Conflict In Syria Essays (Examples)

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Women and Conflict Resolution Was Published in

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16875269

Women and conflict resolution" was published in 2004 in The Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics and Culture. She puts forward women's role in political negotiations and societal decision-making, stating that, in a world where the absence of war does not necessarily imply the presence of peace, women can be important contributors to a reconciliation approach "through education and civil society -- the two areas where women are the most active and have the most experience." (Golan, 2012) Golan's article is an invitation to revise general attitudes in political circles toward women's presence at negotiating tables. It is an invitation to include women and accept their capability to negotiate and cooperate despite national identities and cultural differences that may sometimes prevent men who are in official positions to reach a beneficial, reconciliatory agreement between parties.

We live in a world that is apparently bound to be affected by violent conflict at…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brewer, N., Mitchell, P., & Weber, N. (2002). Gender role, organizational status, and conflict management styles. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 13(1), 78-94. Retrieved from  https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~libby/manage/conflict.pdf 

Golan, G. (2012). Women and conflict resolution. The Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics and Culture, 11(2). Retrieved from http://www.pij.org/authors.php?id=104

Mount, E. (2014). Well-intended measures: Conceptualizing gender as a social structure in post-conflict policy development. In M.T. Segal & V. Demos (Eds.), Gendered perspectives on conflict and violence (pp. 45-72). Emerson Group Publishing Limited.

Themner, L., & Wallensteen, P. (2013). Armed conflicts, 1946-2012. Journal of Peace Research, 50(4), 509-521. doi: 10.1177/0022343313494396
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Conflict in the Arab World

Words: 1978 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28595833

Arab Israeli Conflict

The Arab-Israeli conflict

The current Arab-Israeli conflict has a long standing history which goes back to the 1910s when the Ottoman Empire was still in place. During the WWI, the Germans sided with the Ottoman and the British sided with the Arabs in revolting against the Ottoman Empire. The British promised the Arabs self rule and to the Jews they promised them a homeland in Palestine (Kattan, et.al., 2009:Pp59). The Arabs took over the control of Syria and immediately after the war, the League of Nations gave the French the control over Syria and to the British they gave what are today Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank and Jordan. In 1921 the British divided their large mandate into two; the East of Jordan became the emirates of Transjordan under Abdullah and the West of Jordan became the mandate of the Palestine (the Promised Land to the Jews)…… [Read More]

References

Bassiouni & Ben Ami, (2009). International and Comparative Criminal Law Series, Volume 29: A Guide to Documents on the Arab-Palestinian/Israeli Conflict: 1897-2008. Martinus Nijhof: The Netherlands.

Harms G. & Todd M.F., (2008). Palestine-Israel Conflict: A Basic Introduction (2nd Edition). Pluto Press: London.

Kattan, et.al., (2009). From Coexistence to Conquest: International Law and the Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1891-1949. Pluto Press.

Khatchadourian, (2000). Quest for Peace Between Israel and the Palestinians. Peter Lang Publishing: New York.
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Arab-Israeli Conflict Specifically it Will

Words: 3314 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18642404

On the other hand, Israel, Jordan, and the United States were allied in their support of the Israeli state and Israel's land acquisitions during the Six-Day War. Eventually, the Sudan dropped out of the proposal, but, "By the end of 1971 the two leaders had taken soundings in Moscow, had appointed Egypt's war minister, General Muhammad Sadiq, supreme commander of both armies, and had reached agreement on broad strategy" (Rabil 22). They continued to gain support from the Soviet Union, knowing they needed support of a superpower to offset the military might Israel wielded in the area.

After the war, "Six Arab states, including Egypt, broke off diplomatic relations with Washington, and were subsequently drawn closer to the Soviet Union.28 Additionally, the 1967 war created another 200,000 Palestinian Arab refugees, and more than one million Arabs from this point on lived within Israeli borders" (Mork 21). This really changed the…… [Read More]

References

Ben-Ami, Shlomo. Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Cossali, Paul. "Arab-Israeli Relations 1967-2001." A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations 1947-2001. Ed. David Lea. London: Europa, 2002. 39-283.

Mork, Hulda Kjeang. "The Jarring Mission: A Study of the UN Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971." University of Oslo. 2007. 2 June 2008.  http://www.duo.uio.no/publ/IAKH/2007/58588/HuldaxMxrkxxMasteroppgavexixhistorie.pdf 

Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
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Palestinian and Israeli Conflict in

Words: 3918 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95383822

These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.

The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…… [Read More]

References

Definition of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved at  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html . Accessed on February 16, 2005

Boling, J. Gail. (January 2001) "Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: An International Law Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.badil.org/Publications/Briefs/Brief-No-08.htm Accessed on February 17, 2005

Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories." The Palestine Monitor.

Retrieved at http://www.palestinemonitor.org/factsheet/settlement.html. Accessed on Isseroff, Ami. "Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." MidEastWeb. Retrieved at http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm. Accessed on February 16, 2005
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Arab-Israeli Conflict the Genesis of

Words: 1192 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82623520

Immediately after Israel declared its independence, a coalition of Arab states invaded Israel, starting the first Arab-Israeli War. Israel prevailed, and conquered territories beyond those claimed in the original UNSCOP partition. Israel gained control of 77% of Palestinian territories and the remainder was divided between Jordan and Egypt (Beinin & Hajjar).

Thus, the UNSCOP proposal for a two-state solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict was dismissed and a Palestinian state was never created: leading to the subsequent decades of resentment and violence throughout the entire Middle East. Jewish residents of Arab countries throughout the region were persecuted violently and most fled to Israel. Palestinians were forced into refugee camps. Palestinians living in Israel are Israeli citizens but experience systematic discrimination (Beinin & Hajjar).

The conflict in the Middle East escalated further as Egyptian leader Gamal Abder Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and restricted Israeli movement through it. By also joining military…… [Read More]

References

Arab-Israeli Conflict." Retrieved dEc 15, 2008 at  http://www.historyteacher.net/Arab-Israeli_Conflict.htm 

The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Brief History." Guardian. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/flash/0,720353,00.html

Beinin, J. & Hajjar, L. "Palestine, Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Primer." Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://www.merip.org/palestine-israel_primer/intro-pal-isr-primer.html

Country profile: Israel and Palestinian territories." BBC. 28 October 2008. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/803257.stm
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Arab Israeli Conflict the Arab and Israeli

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96372586

Arab Israeli Conflict

The Arab and Israeli conflict

The Arab and Israeli conflict is in news since long. There is a continued political stress between the Arabs and the Jews since in the mid of 19th century the Zionist government was established in the former Arab land of Palestine. The Palestinian land is claimed as a religious heritage by Muslims, Jews and Christians. The actual tension is however between the Muslims particularly Arabs and the Jews. When in 1948, the Israeli state was formed; the tension took a formal shape as well. The Ottoman Empire collapsed and the Arabs and Jews started fighting over the land. The conflict presently lives in the aspects of politics, economy, religion, society and culture. The conflict often takes the shape of ferocity where by Israel being a technological advanced country, attacks Syria and adopts an aggressive position. However, the state and non-state Syrian forces…… [Read More]

References

Carson, C., (1988), "The Politics of Relations between African-American and Jews," Retrieved

from: shttp://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/sitepages/files/Politics_of_Relations.pdf

Joffe, A., and Romirowsky, A., (2013), "Is The Arab-Israeli Conflict Really About Economics?,"

http://www.forbes.com/sites/realspin/2013/06/26/is-the-arab-israeli-conflict-really-about-economics/
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Israel Egypt Conflict and Iraq War

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40997316

Israeli-Egypt Conflict and Iraq War

Israeli-Egyptian Conflict

On June 5, 1967, Israel launched a surprise attack on Egypt which quickly spread to involve other neighboring states with both ground and air troops becoming involved in the conflict. Israel claimed that the attack was provoked by a massive Egyptian build-up of military forces along the Israeli border. On May 27 of that year the President of Egypt, Abdel Nasser, had stated that Egypt's basic objective was the destruction of Israel (BBC, 1967). Although Israel had consistently attempted to negotiate with its neighbors, their overtures were repeatedly rejected (Bard, 2008). Intelligence indicated the Arab states were preparing to go to war against Israel with Egypt, Jordan, and Syria being aided by Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Algeria. On May 16 President Nasser ordered the withdrawal of United Nations Emergency Forces from the Egyptian-Israeli border. Later that month Egypt had signed a…… [Read More]

Given the criteria presented in the spectrum of justification for war this conflict may be classified as an easier-to-justify preventative war. The Arab states had indeed demonstrated acts of hostile intent, preparatory steps toward hostile action, and made inflammatory rhetoric in the face of reasonable offers of negotiation. Since there is some room for doubt that an attack was pending this war cannot be classified as justified. Whether or not Israel was morally justified in taking this action is debatable, however when placed in the context of the time a strong argument may be made that it was.

