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Moreover, not all states have shield laws. The states that do have such laws are Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, hode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, and the District of Columbia. Each of these states defines and applies a journalist's privilege differently. They examine who is a journalist, what kind of information the privilege protects, and whether there are any qualifications to the privilege. In addition, there is no federal shield law, though the Department of Justice does apply something akin to a shield law at the federal level.
The qualifications contained in the shield laws are of critical importance to journalists, because the shield laws really provide little more protection than the common-law right to privilege. In states with shield laws, journalists…
Pember-Calvert . (2004). Mass Media Law, 2005-2006 Edition. The Mc-Graw-Hill
AAP ode of Ethics is shorter compared to AA's, centering more on specific issues such as confidentiality and professional practices, among others. Identified as Principle IV in the AAP code of ethics, onfidentiality is synonymously identified as 'respect for the integrity and protection of the welfare' of its clients, a claim that is similar to AA's stance on confidentiality. AA and AAP discussed the issue of confidentiality similarly, although AAP cites more specific instances in which confidentiality can be revoked. It states under Principle IV-F that AAP do not use these standards of confidentiality to avoid intervention when it is necessary, e.g., when there is evidence of abuse of minors, the elderly, the disabled, the physically or mentally incompetent.
This passage is supported by AAP's assertion that they must, first and foremost, ensure that their client's dignity and welfare are respected and protected, respectively. This means that if specific…
Code of Ethics of American Counseling Association: http://www.counseling.org
Code of Ethics of American Association of Pastoral Counselors: http://www.aapc.org
Code of Ethics of American Association of Christian Counselors: http://www.aacc.net
Concomitantly, the patient should also be kept informed of such actions, as it directly affects his or her confidentiality status. The physician should then advise the patient regarding the necessary actions or allowance to be made for the destruction of the records.
6. As mentioned above, it is absolutely vital to identify individuals and organizations with access to the databases containing his or her medical records. The reason for this is again for the purpose of informed consent. The physician should also be informed of such individuals or organizations. The patient is then given full power to provide or withhold consent in concomitance with advice from the physician.
7. The AMA ethics opinion mentions encryption, along with several other measures, to ensure the security of medical records from unauthorized access. Other forms of access control include passwords and scannable badges. This ensures the confidentiality of patient records and protection from…
American Medical Association (1995-2008). E-5.07 Confidentiality Computers. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/8360.html
American Medical Association (1995-2008). E-5.059 Privacy in the Context of Health Care. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/11988.html
American Medical Association (1995-2008). E-7.02 Records of Physicians Information and Patients. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/8378.html
American Medical Association (1995-2008). E-10.01 Fundamental Elements of the Patient-Physician Relationship. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/8313.html
The most important thing that a police psychologist should do when evaluating an officer for a position on the SWAT team is to inform that individual that the information that the officer reveals to the psychologist (and any conclusions that the psychologist comes to) will be shared with the officer's superiors for the purpose of determining if the officer can join the SWAT team. The psychologist is bound to reveal only the information that is directly relevant to the specific evaluation. Any other information must be kept confidential.
In a related vein, the psychologist should keep the assessment as focused as possible to the question at hand and not use the session to "go fishing." Issues that are directly relevant to such an assessment would be how stable the person is emotionally and psychologically, how prone the person is to explosive again, how well the person can work…
The client is then hesitant to sue over a breach of trust because the client feels bonded to the therapist and does not want to hurt the therapist by suing.
Another issue with confidentiality breaching is that the client has revealed secrets to the therapist and may be concerned that a lawsuit will cause those secrets to become part of public record or be testified about on the stand (Grabois, 1997).
Two additional factors may explain the lack of claims by patients against their therapists (Grabois, 1997). These factors have a close connection to the intensity in this type of therapeutic relationship (Grabois, 1997). One factor is that patients do not recognize the psychotherapist's role in their distress, and the other is that psychotherapists are experts at handling people and their emotions (Grabois, 1997). If a patient is dissatisfied, the therapist can satisfy his or her doubts, or dissuade the…
Vye, Christopher (2005) Nine ethical values of master therapists.(Special section: master therapists) Journal of Mental Health Counseling
Cox, Jane a. (2005) Managed mental health care: intentional misdiagnosis of mental disorders.(Practice & Theory) Journal of Counseling and Development
Kitchener, K. (1984). Intuition, critical evaluation and ethical principles: The foundation for ethical decisions in counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 12, 43-55.
Knauss, L. (1997). Professional training in ethics. In D. Marsh & R. Magee (Eds.), Ethical and legal issues in professional practice with families (pp. 289-311). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Hospital and Confidentiality
RCT: Dr. L's dilemma
In this particular ethical dilemma, patient Bruce W. is taking a placebo during a drug trial for a drug which is beginning to show promising results. Dr. L's dilemma is a common one for physicians involved in randomized clinical trials. Dr. L must weigh the value of the experimental method and his duty as a scientist with his duty as a physician. As a physician, Dr. L's ultimate responsibility is to his patient. He has an ethical obligation to keep the patient fully informed about treatment options and the risks and the benefits of the medications and treatments administered while the patient is under his care. But as a scientist participating in an experiment with a 'control' group, he has an ethical obligation to keep his patient in the dark about the patient's status as a control group participant. If the drug…
Taking pictures to document the injuries that the patient inflicted on herself could be a reasonable step in the provision of medical care. The patient was unable to consent because of self-inflicted wounds, and there is not enough information to know whether delay in taking the pictures could have had an adverse medical outcome for the patient. Therefore, taking the pictures would not be a violation.
However, it seems equally clear that sharing the pictures would be a violation. The Privacy ule dictates minimum access, which means that access to a patient's private health information should be limited to as few people as necessary to administer treatment. There does not seem to be a medical reason for the physician to show the 15 people the pictures of the suicide patient. Therefore, I believe that the patient's confidentiality was violated. However, if the group of 15 people happened to be doctors…
Stewart, M. (2012). What nurses need to know about HIPPA. Retrieved December 10, 2012
from Motlow College Nursing website: www.mscc.edu/nursing/hippa.ppt
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Summary of the HIPAA Privacy Rule.
Retrieved December 10, 2012 from HHS.gov website: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/ hipaa/understanding/summary/index.html
NMC Code: Patient Confidentiality
The Nursing and Midwifery Code sets the standards by which UK nurses and midwives should conduct themselves both ethically and professionally (NMC, 2010). The main principles are patient autonomy, patient confidentiality, patient collaboration in care, consent, professional boundaries, information sharing with colleagues, teamwork, effective delegation, and risk management. This essay will examine the principle of patient confidentiality and how this can affect practice.
Patients expect their personal information to be protected by doctors, nurses, and midwives. This expectation is essential to the efficient functioning of the health services, because patients would otherwise be less forthcoming about their physical and mental health if they believed the information could be released to the public or family members without their permission (General Medical Council, 2009). If this were to occur then the ability of doctors and nurses to provide needed services would be significantly impaired. In a…
Chan, K 2013, 'Doctors have a duty to breach patient confidentiality to protect others at risk of HIV infection', BMJ, vol. 345, p. e7630.
General Medical Council 2009, Confidentiality: The duties of a doctor registered with the General Medical Council, General Medical Council, London, .
NMC (Nursing and Midwifery Council) 2010, The code: Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives, PB-CODE-A5-0410, Nursing and Midwifery Council, London, .
Poindexter, CC 2013, 'HIV stigma and discrimination in medical settings: Stories from African women in New Zealand', Social Work in Health Care, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 704-727.
