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Current conflict in Syria
The current uprising in Syria is part of a series of demonstrations for democratic reform known as the 'Arab Spring' in the Middle East. Syria has long been governed by a Sunni dictatorship. Although not religious in nature, "the Assads and much of the nation's elite, especially the military, belong to the Alawite sect, a minority in a mostly Sunni country" (Syria news, 2012, The New York Times). The president Bashar al-Assad inherited his current position from his father. At first, it was hoped that he would be more lenient than his father. He lifted the country's state of emergency, which had existed for decades and given the government the ability to exercise a heavy hand over the liberties of the people. However, when the state of emergency ended and the population began to grow more fractious, he began a series of crackdowns.
Bloomfield, Adam & Ruth Sherlock. (2012). Syrian rebels take battle to heart of Damascus.
The Telegraph. Retrieved: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/9323103/Syrian-rebels-take-battle-to-heart-of-Damascus.html
McFarquhar, Nick. (2012). After a year, deep divisions hobble Syrian opposition.
The New York Times. Retrieved: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/24/world/middleeast/syrian-opposition-is-hobbled-by-deep-divisions.html?_r=1&ref=world
Conflict Mapping in South Sudan 7
1. An outlook of South Sudan
The Republic of South Sudan is the world’s youngest country that gained independence in 2011 but remains underdeveloped and plagued by civil war (Blanchard, 2016). South Sudan is an Eastern African landlocked country sharing borders with Sudan Uganda, Central Africa Republic, Kenya, DRC Congo, and Ethiopia. South Sudan is a resource-rich country with oil contributing to the largest share of the country’s GDP (King 2015). The country is a leading resource-rich country in Sub-Saharan Africa hosting the third largest oil reserves in the region. The country’s population is projected at 13.8 million 72% of the population aged below 30 years. South Sudan is characterized by ethnic diversity and accounts 60 diverse major ethnic groups with the Dinka accounting for 35.8% and the Nuer accounting for 15.6 % being the largest ethnic groups. However, it’s estimated that there are…
Women and conflict resolution" was published in 2004 in The Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics and Culture. She puts forward women's role in political negotiations and societal decision-making, stating that, in a world where the absence of war does not necessarily imply the presence of peace, women can be important contributors to a reconciliation approach "through education and civil society -- the two areas where women are the most active and have the most experience." (Golan, 2012) Golan's article is an invitation to revise general attitudes in political circles toward women's presence at negotiating tables. It is an invitation to include women and accept their capability to negotiate and cooperate despite national identities and cultural differences that may sometimes prevent men who are in official positions to reach a beneficial, reconciliatory agreement between parties.
We live in a world that is apparently bound to be affected by violent conflict at…
Brewer, N., Mitchell, P., & Weber, N. (2002). Gender role, organizational status, and conflict management styles. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 13(1), 78-94. Retrieved from https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~libby/manage/conflict.pdf
Golan, G. (2012). Women and conflict resolution. The Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics and Culture, 11(2). Retrieved from http://www.pij.org/authors.php?id=104
Mount, E. (2014). Well-intended measures: Conceptualizing gender as a social structure in post-conflict policy development. In M.T. Segal & V. Demos (Eds.), Gendered perspectives on conflict and violence (pp. 45-72). Emerson Group Publishing Limited.
Themner, L., & Wallensteen, P. (2013). Armed conflicts, 1946-2012. Journal of Peace Research, 50(4), 509-521. doi: 10.1177/0022343313494396
Arab Israeli Conflict
The Arab-Israeli conflict
The current Arab-Israeli conflict has a long standing history which goes back to the 1910s when the Ottoman Empire was still in place. During the WWI, the Germans sided with the Ottoman and the British sided with the Arabs in revolting against the Ottoman Empire. The British promised the Arabs self rule and to the Jews they promised them a homeland in Palestine (Kattan, et.al., 2009:Pp59). The Arabs took over the control of Syria and immediately after the war, the League of Nations gave the French the control over Syria and to the British they gave what are today Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank and Jordan. In 1921 the British divided their large mandate into two; the East of Jordan became the emirates of Transjordan under Abdullah and the West of Jordan became the mandate of the Palestine (the Promised Land to the Jews)…
Bassiouni & Ben Ami, (2009). International and Comparative Criminal Law Series, Volume 29: A Guide to Documents on the Arab-Palestinian/Israeli Conflict: 1897-2008. Martinus Nijhof: The Netherlands.
Harms G. & Todd M.F., (2008). Palestine-Israel Conflict: A Basic Introduction (2nd Edition). Pluto Press: London.
Kattan, et.al., (2009). From Coexistence to Conquest: International Law and the Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1891-1949. Pluto Press.
Khatchadourian, (2000). Quest for Peace Between Israel and the Palestinians. Peter Lang Publishing: New York.
The Role of a Photojournalist in Shaping the Syrian Narrative
This paper discusses the role of the photojournalist in shaping the Syrian narrative. The images that photojournalists create are used by a variety of media outlets, both mainstream like CNN and alternative like social media uploaders, to develop a narrative that promotes a perspective on events and advocates for a reaction from the public—either support for intervention or condemnation of the use of force by governments that are not directly involved in the conflict. The paper examines the gassing incident at Khan Shaykhun in Syria to see how photojournalism played a part in shaping the responses of the American president. It also examines how spectacle, soft power, embedded reporting, interventionism and the CNN effect all play a part in shaping the narrative built on the work of photojournalists.
The paper also discusses the impact of photojournalism in the Digital…
1. The terroism eras before and after 9/11 are quite different with respect to the role that the Israel/Palestine conflict plays. Since 9/11, the majority of terrorist incidents in the United States are committed by domestic, right-wing terrorists (Neiwert, et al, 2017), and the majority of "jihadist" terrorists are domestic, not imported, there remains a threat from the Middle East. Within the segment of homegrown jihadist-inspired terrorists, there were some 20 attacks carried out by about 178 people since September 11th (Jenkins, 2017). Among foreign-born terrorists who committed or plotted attacks in the US, the largest number were from Pakistan, at 20, and the remainder were from 39 other different countries, mostly Muslim-majority (Jenkins, 2017). A study of documented jihadist ideology, featuring jihadists from around the world, highlighted three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in…
On the other hand, Israel, Jordan, and the United States were allied in their support of the Israeli state and Israel's land acquisitions during the Six-Day War. Eventually, the Sudan dropped out of the proposal, but, "By the end of 1971 the two leaders had taken soundings in Moscow, had appointed Egypt's war minister, General Muhammad Sadiq, supreme commander of both armies, and had reached agreement on broad strategy" (abil 22). They continued to gain support from the Soviet Union, knowing they needed support of a superpower to offset the military might Israel wielded in the area.
After the war, "Six Arab states, including Egypt, broke off diplomatic relations with Washington, and were subsequently drawn closer to the Soviet Union.28 Additionally, the 1967 war created another 200,000 Palestinian Arab refugees, and more than one million Arabs from this point on lived within Israeli borders" (Mork 21). This really changed the…
Ben-Ami, Shlomo. Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Cossali, Paul. "Arab-Israeli Relations 1967-2001." A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations 1947-2001. Ed. David Lea. London: Europa, 2002. 39-283.