Iraq War

On March 19, 2003, American and British forces began "Operation Iraqi Freedom" otherwise known as the Iraq War. There are several issues that may be pointed to as the basic reasons for the second major war between a United States led coalition and Iraq. First, there were lingering tensions and hostilities, remnants left over from the first Gulf war of 1991. At the close of that war the Iraqi government agreed to surrender and/or destroy several types of weapons including SCUD missiles and various Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). The United Nations was tasked with sending weapons inspectors to confirm the destruction of Iraqi weapons and to search for any prohibited weapons the believed to be in hidden by the Iraqi government. Additionally, two "No Fly Zones" were established over northern and southern Iraq for the protection of Iraqi minority groups in opposition to the Saddam Hussein government. Allied aircraft patrolled the air over these zones in order to prevent Iraqi aircraft
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Arab-Israeli Conflict Has Been Going

Words: 941 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53499309

These happened while the state of Israel has experienced remarkably economic and military growth during the 1990's. The protection of the people in particular would have to be instated as terrorism, although not an important factor in the war, has claimed its victims with the passing of time. Terrorism was dealt with harshly in Israel, people believed to have connections to terrorists being abused and deported and human rights being neglected.

If peace were to be agreed of, Palestine would be admitted as a state by Israel and subsequent to that by most of the countries, the state finally reaching its objective after years of running as a fictional state.

An alliance between Palestine and Israel would help the first to attain a state of sovereignty by protecting Israel from other Arab countries and it would help its ally to combat the deficiency of forces from the West Bank.

The…… [Read More]

References

Bard, Mitchell. "The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict," Ph.D. (Alpha Books -- Macmillan USA) Once again, Syria and Egypt attack. And yet again, only a miracle stops them.  http://www.aish.com/jewishissues/middleeast/Arab-Israeli_Conflict_5_-_Yom_Kippur_War.asp 

Bjorn, Moller. "Three Futures for Israel and Palestine"- January 1999
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Interventions Kofi Annan Interventions --

Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5884337

The UN has been denied a proper role in the conflict and Annan admits it as being limiting and not very effective.

Middle East, MDGs and the future of our planet

Speaking of his diplomatic initiatives to redefine security, as security from hunger, disease and poverty; towards accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Annan paints an interesting picture of his struggles with African leaders like Mugabe, who refused to acknowledge the use of condoms in the strategy to prevent the spread of AIDS. He captures this shifting in priorities quite well, when he says:" I spent most of my tenure as secretary-general in an international environment obsessed with the potential peril of weapons of mass destruction. But in HIV / AIDS, which never received anything like the same level of attention, we had a true WMD- and one that was actively unleashing itself in the world." His lament about…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Annan Kofi, Mousavizadeh Nader. (2012). Interventions -- a life in War and Peace, the Penguin Press. Hardcover.
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Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U S

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41406672

Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U.S. Gas," by Clifford Krauss (Krass, 2013). There were four main points of distinction embedded within the article. The first and arguable most important element within the article was in reference to the growing conflict in Syria. The article was written in late August when unrest in the Middle East was near its height. During this period, Americans were concerned with the subsequent rising oil prices that might occur due in part to the civil unrest occurring in Syria. The article first explains how gas prices are unlikely to increase due to a litany of factors. First, Syria is a very small oil exporter. It exports roughly 1% of the world's oil. As such, even if the entire country were to be engaged in war, the resulting damage in regards to oil exports would be minimal. Many pundits believe that the rippling effect of…… [Read More]

References:

1) Kay, Jane Holtz, Asphalt nation: how the automobile took over America, an how we can take it back, New York, Crown, 1997. ISBN 0-517-58702-5

2) Krass, Clifford. "Major Surge Is Unlikely for Prices of U.S. Gas." New York Times. N.p., 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.

3) Seale, Patrick (1987). The Struggle for Syria. ISBN 978-0-300-03944-3

4) "New Billions In Oil" Popular Mechanics, March 1933. article on invention of water injection and detergents for oil recovery
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Intervention and the Civil War

Words: 1683 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69379400

Some of the major elements of strategic considerations include cost of necessary actions for intervening and the possibility of achieving the objectives of the intervention measures.

During the process of identifying the most appropriate course of intervention in a civil war based on the above considerations, international and regional initiatives play a crucial part is driving conflict into civil war. Generally, international influence and intervention seems to not only heighten the intensity of a conflict but also lessen its costs with regards to damages and death (Bhardwaj, n.d.).

In relation to the conflict in Syria that is gravitating towards a civil war because of the widespread governmental violence against its citizens, appropriate intervention measures are required urgently. Tactical intervention, which was used to end the Libyan conflict and protests, seems to the most suitable mechanism that can turn attrition conflicts into shortened civil wars. This intervention mechanism is mainly effective…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Brom, Shlomo. The "Arab Spring" and External Military Intervention. May 7, 2013,

http://cdn.www.inss.org.il.reblazecdn.net/upload/(FILE)1359898292.pdf

Bhardwaj, Maya. Development of Conflict in Arab Spring Libya and Syria: From Revolution to Civil War, Human Security Gateway, May 7, 2013, http://humansecuritygateway.com/documents/WUIR_DevelopmentOfConflictInArabSpringLibyaAndSyria_FromRevolutionToCivilWar.pdf

Dodge, Toby. Conclusion: the Middle East After the Arab Spring. The London School of Economics and Political Science. May 7, 2013,  http://www2.lse.ac.uk/IDEAS/publications/reports/pdf/SR011/FINAL_LSE_IDEAS__ConclusionsTheMiddleEastAfterTheArabSpring_Dodge.pdf
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Policemen of the World Thesis

Words: 1940 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90609492

military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.

America is more than just the leading superpower in the world; it is also widely regarded as the 'world's policeman' on account of its numerous interventions in solving global problems. Every now and again, it has been expected to mediate and negotiate when problems arise in any corner of the globe. When the U.S. is hesitant or doesn't act in accordance with general expectations, a cloud of helplessness engulfs the world. Two global scenarios wherein the U.S. resorted to a surprising course of action, while concurrently attempting to steer clear of usual military tactics are the ongoing civil war in Syria and the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Other countries' reaction in case of the latter event and the continuance of USA's position in the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) merely validate that it…… [Read More]

References

Barna II., W. U.S. Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes: Exception to Policy or an Emerging Norm? Retrieved from http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/library/ulra_military_intervention.pdf

Blanchard, C. N., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D (2015). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf

Gulf War. Retrieved from http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Gulf-War.pdf

Lindstrom, M. & Zetterlund, K. (2012).Setting the Stage for the Military Intervention in Libya: Decisions Made and Their Implications for the EU and NATO. Retrieved from www.foi.se/.../foir3498.pdf
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Mistreated for Their Beliefs This

Words: 2624 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21243898



Since after May 1948 the Arab-Israeli has dominated the Middle East because both sides feel that Israel/Palestine belongs to them, it influenced the Israel's government to use military force against them.. With that, four major Arab-Israeli wars and numerous sporadic battles have occurred since the United Nations partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948. Unfortunately, in today modern, these issues still have fueled many armed conflicts and suicide bombs between the two developing nations. However, at the time of the Six Day War, the issues with the Middle East countries influenced the Israel's government decision to fight with military force.