Character trait that I have chosen is confidentiality, which isn't a character trait at all, but a behavior. This is accounting -- we need to categorize things properly. Confidentiality is important in the accounting profession, and therefore it is something that an accountant must take seriously. The accountant has a duty to act in the client's benefit, and part of that means being able to maintain confidentiality with respect to any of the dealings that the accountant has with the client (Nordmeyer, 2015).
There are a few different areas where confidentiality comes into play, in particular with respect to unauthorized disclosure of information, and inappropriate use of financial information. In essence, the accountant needs to maintain client confidentiality, except in situations where to do so would be unethical (i.e. whistleblower situations). Confidentiality is not even just about the person, but about the team, about the systems, and the different protocols…
Eyden, T. (2012). 8 ways CPAs violate the AICPA's ethics requirements. Accounting Web. Retrieved May 29, 2015 from http://www.accountingweb.com/article/8-ways-cpas-violate-aicpas-ethics-requirements/219544
Nordmeyer, B. (2015). Importance of confidentiality in accounting. AZ Central. Retrieved May 29, 2015 from http://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/importance-confidentiality-accounting-23560.html
Life Coaching and Vocational Choices
Confidentiality is important because the three coaches gave their different views and approaches when discussing the vocational choices in life. The coaches were not confined to a few or similar methods since each of them was not aware of the approach used by the other coach. Confidentiality maintained enables the coaches to be independent when giving the plans and not to copy from one another. Confidentiality will expose the group members or individuals being coached to a wide range of options to analyze and determine the best. The three coaches gave their different approaches on the vocational choices. An individual being coached will take time and choose the best approach from three, which he/she feels that it fits his/her life. In addition, individual or group members being coached can combine all the approaches presented by the coaches analyze them and choose the best…
Van Iddekinge, C.H., & Campbell, J.P. (2011). Reconsidering vocational interests for personnel selection: The validity of an interest-based selection test in relation to job knowledge, job performance, and continuance intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 13-19
Cotter, E.W., & Fouad, N.A. (2011). The relationship between subjective well-being and vocational personality type. Journal of Career Assessment, 19(1), 51-60.
THE RIGHT THING TO DO
Two nurses are good friends to an in-patient. One of the nurses got so concerned with this patient that she accessed the patient's medical records and confided her findings to the other friend. Neither of them was assigned to the patient-friend and, thus, had no authority to access her chart. Nor are they blood-related to the patient. The first nurse faces the dilemma of reporting the violation of patient confidentiality or keeping quiet about it but sharing the violation with her. The guilty nurse promised never to repeat the act. The first nurse feels concerned with her as this is her sole source of living in support of herself and her two children. She is a single mother. The first nurse must decide correctly and fairly.
Three provisions of the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics apply to this case (ANA, 2001). Provision…
ANA (2014) Privacy and confidentiality. Nursing World: American Nurses Association.
Retrieved on December 7, 2014 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/Ethics-Position-Statements/PrivacyandConfidentiality.html
- Code of ethics for nurses. Retrieved on December 7, 2014 from http://www.nursingworld.org/codeofethics
Fullbrook, S. (2007). Legal principles of confidentiality and other public interests: Part
Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability
In the contemporary information systems environment, the security of organizational information resources is essential given an increase of hacker incidents globally. Data confidentiality is essential to ensure that the private information is not disclosed or made available to unauthorized individuals. On the other hand, the integrity is the part of information security that ensures that program and data are exchanged only by an authorized person. The system integrity assures that the system performs its intended functions without its inadvertent manipulation. The availability assures that the systems perform its intended function, and it does not deny its availability to the authorized user. These three security concepts (Integrity, Confidentiality, and Availability) is referred as Triad that performs fundamental security objectives for organizational information systems.
The objective of this paper is to explore the three concepts of information security.
The CIA Triad
The confidentiality can only be attained when…
Kim, D., & Solomon, M. G. (2014). Fundamentals of information systems security (2nd Ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Balancing the ight to Know With the ight for Privacy and ecords Confidentiality
Balancing the right to know with the right of American public for the privacy and confidentiality of their personal information is a challenging enterprise, and it is reasonable to suggest that optimal solutions require careful analysis of the competing interests that are involved. Indeed, some proponents argue that the American public's right to know is embodied in the U.S. Constitution as a fundamental right, and these rights have been codified in various state and federal laws that extend to everyone by virtue of the Fourteenth Amendment. These issues have become even more complex in nature in recent years, though, following the passage of the Freedom of Information Act of 1966 and the Electronic Freedom of Information Act of 1996 which mandate expanded access to government records, especially those maintained in digital form and online. This paper provides…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Botterman, M., Bikson, T., Bosman, S., Cave, J., Frinking, E. & De Pous, V. (2001). Public
information provision in the digital age: Implementation and effects of the U.S. Freedom
of Information Act. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Case: Infected surgeon and a duty to disclose
It is extremely important that persons with HIV status are treated fairly and ethically, and healthcare institutions do not support undue hysteria regarding the actions of healthcare workers with HIV. However, given the undeniable risks that HIV poses to patients, it seems unwise for Dr. M to continue in his current capacity as a hands-on surgeon. This is not because HIV workers should be singled out as particularly 'bad' -- this is true of all healthcare workers infected with communicable diseases transmitted through blood. Thus Dr. M should not perform surgical operations in which he could potentially cut himself and expose the patient. At minimum his actions during surgery must follow all existing protocols for healthcare workers and he must inform his patients. But in light of the potential risks, it seems best that Dr. M does not continue…
On Duty to Warn: The California Supreme Court's response is that the defendants have a duty to protect not only to the patients but also to those individuals who may come under assault from the mental health patient. Thus, the defendants are negligent of and derelict in their duty in not warning Tatiana of the danger presented her by the patient's inclination. The defendants also should have insisted that the police detain the patient. As Berger and Berger (2009) point out, the duty to warn translates into the duty "to protect."
On Duty to Forecast Harm: The defendant has a duty to exercise care in the event that danger is foreseeable. In this case, it was evident that danger was foreseen, which is why the defendant alerted the police; however, the issue was not followed-up on and the patient was allowed to go free without further precautionary measures…
Berger, S., Berger, M. (2009). Tarasoff "duty to warn" clarified. Retrieved from http://nationalpsychologist.com/2009/03/tarasoff-%E2%80%9Cduty-to-warn%E2%80%9D-clarified/101056.html
Kipnis, K. (2003). In Defense of Absolute Confidentiality. AMA Journal of Ethics. #
10, Volume 5. Retrieved from http://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/2003/10/hlaw2-0310.html
The counselor must move her away from playing the victim. Her situation is extremely unfortunate, but she and her parents must make amends and learn to effectively deal with the situation. Lastly, differentiation of self could prove to be quite useful. Jessica needs to become more of an independent thinker in order to value her existence. This will make her a more responsible young lady who can think for herself, make informed decisions and not always seek the approval of others.
III. COUNSELO'S Self-AWAENESS
In order for Jessica's counselor to maintain self-awareness, on-going training must be undertaken on a regular basis to keep up with the growing trends in psychology. The counselor must be careful not to allow personal biases to interfere and should allow Jessica some level of autonomy to keep her engaged and interested in her progress (yan and Deci 2008). Tang, Addison, LaSure-Bryant et. al feel that…
Pohlman, Katherine, Schwab, Nadine, Dickey, Susan B., Kiefner, Jeanne and Susan M. Beidler (2002). Consent and confidentiality issues among school-age children and adolescents. The Journal of School Nursing, 18(3), 179-186. doi: 10.1177/10598405020180021001
Gushue, George V., Constantine, Madonna G. And Daniel T. Sciarra (2008). The influence of culture, self-reported multicultural counseling competence, and shifting standards of judgment on perceptions of family functioning of white family counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(1), 85-94.