Mork, Hulda Kjeang. "The Jarring Mission: A Study of the UN Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971." University of Oslo. 2007. 2 June 2008. http://www.duo.uio.no/publ/IAKH/2007/58588/HuldaxMxrkxxMasteroppgavexixhistorie.pdf
Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.
The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…
Definition of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Boling, J. Gail. (January 2001) "Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: An International Law Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.badil.org/Publications/Briefs/Brief-No-08.htm Accessed on February 17, 2005
Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories." The Palestine Monitor.
Retrieved at http://www.palestinemonitor.org/factsheet/settlement.html . Accessed on Isseroff, Ami. "Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." MidEastWeb. Retrieved at http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Immediately after Israel declared its independence, a coalition of Arab states invaded Israel, starting the first Arab-Israeli War. Israel prevailed, and conquered territories beyond those claimed in the original UNSCOP partition. Israel gained control of 77% of Palestinian territories and the remainder was divided between Jordan and Egypt (Beinin & Hajjar).
Thus, the UNSCOP proposal for a two-state solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict was dismissed and a Palestinian state was never created: leading to the subsequent decades of resentment and violence throughout the entire Middle East. Jewish residents of Arab countries throughout the region were persecuted violently and most fled to Israel. Palestinians were forced into refugee camps. Palestinians living in Israel are Israeli citizens but experience systematic discrimination (Beinin & Hajjar).
The conflict in the Middle East escalated further as Egyptian leader Gamal Abder Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and restricted Israeli movement through it. By also joining military…
Arab-Israeli Conflict." Retrieved dEc 15, 2008 at http://www.historyteacher.net/Arab-Israeli_Conflict.htm
The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Brief History." Guardian. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/flash/0,720353,00.html
Beinin, J. & Hajjar, L. "Palestine, Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Primer." Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://www.merip.org/palestine-israel_primer/intro-pal-isr-primer.html
Country profile: Israel and Palestinian territories." BBC. 28 October 2008. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/803257.stm
Arab Israeli Conflict
The Arab and Israeli conflict
The Arab and Israeli conflict is in news since long. There is a continued political stress between the Arabs and the Jews since in the mid of 19th century the Zionist government was established in the former Arab land of Palestine. The Palestinian land is claimed as a religious heritage by Muslims, Jews and Christians. The actual tension is however between the Muslims particularly Arabs and the Jews. When in 1948, the Israeli state was formed; the tension took a formal shape as well. The Ottoman Empire collapsed and the Arabs and Jews started fighting over the land. The conflict presently lives in the aspects of politics, economy, religion, society and culture. The conflict often takes the shape of ferocity where by Israel being a technological advanced country, attacks Syria and adopts an aggressive position. However, the state and non-state Syrian forces…
Carson, C., (1988), "The Politics of Relations between African-American and Jews," Retrieved
Joffe, A., and Romirowsky, A., (2013), "Is The Arab-Israeli Conflict Really About Economics?,"
Israeli-Egypt Conflict and Iraq War
On June 5, 1967, Israel launched a surprise attack on Egypt which quickly spread to involve other neighboring states with both ground and air troops becoming involved in the conflict. Israel claimed that the attack was provoked by a massive Egyptian build-up of military forces along the Israeli border. On May 27 of that year the President of Egypt, Abdel Nasser, had stated that Egypt's basic objective was the destruction of Israel (BBC, 1967). Although Israel had consistently attempted to negotiate with its neighbors, their overtures were repeatedly rejected (Bard, 2008). Intelligence indicated the Arab states were preparing to go to war against Israel with Egypt, Jordan, and Syria being aided by Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Algeria. On May 16 President Nasser ordered the withdrawal of United Nations Emergency Forces from the Egyptian-Israeli border. Later that month Egypt had signed a…
Given the criteria presented in the spectrum of justification for war this conflict may be classified as an easier-to-justify preventative war. The Arab states had indeed demonstrated acts of hostile intent, preparatory steps toward hostile action, and made inflammatory rhetoric in the face of reasonable offers of negotiation. Since there is some room for doubt that an attack was pending this war cannot be classified as justified. Whether or not Israel was morally justified in taking this action is debatable, however when placed in the context of the time a strong argument may be made that it was.
On March 19, 2003, American and British forces began "Operation Iraqi Freedom" otherwise known as the Iraq War. There are several issues that may be pointed to as the basic reasons for the second major war between a United States led coalition and Iraq. First, there were lingering tensions and hostilities, remnants left over from the first Gulf war of 1991. At the close of that war the Iraqi government agreed to surrender and/or destroy several types of weapons including SCUD missiles and various Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). The United Nations was tasked with sending weapons inspectors to confirm the destruction of Iraqi weapons and to search for any prohibited weapons the believed to be in hidden by the Iraqi government. Additionally, two "No Fly Zones" were established over northern and southern Iraq for the protection of Iraqi minority groups in opposition to the Saddam Hussein government. Allied aircraft patrolled the air over these zones in order to prevent Iraqi aircraft
These happened while the state of Israel has experienced remarkably economic and military growth during the 1990's. The protection of the people in particular would have to be instated as terrorism, although not an important factor in the war, has claimed its victims with the passing of time. Terrorism was dealt with harshly in Israel, people believed to have connections to terrorists being abused and deported and human rights being neglected.
If peace were to be agreed of, Palestine would be admitted as a state by Israel and subsequent to that by most of the countries, the state finally reaching its objective after years of running as a fictional state.
An alliance between Palestine and Israel would help the first to attain a state of sovereignty by protecting Israel from other Arab countries and it would help its ally to combat the deficiency of forces from the West Bank.
Bard, Mitchell. "The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict," Ph.D. (Alpha Books -- Macmillan USA) Once again, Syria and Egypt attack. And yet again, only a miracle stops them. http://www.aish.com/jewishissues/middleeast/Arab-Israeli_Conflict_5_-_Yom_Kippur_War.asp
Bjorn, Moller. "Three Futures for Israel and Palestine"- January 1999
Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U.S. Gas," by Clifford Krauss (Krass, 2013). There were four main points of distinction embedded within the article. The first and arguable most important element within the article was in reference to the growing conflict in Syria. The article was written in late August when unrest in the Middle East was near its height. During this period, Americans were concerned with the subsequent rising oil prices that might occur due in part to the civil unrest occurring in Syria. The article first explains how gas prices are unlikely to increase due to a litany of factors. First, Syria is a very small oil exporter. It exports roughly 1% of the world's oil. As such, even if the entire country were to be engaged in war, the resulting damage in regards to oil exports would be minimal. Many pundits believe that the rippling effect of…
1) Kay, Jane Holtz, Asphalt nation: how the automobile took over America, an how we can take it back, New York, Crown, 1997. ISBN 0-517-58702-5
2) Krass, Clifford. "Major Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U.S. Gas." New York Times. N.p., 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
3) Seale, Patrick (1987). The Struggle for Syria. ISBN 978-0-300-03944-3
4) "New Billions In Oil" Popular Mechanics, March 1933. article on invention of water injection and detergents for oil recovery
military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.