The breakup of the U.A.R. And the resulting political instability only made Syria more hostile toward Israel. Another major cause of conflict was Syria's resistance to Israel's creation of a National Water Carrier to take water from the Jordan River to…… [Read More]

References

The 1967 Six-Day War. 30 March 2008.  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/67_War.html 

Six Day War. 30 March 2008. http://www.israeli-weapons.com/history/six_day_war/SixDayWar.html
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Outline of Policemen of the World Thesis

Words: 1830 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19021626

military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.

America is not merely a superpower -- the nation is also commonly known as the 'Policeman of the World', owing to its many interventions in resolving global issues. Time and again, the world has expected USA to intercede and play the role of mediator when issues crop up around the world. The world feels helpless when the nation hesitates or does not keep up to people's expectation while intervening. Two international incidents in which America opted for an unexpected course while simultaneously striving to keep from regular military action are the Libyan Revolution and Syrian Civil War. Other nations' reaction in the former case and the retention of America's position in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) serve to confirm the fact that USA is, indeed, the 'policeman' of the world.

Part 2…… [Read More]

References

Barna II., W. U.S. Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes: Exception to Policy or an Emerging Norm? Retrieved from http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/library/ulra_military_intervention.pdf

Blanchard, C. N., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D (2015). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf

Gulf War. Retrieved from http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Gulf-War.pdf

Lindstrom, M. & Zetterlund, K. (2012).Setting the Stage for the Military Intervention in Libya: Decisions Made and Their Implications for the EU and NATO. Retrieved from www.foi.se/.../foir3498.pdf
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Realism and Liberalism in Foreign

Words: 1269 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89746758

In light of the fact that major wars between democratic nations, which are typically trading partners involved in lucrative import/export arrangements, are relatively rare from a historical standpoint, "liberals argue that economic interdependence lowers the likelihood of war by increasing the value of trading over the alternative of aggression ... (as) independent states would rather trade than invade"4 (Copeland, 1996, pg. 5). Unrestrained liberalism has often been touted by proponents as the prudent path to world peace, even as the world inches closer to a state of open conflict, such as through the Wilsonian foreign policy instituted by President Woodrow Wilson prior to World War I, or the Bush doctrine's fallacious notion of instilling democratic ideals in Iraq by virtue of an outright invasion. In fact, many scholars insist that "the human rights movement was built on a Wilsonian platform, insisting that governments make

4 Copeland, Dale C. "Economic interdependence…… [Read More]

References

Copeland, Dale C. "Economic interdependence and war: a theory of trade expectations." International Security 20, no. 4 (1996): 5-41.  http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/isec.20.4.5?journalCode=isec  (Accessed May 5, 2013).

Douthat, Ross. "Obama the Realist." The New York Times, February 07, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/07/opinion/07douthat.html?_r=0 (Accessed May 5, 2013).

Forde, Steven. "International Realism and the Science of Politics: Thucydides, Machiavelli, and Neorealism." International Studies Quarterly (1995): 141-160. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2600844?uid=3739552&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739 256&sid=21102167236581 (Accessed May 4, 2013).

Ikenberry, G. John. The crisis of American foreign policy: Wilsonianism in the twenty-first century. Princeton University Press, 2009. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=iIoYGAbyQHEC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq= liberalism+foreign+policy+&ots=Pm1lA3w7Pn&sig=envMYpBTH- Ab49Y3NpbNmU1a9vY#v=onepage&q=liberalism%20&f=false (Accessed May 4, 2013).
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About Egypt

Words: 1533 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65027965

History Of Egypt

Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3

The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 BCE - 30 BCE) 3-4

British Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5

Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6

Conclusion & Suggestions

Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B. (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place,

and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91.

Issawi, Charles. (1961). Egypt since 1800: A study in lop-sided development. The Journal of Economic History, 21(1), 1-25.

Janick, J. (2000, October). Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture.
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How the Past Shapes the Present

Words: 2025 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79089138

Worth Remembering

The past is not something that stays in the past. It reaches out and extends forward into the present; it shapes and instructs us, warns and interests us. Sometimes we return to it in order to judge it anew or attempt to reconstruct it in a way that allows it to make more sense. Sometimes new information is uncovered from the past that puts a new perspective on things. Sometimes the past can be impactful on the course of events still occurring in the present. In short, there is no wall or barrier between the present and the past. The two mix and mingle and inform one another. Therefore, everything about the past is relevant in 2016. This paper will examine 8 articles that deal with specific incidences in the past that I find to be particularly meaningful today.

History teaches us to pay attention -- to be…… [Read More]

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Foreign Policy United States Foreign

Words: 2389 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10981389



Conflict prevention theory may seem contradictory in a country that has just held a civil war, but it remains an important focus of U.S. foreign policy going forward in Libya. Socio-historical problems facing Libya stem from the tribal bonds that divide the nation. The United States must focus on finding a balance between the tribes rather than supporting a single tribe over the others, as it had when cooperating with Qaddafi. Politically, the three major cities of Libya are Tripoli, Misrata and Benghazi. These cities will have to find a way to power broker themselves in order to create a thriving democracy, based in Tripoli, but representative of the other two cities, as all three places are cornerstones of Libya's future as well as strong reminders of the country's past, on which a successful future can be built.

Libya is the only country of the four analyzed in this paper…… [Read More]

References:

"Carnegie Corporation of New York: Search Publications." Carnegie Corporation of New York: Home. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. .

"Carnegie Corporation of New York: Search Publications." Carnegie Corporation of New York: Home. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. .

"Carnegie Corporation of New York: Search Publications." Carnegie Corporation of New York: Home. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. .

"QDDR." U.S. Department of State. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. < http://www.state.gov/s/dmr/qddr/ >.
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Interventionism From the Perspective of Realism vs

Words: 13409 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80916514

interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states' national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UN's Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…… [Read More]

'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.

Available from . [24 Aug 2013].

Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
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Individuals Are Unable to Comprehend

Words: 2657 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91928714

For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.

Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.

Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all

Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website:  http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/ 

Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/

Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
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International Politics the Threat of

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91834848

In all cases there is the perception of the U.S. interfering in issues that should be dealt with locally, interfering to protect their own interest and to enforce their own values; a situation which leads to resistance. Terrorism may be argued as an action undertaken when people feel that they cannot be heard in another way.

This resistance has been seen in terrorist attacks which may be directly related to the associated with the U.S. foreign policy actions in the Middle East. In 1979 there was the Iran Hostage Crisis, when the U.S. embassy in Tehran was seized by Iranian demonstrators, demonstrating against U.S. policies. 52 U.S. staff were taken hostage; in a crisis which lasted 444 days (Houghton 74). The well-known terrorist attacks of 9/11 may also be seen as relating to the actions and perceptions of the U.S. In the Middle East, with Al Qaeda objecting to the…… [Read More]

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U S Capability to Support Two

Words: 1658 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76669849

Moreover, the lack of support from the American public brings to fore an issue raised by Grover (3) with the deployment of U.S. military personnel in various parts of the world. As many of these deployments have "the potential for violent conflict," this calls for "the need to respond quickly and decisively," which is hinged on the "unambiguous support of the American people." There is no other U.S. president who has been demonized because of his war policy as former President George W. Bush.

With this underlying weakness in America's psyche in engaging in war, no amount of hardware and war machinery can beat the will to emerge victorious of no matter how small an army. Despite all the superiority of the U.S. war machine, the nation's -- both its citizens and its leadership -- weakness is all the more exposed, which makes it impossible to decisively support and bring…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Fred and Andrew Cayton. The Dominion of War: Empire and Liberty in North America, 1500-2000. New York: Penguin Books, 2005.

Grover, John R. Crossroads in U.S. Military Capability: The 21st Century U.S. Army and the Abrams Doctrine. The Land Warfare Papers Number 37. Arlington, Virginia: The Institute of Land Warfare Association of the U.S. Army, August 2001.

Palmer, Richard. "Iraq Sides with Iran: As the U.S. Leaves, Iran Steps In." The Philadelphia Trumpet. March 2009: 11.

Scarborough, Rowan. "Gates Clips Air Force Wings." Human Events. April 16, 2009. April 19, 2009 .
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Water in the Middle East

Words: 22307 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58217118

While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter Beaumont, Gerald H. Blake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).