Frain, Michael P., Berven, Norman L., Chan, Fong and Molly K. Tschopp (2008). Family resiliency, uncertainty, optimism and the quality of life of individuals with HIV / AIDS. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, (52)16, 16-27. doi: 10.1177/0034355208316344
Ryan, Richard M. And Deci, Edward L. (2008). A self-determination theory approach to psychotherapy: The motivational basis for effective change. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 186-193. doi: 10.1037/a0012753
Therapists are bound to protect the confidentiality of patients, except when the patient poses a risk to him or herself or to others.
Identify the potential issues involved.
The therapist is bound to report if a client has made credibly threatening gestures. The therapist must evaluate the client's words and actions to see if they are genuinely fall under the guidelines of breaking confidentiality.
eview the relevant ethics codes.
Counselors have a duty to warn the authorities when patients pose a potential risk to themselves and to others.
Know the applicable laws and regulations.
All states have 'duty to warn' laws, but they may vary slightly in wording.
Step 5: Obtain consultation.
In this particular instance, obtaining legal advice would be advisable.
Step 6: Consider possible and probable courses of action.
The counselor could report the threats to the authorities or remain silent.
Step 7: Enumerate the consequences of various…
Corey, G., Corey, M., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping professions. 8th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Paternalism can take a number of forms. Unfortunately, because of the governments increasing amount of interaction and funding of the medical industry, governmental paternalism can take the form of limiting funding, which affects treatment options. This form of paternalism is destructive to the health care industry, and is rarely helpful. This form of paternalism also assumes that the government or funding agency knows more about the well-being of my patient than I do, or those involved in their care and treatment. At other times, the individual health care provider, who is immediately involved in the situation may need to take a paternalistic view of his or her patient's well being. In the case of immediate care of the patient does not take away from the patient the rights for self-determination, but aids the patient in the decision making process which is involved in modern health care, paternalistic decisions can be…
Roth, L.H. et al. 1977. "Tests of competency to consent to treatment." American Journal of Psychiatry 134: 279-84.
Wear, S. (1998) Informed Consent: Patient Autonomy and Clinician Beneficence within Health Care. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
Nursing values challenged by managed care. (no date) Nursing trends and issues. Accessed 28 April 2004. Available at http://www.nursingworld.org/readroom/nti/9801nti.htm .
Coalition for Accountable Managed Care. (1997). Principles for accountable managed care. Washington, DC: Author.
Confidentiality Breaches in Clinical Practice
The confidentiality and privacy of patients are considered as one of the fundamental freedoms that they should enjoy and are safeguarded under Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPPA). It is also a precept of the American Medical Association’s Code of Ethics and the Hippocratic Oath. The breach of confidentiality is unethical and illegal.
Medical professionals are under the obligation of protecting the patient’s confidentiality. Confidentiality and privacy prohibit medical providers from unlawful disclosure of the patient’s information. Some of the inappropriate disclosures include discussing a patient’s case in the elevators or corridors, giving out extra copies of handouts from conferences while they contain identifiable patients’ details and any other possible leakage of information to unauthorized individuals (Beltran-Aroca et al. 52). In clinical practice, the patients’ confidentiality can be breached due to indiscretion, carelessness, and sometimes malice. Medical practitioners are obligated legally and…
Case #14: Confidentiality, Obligations, and Friendship
Recognize an Ethical Issue/Dilemma
Henry's leadership style had always been personal and this worked well for him and his staff. Henry had been a school administrator for Grover Cleveland High for five years, but he had managed to change the place. There was an atmosphere of good, warm feelings across the halls and faculty morale was high. Having developed this personal touch with his staff he was considered a friend by many including the Jim Austin who was the head of Cleveland's physical education department. Jim and Henry had become good friends since they were early morning jogging companions. Jim approached Henry and requested for a confidential meeting where he disclosed to Henry he has discovered he has AIDS and he would like to continue with his work for as long as he could without anyone knowing. The school board did not have any…
Confidentiality and Informed Consent
Confidentiality has for a long period of time been embedded as the foundation of professional social work values. This is primarily because social workers show honesty and respect through safeguarding the confidentiality of their clients. The significance of confidentiality in social work is demonstrated in the fact that it is basis of ethical standards that govern the social work practices. The need for social workers to protect clients' confidentiality is because the nature of their work involves being provided with confidential and private information of clients. One of the events or incidents that have played a crucial role in demonstrating the significance of confidentiality in social work is the decision of Tarasoff v. The Board of egents of the University of California. The process of informed consent and refusal play an important role in confidentiality in the therapist-client relationship.
Tarasoff v. The Board of egents of…
Fisher, C.B. & Oransky, M. (n.d.). Informed Consent to Psychotherapy and the American
Psychological Association's Ethics Code. Retrieved November 30, 2014, from http://e-psychologist.org/index.iml?mdl=exam/show_article.mdl&Material_ID=79
Fisher, M.A. (n.d.). Selected Ethical Standards About Informed Consent: Counselors (from ACA
Code of Ethics). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from http://www.centerforethicalpractice.org/ethical-legal-resources/ethical-information/ethical-obligations-informed-consent/selected-ethical-standards-counselors-from-aca-code-of-ethics/
Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice
RIGHT FROM WRONG
A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.
. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing
In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…
Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/tableofContents/Vol131998/NO3Dec1998/PrivacyIssues.aspx
Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2
Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June
15, 2012 from http://www.journal.ICS.ac.uk/pdf/0902178.pdf
elevance to Human Service Practice
According to Australian Government - Office of the Privacy Commissioner (2007), the Australian human services confidentiality is a major principle defining the relationship between the human service workers and the clients. In the two cases the human services have privileged the notion of confidentiality over the more fundamental right of privacy. They argue there is a persistent confusion between these two concepts and that privacy is an important but neglected ethical concept within human services. The two cases are examples of breach of confidentiality and privacy and implications.
Following her accident, Sara was liable to compensation from her insurer in accordance to the New South Wales road accident compensation scheme. In New South Wales, people who suffer personal injuries because of road accidents can claim compensation under the New South Wales Motor Accidents Scheme, which is administered by the Motor Accidents Authority. Motor accident compensation…
Australia. Human Rights Commission. (1983). Review of Crimes Act 1914 and Other Crimes Legislation of the Commonwealth. Australian Government Publication Service.
Australian Government - Office of the Privacy Commissioner. (2008). M v Commonwealth Agency  PrivCmrA 13. Retrieved April Monday, 2012, from www.privacy.gov.au: http://www.privacy.gov.au/materials/types/casenotes/view/5929
Australian Government - Office of the Privacy Commissioner. (2001, November). Privacy in the Private Health Sector. Retrieved April Monday, 2012, from www.privacy.gov.au: http://www.privacy.gov.au/index.php?option=com_icedoc&view=types&element=guidelines&fullsummary=6517&Itemid=1021
Australian Government - Office of the Privacy Commissioner. (2005, March). Review Issues Paper. Retrieved April Monday, 2012, from www.privacy.gov.au: http://www.privacy.gov.au/index.php?option=com_icedoc&view=types&element=other&fullsummary=6728&Itemid=1021
Ethics and the Military
As globalism becomes more of a reality, and as various developing countries increase the amount of interaction they do with developed countries, many cultural issues arise. Doing business is not the same worldwide, and as citizens of a global village, we must realize that there are different cultural norms and behaviors that are acceptable in some countries, unacceptable in others, and even expected in some. In the same manner, there are a number of ethical commonalities that businesses and the military share, particularly in the global world. International companies and the military are being pressurized by different groups of people, mainly from their stakeholders, regarding social and ethical issues. Issues revolving around what the United States, Canadian, British and Australian governments call moral issues, in some countries are part of regular actions, yet cause us to ask: "Is it moral or not, when trading in a…
Health Information Privacy. (2012). U.S. Department of Health and Social Services. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/ index.html
Intellectual Property. (1993). Army Regulation 27-60, Department of the Army, Washington,
DC. Retrieved from: http://www.apd.army.mil/pdffiles/r27_60.pdf
American Logistics Association, (2008). DeCA Receives Top Score. Military Partners.com.