America is more than just the leading superpower in the world; it is also widely regarded as the 'world's policeman' on account of its numerous interventions in solving global problems. Every now and again, it has been expected to mediate and negotiate when problems arise in any corner of the globe. When the U.S. is hesitant or doesn't act in accordance with general expectations, a cloud of helplessness engulfs the world. Two global scenarios wherein the U.S. resorted to a surprising course of action, while concurrently attempting to steer clear of usual military tactics are the ongoing civil war in Syria and the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Other countries' reaction in case of the latter event and the continuance of USA's position in the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) merely validate that it…
Barna II., W. U.S. Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes: Exception to Policy or an Emerging Norm? Retrieved from http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/library/ulra_military_intervention.pdf
Blanchard, C. N., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D (2015). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf
Gulf War. Retrieved from http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Gulf-War.pdf
Lindstrom, M. & Zetterlund, K. (2012).Setting the Stage for the Military Intervention in Libya: Decisions Made and Their Implications for the EU and NATO. Retrieved from www.foi.se/.../foir3498.pdf
Since after May 1948 the Arab-Israeli has dominated the Middle East because both sides feel that Israel/Palestine belongs to them, it influenced the Israel's government to use military force against them.. With that, four major Arab-Israeli wars and numerous sporadic battles have occurred since the United Nations partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948. Unfortunately, in today modern, these issues still have fueled many armed conflicts and suicide bombs between the two developing nations. However, at the time of the Six Day War, the issues with the Middle East countries influenced the Israel's government decision to fight with military force.
The breakup of the U.A.. And the resulting political instability only made Syria more hostile toward Israel. Another major cause of conflict was Syria's resistance to Israel's creation of a National Water Carrier to take water from the Jordan iver to…
The 1967 Six-Day War. 30 March 2008. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/67_War.html
Six Day War. 30 March 2008. http://www.israeli-weapons.com/history/six_day_war/SixDayWar.html
military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.
America is not merely a superpower -- the nation is also commonly known as the 'Policeman of the World', owing to its many interventions in resolving global issues. Time and again, the world has expected USA to intercede and play the role of mediator when issues crop up around the world. The world feels helpless when the nation hesitates or does not keep up to people's expectation while intervening. Two international incidents in which America opted for an unexpected course while simultaneously striving to keep from regular military action are the Libyan evolution and Syrian Civil War. Other nations' reaction in the former case and the retention of America's position in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) serve to confirm the fact that USA is, indeed, the 'policeman' of the world.
Barna II., W. U.S. Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes: Exception to Policy or an Emerging Norm? Retrieved from http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/library/ulra_military_intervention.pdf
Blanchard, C. N., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D (2015). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf
Gulf War. Retrieved from http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Gulf-War.pdf
Lindstrom, M. & Zetterlund, K. (2012).Setting the Stage for the Military Intervention in Libya: Decisions Made and Their Implications for the EU and NATO. Retrieved from www.foi.se/.../foir3498.pdf
History Of Egypt
Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3
The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 CE - 30 CE) 3-4
ritish Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5
Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6
Conclusion & Suggestions
Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…
Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B. (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place,
and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91.
Issawi, Charles. (1961). Egypt since 1800: A study in lop-sided development. The Journal of Economic History, 21(1), 1-25.
Janick, J. (2000, October). Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture.
The past is not something that stays in the past. It reaches out and extends forward into the present; it shapes and instructs us, warns and interests us. Sometimes we return to it in order to judge it anew or attempt to reconstruct it in a way that allows it to make more sense. Sometimes new information is uncovered from the past that puts a new perspective on things. Sometimes the past can be impactful on the course of events still occurring in the present. In short, there is no wall or barrier between the present and the past. The two mix and mingle and inform one another. Therefore, everything about the past is relevant in 2016. This paper will examine 8 articles that deal with specific incidences in the past that I find to be particularly meaningful today.
History teaches us to pay attention -- to be…
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.
Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.
Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…
Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website: http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/
Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/
Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
Moreover, the lack of support from the American public brings to fore an issue raised by Grover (3) with the deployment of U.S. military personnel in various parts of the world. As many of these deployments have "the potential for violent conflict," this calls for "the need to respond quickly and decisively," which is hinged on the "unambiguous support of the American people." There is no other U.S. president who has been demonized because of his war policy as former President George W. Bush.
With this underlying weakness in America's psyche in engaging in war, no amount of hardware and war machinery can beat the will to emerge victorious of no matter how small an army. Despite all the superiority of the U.S. war machine, the nation's -- both its citizens and its leadership -- weakness is all the more exposed, which makes it impossible to decisively support and bring…
Anderson, Fred and Andrew Cayton. The Dominion of War: Empire and Liberty in North America, 1500-2000. New York: Penguin Books, 2005.
Grover, John R. Crossroads in U.S. Military Capability: The 21st Century U.S. Army and the Abrams Doctrine. The Land Warfare Papers Number 37. Arlington, Virginia: The Institute of Land Warfare Association of the U.S. Army, August 2001.
Palmer, Richard. "Iraq Sides with Iran: As the U.S. Leaves, Iran Steps In." The Philadelphia Trumpet. March 2009: 11.
Scarborough, Rowan. "Gates Clips Air Force Wings." Human Events. April 16, 2009. April 19, 2009 .
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
The Art of Negotiation
The Syrian conflict has lasted for several years now and peace talks have gotten underway just as many times, with numerous players adopting different sides of table. The problem with the negotiation process when it comes to Syria is that it is still somewhat unclear as to who is in charge, who stands to lose what, which party has the most leverage, and who will be the major players to settle the conflict and negotiate a lasting peace. This paper will examine the issues and contrast them with the interests of the various parties who have a stake in the negotiation of peace in the region and how this difference has affected the negotiation process thus far. It will also analyze the ethical behavior and tactics that have been used throughout the negotiation process, as some of these tactics have raised many questions about how…
"I finally got into the habit of study, which I never really had before. I revived what little I had carried out of college…but it was hardest work I ever did in my life…I learned how to learn.
General George C. Marshall
The School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS), based out of Fort Leavenworth, has as one of its main tasks the updating, administration and perfection of the Advanced Military Studies rogram (AMS). The current program guide for the SAMS curriculum has the quote at the top of this page as its first content beyond its cover page. The quote makes clear that just about anything learnable or taught in a traditional college setting pales in comparison to the rigors and demands brought on by learning and serving in the United States military. 1 The recent budgetary and war fatigue status of the current United States Armed Forces…
Pellerin, Cheryl. "Defense.gov News Article: Hale: Sequestration Devastates U.S. Military Readiness." United States Department of Defense (defense.gov). http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=119998 (accessed September 12, 2013).
Hampson, Rick. "Drawn-out Afghanistan War drains post-9/11 fervor." USA TODAY: Latest World and U.S. News - USATODAY.com. http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/09/05/911-anniversary-afghanistan-war-syria/2771437 / (accessed September 12, 2013).