The conflict in the Future

It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.

Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html

Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm

Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
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Monograph Introduction I Finally Got Into the

Words: 1772 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37149996

Monograph Introduction

"I finally got into the habit of study, which I never really had before. I revived what little I had carried out of college…but it was hardest work I ever did in my life…I learned how to learn.

General George C. Marshall

The School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS), based out of Fort Leavenworth, has as one of its main tasks the updating, administration and perfection of the Advanced Military Studies Program (AMSP). The current program guide for the SAMS curriculum has the quote at the top of this page as its first content beyond its cover page. The quote makes clear that just about anything learnable or taught in a traditional college setting pales in comparison to the rigors and demands brought on by learning and serving in the United States military. 1 The recent budgetary and war fatigue status of the current United States Armed Forces…… [Read More]

Pellerin, Cheryl. "Defense.gov News Article: Hale: Sequestration Devastates U.S. Military Readiness." United States Department of Defense (defense.gov). http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=119998 (accessed September 12, 2013).

Hampson, Rick. "Drawn-out Afghanistan War drains post-9/11 fervor." USA TODAY: Latest World and U.S. News - USATODAY.com. http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/09/05/911-anniversary-afghanistan-war-syria/2771437 / (accessed September 12, 2013).

Hess, G. - Vietnam: Explaining America's Lost War. Reviews in History. ISBN 978-1405125284
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Water Crisis in the Middle East

Words: 1444 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40789894

Water Crisis in the Middle East

What is the Six Day War, and what are the various events that led to the War? What is the background of the War, and what were its consequences? The Six Day War took place in the month of June 1967. The crisis had actually begun in the early months of 1965, when the PLO, through Fatah, led a campaign of attacks on the borders along Jordan and Lebanon. This campaign was severely criticized and opposed by not only the people of the country but also by the Arab Government, and this led to the Fatah attempting to adopt a totally new strategy that came to be known as the 'entanglement theory'. According to this strategy, Israel would be forced to adopt an 'offensive' position with the technique of 'sabotage', and this meant that the Arabs would become more wary and would in turn…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anita Roddick, Dame. Troubled Water - Saints, Sinners, truth & Lies about the Global Water Crisis. 1 October, 2004. Retrieved From

http://www.ecademy.com/node.php?id=31940 Accessed on 21 February, 2005

Grunfeld, Lilac. Jordan River Dispute. ICE Case Studies, Case number 6. Spring 1997. Retrieved From http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/jordan.htm Accessed on 21 February, 2005

Israel 1948 to 1967, the Six-Day War Background. Retrieved From
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Ethics of War

Words: 2010 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43083612

Ethics of War: Justified and Unjustified War

When countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.

Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.

Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
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Lessons Learned on Yom Kippur

Words: 2931 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59750372

Flight operations by Egyptian pilots using these aircraft have begun; approximately 16 Hawker Hunter jet fighters also arrived in Egypt from Iraq with Iraqi pilots. About 10 Lightning jet fighters were expected from Saudi Arabia;

(3) Movement of TU-16 bombers from Aswan to the Cairo area in the latter part of March which are equipped to carry air-to-surface missiles;

(4) A high state of alert imposed on the Egyptian air force since April 20 had been noted with some air force reservists being recalled on the third of May;

(5) Relocation and reactivation of various Egyptian air squadrons with shuffling to accommodate aircraft from Libya and Iraq;

(6) The evidence suggested that additional commando units may have moved closer to the Suez Canal since the middle of March; and (7) A report that the Egyptian staff had been ordered to prepare a detailed plan for an attack across the Canal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burr, William (2003) The October War and U.S. Policy. National Security Archives. 7 Oct 2003. Online available at: www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/

Indications of Arab Intentions to Initiate Hostilities (2001) National Security Council Archives. Declassified. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-01.pdf

Intelligence Memorandum for Secretary Kissinger (1973) National Security Council. From William Quandt and Donald Stukel. WSAG Meeting, Middle East, Saturday October 6, 1973, 3:00 P.M. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-15.pdf

Memorandum of Conversation: Simcha Dinitz, Ambassador of Israel; Mordechai Shalev, Minister; Henry A. Kissinger, Assistant to the President; and Peter W. Rodman, NSC Staff. The White House. National Security Council Archives. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-05.pdf
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US as an International Peace-Keeping Force

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39908156

U.S. Role as 'Policemen of the World'

Thesis and Outline Draft

Introduction and Thesis

currently holds the most important and influential role in international politics and represents a decisive player in all recent international conflicts. This role takes the form of political and military interventions, international and bilateral engagements as well as multilateral brokerage of peace talks. The basic principles of such an approach are the fostering of peaceful, democratic, and secure international environment. At the same time though, it must be pointed out that the entire international community does not always support such actions and often it has been said that the United States acts as the "policeman of the world" (Kissinger, 1995). It must be stressed that the current approach the United States have on foreign policy has not changed since the end of the Civil War and has guided the U.S. In military and political interventions in…… [Read More]

References

Calvocoressi, P. (1987) World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.

Federal News Service (2013) "America is not the world's policeman: Text of Barack Obama's speech on Syria," Associated Press, available online at http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/america-is-not-the-world-s-policeman-text-of-barack-obama-s-speech-on-syria-417077

Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.

Shahshahani, A. And Corina Mullin (2012) "The legacy of U.S. intervention and the Tunisian revolution: promises and challenges one year on," Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Volume 4 (1): 67 -- 101, available online at  http://www.interfacejournal.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Interface-4-1-Shahshahani-and-Mullin.pdf
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Financial System Reforms Over the

Words: 10927 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77379478



3.2.3 Portfolio Diversification of Investment in Global Property Markets

Because the global property markets are affected by globalization and specific country / regional factors, means that the overall amounts of risks will vary, the most notable include: transparency and efficiency. Where, each country / region has different on laws and regulations pertaining to the real estate markets. This means that the risks in a number of different markets will depend upon specific market conditions themselves, reflecting these two factors. To protect themselves against these kinds of risks, many investors will often seek to diversify their portfolio. Diversification is: when you are investing a number of different asset classes in real estate, across a variety of countries / regions. The idea is that if a risk occurs in a specific country or region, the other areas that you are diversified in will protect you against the severity of the declines. For…… [Read More]

Bibliography

2009 A Year of Revival for Property Sector, 2010, Visit Kuwait. Available from: . [30 March 2010].

Barwa Real Estate, 2010, Arabian Business. Available from: . [30 March 2010].

Business Risk, 2010, Invest Words. Available from: < http://www.investorwords.com/631/business_risk.html > [29 March 2010].

Dubai Property Companies Called Merger Off, 2009, Property Wire. Available from: [30 March 2010].
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Performance of the Middle East

Words: 7431 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72758625



Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.

3. Results and analysis of the Jordanian property companies

The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:

a (%)

b

c d e f g

Total (%)

Q3.

30

70

x x x

Q4.

40

60

x x x

Q5.

60

20

15

5

x x x

Q6.

Portfolio diversification

10

10

60

13

7

x x

Shortage of commercial properties

5

50

15

20

10

x x

Availability and choice

10

60

10

10

10

x x

Strong performance

70

20

5

3

2

x…… [Read More]

Reference:

2011, the world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook / last accessed on February 21, 2011
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Arab-Israeli Wars Palestinian and Arab

Words: 1837 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9179974

This resulted in various destroyed relations for Israel as it offered sympathy for the Palestinian people and their fight not necessarily for independence, but most of all for a fair treatment from Israel. Even if it signed the Camp David Agreements in 1978 and committed to creating the framework for withdrawing from the occupied territories, Israel did not follow through and continues to do so today as well.

Looking at the entire situation from the Israeli perspective, its strategy of eliminating its enemies and putting them under control seems like a good approach. As it did in 1982 when it invaded Lebanon to destroy the South Lebanese Palestinian attackers or in its numerous misfired or intentionally fired missiles in refugee camps, Israel succeeded in becoming the strongest military force in the region.