Communication is a fundamental facet in any production plant or organization. There are various communication channels and applications in the world of communication. Communication modalities are present in almost every organization. Different entities of growth and production require a diversity of communication channels. For instance, different communication channels can be involved like e-mails, web-based forums, and electronic medical records.
Communication modality used for marketing in health care
Web-based forums are one of the trusted communication channels between consumers and health care providers in the world. The existence of technology has necessitated establishment of online channels where health care service providers are able to interact with consumers in remote senses. For instance, it has become easy for a client in any part of the world to access web-based forums that are provided through the internet. Through web-based forums, clients access a diversity of information and communication from…
Ball, M.J., & Hannah, K.J. (2011). Nursing informatics: Where technology and caring meet.
Nelson, R., Joos, I.M., & Wolf, D.M. (2013). Social media for nurses: Educating practitioners and patients in a networked world. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.
Speares, P.A. (2008). Acoustic communication modalities of the round goby (Neogobius
The dilemma is often easier to resolve once those emotions and assumptions are put into their rightful context.
For this paper, critical thinking came into play was logic. It is understood that initially the nursing profession had issues with HIPAA. These issues were practical, however, and when the law was matched up against the underlying principles and the Code of Ethics, it became apparent that the guidelines that can be used for resolving any ethical dilemma are fairly consistent. There is still some leeway for professional judgment, as Lo et al. (2005) wrote but the Code of Ethics does a strong job of filling in the blanks left behind by the legislation. Once this was pieced together, the argument for easy resolution of ethical dilemmas became clear.
American Nursing Association. (2009). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. American Nursing Association. etrieved October 17, 2009 from http://nursingworld.org/ethics/code/protected_nwcoe813.htm#3.1
American Nursing Association. (2009). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. American Nursing Association. Retrieved October 17, 2009 from http://nursingworld.org/ethics/code/protected_nwcoe813.htm#3.1
Bendix, J. (2009). News: New "red flags rule' focuses on medical identity theft. Contemporary OB/GYN. Retrieved October 17, 2009, from http://contemporaryobgyn.modernmedicine.com/obgyn/Modern+Medicine+Now/News-New-Red-Flags-Rule-focuses-on-medical-identit/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/597492
Lo, B.; Dornbrand, L. & Dubler, N. (2005). HIPAA and patient care: The role for professional development. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2005; 293: 1766-1771.
No author. (2003). What is HIPAA? HIPAAps.com. Retrieved October 17, 2009, from http://www.hipaaps.com/main/background.html
Computerized Hospital Management Systems
The paper is about the benefits and costs of a computerized hospital management system from a nurse's perspective. The author is placed in the position of a nurse of a small 100 bed-community hospital who is the only nurse in a team of doctors to participate in the hospital management's decision on whether to buy such management system. In answering six specific questions related to the benefits and economic costs of computerized hospital management systems, the paper shows -- among others - that improved health care and increase in personnel and work efficiency will well outweigh the financial burden imposed on the hospital when buying two specific managements systems: ELECTA and Microsoft Dynamics GP. In addition, the paper outlines the security standards of data and patient confidentiality, including the need for data storage integrity and data backup and recovery and how the Health Insurance Portability and…
Berczuk, C. June 2008. The Lean Hospital. 1-5. The Hospitalist, June 2008. 1-5. Accessed 16 March 2012.
Cached - Similar
Dugas, M. & Eckholt, M. & and Bunzemeier, H. (2008). Benchmarking of hospital information systems: Monitoring of discharge letters and scheduling can reveal heterogeneities and time trends. 1-6. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2008, 8:15 doi:10.1186/1472-6947-8-15. Accessed 16 March 2012.
An ethical issue refers to a situation whereby an organization is required to choose amongst alternatives that must be evaluated as either wrong or right. For example, an ethical issue arises when a business company opts to make as much profit while pollution the environment, the dilemma here being the regulation and social consequences. The company management may opt to bribing the regulation implementing organization as long as they continue making short-term profits before the law catches up with them, by then they may be forced to attire with the rule or shut down but they will have made as much finances than when they may have started and the consequences on the social life will have reached the stage where it affects their health and made the environment unbearable. The principle of autonomy; which requires individuals to be left on their own independence to conduct their activities,…
Andrew, J. (2008). Utilitarianism and deontology theories. New York: John and sons ltd.
Ferrell, O.C., & Fraedrich, J. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. Salt Lake: Cengage Learning.
Joanne, B. (2010). Ethics and Business success. Mexico: Greenwood press.
John, K., & Berlyn, M. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of decision making models. Normative and rationale models, 15 (14), 319-325.
Ethical Situations in Asset Management Service
Ethical situations that arise with asset management services
Ethical issues in business (or corporate ethics) are ethics in the form of application or professional ethics that usually evaluate the principles of ethics and the troubles associated with ethics and morals that develop in the environment of a business. This is applicable to all the components of a business and its conduct and it is very essential for all the entire staff in an organization. Ethics of business include both descriptive and normative dimensions. This specific area is normative. Academicians that seek to gain knowledge on the behavior by implementing descriptive methods in their course. The amount and range of issues in business ethics describe the link between non-economic issues and profit maximizing. Many started gaining interest in the ethics of business rapidly from 1980 to 1990. This was true in academia and corporations. For…
Buckman, J.M., & International Association of Fire Chiefs. (2006). Chief Fire officer's desk reference. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Hoffman, W.M. (2007). The ethics of accounting and finance: Trust, responsibility, and control: from the Tenth National Conference on Business Ethics. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Quorum Books.
Nash, L.L. (2008). Good intentions aside: A manager's guide to resolving ethical problems. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.
Preston, N. (2009). Ethics for the public sector: Education and training. Annandale, N.S.W: Federation Press.
technology is always challenging. Although the use of technology by social workers is not a new phenomenon, it is controversial. For a discipline traditionally tied to face-to-face interaction, many concerns about moving to technology-based practices have been raised. This paper will examine how social work informatics can be applied to child protection in Alaska and suggest a research project to examine its utility, particularly as it relates to the phenomenon of depersonalization. It can be hypothesized that the increasing use of informatics though useful drives a wedge between the social worker and the recipient.
Advocates for the use of technology identify increased opportunity and access to social work services, lower costs, and improved coordination of services, and privacy for stigmatized individuals as benefits of the tools (Chenoweth & Stehlik, 2002). Critics, on the other hand, point to the technological difficulties that impede interaction. They cite inequalities in access to resources,…
Ashery, R.S. (2001). The utilization of technology in graduate schools of social work. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 18(1/2), 5 -- 18.
Association of Social Work Boards. (2002). Model Social Work Practice Act. Retrieved February 24, 2005, from http://www.aswb.org
Chenoweth, L., & Stehlik, D. (2002). Using technology in rural practice -- Local area coordination in rural Australia. Rural Social Work, 7(1), 14 -- 21.
Choi, G., Ligon, J., & Ward, J. (2002). Computer anxiety and social workers: Differences by access, use, and training. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 19(1), 1 -- 12.