Hess, G. - Vietnam: Explaining America's Lost War. Reviews in History. ISBN 978-1405125284
Water Crisis in the Middle East
What is the Six Day War, and what are the various events that led to the War? What is the background of the War, and what were its consequences? The Six Day War took place in the month of June 1967. The crisis had actually begun in the early months of 1965, when the PLO, through Fatah, led a campaign of attacks on the borders along Jordan and Lebanon. This campaign was severely criticized and opposed by not only the people of the country but also by the Arab Government, and this led to the Fatah attempting to adopt a totally new strategy that came to be known as the 'entanglement theory'. According to this strategy, Israel would be forced to adopt an 'offensive' position with the technique of 'sabotage', and this meant that the Arabs would become more wary and would in turn…
Anita Roddick, Dame. Troubled Water - Saints, Sinners, truth & Lies about the Global Water Crisis. 1 October, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.ecademy.com/node.php?id=31940 Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Grunfeld, Lilac. Jordan River Dispute. ICE Case Studies, Case number 6. Spring 1997. Retrieved From http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/jordan.htm Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Israel 1948 to 1967, the Six-Day War Background. Retrieved From
Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar
hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…
Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.
Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.
Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
Flight operations by Egyptian pilots using these aircraft have begun; approximately 16 Hawker Hunter jet fighters also arrived in Egypt from Iraq with Iraqi pilots. About 10 Lightning jet fighters were expected from Saudi Arabia;
(3) Movement of TU-16 bombers from Aswan to the Cairo area in the latter part of March which are equipped to carry air-to-surface missiles;
(4) A high state of alert imposed on the Egyptian air force since April 20 had been noted with some air force reservists being recalled on the third of May;
(5) Relocation and reactivation of various Egyptian air squadrons with shuffling to accommodate aircraft from Libya and Iraq;
(6) The evidence suggested that additional commando units may have moved closer to the Suez Canal since the middle of March; and (7) A report that the Egyptian staff had been ordered to prepare a detailed plan for an attack across the Canal…
Burr, William (2003) The October War and U.S. Policy. National Security Archives. 7 Oct 2003. Online available at: www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/
Indications of Arab Intentions to Initiate Hostilities (2001) National Security Council Archives. Declassified. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-01.pdf
Intelligence Memorandum for Secretary Kissinger (1973) National Security Council. From William Quandt and Donald Stukel. WSAG Meeting, Middle East, Saturday October 6, 1973, 3:00 P.M. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-15.pdf
Memorandum of Conversation: Simcha Dinitz, Ambassador of Israel; Mordechai Shalev, Minister; Henry A. Kissinger, Assistant to the President; and Peter W. Rodman, NSC Staff. The White House. National Security Council Archives. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-05.pdf
U.S. ole as 'Policemen of the World'
Thesis and Outline Draft
Introduction and Thesis
currently holds the most important and influential role in international politics and represents a decisive player in all recent international conflicts. This role takes the form of political and military interventions, international and bilateral engagements as well as multilateral brokerage of peace talks. The basic principles of such an approach are the fostering of peaceful, democratic, and secure international environment. At the same time though, it must be pointed out that the entire international community does not always support such actions and often it has been said that the United States acts as the "policeman of the world" (Kissinger, 1995). It must be stressed that the current approach the United States have on foreign policy has not changed since the end of the Civil War and has guided the U.S. In military and political interventions in…
Calvocoressi, P. (1987) World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.
Federal News Service (2013) "America is not the world's policeman: Text of Barack Obama's speech on Syria," Associated Press, available online at http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/america-is-not-the-world-s-policeman-text-of-barack-obama-s-speech-on-syria-417077
Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
Shahshahani, A. And Corina Mullin (2012) "The legacy of U.S. intervention and the Tunisian revolution: promises and challenges one year on," Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Volume 4 (1): 67 -- 101, available online at http://www.interfacejournal.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Interface-4-1-Shahshahani-and-Mullin.pdf
3.2.3 Portfolio Diversification of Investment in Global Property Markets
ecause the global property markets are affected by globalization and specific country / regional factors, means that the overall amounts of risks will vary, the most notable include: transparency and efficiency. Where, each country / region has different on laws and regulations pertaining to the real estate markets. This means that the risks in a number of different markets will depend upon specific market conditions themselves, reflecting these two factors. To protect themselves against these kinds of risks, many investors will often seek to diversify their portfolio. Diversification is: when you are investing a number of different asset classes in real estate, across a variety of countries / regions. The idea is that if a risk occurs in a specific country or region, the other areas that you are diversified in will protect you against the severity of the declines. For…
2009 A Year of Revival for Property Sector, 2010, Visit Kuwait. Available from: . [30 March 2010].
Barwa Real Estate, 2010, Arabian Business. Available from: . [30 March 2010].
Business Risk, 2010, Invest Words. Available from: [29 March 2010].
Dubai Property Companies Called Merger Off, 2009, Property Wire. Available from: [30 March 2010].
Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.
3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies
The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:
c d e f g
x x x
x x x
x x x
Shortage of commercial properties
Availability and choice
Negotiations here went on for thirteen days non-stop which "apparently would have failed without the mediation of Carter and his advisers." 15
On eptember 17, 1979, adat and Begin came to an agreement which is now known as the Camp David Accords in which the two adversaries agreed to a number of conditions, such as "establishing an elected, self-governing authority in the West Bank and Gaza," the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the West Bank and Gaza "except for specified security locations," and having all negotiations based upon the U.N. ecurity Council Resolution 242. 16 This agreement between Egypt and Israel effectively put an end to the hostilities between the two nations and brought about a lasting peace, one which has held to this day. However, after the peace treaty at Camp David, the focus of the Arab-Israeli conflict shifted to Israel's northern borders with Lebanon.
In April of 1981,…
Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East. New York:
Houghton-Mifflin Company, 2004.
Silberstein, Laurence J., ed. New Perspectives on Israeli History: The Early Years of the State. NY: New York University Press, 1991.
This resulted in various destroyed relations for Israel as it offered sympathy for the Palestinian people and their fight not necessarily for independence, but most of all for a fair treatment from Israel. Even if it signed the Camp David Agreements in 1978 and committed to creating the framework for withdrawing from the occupied territories, Israel did not follow through and continues to do so today as well.
Looking at the entire situation from the Israeli perspective, its strategy of eliminating its enemies and putting them under control seems like a good approach. As it did in 1982 when it invaded Lebanon to destroy the South Lebanese Palestinian attackers or in its numerous misfired or intentionally fired missiles in refugee camps, Israel succeeded in becoming the strongest military force in the region.
Having in view the latest developments in the Arab world, it is hard to predict what will be…
Alteras, A. (1993) Eisenhower and Israel: U.S.-Israeli Relations 1953-1960 Florida: University Press of Florida
Calvocoressi, P. (2009) World Politics since 1945 Essex: Pearson Education Limited
Nye, J. (2002) Understanding International Conflicts: An Introduction to Theory and History Longman Classics Series
Oren, M. (2002) Six Days of War: June 1967 and the making of the modern Middle East New York: Oxford University Press
But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.
Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate rab states such as Turkey. lso, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…
Also, although the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is worthy of considerable attention, it is important to remember that most other Arab nations in the Middle East actively discriminate against Palestinians. Although the Arab politicians often cite Palestinian mistreatment as a key reason for resentment against Israel, the real motivation underlying Arab militancy is concealed. It is simply a window-dressing for militant propaganda. The reality of the matter is that Palestinians in Israel are guaranteed the broadest freedoms, both religiously and politically, when compared to every other nation in the region. And although Palestinians' economic status is often lower than average Israelis, the same is true of Arab nations, which specifically target Palestinians for discrimination because of their status as a separate ethnic group. When it joined several other Arab states in expelling 400,000 Palestinian refugees since 1991, because of PLO support for the Iraq invasion, Kuwait became a good example of this discrimination. Egypt has also curtailed Palestinian settlement to the Gaza strip, where Palestinian militants continue to launch attacks on Israel,
Most revealing of all, however, is the Arab League's policy of refusing to grant Palestinians citizenship in any of its member states. Instead, Palestinians become international refugees in the region, living in camps by the thousands and growing more resentful all the time -- which is probably League's goal, as the displaced Palestinians then serve as proxy warriors against Israel.
The most effective appraoch is to pursue more aggressive action in preventing the Iranian state from acquiring WMDs, and in isolating Iran from its influential position as terrorist and militant financier and supporter. President Ahmedinejad has expressed very harshly and openly the intentions of the Iranian government to eliminate Israel and to pursue radical Islamic hegemony. This provides the international community with a dramatic glimpse of Iranian goals. In assessing the threat posed by Iran, the international community must realize that Iran will not easily be deterred by threats of sanction or isolation. Instead, it must be made absolutely clear to the Iranian regime that its current course will result in consequences. Also, the Iranian dissident movement must be supported and encouraged in order to undermine the support of the hard-line Iranian regime.
history of events in the twentieth century, one might surmise that the twenty-first may not be all that different. Why? ecause human nature and the pursuit of self-interest has not changed from one century to the next. To explain what drives international relations, Joshua Goldstein provides a brief history of the world, in addition to information about the geographical features and the consequences of different nation's economies. (Goldstein, 2003) The beginning of the twentieth century was marked by relative peace in the world. The Franco-Prussian wars were at least three decades into the past. Nobody would envision that the worst horrors of a global scale wars were in the near future. In as much as Goldstein avers that the First World War was wholly unnecessary and it was, at least in its inception, a macho exercise (p. 37), one can believe that war is part of human nature.
Goldstein, J.S. International Relations. 5th ed. New York: Longman, 2003.
Tacitus, C., and Birley, A.R. Agricola; and Germany. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
United Nations - the UN has been effective
The UN has succeeded in some of its international responsibilities but has failed in others; and according to the UN Charter the UN may not intervene in matters essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state
The UN has achieved many "remarkable accomplishments" (Encarta.msn.com)
The UN has negotiated 172 peace settlements that ended regional conflicts
The UN has participated in more than 300 international treaties
The UN's "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (adopted in 1948) has been helpful in raising the consciousness of the need for human rights
Over 3 million children a year have been saved from polio, measles, whooping cough, tuberculosis thanks to immunization programs by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF)
The UN promotes worker's rights and improves agricultural techniques in developing countries
TO: UN has success in Libya (Christian Science Monitor)
The UN Security Council unanimously awarded Libya's seat…
Background on the United Nations 2008. Accomplishments of the United Nations. Encarta Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://encarta.msn.com.
Boot, Max. 2000. Paving the Road to Hell: The Failure of U.N. Peacekeeping. Foreign Affairs.
Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://www.foreignaffaird.com. (March): 1-3.
Charbonneau, Louis. 2012. Analysis: U.N. confronts failure of diplomacy in Syria. Reuters.
The Kurds were seen as either "proper Turkish citizens" by the way they conducted themselves with dignity, or they were seen as "outlaws characterized by tribalism, religious reactionism, or banditry" (Yegen, p. 599). In other words, the Turkish government tried to take away the Kurds' ethnic identities; the Turks attempted to "assimilate" the Kurds into the nation of Turkey by referring to them as Turkish citizens -- and many Kurds have simply agreed to become Turks over the last 80 years or so. Meanwhile in the 1950s Kurds in Turkey "…were no longer in a position to produce major trouble for the state," and Kurds began moving into big cities in the western sections of Turkey (Yegen, p. 604). The "assimilation" strategies of the Turkish government towards the Kurds lightened up from the 1950s regarding forcible settlement practices, but then when the Kurds began to resist Turkish authority in the…
Giraldi, Philip. "Turkey and the Threat of Kurdish Nationalism." Mediterranean Quarterly
19.1 (2008): 33-40.
Gorvett, Jon. "Turkish Prime Minister Says War Against Kurds Has Entered 'Very Critical
Stage'." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 27.1, (2008): 38-39.
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…
Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.
Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-
Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
Again, the press is not aware of all that goes on in the White House behind closed doors. Just because the matter was not publicly mentioned again in a direct fashion, does not mean that it was dropped. My team and I have continually discussed the best course of action for fostering trade with Tunisia and setting a much stronger precedent in the Middle East. The WSJ has actually zeroed in on the connection between this injection of fiscal support to Tunisia and our intentions to foster free trade with the entire Middle East.
The WSJ thinks that we should strike a trade deal with Tunisia and to also designate as a strategic economic nation. I and the entire White House is flattered that the Wall Street Journal would give us such obvious and prosaic advice on plans that we've already come up with ourselves. Of course the U.S. is…
Bonime-Blanc, a., 2011. The Fight Against Corruption Goes Global. Foreign Affairs, pp. 44-49.
Caldwell, W., 2009 . Learning to Leverage New Media. Military Review, May, pp. 256-260.
Carafano, J., 2011. Mastering the Art of Wiki. Joint Force Quarterly, pp. 266-271.
Clinton, H., 2010. Leading through Civilian Power. Foreign Affairs, pp. 199-209.
Abraham Path Initiative
The Abraham Path: The evolution of the enterprise over time
One of the most divisive regions of the world is the Middle East. The Middle East is fraught with conflict not simply because of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian territorial dispute but also because of a host regional and sectarian struggles that are tearing this area of the world apart. With this in mind: "in the face of daunting barriers, the Abraham Path Initiative envisions uncovering and revitalizing a route of cultural tourism that follows the path of Abraham and his family some 4000 years ago across the Middle East…As it takes fuller shape, the Path variously serves as a catalyst for sustainable tourism and economic development, a platform for the energy and idealism of young people, a beacon for pilgrims and peacebuilders, as well as a focus for seemingly endless media inquiries from reporters, producers" (Leary, Sebenius, &…
Leary, K., Sebenius, J. & Weiss, J. (2009). Negotiating the Path of Abraham. Harvard Business
School Working Paper. 10-049.
War and Society
Can war be an effective policy tool in the 21st century?