Having in view the latest developments in the Arab world, it is hard to predict what will be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alteras, A. (1993) Eisenhower and Israel: U.S.-Israeli Relations 1953-1960 Florida: University Press of Florida

Calvocoressi, P. (2009) World Politics since 1945 Essex: Pearson Education Limited

Nye, J. (2002) Understanding International Conflicts: An Introduction to Theory and History Longman Classics Series

Oren, M. (2002) Six Days of War: June 1967 and the making of the modern Middle East New York: Oxford University Press
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Arab Israeli the Arab --

Words: 1953 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91141211

Negotiations here went on for thirteen days non-stop which "apparently would have failed without the mediation of Carter and his advisers." 15

On September 17, 1979, Sadat and Begin came to an agreement which is now known as the Camp David Accords in which the two adversaries agreed to a number of conditions, such as "establishing an elected, self-governing authority in the West Bank and Gaza," the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the West Bank and Gaza "except for specified security locations," and having all negotiations based upon the U.N. Security Council Resolution 242. 16 This agreement between Egypt and Israel effectively put an end to the hostilities between the two nations and brought about a lasting peace, one which has held to this day. However, after the peace treaty at Camp David, the focus of the Arab-Israeli conflict shifted to Israel's northern borders with Lebanon.

In April of 1981,…… [Read More]

Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East. New York:

Houghton-Mifflin Company, 2004.

Silberstein, Laurence J., ed. New Perspectives on Israeli History: The Early Years of the State. NY: New York University Press, 1991.
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Joshua's Goldstein Book 5th Edition

Words: 7033 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98881068

history of events in the twentieth century, one might surmise that the twenty-first may not be all that different. Why? Because human nature and the pursuit of self-interest has not changed from one century to the next. To explain what drives international relations, Joshua Goldstein provides a brief history of the world, in addition to information about the geographical features and the consequences of different nation's economies. (Goldstein, 2003) The beginning of the twentieth century was marked by relative peace in the world. The Franco-Prussian wars were at least three decades into the past. Nobody would envision that the worst horrors of a global scale wars were in the near future. In as much as Goldstein avers that the First World War was wholly unnecessary and it was, at least in its inception, a macho exercise (p. 37), one can believe that war is part of human nature.

After the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Goldstein, J.S. International Relations. 5th ed. New York: Longman, 2003.

Tacitus, C., and Birley, A.R. Agricola; and Germany. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
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Political Science Iraqi President Saddam

Words: 2492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68598460

But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.

Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate Arab states such as Turkey. Also, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…… [Read More]

Also, although the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is worthy of considerable attention, it is important to remember that most other Arab nations in the Middle East actively discriminate against Palestinians. Although the Arab politicians often cite Palestinian mistreatment as a key reason for resentment against Israel, the real motivation underlying Arab militancy is concealed. It is simply a window-dressing for militant propaganda. The reality of the matter is that Palestinians in Israel are guaranteed the broadest freedoms, both religiously and politically, when compared to every other nation in the region. And although Palestinians' economic status is often lower than average Israelis, the same is true of Arab nations, which specifically target Palestinians for discrimination because of their status as a separate ethnic group. When it joined several other Arab states in expelling 400,000 Palestinian refugees since 1991, because of PLO support for the Iraq invasion, Kuwait became a good example of this discrimination. Egypt has also curtailed Palestinian settlement to the Gaza strip, where Palestinian militants continue to launch attacks on Israel,

Most revealing of all, however, is the Arab League's policy of refusing to grant Palestinians citizenship in any of its member states. Instead, Palestinians become international refugees in the region, living in camps by the thousands and growing more resentful all the time -- which is probably League's goal, as the displaced Palestinians then serve as proxy warriors against Israel.

The most effective appraoch is to pursue more aggressive action in preventing the Iranian state from acquiring WMDs, and in isolating Iran from its influential position as terrorist and militant financier and supporter. President Ahmedinejad has expressed very harshly and openly the intentions of the Iranian government to eliminate Israel and to pursue radical Islamic hegemony. This provides the international community with a dramatic glimpse of Iranian goals. In assessing the threat posed by Iran, the international community must realize that Iran will not easily be deterred by threats of sanction or isolation. Instead, it must be made absolutely clear to the Iranian regime that its current course will result in consequences. Also, the Iranian dissident movement must be supported and encouraged in order to undermine the support of the hard-line Iranian regime.
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Water Shortage in the Middle

Words: 3722 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66686844

Given water scarcity, the high costs of desalinisation and other unconventional methods of supplying water, and the pollution of surface and ground waters, Israel sought other natural supplies of water from the Litani" (Dolatyar, 2002). The Israeli then invaded Lebanon, but were met with extreme resistance.

1990 - Present - Period of return to bargaining tactic

The fall of the Soviet Union, the Gulf War (1990-1991) and the interference of the United States led to more amiable relationships between the countries of the Middle Eats, which were committed to creating the "New Middle East." Several treaties were signed which were aimed to increase the collaboration and lead to the resolution of impending problems, such as environmental concerns and water resources. "For example, the peace treaty between Israel and Jordan, signed on October 26, 1994, includes five annexes, two of which address water and environmental issues. Negotiations between Israel and Syria…… [Read More]

References

Amery, H.A., Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat, the Geographical Journal, Volume 168, 2002

Associate Professor at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado, Hussein a. Amery holds a BA, an MA and a PhD in geography. Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat is based on extensive research of the previous works on water issues in the Middle East. It debates on issues such as causes for conflicts and the characteristics of the water shortage in Palestine and Israel.

Dale, W.N., Middle East Water Problems, American Diplomacy, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2001_07-09/dale_water/dale_water.htmllastaccessed on April 7, 2008

William N. Dale was a minister-counselor in Tel-Aviv, Israel during 1946-1968, when he got the opportunity to first hand analyze the problems of the Middle East. His findings are formulated in a clear and unbiased way and his American nationality helped look at the isses with an objective eye.
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Kurdish Homeland Possible The Kurdish

Words: 2826 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30704255



The Kurds were seen as either "proper Turkish citizens" by the way they conducted themselves with dignity, or they were seen as "outlaws characterized by tribalism, religious reactionism, or banditry" (Yegen, p. 599). In other words, the Turkish government tried to take away the Kurds' ethnic identities; the Turks attempted to "assimilate" the Kurds into the nation of Turkey by referring to them as Turkish citizens -- and many Kurds have simply agreed to become Turks over the last 80 years or so. Meanwhile in the 1950s Kurds in Turkey "…were no longer in a position to produce major trouble for the state," and Kurds began moving into big cities in the western sections of Turkey (Yegen, p. 604). The "assimilation" strategies of the Turkish government towards the Kurds lightened up from the 1950s regarding forcible settlement practices, but then when the Kurds began to resist Turkish authority in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Giraldi, Philip. "Turkey and the Threat of Kurdish Nationalism." Mediterranean Quarterly

19.1 (2008): 33-40.

Gorvett, Jon. "Turkish Prime Minister Says War Against Kurds Has Entered 'Very Critical

Stage'." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 27.1, (2008): 38-39.
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Effectiveness of the United Nations a Historical Look

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84231360

United Nations - the UN has been effective

The UN has succeeded in some of its international responsibilities but has failed in others; and according to the UN Charter the UN may not intervene in matters essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state

The UN has achieved many "remarkable accomplishments" (Encarta.msn.com)

The UN has negotiated 172 peace settlements that ended regional conflicts

The UN has participated in more than 300 international treaties

The UN's "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (adopted in 1948) has been helpful in raising the consciousness of the need for human rights

Over 3 million children a year have been saved from polio, measles, whooping cough, tuberculosis thanks to immunization programs by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF)

The UN promotes worker's rights and improves agricultural techniques in developing countries

TWO: UN has success in Libya (Christian Science Monitor)

The UN Security Council unanimously awarded Libya's seat…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Background on the United Nations 2008. Accomplishments of the United Nations. Encarta Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://encarta.msn.com.

Boot, Max. 2000. Paving the Road to Hell: The Failure of U.N. Peacekeeping. Foreign Affairs.

Retrieved March 13, 2013, from http://www.foreignaffaird.com. (March): 1-3.