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
107) could also apply here. The confidentiality clause in such a case then only applies insofar as it is estimated that there is no need to disclose confidential information to others. In the case of Mrs. Z, her family deserves to know about her situation, because it affects their lives pertinently.
Because of the increasing cultural diversity throughout the world, cultural values also play an important part in making ethical decisions in the nursing profession. In the case of Mrs. Z, for example, she appears to have no powers of decision making either in her home or in society in general. Inside the home, her mother-in-law runs the household, while her husband is in charge of important decisions. This could have a significant influence upon her decision not to disclose her condition to her family.
According to Karahanne, Evaristo and Srite (2006, p. 34), for example, also note that cultures…
Alligood, M.R., Marriner-Tomey, a. (2006). Nursing Theory: Utilization and Application. Elsevier Health Sciences.
DeWolf Bosek, M.S. And Savage, T.A. (2007) the Ethical Component of Nursing Education: Integrating Ethics into Clinical Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Goodman, K.W. (2008, Jan) Privacy, Confidentiality, Law and Ethics. Norhteast Florida Medicine Supplement. Retrieved from: http://www.dcmsonline.org/jax-medicine/2008journals/ethics/privacy.pdf
Karahanna, E., Evaristo, J.R., and Srite, M. (2006). Levels of Culture and Individual Behavior: An Integtrative Perspective. Advanced Topics in Global Information Management, Vol. 5. Idea Group, Inc.
AAMFT Code of Ethics
Is it enough to know and follow the AAMFT Code of Ethics? Why or why not?
Yes, it is enough to know and follow American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) code of ethics. AAMFT codes of ethics set standard for the ethical practice in the therapeutic profession which guides the conducts of therapists. Typically, AAMFT ethical standard defines the professional expectations that marriage and family therapists should follow, and AAMFT code of ethics covers all aspects of therapeutic practice which include responsibility of a therapist to clients and the confidentiality of client information which a therapist should respect at all time. While both law and ethics govern the practices of marriage and family therapists, however, AAMFT code of ethics is an essential tool that a marriage and family therapist must consult when making decision regarding the professional practice.
In addition, AAMFT code of ethics…
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. (2011). Code of Ethics. Retrieved 24 December 2011 From http://www.aamft.org/imis15/content/legal_ethics/code_of_ethics.aspx
Wilcoxon, A., Remly, T., Gladding, S.T., & Huber, C.H. (2007). Ethical, legal, and Professional Issues in the Practice of Marriage and Family Therapy Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
A strain on the Medicaid budged as a result of managed care can lead to raised healthcare costs and an increase in Medicaid bills (Shern et al., 2008).
The fair distribution principle in such a case is a difficult issue. On the one hand, patients receiving managed care benefit in terms of their health and keeping their costs low. Society does not benefit in general, and indeed the increase in costs to them can be seen as unfair. On the other hand, the benefit derived from managed care can be seen as fair to certain patients. As mentioned above, caring for some patients and not for others on the grounds of financial issues is not fair, while expecting the community to incur increased costs from managed care is also unfair. Again, a careful balance should be maintained between costs, quality and distribution of care.
One of the most important principles…
Baptist Health South Florida. Code of Ethics: A Guide to Ethical Standards. http://www.baptisthealth.net/en/about-baptist-health/Documents/code_of_ethics/104673676CodeofEthics2.pdf
Green, Ben. (2009). Medical Ethics. Medicine Online. Retrieved from http://priory.com/ethics.htm#Hippocratic
Shern, David L., Jones, Kristine, Chen, Juey Jen, Jordan, Neil, Ramoni-Perazzi, Josefa, Boothroyd,
oger A. (2008). Medicaid Managed Care and Distribution of Societal Costs for Persons with Severe Mental Illness. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165:254-260. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/165/2/254
People have different views and values regarding what is right and wrong. This is all based on our personal values. A counselor might believe that it is okay to discuss about a client provided they do not disclose their name and any personal information. Ethically speaking this is wrong since they are divulging information shared in confidence. If it were ethically correct, the counselor would have sought the client's approval for them to share the information.
Barnes, F.P., & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counselling: Open University Press.
Cottone, .. (2001). A social constructivism model of ethical decision making in counseling. Journal of counseling & Development, 79(1), 39-45.
Daniels, J.A. (2001). Managed care, ethics, and counseling. Journal of counseling & Development, 79(1), 119-122.
Forester-Miller, H., Davis, T.E., Association, a.C., & Alexandria, V. (1995). A practitioner's guide to ethical decision making: American Counseling…
Barnes, F.P., & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counselling: Open University Press.
Cottone, R.R. (2001). A social constructivism model of ethical decision making in counseling. Journal of counseling & Development, 79(1), 39-45.
Daniels, J.A. (2001). Managed care, ethics, and counseling. Journal of counseling & Development, 79(1), 119-122.
Forester-Miller, H., Davis, T.E., Association, a.C., & Alexandria, V. (1995). A practitioner's guide to ethical decision making: American Counseling Association Alexandria, VA.
For example, if the mother has a computer at home and uses it regularly the hygienist can suggest some Web sites that contain information about the oral health effects of tobacco use. The mother might want to learn more about oral health in general, which would encourage her to monitor Jason's habits and scrutinize his behavior to the point where she might notice if he had been smoking. If Jason's oral health deteriorated over time, the hygienist might need to make more overt statements to the mother such as, "Jason assured me that he is not using tobacco, but I am concerned about the lesions in his mouth." The hygienist also needs to confide in the presiding dentist.
3. Which of the ethical principles apply to this situation? Explain your response from both the dental hygienist's perspective and the patient's perspective.
The dental hygienist is experiencing an ethical dilemma. On…
Health-Care Data at Euclid Hospital Security and Control: A White Paper
Protecting Health-Care Data
The efficiency of the modern healthcare system is increasingly becoming reliant on a computerized infrastructure. Open distributed information systems have been initiated to bring professionals together on a common platform throughout the world. It needs to be understood that easy and flexible methods of processing and communication of images; sound and texts will help in visualizing and thereby cure illnesses and diseases effectively. Another aspect is that the easy access and usage can risk patient privacy, accountability, and secrecy associated with the healthcare profession. Therefore, Information Technology -- IT must be able to focus mainly on improving the health of the patient and should not put the patient's health in danger. (IO Press)
This implies that right data has to be made available to the right person at the right time. IT strongly affects the confidentiality…
A WWW implementation of National Recommendations for Protecting Electronic Health
Accessed 21 September, 2005
IO Press. Retrieved from http://www.iospress.nl/loadtop/load.php?isbn=9051992661
Informed Decision Making (Nursing Role)
The nurse has the utmost responsibility in educating the patient and his/her family about the proposed treatment plan, the availability of alternative interventions, and in general plays a vital role in promoting informed decision making. [ANMC], (2005)] The nurse being more familiar with the patient has a better understanding of the patient's understanding capabilities and can therefore decide as to what type of teaching method a patient is best suited for. While for some patients a simple printed information leaflet is suffice for others a more detailed presentation involving a video maybe necessary. This again helps the patient better understand the procedures and helps them in their decision making process. [Mark H. eers, (2006)] In the case of new treatment modalities that are available with recent medical advancements, the nurse can greatly assist the patient in making well-informed decisions about the available treatment choices. Gene…
1) ANMC, (2005), ' Code of Ethics of Nurses in Australia', retrieved 5th Sep 2010, from, http://www.nrgpn.org.au/index.php?element=ANMC+Code+of+Ethics
2) Jeanette Ives Erickson, RN, (2005), 'Caring for Patients while Respecting their Privacy: Renewing our Commitment ', retrieved 5th Sep 2010, from, http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/506840
3) ISONG, (2005), 'Informed Decision Making and Consent: The Role of Nursing', retrieved Sep 5th 2010, from, http://www.isong.org/ISONG_PS_informed_consent.php
4) Mark H. Beers, MD & Thomas V Jones MD et.al, (June 2006) 'The Merck Manual of Geriatrics: Chapter 8: Nursing', Pub by Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Legal Aspects of Professional Psychology
All psychologists are required to follow the ethical guidelines found in the 2002 Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct of the American Psychological Association (APA), commonly known as the Ethics Code. Other important ethical guidelines are found in the 2007 Competing Development Achievement Levels (DALs) of the National Council of Schools and Programs in Professional Psychology (NCSPP) and the Assessment of Competing Benchmarks Work Group of the APA. These ethics codes cover compliance, privacy and confidentiality, assessment, therapy, research and publications, and there are also special guidelines for dealing with children, minorities, culturally diverse populations, forensic psychology and gay and lesbian clients. Both the Ethics Code and state laws require psychologists to maintain the confidentiality of clients and their records, apart from legal requirements to report verified or suspected child abuse or clients who are a danger to others. Psychologists can only provide…
Arnaut, G.L.Y. And D.A. Hill (2010), "Ethical and Legal Issues," in J.C. Thomas and M. Hersen (eds). Handbook of Clinical Psychology Competencies. Springer, pp. 73-94.