War is a very contentious issue plaguing modern day society. The prospect of war is exacerbated by the continual conflicts between self-serving nations. As such discrepancies continue to either strengthen or diminish once strong relationships between countries. In addition, technology and its rapid proliferation have contributed heavily to the overall war debate. Technology, and its rapid advancement makes, acquiring and replicating weapons of mass destruction more financially feasible. As the cost to produce weapons diminishes so too will the ability to strike unsuspecting nations. Factions that ordinary would not have the financial resources to construct or attack a country, now have the ability to do so in an effective manner. As such, it is my belief that war is not an effective policy tool for the 21st century. The ability to inflict massive causalities is simply…
1) Karol Jan Borowiecki, 2012. Are composers different? Historical evidence on conflict-induced migration (1816-1997). European Review of Economic History, vol.16(3), pp.261-91
South America's very old, biggest, most competent, and well- equipped rebellion having Marxist origin is the evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - FAC. The uproar and clashing in the 1950s involving liberal and conservative militias lead to the civil war that demolished Columbia and from here FAC came into existence. The murder of liberal party leader Jorge Eliecer by the representatives of the conservative government ignited the battle between the Liberal and Conservative political parties. The consequent civil wars lead to the loss of over 200,000 Columbians and generated a glut of guerrilla groups. One of those groups, lead by Manuel Marulanda, split from the Liberals in 1966 and developed into the Marxist-oriented FAC. (FAC History)
Identify the group by name and country in which based. If there is no one country, state the countries in which the group is operative, or the region.
a. Stated goals and…
Resources) Some medical care and advice is offered by Cuba. A court case is presently happening in Bogota to check whether three members of the Irish Republican Army, detained in Colombia in 2001 upon quitting the FARC-controlled demilitarized zone, supplies sophisticated explosives education to the FARC. The FARC and the Colombian National Liberation Army (ELN) frequently use the border area for cross border invasions and makes use of the Venezuelan territory near the border as a refuge. (Terrorist Group Profiles, 2003)
d. Spiritual or religious support.
Could not find any information.
e. Umbrella or cover organization, if any.
As per Colombian intelligence agencies, the FARC was implementing the techniques studied from a yet another terrorist cluster, namely, the Irish Republican Army. (One year after Sept. 11, U.S. And Colombia face parallel challenges)
My Attitude and Perspectives towards War
My attitudes on dealing with the upcoming worldly events and war change especially with the reports and research conducted on the issue of democracy. The antecedents towards war attitudes may include national identification and authoritarian ideological beliefs, and the consequences of war would include the intention to engage in pro-war behaviors. The different approaches to the major issues have given rise to arguments that incline people into believing that war is not the ultimate solution. Attitudes to war would be positively related to nonegalitarian ideologies and beliefs but less of personal distress. I support Kant’s notion of ‘Perpetual Peace’ where democratic peace comes into play. Countries that have democratic constitutions have shown the importance of getting the consent of their citizens when waging war with their enemies. Therefore, this makes citizens a determinant factor, and if they decide to engage in war, then they…
Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).
Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…
Arendt, Hannah. (1969). On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
Blitzer, Wolf. (2011). Cheney refuses to admit any mistakes as vice president. CNN.com
Retrieved September 7, 2011, from http://situationroom.blogs.cnn.com .
Dougherty, James E, and Pfaltzgraff, Robert L. (1997). Contending Theories of International
esolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
This is a proposal argument for resolution of the Israel-Palestine problem. It uses 5 sources in MLA format.
As violence escalates in the Palestine, the intractable problem becomes even more intractable. Intense fighting between Israelis and Palestinians, the most intense inside the borders of the former Palestine since Israel's creation in 1948 are claiming a daily toll in double digits. Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's increasingly tough tactics are exacerbating the conflict. A war of attrition is going on that has the potential to escalate into an all out region al war.
Apart from the human tragedy, serious danger to peace and stability in the region is developing from this continued conflict. Any escalation would seriously jeopardize the American 'war against terrorism' both by focusing world attention on the Middle East and giving the anti-American forces and the 'terrorists' fresh justification for targeting American interest…
Author Not Available: "Watching the War." The Washington Post. March 7, 2002; Page A20.
Ratnesar, Romesh: "Season of revenge: Inside story of how Israel imprisoned Arafat and why the rage keeps burning." Time. April 8, 2002. pp. 16-27.
Luttwak, Edward: "Worst Case Scenario." Time. April 8, 2002. pp. 28-29.
The Economist: "Too Bloody to Ignore." March 16th, 2002.
According to Hiro (2001), "During the Iran-Iraq ar it openly backed Baghdad, arguing that its defeat would lead to the spread of Islamic fundamentalism in the region which would hurt estern interests. It was the French corporations that were building two nuclear reactors near Baghdad which were bombed by Israel in June 1981" (75). Approximately 1,000 French companies were active in Iraq, and 6-7,000 French specialists were based there by 1983. As much as 40% of total French military exports were destined for Iraq. Military cooperation between the two states had developed to the extent that the French government decided to lease to Baghdad five Super-Etendard warplanes originally meant for use by the French air force. This raised the more immediate lucrative prospect of selling scores of expensive Exocet missiles to Iraq to be used by Super-Etendards to hit Iranian oil tankers in the Gulf. These missiles proved devastatingly effective.…
Abdulla, Abdulkhaleq. 1994. "Gulf War: The Socio-Political Background." Arab Studies
Quarterly 16(3): 1-3.
Aydin, Mustafa and Damla Aras. 2005. "Political Conditionality of Economic Relations between
Paternalist States: Turkey's Interaction with Iran, Iraq, and Syria." Arab Studies
The concept of war encompasses various different types of conflict. Wars between sovereign nations involve nation states. Regional and world wars involve multiple sovereign nations. Revolutionary wars of independence involve the populations of nations rebelling against or rejecting the continued control national authorities. ivil wars occur when rival regions or political factions within one nation seek formal separation or complete control. Proxy wars are a means by which nations prosecute their competing interests against one another through smaller conflicts involving other nations as a means of avoiding direct military conflict.
Wars between Nation States
Wars between sovereign nations have occurred throughout recorded history, dating back to Biblical times. Generally, sovereign nations go to war when they each have claims to the same land, or natural resources, or rights of passage that each seeks to own or control exclusively. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern age, the…
Civil wars occur when different political factions within one nation cannot reach an agreement or reconcile major differences. In some cases, the purpose of a civil war is similar to revolutionary wars because they are the result of one faction's desire or intention to break free from a larger unified nation and to create a new sovereign nation. The American War between the States or Civil War is an example of such a war because the southern states sought to secede from the American nation and to create their own nation where slavery could continue legally as a way of life. The northern states opposed the institution of slavery and had gradually placed more and more pressure on the southern states to give up the practice. In other instances, civil wars occur when one faction seeks to take exclusive power over the nation instead of sharing power or regional control with competing political factions. The Spanish Civil War immediately preceding the Second World War is one such example.
Sometimes, nation states prosecute wars against one another through wars between smaller nations. Generally, this occurs when much larger nations want to avoid the devastating consequences of a direct war between them. They may have long-standing conflicts with one another or competing aims and interests about foreign territories and regions. They may seek to achieve their objectives through the use of force but instead of direct military conflict, they act against one another by supporting wars and revolutions in smaller nations in those regions. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, the world's two principal superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union conducted many overt and covert proxy wars in Eastern Europe, Latin America, and in both the Middle East and the Far East. Some of the more notable examples of those proxy efforts in modern times included the Soviet Union's attempt to militarize Cuba and install nuclear missiles aimed at the U.S. supposedly to guarantee Cuba's independence in 1961; the decade-long Vietnam War in which the Soviet Union supported and finances the North Vietnamese while the U.S. supported and financed the South Vietnamese; and the Arab-Israeli wars in which the Soviet Union supported Syria and Egypt while the U.S. supported Israel.