Charbonneau, Louis. 2012. Analysis: U.N. confronts failure of diplomacy in Syria. Reuters.
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Indian-Israeli Relations Valuable to India's

Words: 9235 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99898853

' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).

As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…… [Read More]

References

Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.

Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-

4.

Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
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American Foreign Policy as it

Words: 4630 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27092534

Again, the press is not aware of all that goes on in the White House behind closed doors. Just because the matter was not publicly mentioned again in a direct fashion, does not mean that it was dropped. My team and I have continually discussed the best course of action for fostering trade with Tunisia and setting a much stronger precedent in the Middle East. The WSJ has actually zeroed in on the connection between this injection of fiscal support to Tunisia and our intentions to foster free trade with the entire Middle East.

The WSJ thinks that we should strike a trade deal with Tunisia and to also designate as a strategic economic nation. I and the entire White House is flattered that the Wall Street Journal would give us such obvious and prosaic advice on plans that we've already come up with ourselves. Of course the U.S. is…… [Read More]

References

Bonime-Blanc, a., 2011. The Fight Against Corruption Goes Global. Foreign Affairs, pp. 44-49.

Caldwell, W., 2009 . Learning to Leverage New Media. Military Review, May, pp. 256-260.

Carafano, J., 2011. Mastering the Art of Wiki. Joint Force Quarterly, pp. 266-271.

Clinton, H., 2010. Leading through Civilian Power. Foreign Affairs, pp. 199-209.
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Abraham Path Evolution of the Enterprise Over Time

Words: 2309 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96997021

Abraham Path Initiative

The Abraham Path: The evolution of the enterprise over time

One of the most divisive regions of the world is the Middle East. The Middle East is fraught with conflict not simply because of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian territorial dispute but also because of a host regional and sectarian struggles that are tearing this area of the world apart. With this in mind: "in the face of daunting barriers, the Abraham Path Initiative envisions uncovering and revitalizing a route of cultural tourism that follows the path of Abraham and his family some 4000 years ago across the Middle East…As it takes fuller shape, the Path variously serves as a catalyst for sustainable tourism and economic development, a platform for the energy and idealism of young people, a beacon for pilgrims and peacebuilders, as well as a focus for seemingly endless media inquiries from reporters, producers" (Leary, Sebenius, &…… [Read More]

Reference

Leary, K., Sebenius, J. & Weiss, J. (2009). Negotiating the Path of Abraham. Harvard Business

School Working Paper. 10-049.
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Future of War

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61093569

War and Society

Can war be an effective policy tool in the 21st century?

War is a very contentious issue plaguing modern day society. The prospect of war is exacerbated by the continual conflicts between self-serving nations. As such discrepancies continue to either strengthen or diminish once strong relationships between countries. In addition, technology and its rapid proliferation have contributed heavily to the overall war debate. Technology, and its rapid advancement makes, acquiring and replicating weapons of mass destruction more financially feasible. As the cost to produce weapons diminishes so too will the ability to strike unsuspecting nations. Factions that ordinary would not have the financial resources to construct or attack a country, now have the ability to do so in an effective manner. As such, it is my belief that war is not an effective policy tool for the 21st century. The ability to inflict massive causalities is simply…… [Read More]

References:

1) Karol Jan Borowiecki, 2012. Are composers different? Historical evidence on conflict-induced migration (1816-1997). European Review of Economic History, vol.16(3), pp.261-91
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Threat Assessment

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53323341

Threat Assessment

South America's very old, biggest, most competent, and well- equipped rebellion having Marxist origin is the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - FARC. The uproar and clashing in the 1950s involving liberal and conservative militias lead to the civil war that demolished Columbia and from here FARC came into existence. The murder of liberal party leader Jorge Eliecer by the representatives of the conservative government ignited the battle between the Liberal and Conservative political parties. The consequent civil wars lead to the loss of over 200,000 Columbians and generated a glut of guerrilla groups. One of those groups, lead by Manuel Marulanda, split from the Liberals in 1966 and developed into the Marxist-oriented FARC. (FARC History)

Identify the group by name and country in which based. If there is no one country, state the countries in which the group is operative, or the region.

a. Stated goals and…… [Read More]

Resources) Some medical care and advice is offered by Cuba. A court case is presently happening in Bogota to check whether three members of the Irish Republican Army, detained in Colombia in 2001 upon quitting the FARC-controlled demilitarized zone, supplies sophisticated explosives education to the FARC. The FARC and the Colombian National Liberation Army (ELN) frequently use the border area for cross border invasions and makes use of the Venezuelan territory near the border as a refuge. (Terrorist Group Profiles, 2003)

d. Spiritual or religious support.

Could not find any information.

e. Umbrella or cover organization, if any.

As per Colombian intelligence agencies, the FARC was implementing the techniques studied from a yet another terrorist cluster, namely, the Irish Republican Army. (One year after Sept. 11, U.S. And Colombia face parallel challenges)
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Strategic Security in the Middle

Words: 3247 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53674326



Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).

Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arendt, Hannah. (1969). On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.

Blitzer, Wolf. (2011). Cheney refuses to admit any mistakes as vice president. CNN.com

Retrieved September 7, 2011, from  http://situationroom.blogs.cnn.com .

Dougherty, James E, and Pfaltzgraff, Robert L. (1997). Contending Theories of International
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English Proposal Argument

Words: 2177 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88500556

Resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

This is a proposal argument for resolution of the Israel-Palestine problem. It uses 5 sources in MLA format.

As violence escalates in the Palestine, the intractable problem becomes even more intractable. Intense fighting between Israelis and Palestinians, the most intense inside the borders of the former Palestine since Israel's creation in 1948 are claiming a daily toll in double digits. Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's increasingly tough tactics are exacerbating the conflict. A war of attrition is going on that has the potential to escalate into an all out region al war.

Apart from the human tragedy, serious danger to peace and stability in the region is developing from this continued conflict. Any escalation would seriously jeopardize the American 'war against terrorism' both by focusing world attention on the Middle East and giving the anti-American forces and the 'terrorists' fresh justification for targeting American interest…… [Read More]

References

Author Not Available: "Watching the War." The Washington Post. March 7, 2002; Page A20.

Ratnesar, Romesh: "Season of revenge: Inside story of how Israel imprisoned Arafat and why the rage keeps burning." Time. April 8, 2002. pp. 16-27.

Luttwak, Edward: "Worst Case Scenario." Time. April 8, 2002. pp. 28-29.

The Economist: "Too Bloody to Ignore." March 16th, 2002.
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Role Islam Played in the

Words: 2913 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92209702

According to Hiro (2001), "During the Iran-Iraq War it openly backed Baghdad, arguing that its defeat would lead to the spread of Islamic fundamentalism in the region which would hurt Western interests. It was the French corporations that were building two nuclear reactors near Baghdad which were bombed by Israel in June 1981" (75). Approximately 1,000 French companies were active in Iraq, and 6-7,000 French specialists were based there by 1983. As much as 40% of total French military exports were destined for Iraq. Military cooperation between the two states had developed to the extent that the French government decided to lease to Baghdad five Super-Etendard warplanes originally meant for use by the French air force. This raised the more immediate lucrative prospect of selling scores of expensive Exocet missiles to Iraq to be used by Super-Etendards to hit Iranian oil tankers in the Gulf. These missiles proved devastatingly effective.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abdulla, Abdulkhaleq. 1994. "Gulf War: The Socio-Political Background." Arab Studies

Quarterly 16(3): 1-3.

Aydin, Mustafa and Damla Aras. 2005. "Political Conditionality of Economic Relations between

Paternalist States: Turkey's Interaction with Iran, Iraq, and Syria." Arab Studies
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War the Concept of War Encompasses Various

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54952311

War

The concept of war encompasses various different types of conflict. Wars between sovereign nations involve nation states. Regional and world wars involve multiple sovereign nations. Revolutionary wars of independence involve the populations of nations rebelling against or rejecting the continued control national authorities. Civil wars occur when rival regions or political factions within one nation seek formal separation or complete control. Proxy wars are a means by which nations prosecute their competing interests against one another through smaller conflicts involving other nations as a means of avoiding direct military conflict.