Corey, G. et al. (2011). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning.
Wulach, James S. And David L. Shapiro (2005), "Ethical and Legal Considerations in Child Custody Evaluations," in Gunsberg and Hymowitz (Eds.), A Handbook of Divorce and Custody Forensic Development and Clinical Perspectives. New Jersey: The Analytic Press pp. 45-56.
Nursing Perspectives on Computerized Management Systems
For a community hospital with one hundred beds spread out over the usual number of departments and staffed by large numbers of individuals working in a variety of disciplines and teams, few things are more important than efficiency. Efficiency does not only mean moving fast, however, or accomplishing tasks in the shortest amount of time and with the fewest resources possible; it also means achieving high levels of accuracy and solid quality performance in all tasks and operations. There are a variety of tools that can help boost overall quality and efficiency in healthcare organizations and medical facilities, and developing technologies continue to provide more and more methods for achieving efficiency. This paper will examine computerized management systems generally and compare two specific alternatives for such systems, concluding with recommendations for adoption.
Potential Increase in Quality of Care
Electronic and computerized healthcare…
Blackwell, G. & Blackwell, G. (2008). The future of IT in healthcare. Informatics for Health and Social Care 33(4): 211-326.
Edsall, R. & Adler, K. (2009). The 2009 EHR User Satisfaction Survey: Responses From 2,012 Family Physicians. Family Practice Management 16(6): 10-16.
O'Malley, A., Grossman, J., Cohen, G., Kemper, N. & Pham, H. (2009). Are Electronic Medical Records Helpful for Care Coordination? Experiences of Physician Practices. Journal of General Internal Medicine 25(3): 177-85.
Sahota, N., Lloyd, R., Ramakrishna, A., Mackay, J…. & Haynes, R. (2011). Computerized clinical decision support systems for acute care management: A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review of effects on process of care and patient outcomes. Implementation Science 6:91.
Thereby it is important that the professionals in the field must ask for additional advice.
Patient rights also include a freedom towards observing their lives in the clinics in accordance to their cultures and ethnic backgrounds. It has been mentioned that racial disparity is one of the main issues in the clinic so the freedom being given to the already mentally vulnerable patients is lesser that is having a negative impact on their well-being (Lloyd, King, and Deane, 2008, p. 38).
3. Strategies to Ensure Confidentiality
One of the main facts that need to be highlighted here is that the mental healthcare professionals should be aware of the rights of the mentally ill people. One of the main responsibilities that the mental healthcare professionals should have is to make improvements in the mental health of the patients. Patient recovery is the main aim in these cases.
In the mental clinic,…
Almeder, F.R. (2002). Mental illness and public health care, Biomedical ethics reviews. Humana Press.
Backlar, P., and Cutler, L.D. (2002). Ethics in community mental health care: commonplace concerns. Springer.
Barker, P. (2011). Mental Health Ethics: The Human Context. Taylor & Francis.
Bhugra, D., and Malik, A. (2010). Professionalism in Mental Healthcare: Experts, Expertise and Expectations, Cambridge medicine. Cambridge University Press.
The use of open-ended questions that require multiple items in the answering points were observed to lead to a sharp increase in the attrition rate (Crawford et al.,2001). The use of questions that are organized into tables in conducting the various forms of web surveys was also observed to increase the rate of attrition (Knapp & Heidingsfelder, 1999).The advantages of using the web-based surveys to the designer is the he or she has a wide range of various textual options, graphic applications and control of the format; features that are never present in the email surveys.
Skinner and Allen (1983) compared the various effects of surveys that are administered through the surveys. They did this while comparing it with the face-to-face administration and the various traditional forms of surveys such as self-administered pencil and pencil surveys. Their main focus was however centered on the particular results that were observable as…
Andrews, D, Nonnecke, and Preece J (2003).Electronic Survey Methodology: A Case Study in Reaching Hard-to-Involve Internet Users.International Journal of Human-Computer marketing research
Bowers, D.K. (1999). FACS on online research. Marketing Research, 10 (1): 45-48.
Cho, H. & LaRose, R. (Winter, 1999). "Privacy issues in Internet surveys." Social Science
Computer Review, 17(4),421-434.
This could be something like another computer picking up someone's credit card number during what was supposed to be a secure transaction, or an employee of a company giving out a person's confidential information over the phone to someone who is not authorized to receive it. However it happens, confidentiality breaches are serious, and must be addressed immediately so they do not happen again (Allen 2001).
Integrity of information assures that information can not be modified without such modification being detected. Most information management systems have some sort of protocol in place for protecting the integrity of information. The greatest danger to the integrity of information occurs when it is in transit from one computer to another. This is the perfect time for hackers to access the information and modify it without being detected. A secure information management system ensures that this is unlikely to happen and that any modifications…
Allen, Julia H. (2001). The CERT Guide to System and Network Security Practices. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Layton, Timothy P. (2007). Information Security: Design, Implementation, Measurement, and Compliance. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications.
McNab, Chris (2004). Network Security Assessment. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly.
When setting up and maintaining the human resource files, confidentiality and privacy are always significant at workplace. Today most organizations are taking different steps of ensuring that the information within the organization remains confidential and private, however employees on the other hand are seen not to be concerned of this, therefore it is the work of the top managers to make their employees understand the importance of keeping files such as the human resource files as confidential. The human resources professionals should prevent misuse of personal information by safely storing them to avoid unauthorized access. Maintaining confidentiality of information in organization does not only protect the company from the legal hassles, but it improves the productivity of the employee while providing them with a safer working environment and security (Dogra, 2012).
