, bomb threat, evacuation, lockdown and other high probability incidents that might occur.
- registered their campus emergency management plans with their local municipal police departments and county offices of emergency…
Canas, Richard. (2008). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from The New York Times Web site:
National Summit of Campus Public Safety. (2005). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from U.S.
Department of Justice Web site:
Community- and problem-oriented policing have risen as the most important mediums for improving the efficiency of police efforts in communities and as ways of reformation of police organizations.
Community-oriented policing has turned out to the symbol of police in America. In every area of the United States, community policing has emerged as an adaptive style of policing. It is considered as a powerful organizing vehicle for the public protection. If truth be told, it has become an accepted principle for law enforcement agencies. Community-oriented policing promises to thoroughly change the relationship among the police department and the public, deals with community problems, and improves the living conditions of the neighborhoods (Greene, 2000).
The main idea behind community-oriented policing is that the enforcement of law should be focused, proactive and sensitive to the community. It tends to break down the barriers between the law enforcement department and the…
Greene, J.R. (2000). Community Policing in America: Changing the Nature, Structure, and Function of the Police. Criminal Justice, 3, 299-370. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from https://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_3/03g.pdf
Stephens, G. (2005). Policing the Future: Law Enforcement's New Challenges. The Futurist, 39(2), 51+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-129170684/policing-the-future-law-enforcement-s-new-challenges
The Key Elements of Problem-Oriented Policing (n.d.). In Center for Problem-Oriented Policing . Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=elements
"What is POP?" (n.d.). In Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=whatiscpop
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…
Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.
"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."
(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf
Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
There various technological measures that have been used to enhance the effectiveness of police officers include crime laboratories and finger printing. The other technological measures used in policing include the two-way radio used in police cars to help the officers to multiply their productivity in responding to and dealing with incidents. Police agencies across the nation are obtaining new technology that is developed to lessen response time and speed of information dissemination. The use of these efforts has helped in improving patrol function and capitalizes on the impact of community policing programs.
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement elationships:
The relationships between intelligence, law enforcement, and homeland security organizations at the federal, state, and local level have continued to experience a revolution since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Before these terrorist attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created the wall at the federal level between law enforcement and intelligence. Furthermore, none of…
Foster, R.E. (n.d.). History of Police Technology. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.police-technology.net/id59.html
Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-than-lethal Weapons. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html
Schmidt, M.S. & Goldstein, J. (2012, April 9). The Dangers of Police Work. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.professionalsecurityarkansas.com/cms/the-dangers-of-police-work/
Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Center for the Study of Intelligence, 53(3). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html