Wars between Nation States

Wars between sovereign nations have occurred throughout recorded history, dating back to Biblical times. Generally, sovereign nations go to war when they each have claims to the same land, or natural resources, or rights of passage that each seeks to own or control exclusively. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern age, the…… [Read More]

Civil wars occur when different political factions within one nation cannot reach an agreement or reconcile major differences. In some cases, the purpose of a civil war is similar to revolutionary wars because they are the result of one faction's desire or intention to break free from a larger unified nation and to create a new sovereign nation. The American War between the States or Civil War is an example of such a war because the southern states sought to secede from the American nation and to create their own nation where slavery could continue legally as a way of life. The northern states opposed the institution of slavery and had gradually placed more and more pressure on the southern states to give up the practice. In other instances, civil wars occur when one faction seeks to take exclusive power over the nation instead of sharing power or regional control with competing political factions. The Spanish Civil War immediately preceding the Second World War is one such example.

Proxy Wars

Sometimes, nation states prosecute wars against one another through wars between smaller nations. Generally, this occurs when much larger nations want to avoid the devastating consequences of a direct war between them. They may have long-standing conflicts with one another or competing aims and interests about foreign territories and regions. They may seek to achieve their objectives through the use of force but instead of direct military conflict, they act against one another by supporting wars and revolutions in smaller nations in those regions. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, the world's two principal superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union conducted many overt and covert proxy wars in Eastern Europe, Latin America, and in both the Middle East and the Far East. Some of the more notable examples of those proxy efforts in modern times included the Soviet Union's attempt to militarize Cuba and install nuclear missiles aimed at the U.S. supposedly to guarantee Cuba's independence in 1961; the decade-long Vietnam War in which the Soviet Union supported and finances the North Vietnamese while the U.S. supported and financed the South Vietnamese; and the Arab-Israeli wars in which the Soviet Union supported Syria and Egypt while the U.S. supported Israel.
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Lessons From Vietnam the Concept of Cross-Cultural

Words: 1210 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74973510

Lessons From Vietnam

The concept of cross-cultural capability is a relatively new area of study in the academic world, even though we have known for years that a number of issues might have been better resolved with a greater understanding and sensitive towards other cultures. The term itself applies to human behavior in a number of dimensions -- psychologically, sociologically, certainly political, and cultural. This phenomenon of cultural misunderstanding was quite apparent in the post-World War II conflicts, particularly that of the regional conflicts in Vietnam post-1950 (Killick, 1999).

Many of the diplomatic and cultural issues surrounding the Vietnam Conflict were a result of a Cold War mentality. The Cold War, not really a war, but more a preparation for conflict, was the tensions between the U.S.S.R. And Allies (Warsaw Pact) and the U.S. And Allies (NATO). One side held that America was economically and militarily aggressive after World War…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

The Vietnam War. (2006). The History Channel. Retrieved from:  http://www.history.com  / topics/vietnam-war

Belmonte, L. (2010). Selling the American Way -- U.S. Propaganda and the Cold War. Pittsburg, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Damms, Richard, (2001), The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953-1961, New York: Longman.

Davidson, P. (1991), Vietnam At War: The History, 1946-1975. New York: Norton.
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Turkey Is One of the

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54273155

In this sense, while prime minister Erdogan pleaded in 2008 for a cease fire and a turn to democratic principles for the PKK, the answers came in the form of violent attacks on civilians and representatives of the Turkish state. The pressures to put an end to the conflicts surrounding the issue of PKK are also coming from the western states involved in the war against terrorrism, especially the United States and the European Union.

At the moment, it appears that the Turkish state makes efforts to try to accomodate a certain liberty for the Kurdish people, given the fact that the fanatism of the minority is not an issue that can be played with, according to the Prome Minister (the Economist, 2010). At the same time though, Turkey has ensured that both the U.S. And Iraq support their intervention against the terrorist attacks of the Kurdish PKK. This support…… [Read More]

Reference

The Economist. Turkey and the PKK: A never ending fight. The Turkish army continues its long battle with Kurdish rebels. May 20th 2010. Retrieved from  http://www.economist.com/node/16167846
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War in Afghanistan Is Visibly

Words: 2995 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54386899

S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.

3.1.3 Power sharing agreements

In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…… [Read More]

References

Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.

Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.

Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.

Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3]
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News Updates and Analyses

Words: 955 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85535005

Armed Conflicts & Environmental Politics

Davenport, Coral, and Parker, Ashley. "Environment Is Grabbing Big Role in Ads for Campaigns." The New York Times. The New York Times 21 October 2014. Web. 9 November 2014.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/22/us/politics/environmental-issues-become-a-force-in-political-advertising.html?_r=0

Political advertising focused on climate change, energy, and environmental issues overwhelmed the pre-midterm election campaigns. Surging past a record level of 125,000 ad spots on the Senate side in October 2014, these campaigns reflect the interests and priorities of wealthy donors for both parties. Indeed, the environment and energy ranked as the third most popular topic mentioned in political ads, with healthcare and jobs running first and second. Wealthy donors showing their partisan hands include Thomas F. Steyer, the liberal California environmental activist billionaire, and Charles G. Koch and David H. Koch, billionaire conservative right-wingers.

Political pundits see the popularity of environmental issues as a harbinger of the 2016 presidential race. The ad campaigns demonstrate…… [Read More]

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/08/world/middleeast/explosions-at-fatah-sites-in-gaza-raise-tensions-with-hamas.html?rref=world/middleeast&module=Ribbon&version=origin&region=Header&action=click&contentCollection=Middle%20East&pgtype=article

It is not immediately clear who is responsible for the explosions that took place on November 7, 2014, in the Gaza strip. The explosions occurred just days before the 10th anniversary celebration of the death of Yasir Arafat, the leader of the Fatah, the mainstream Palestinian party currently led by President Mahmoud Abbas. The last such rally occurred in 2007, at the time of the celebration of the third anniversary of Arafat's death, when six Fatah supporters were killed and many others were wounded when they clashed with Hamas members.

Hamas officially condemned the recent bombings and set its Gaza security forces in motion to investigate. However, the timing of the explosions does not lend credibility to Hamas' condemnation. This skepticism about Hamas' actual position is strengthened by the fact that the car of Fayez Abu Aitah, a Fatah spokesman, was destroyed in a blast. Just days earlier, Aitah had strongly criticized Hamas, citing his efforts of incitement and damaging national interests through critical remarks aimed at the functioning of the Palestinian Authority government.
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Canada USA Relations

Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25399065

International Politics

Expanding the United Nations' mandate

The United Nations is a body that was formed after the WWII with the wider mandate of ensuring there is maintenance of peace globally. It is not partisan and non-political in nature hence geared towards making and maintaining peace across the world. The mandates of the UN as outlined in the United Nations (2014) website are; to stabilize conflict situations especially once a ceasefire has been agreed on and create an environment where the warring factions can achieve lasting peace. They can also be deployed in order to prevent conflicts from breaking out or from spilling over across the borders. Their work is also to ensure that the implementation of peace agreements. The UN is also charged with leading territories and states as they transition to stable governments that value good governance, democratic principles as well as economic development.

However, the above functions…… [Read More]

References

Parliament of Canada, (2012). How Canadians Govern Themselves. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from http://www.parl.gc.ca/about/parliament/senatoreugeneforsey/inside_view/canada_usa-e.html

United Nations (2014). Mandates and the legal basis for peacekeeping. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from  http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/pkmandates.shtml
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Kastner Trial for Millions of

Words: 2190 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82934641

As one side would see them as an extension of the Nazis, who wanted to destroy Israel at any cost. At the same time, opponents would argue that Israel should be talking and negotiating with their neighbors, to avoid similar kinds of conflicts. This is important, because these views would have an impact upon various military operations and foreign policy actions taken in the future. A good example of this can be seen with the events surrounding the Six Day War in 1967. What happened was, Ben Gurion had continually argued for Israel to use self restraint in international affairs. The problem was that the Arabs would use this as way to attack Israel. For many conservatives, this was a continuation of the same policies, as the inactions from the Mapai party would make the security situation worse. Where, many conservatives would argue that these actions were similar to the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Frankel, Jonathan. "The Changing Conceptions of the Holocaust." Reshaping the Past. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1994. 211- 230.