Maintaining privacy and confidentiality for human resource files is important for varied reasons this is because, it…
Dogra, A. (2012). Confidentiality in the Workplace. Buzzle. Retrieved December 7, 2012, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/confidentiality-in-the-workplace.html
ACAS (2012). Recruitment and selection Promoting employment relations and HR excellence Retrieved December 7, 2012, from http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=746
Ethically, the social worker did everything in the correct manner. The NASW Code of Ethics states that "when social workers provide counseling services to families, couples or groups, social workers should seek agreement among the parties involved concerning each individual's right to confidentiality" (Code of Ethics, 2014). In this case, the social worker accomplished that by requesting confidentiality agreements before the group sessions began. Actions to be taken now include the fact that the social worker should speak with the party that leaked the information as well as the injured party. Legally speaking, the court system would not likely take kindly to a case such as this nature. Ethically speaking however, the case is a good example of just how careful the social worker has to be. Excluding the patient that leaked the information from participation in the group setting would be a good first step. The rationale for these…
The field is social psychology, and the selected title is bullying. The articles selected as follows:
Mundbjerg Eriksen, T. L., Hogh, A., & Hansen, A. M. (2016). Long-Term Consequences of Workplace Bullying On Sickness Absence. Labor Economics, 43: 129-150. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2016.06.008
This peer-reviewed article explores the effects of bullying at the place of work. The study done in the article indicates that sickness, boredom, and poor productivity are some of the results of bullying from among employees. The article is significant in that it helps to understand the effects of bullying at the workplace and hence aids in deriving ways to reduce its occurrence. The social setting at workplace relates to the social psychology effects as seen with the occurrence of bullying (Mundbjerg Eriksen et al., 2016).
Priest, N., King, T., Becares, L., & Kavanagh, A. M. (2016). Bullying Victimization and Racial Discrimination among Australian Children. American Journal of Public Health,…
This creates a nerve with the client that their private information is going to be unprotected and confidentiality is going to be broken . There is no safe way to keep all information private. However, all mental health professionals must take all necessary precautions to keep client information private .
As you look around the mall, classroom, church, family history, friend's family, or place of employment, you're sure to know someone with a mental illness, or someone who might of attempted suicide . Assessing and treating these disorders is essential in the mental health field, more trained mental health professionals are needed, more agencies, and more funding . Otherwise if society keeps assuming that the mind and brain are separate and that mental disorders are " different" or " bad" misunderstanding, mistreatment, and stigma will persist in this society . We need to stop seeing individuals with mental health…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Association of Suicidology. ( 2006, February), U.S.A. suicide: 2003 official final data. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from http:/ / www.suiciodology.org.
Bonner, L. ( 2001). Rethinking suicide prevention and manipulative behavior in corrections. Jail Suicide Mental Health Update, 10(4), 7-8.
Bonner, L. (2006) . Stressful segregation housing in psychosocial vulnerability in prison suicide. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36,250-254.
This software is used to perform common tasks like storage, data back up and data transfers.
Small and medium businesses have embraced this technology because it involves no start up costs (like servers, hard disks, technicians etc.) therefore making it cost effective. Basically payment is based on the storage space taken by the user, again, this makes it user friendly. It may also be referred to as hosted storage.
The flying Organizations
Smart companies are looking at the various aspects of the cloud and pushing some application into the cloud and some into the traditional data center environment. The most significant value of cloud computing is not just the cost benefit but agility for the whole business. This is done by creating an opportunity for firms to upload anything concerning their IT infrastructure to an outside provider. With cloud you only contract for the services you need and at the…
Allen, B (2009).Cloud Computing Will Reshape IT Forever
Beaman, K. (2010). "Continued Growth of SaaS for HCM."
Setting the stage for the group
Psychological intervention might be most efficient when females start modification by leaving the abuser and get in a shelter. Shelters are an essential resource for victims because they offer females and kids security and link them with social, legal, and financial resources (Dutton, 1992). Furthermore, battered females in shelters have a greater threat for PTSD than those who do not look for shelter (Jones et al., 2001). Provided the problems connected with PTSD, these signs might disrupt victims' capability to successfully utilize resources made to enhance their security once they leave the shelter (Foa, Cascardi, Zollner, & Feeny, 2000).
Unlike various other PTSD victims, damaged ladies in shelters deal with continuous security issues. Numerous of their viewed dangers are genuine (Foa et al., 2000). For that reason, conventional PTSD therapies that include exposure are contraindicated, as habituation to feared stimulations might enhance their danger…
Baer, R.A. (Ed.). (2006). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician's guide to evidence base and applications. New York: Academic Press.
Bagshaw, D., Chung, D., Couch, M., Lilburn, S. And Wadham, B. (2000), Reshaping Responses to Domestic Violence: Final Report, University of South Australia.
Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2001). Principles of biomedical ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford.
Betan, E.J., & Stanton, A.L. (1999). Fostering ethical willingness: Integrating emotional and contextual awareness with rational analysis. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 295-301.
Social Media and Technology
The entire sphere of human interaction has undergone large-scale transformation as a result of the rapidly changing technological environment and the emergence of the internet. Back in the day, social interactions were primarily based on hand-written letters and occasional telephone conversations. Thanks to technological progression, however, numerous online communication platforms have been developed, and what we have now is an internet revolution and a totally new and dynamic realm of human interaction and long-distance communication. Currently, 73% of America's adult population, and 93% of the teen population uses social media platforms to communicate with family members and friends. Today, Facebook is home to more than 700 million users who can conveniently communicate with each other at the touch of a button without having to grapple with the time and space limitations that back in the day forced people to choose their partners and friends from their…
Anderson, T.L. & Emmers-Sommer, T.M. (2006). Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction in Online Romantic Relationships. Communication Studies, 57(2), 153-172.
Andon, S.P. (2006). Evaluating Computer-Mediated Communication on the University Campus: The Impact of Facebook.com on the Development of Romantic Relationships. The Florida State University Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. Paper 208. Retrieved 3 October 2014 from http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3729&context=etd
Baack, D., Fogliasso, C. & Harris, J. (2000). The Personal Impact of Ethical Decisions: A Social Penetration Theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 24(1), 39-49.
Babbie, E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
In addition to barriers to coverage, HIPAA presents problems for patients wishing to keep their medical information private. HIPAA professes to protect patient privacy and information security. While the provisions of HIPAA do outline the strict rules for informed consent, there are a slew of loopholes that would permit the disclosure of information. Those loopholes can be readily taken advantage of by numerous parties, including but not limited to the primary care provider, health care administrator, insurer, employer, and government agency.
When HIV / AIDS information is disclosed, stigma and prejudice are almost guaranteed. For this reason, patients with HIV / AIDS should be offered greater protection under the law. The prevention of HIV / AIDS depends on education and awareness as well as improving patient access to quality care. Paranoia about HIV / AIDS has led to a dismantling of privacy rules that would otherwise be invoked. Patients with…
Avert (n.d.). HIV & AIDS stigma and discrimination. Retrieved online: http://www.avert.org/hiv-aids-stigma.htm
Biel-Cunningham, S. (2003). HIPAA: Understanding Your Rights of Insurance Portability and Privacy. The Body. Retrieved online: http://www.thebody.com/content/art32201.html
Columbia University Medical Center (n.d.). Uses and disclosures of HIV / AIDS information. Retrieved online: http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/hipaa/policies/hiv.html
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (n.d.). Health information privacy. Retrieved online: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/
Requirements for licensure for psychologists under the American Psychologist Association (APA) set certain educational and ethical standards that govern the profession. Now clinical psychology is, much like medicine and law, a discipline accorded respect in society, and an individual who seeks counseling can feel confident being open and trusting of a licensed therapist. A therapist cannot claim to be a professionally licensed therapist under the law, unless he or she possesses specific qualifications. Licensing is vital to maintaining trust in the profession, as ethical questions grow more contentious regarding psychotherapy, such as the question therapists that do research funded by drug companies on psychoactive drugs, or who testify to the competency of a defendant or witness to stand trial or make decisions about his or her health. Licensing and standardization of qualifications increases confidence that the individual is giving acceptable advice based in evidence and professional ethics.