Lessons From Vietnam
The concept of cross-cultural capability is a relatively new area of study in the academic world, even though we have known for years that a number of issues might have been better resolved with a greater understanding and sensitive towards other cultures. The term itself applies to human behavior in a number of dimensions -- psychologically, sociologically, certainly political, and cultural. This phenomenon of cultural misunderstanding was quite apparent in the post-World War II conflicts, particularly that of the regional conflicts in Vietnam post-1950 (Killick, 1999).
Many of the diplomatic and cultural issues surrounding the Vietnam Conflict were a result of a Cold War mentality. The Cold War, not really a war, but more a preparation for conflict, was the tensions between the U.S.S.. And Allies (Warsaw Pact) and the U.S. And Allies (NATO). One side held that America was economically and militarily aggressive after World War…
The Vietnam War. (2006). The History Channel. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com / topics/vietnam-war
Belmonte, L. (2010). Selling the American Way -- U.S. Propaganda and the Cold War. Pittsburg, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Damms, Richard, (2001), The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953-1961, New York: Longman.
Davidson, P. (1991), Vietnam At War: The History, 1946-1975. New York: Norton.
In this sense, while prime minister Erdogan pleaded in 2008 for a cease fire and a turn to democratic principles for the PKK, the answers came in the form of violent attacks on civilians and representatives of the Turkish state. The pressures to put an end to the conflicts surrounding the issue of PKK are also coming from the western states involved in the war against terrorrism, especially the United States and the European Union.
At the moment, it appears that the Turkish state makes efforts to try to accomodate a certain liberty for the Kurdish people, given the fact that the fanatism of the minority is not an issue that can be played with, according to the Prome Minister (the Economist, 2010). At the same time though, Turkey has ensured that both the U.S. And Iraq support their intervention against the terrorist attacks of the Kurdish PKK. This support…
The Economist. Turkey and the PKK: A never ending fight. The Turkish army continues its long battle with Kurdish rebels. May 20th 2010. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/16167846
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.
3.1.3 Power sharing agreements
In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
Armed Conflicts & Environmental Politics
Davenport, Coral, and Parker, Asley. "Environment Is Grabbing Big Role in Ads for Campaigns." Te New York Times. Te New York Times 21 October 2014. Web. 9 November 2014.
Political advertising focused on climate cange, energy, and environmental issues overwelmed te pre-midterm election campaigns. Surging past a record level of 125,000 ad spots on te Senate side in October 2014, tese campaigns reflect te interests and priorities of wealty donors for bot parties. Indeed, te environment and energy ranked as te tird most popular topic mentioned in political ads, wit ealtcare and jobs running first and second. Wealty donors sowing teir partisan ands include Tomas F. Steyer, te liberal California environmental activist billionaire, and Carles G. Koc and David H. Koc, billionaire conservative rigt-wingers.
Political pundits see te popularity of environmental issues as a arbinger of te 2016 presidential race. Te ad campaigns demonstrate…
It is not immediately clear who is responsible for the explosions that took place on November 7, 2014, in the Gaza strip. The explosions occurred just days before the 10th anniversary celebration of the death of Yasir Arafat, the leader of the Fatah, the mainstream Palestinian party currently led by President Mahmoud Abbas. The last such rally occurred in 2007, at the time of the celebration of the third anniversary of Arafat's death, when six Fatah supporters were killed and many others were wounded when they clashed with Hamas members.
Hamas officially condemned the recent bombings and set its Gaza security forces in motion to investigate. However, the timing of the explosions does not lend credibility to Hamas' condemnation. This skepticism about Hamas' actual position is strengthened by the fact that the car of Fayez Abu Aitah, a Fatah spokesman, was destroyed in a blast. Just days earlier, Aitah had strongly criticized Hamas, citing his efforts of incitement and damaging national interests through critical remarks aimed at the functioning of the Palestinian Authority government.
Expanding the United Nations' mandate
The United Nations is a body that was formed after the WWII with the wider mandate of ensuring there is maintenance of peace globally. It is not partisan and non-political in nature hence geared towards making and maintaining peace across the world. The mandates of the UN as outlined in the United Nations (2014) website are; to stabilize conflict situations especially once a ceasefire has been agreed on and create an environment where the warring factions can achieve lasting peace. They can also be deployed in order to prevent conflicts from breaking out or from spilling over across the borders. Their work is also to ensure that the implementation of peace agreements. The UN is also charged with leading territories and states as they transition to stable governments that value good governance, democratic principles as well as economic development.
However, the above functions…
Parliament of Canada, (2012). How Canadians Govern Themselves. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from http://www.parl.gc.ca/about/parliament/senatoreugeneforsey/inside_view/canada_usa-e.html
United Nations (2014). Mandates and the legal basis for peacekeeping. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/pkmandates.shtml
As one side would see them as an extension of the Nazis, who wanted to destroy Israel at any cost. At the same time, opponents would argue that Israel should be talking and negotiating with their neighbors, to avoid similar kinds of conflicts. This is important, because these views would have an impact upon various military operations and foreign policy actions taken in the future. A good example of this can be seen with the events surrounding the Six Day War in 1967. What happened was, en Gurion had continually argued for Israel to use self restraint in international affairs. The problem was that the Arabs would use this as way to attack Israel. For many conservatives, this was a continuation of the same policies, as the inactions from the Mapai party would make the security situation worse. Where, many conservatives would argue that these actions were similar to the…
Frankel, Jonathan. "The Changing Conceptions of the Holocaust." Reshaping the Past. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1994. 211- 230.
Linn, Ruth. "The Uninformed." Escaping Auschwitz. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004. 40 -- 53. Print.
Ring, Jennifer. "The Kastner Trial." The Political Consequences of Thinking. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997. 80 -- 89. Print.
Schlindler, Collin. "The Rise of the Right." A History of Modern Israel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 123- 146. Print.
high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…
Islam and Christianity have a lot of history to share dating back to some years before the birth of Jesus. Although the members did not interact freely, the current 'animosity' characterizing the two religions was unheard of. In fact, they appeared to be focused much in solving their individual problems which unique but almost similar. This study shows that the two religions were affected by problems related to political succession leading to the cooperation instead of conflict.
How did the problem of political succession affect Islamic and Christian societies in the Middle Ages?
The problems of political succession affected Islamic and Christian societies in a number of ways. First, political succession affected Islamic societies by causing an expansion of Islam from the Middle East in other parts of the world. In this regard, a series of events that took place in the Middle East affected the spread of Islam. This…
The Al-Aqsa Intifadah (which began, I believe, in about 2000 when the Camp David talks were then stalling) was begun by PLO and still exists today (much less actively than from about 2000 to about 2004, roughly) under the PLO umbrella.
3) Democratic nations including Great Britain and the United States have long called for democratic elections in Palestine. Now that Hamas was the unexpected winner of the first elections, should it be recognized by the United States?