Certain aspects of…
Competency. (2009). Ascension Health. Retrieved March 2, 2009 at http://www.ascensionhealth.org/ethics/public/issues/competency.asp
Lloyd, Raymond. (2009). A Guide to Psychology and its Practice.
Retrieved March 2, 2009 at www.GuideToPsychology.com
Rosenfeld, Barry. (2002). The psychology of competence and informed consent: Understanding decision-making with regard to clinical research. Fordham Urban Law Journal. 30.
Pesante (2008), there are three basic security threat parameters important to information on the Internet: "confidentiality," "integrity," and "availability." In addition, Pesante addresses three particular concepts that are related to the people to whom information is made available to who need this information for their work in the organization and can be trusted with it: "authentication," "authorization" and "non-repudiation." I think that it is very important to high or very high security requirements in all six areas. Companies should take advantage of all existing opportunities, both in the technical and the non-technical, social / personal area to ensure the highest possible level of information security within their organization. Whereas technical mechanisms are primarily needed to reduce risks resulting from an attack external to the organization, social and personal counter-measures need to be implemented, if the primary source of attack is expected to be internal (see Boran. 1999, p. 6).
Boran, S. 1999. An overview of corporate information security. Combining organisational, physical & it security. PP. 1-9. www.boran.com/security/sp/security_space.html.
Pesante, L. 2008. Introduction to information security. PP. 1 -- 3. www.us-cert.gov/reading_room/infosecuritybasics.pdf.
Information technology protection manual published by the German Federal Office for Information Security. 2011. BSI TR-03127 - Architecture electronic identity card and electronic resident permit (informative translation) (pdf, 1,03 MB). PP. 1 -- 39. www.bsi.bund.de/gshb/english/menue.htm
Employees handle a large amount of private documentation and must uphold the law of confidentiality legally and ethically.
Despite the stress on confidentiality of client information, communication flow is still important to the organization's ability to get work done. / Thus confidentiality in the service of customers, not in the service of secrecy is the organizational mantra. Additionally, communication is not simply fostered in the organizational culture's common professional dress. Because communication skills are so integral to the organization's work, when dealing with other nations over the phone, creating better communication styles in its employees' dealings with one another has become an integral part of the organization's standard operating procedures and mission statement. There are regular updates regarding company policy for employees and weekly staff meetings to foster a healthy and open communication flow between staff and management. No one need ever feel out of the loop. The organizational flow…
precise reason of focusing the concern on esearch and Scholarship is based on the fact that by understanding the importance of research and development the prevailing health care issues will be satisfied by the logical input provided by the nursing staff. The current laws pertaining to the privacy of medical records of the state are bitty and vague. The effectiveness of these laws can be observed at state level but yet the data is revealed for a few reasons, mainly to formulate new medication for the cure of infections and diseases. On the federal level database protection of the medical records follows the privacy act of 1974 that provides a restricted protection of these records. Altogether it does not safeguard the privacy of people affected by disease like HIV / AIDS. The U.S. Supreme Court in 1997 upheld the constitutionality to safeguard the privacy of the people for the invasion…
Clayton, P.D. (1996). Privacy, Confidentiality, and Electronic Medical Records. The Practice of Informatics, 20.
Confidentiality of Medical Records. A Situation Analysis and AHIMA's Position
Melton, L.J. (2000). The Threat to Medical-Records . The New Englang Journal of Medicine, 90-97.
Ethics in Practicing Nursing
Nursing ethics is an important part of treating patients. It is important for nurses to understand and abide by the nursing ethical code of conduct. The Health Information Privacy Act (HIPAA) protects the patients' rights, and it protects their privacy. Health care professionals must adhere to the rules of HIPAA to ensure the rights of patients are not violated and their privacy is protected. In this paper I will discuss some strategies that can be employed to help nurses stay current in their practices. I will also discuss ethical practices in nursing, including confidentiality and privacy.
According to Silva & Ludwick (2006) ethics is one of the most important issues in nursing. Nurses should consider their ethical responsibilities when working with each patient in every aspect of practice. The fundamentals for practicing nursing are their social responsibility, their respect for the person, their commitment to do…
Erickson, J. & Millar, S. (2005). Caring for Patients While Respecting Their Privacy: Renewing Our Commitment. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 10 No. 2, Manuscript 1. Retrieved on Jan 20, 2011 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume102005/No2May05/tpc27_116017.aspx
Silva, M. & Ludwick R., (2006). Ethics: Is the Doctor of Nursing Practice Ethical? OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 11 No. 2. Retrieved on Jan 20, 2011 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/Columns/Ethics/DNPEthical.aspx
Name four practices that commonly require written administrative procedures.
Memorandums that include school policy changes or important information for the staff are commonly distributed in writing so that the information is accurately conveyed and properly received and documented. Many staff communications to the administration, such as requests for new classroom supplies or for personal leaves of absence, are also communicated in writing. If disciplinary action of any kind is taken against a student, it is commonly recorded in writing in the student's permanent file, and a copy of this information may be sent home to parents. Finally, the recording of daily vital information, such as student attendance and test scores, are done in writing.
How would you know if you are complying with EQ policies and procedures?
A a) If I were not complying with EQ policies, I would receive notification or a warning of some kind from…
Graves, Bonnie & Michael. "Scaffolding Reading Experiences to Promote Success: A Flexible Approach to Fostering Comprehension." University of Minnesota. http://education.umn.edu/carei/Reports/Rpractice/Winter95/comprehension.htm
Education Queensland. Queensland Government. http://education.qld.gov.au
Beyond the ability of the individual to carry out daily activities, there is the issue of quality of life. So a person who can get up and go to work but finds no pleasure in normal activities is someone whose symptoms still merit concern from the mental health professional (Hood & Johnson, 2006, pp. 27-9.)
Psychiatrists: The Medical Model of Treatment
For many people the most obvious professional to seek treatment from when faced with the symptoms of mental disorders is a psychiatrist. (Maybe because we've grown up reading the psychiatry cartoons in The New Yorker!) Psychiatrists are medical doctors and so their basic response to the symptoms of mental disorders will tend to be a medical one. This encompasses an overall examination of the person's health. (For example, a psychiatrist might run a series of thyroid function tests to determine if a patient's depressive symptoms were related to thyroid…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition.
Davies, T. (1997, 24 May.). ABC of mental health: Mental health assessment. BMJ: 314.
Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. New York: Wiley.
Hood, A. & Johnson, R. (2006). Assessment in counseling: A guide to the use of psychological procedures. Washington DC: American Counseling Association.
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
" (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) the key to the preservation of confidentiality is "making sure that only authorized individuals have access to that information. The process of controlling access -- limiting who can see what -- begins with authorizing users." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) Employers are held accountable under the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules for their employee's actions. The federal agency that holds responsibility for the development of information security guidelines is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST further defines information security as "the preservation of data confidentiality, integrity, availability" stated to be commonly referred to as "the CIA triad." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012)
III. Risk Reduction Strategies
Strategies for addressing barriers and overcoming these barriers are inclusive of keeping clear communication at all organizational levels throughout the process and acknowledging the impact of the organization's culture as well as capitalizing on all…
Harman, LB, Flite, CA, and Bond, K. (2012) Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. State of the Art and Science. Virtual Mentor. Sept. 2012, Vol. 14 No. 9. Retrieved from: http://virtualmentor.ama-assn.org/2012/09/stas1-1209.html
Kopala, B. And Mitchell, ME (2011) Use of Digital health Records Raises Ethical Concerns. JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation. Jul/Sep 2011. Lippincott's Nursing Center. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/cearticle?tid=1238212#P77 P85 P86 P87