No; at least not officially, since Hamas has been from its 1987 outset, and clearly is today, an overtly, aggressively and ruthlessly terrorist organization recognized internationally as such. Still, Hamas should definitely be talked to by the United States, as horrendous a prospect as that might well seem (and is). And unfortunately, it has become almost risible in today's world that Great Britain or the United States could still even semi-seriously think…
Fatat el Masna (Factory Girl) by Mohamed Khan depicts a misunderstood segment of society: female Muslim factory workers in Egypt. he contemporary setting of the story allows the viewer to make real-life comparisons with their own notions of race, class, gender, ethnicity, and power. Social stratification is a core theme, but gender is a far more salient one in Khan's movie. Fatat el Masna is about individual women taking personal risks to alter gender norms. Yet ironically, Hiyam (Yasmin Raeis) operates within a stereotypically chauvinistic framework. She fantasizes about her boss in ways that are the antithesis of female self-empowerment, as if the film suggests that women in Egyptian society can only liberate themselves in their own minds. heir actual liberation remains a pipe dream. Seeds of hope are planted, however, as Hiyam remains true to her word and values. She does fall in love with her boss…
The blending and confluence of identities is the quintessential story of the modern world. It is also the quintessential story of the Jews. Modern citizens of the world for whom geographic boundaries are meaningless will relate to this film, which has a universal appeal. A primary target audience would be Jews in the diaspora and also Lebanese people as well. However, Return to the Valley of the Jews is about the search for personal identity and a homeland. No external forces can come in the way of personal and collective identity formation. The Jews depicted in this film have strong national identities and call themselves Lebanese. Things did change after the 1967 wars, when Arabs started to persecute Jews even in areas once characterized by peace and tolerance like the Wadi. Ironically, Lebanon tore itself apart, in a civil war pitting Muslims against Christians. Jews were in the crossfire, showing that the tensions in the Middle East are not between Arab and Jew. They are unnecessary tensions, but have almost nothing at all to do with religion or even the creation of Israel. This film corrects a lot of misinformation about the root causes of problems in the Middle East, and shows how propaganda and politics can create animosity.
Return to the Valley of the Jews is about destruction and rebirth, too. There is hope for the future even though there is much despair permeating the film. Lebanon is a good case study for paving the way toward tolerance and respect. The government of Lebanon has been relatively tolerant and has enabled the reconstruction of the synagogue at the heart of this film. Returning to the "valley of the Jews" is a spiritual metaphor. The people depicted in the film maintain their community identity whether or not they are in Lebanon. Language and a shared nostalgia for the geographic beauty and history of Lebanon are their social and cultural glue. Religion is not as central as people think, and this film is necessary in dispelling the myth that religion is a source of trouble in the Middle East. Land and civil rights are central issues, but not religion. Furthermore, Lebanon needs to be seen on its own rather than being lumped in with other Arab nations. Israel has had ambivalent relations with Lebanon. Not as friendly as Jordan, but friendlier than other nations, Lebanon may come to play a critical role in the development and evolution fo future peace processes in the Middle East.
It may be idealistic to believe that films can change the world. In this case, the film may at least shed light on a critical issue. The film may open hearts and change minds. It might help viewers reconnect with their own cultural roots, and help people to see that all the people of the world seek belonging within a community. That community may be defined by nationality or geography, language or religion. What matters most is that love and compassion define social relations.
Middle East/Gulf region has a complex history and has experienced a series of important events both during and in the years following Muhammad's influence in the territory. hile Muhammad's ruling played an important role in shaping thinking in the region, his legacy was actually more important, taking into account that it practically influenced people in taking on certain attitudes and in expressing great interest in wanting to promote Islamic thought.
The Arab Caliphate greatly expanded the Islamic Empire and turned it into one of the greatest in all of history. It lasted from 632 until 1513 and it involved a series of leaderships: the Rashidun period, the Umayyad period, and the Abbassid period. These three dynasties kept Arabs together and provided them with a sense of unity and cultural identity. Introducing Arab as an official language further contributed to making individuals in the Middle East feel as if they were…
Barakat, Halim, "The Arab World," (UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1993).
Hourani, Albert Habib, "A History of the Arab Peoples," (Harvard University Press, 2002)
Fear of oil shortages in the West drove oil prices to unprecedented levels, about three times the pre-war price. Gasoline shortages in the United States resulting from the Arab embargo, combined with the rise in oil prices, began a spiral of world-wide inflation and a recession in 1974-75.
Attempts began to resume the peace process when Security Council esolution 338 was passed and a ceasefire was ordered on October 22, 1973. The resolution was meant to immediately terminate of all military activity, implementation of esolution 242 and the start of negotiations "aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East." esolution 338 subsequently became a companion piece to 242 as the basis of future proposals for a peace settlement. In December a Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva under the cochairmanship of the Soviet and American foreign ministers and the U.N. secretary-general. Egypt, Jordan and Israel…
Interview with Moshe Dayan by Rami Tal on November 22, 1976, Yediot Aharanot, April 27, 1997.
Anwar Sadat, in Search of Identity: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Row, 1977), P- 259;
Haim Herzog, the War of Atonement, October 1973: The Fateful Implications of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), p. 51
Abba Eban, Personal Witness: Israel Through My Eyes (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1992), p. 523.
Turkey Security Threats
Turkey faces several economic, social and political threats in both the near (5-year) and long (10-20-year) term. Its geopolitical situation in the Middle East makes it particularly sensitive not to only local contexts but to global contexts as well. Bordering Georgia to the north, Armenia and Iran to the east, and Syria and Iraq to the south, it has been neighbor to some of the most controversial courses of action in recent history. It is only natural that its own security should be affected by that of its neighbors as well as by superpower interests in the region. This paper will analyze the security threats as they apply to Turkey in both the near-term and the long-term.
The latest and nearest term security threat is the rise of IS, the Islamic State, whose self-appointed caliphate has declared a religious war against Shia Muslims in the Iraq and…
Catholic Online. (2014). ISIS begins killing Christians in Mosul. Retrieved from http://www.catholic.org/news/international/middle_east/story.php?id=56481
Dawson, R. (2012). Syrian Super Thread. Anti-Neocons. Retrieved from http://www.rys2sense.com/anti-neocons/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=29233&start=7
Escobar, P. (2011). Playing Chess in Eurasia. Asia Times Online. Retrieved from http://www.afgazad.com/Zabanhaye-Eropaei/122211-Playing-Chess-in-Eurasia.pdf
Frizell, S. (2014). President Obama Explains Why the U.S. is Bombing ISIS. Time.
Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria
Shi'ism in the World
History, Objectives & General Outlook
Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).
The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…
Akhavi, S. (1983). The ideology and praxis of Shi'ism in the Iranian revolution. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 25(02), 195-221.
Campbell, J. (2015). "Massacre" of Shia in Northern Nigeria an Opening for Iran. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: http://blogs.cfr.org/campbell/2015/12/16/massacre-of-shia-in-northern-nigeria-an-opening-for-iran/
Cave, D. (2006). Telling Sunni from Shiite. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:shttp://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/shiite_muslims/index.html
Center for Security Policy. (2014). Will Sunni-Shia tensions spread to Nigeria? Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2014/11/03/will-sunni-shia-tensions-spread-to-nigeria/