Linn, Ruth. "The Uninformed." Escaping Auschwitz. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004. 40 -- 53. Print.

Ring, Jennifer. "The Kastner Trial." The Political Consequences of Thinking. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997. 80 -- 89. Print.

Schlindler, Collin. "The Rise of the Right." A History of Modern Israel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 123- 146. Print.
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High Degree of Misinformation I Had Received

Words: 3132 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33587097

high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…… [Read More]

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Islam and Christianity Have a Lot of

Words: 1030 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76828556

Islam and Christianity have a lot of history to share dating back to some years before the birth of Jesus. Although the members did not interact freely, the current 'animosity' characterizing the two religions was unheard of. In fact, they appeared to be focused much in solving their individual problems which unique but almost similar. This study shows that the two religions were affected by problems related to political succession leading to the cooperation instead of conflict.

How did the problem of political succession affect Islamic and Christian societies in the Middle Ages?

The problems of political succession affected Islamic and Christian societies in a number of ways. First, political succession affected Islamic societies by causing an expansion of Islam from the Middle East in other parts of the world. In this regard, a series of events that took place in the Middle East affected the spread of Islam. This…… [Read More]

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Politics Foreign Policy Questions and

Words: 1294 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67162634

The Al-Aqsa Intifadah (which began, I believe, in about 2000 when the Camp David talks were then stalling) was begun by PLO and still exists today (much less actively than from about 2000 to about 2004, roughly) under the PLO umbrella.

3) Democratic nations including Great Britain and the United States have long called for democratic elections in Palestine. Now that Hamas was the unexpected winner of the first elections, should it be recognized by the United States?

No; at least not officially, since Hamas has been from its 1987 outset, and clearly is today, an overtly, aggressively and ruthlessly terrorist organization recognized internationally as such. Still, Hamas should definitely be talked to by the United States, as horrendous a prospect as that might well seem (and is). And unfortunately, it has become almost risible in today's world that Great Britain or the United States could still even semi-seriously think…… [Read More]

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Egypt as We Know Egyptian

Words: 1345 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17313906

We have numerous proofs that Egyptians already used contracts, testaments and other important institutes of developed society. Also any citizen was allowed to bring lawsuits against guilty person and try to prove that his right or interest was threatened by that person. This was a very important institute of a democratic society because open court was the only legal state organ of justice.

The New Kingdom is also characterized by many Egyptologists as a period of great changes in public knowledge. Many people became literate (mainly upper class representatives) and sure that education of this period was more universal and progressive. Rich nobles and officials felt free sending their children to school; at the same time poor people didn't have such opportunity and it is not strange (if we remember Middle Ages we'll see that the situation was similar).

So, as we can see, Egyptian society was very progressive and…… [Read More]

References

Naguib Mahfouz Akhenaten: Dweller in Truth American University in Cairo Press, 2000

Ian Shaw The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt Oxford University Press; New Ed edition 2002
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Factory Girl Fatat El Masna Factory Girl

Words: 3789 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14962832

Factory Girl

Fatat el Masna (Factory Girl) by Mohamed Khan depicts a misunderstood segment of society: female Muslim factory workers in Egypt. The contemporary setting of the story allows the viewer to make real-life comparisons with their own notions of race, class, gender, ethnicity, and power. Social stratification is a core theme, but gender is a far more salient one in Khan's movie. Fatat el Masna is about individual women taking personal risks to alter gender norms. Yet ironically, Hiyam (Yasmin Raeis) operates within a stereotypically chauvinistic framework. She fantasizes about her boss in ways that are the antithesis of female self-empowerment, as if the film suggests that women in Egyptian society can only liberate themselves in their own minds. Their actual liberation remains a pipe dream. Seeds of hope are planted, however, as Hiyam remains true to her word and values. She does fall in love with her boss…… [Read More]

The blending and confluence of identities is the quintessential story of the modern world. It is also the quintessential story of the Jews. Modern citizens of the world for whom geographic boundaries are meaningless will relate to this film, which has a universal appeal. A primary target audience would be Jews in the diaspora and also Lebanese people as well. However, Return to the Valley of the Jews is about the search for personal identity and a homeland. No external forces can come in the way of personal and collective identity formation. The Jews depicted in this film have strong national identities and call themselves Lebanese. Things did change after the 1967 wars, when Arabs started to persecute Jews even in areas once characterized by peace and tolerance like the Wadi. Ironically, Lebanon tore itself apart, in a civil war pitting Muslims against Christians. Jews were in the crossfire, showing that the tensions in the Middle East are not between Arab and Jew. They are unnecessary tensions, but have almost nothing at all to do with religion or even the creation of Israel. This film corrects a lot of misinformation about the root causes of problems in the Middle East, and shows how propaganda and politics can create animosity.

Return to the Valley of the Jews is about destruction and rebirth, too. There is hope for the future even though there is much despair permeating the film. Lebanon is a good case study for paving the way toward tolerance and respect. The government of Lebanon has been relatively tolerant and has enabled the reconstruction of the synagogue at the heart of this film. Returning to the "valley of the Jews" is a spiritual metaphor. The people depicted in the film maintain their community identity whether or not they are in Lebanon. Language and a shared nostalgia for the geographic beauty and history of Lebanon are their social and cultural glue. Religion is not as central as people think, and this film is necessary in dispelling the myth that religion is a source of trouble in the Middle East. Land and civil rights are central issues, but not religion. Furthermore, Lebanon needs to be seen on its own rather than being lumped in with other Arab nations. Israel has had ambivalent relations with Lebanon. Not as friendly as Jordan, but friendlier than other nations, Lebanon may come to play a critical role in the development and evolution fo future peace processes in the Middle East.

It may be idealistic to believe that films can change the world. In this case, the film may at least shed light on a critical issue. The film may open hearts and change minds. It might help viewers reconnect with their own cultural roots, and help people to see that all the people of the world seek belonging within a community. That community may be defined by nationality or geography, language or religion. What matters most is that love and compassion define social relations.
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New World Order What the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99775879

g., France; Great Britain, Germany) to engage, along with itself, in its war on terrorism. Most other countries in the world currently feel extremely alienated from and hostile toward the United States. In my own view, within today's new World Order, the United States needs to become more of an ally to other countries, and less of an international bully. As Kissinger (November 8, 2004) similarly observes:

Today the U.S. acts as the trustee of global stability, while domestic obstacles prevent the admission -- and perhaps even the recognition -- of these realities in many countries. But such a one-sided arrangement cannot continue much longer. Other nations should find it in their interest to participate at least in the tasks of political and economic reconstruction. There is no shortcut around the next steps: the restoration of security in Iraq, especially in areas that have become terrorist sanctuaries, is imperative. No…… [Read More]

Today the U.S. acts as the trustee of global stability, while domestic obstacles prevent the admission -- and perhaps even the recognition -- of these realities in many countries. But such a one-sided arrangement cannot continue much longer. Other nations should find it in their interest to participate at least in the tasks of political and economic reconstruction. There is no shortcut around the next steps: the restoration of security in Iraq, especially in areas that have become terrorist sanctuaries, is imperative. No guerrilla war can be won if sanctuaries for insurgents are tolerated.

After Sept. 11, 2001, global terrorism, and in particular, fear of possible future Islamic terrorism in the United States and elsewhere in the west, in a sense strengthened some western alliances (e.g., the United States and Britain), but strained others (e.g., the United States and Germany, France, Turkey, etc.). The 'Islamic World' also began, then, to be divided in and of itself, at least from a U.S. perspective, into nations that "housed" terrorists (e.g., Afghanistan; Pakistan; Syria, and (supposedly) Iraq), and other, more "U.S. friendly" Arab nations (at least in terms of their overt foreign policy), like Kuwait; Qatar; Jordan; Egypt, and Saudi Arabia.

Within the United States, since Sept. 11, changing social values include an increased (and troubling) willingness on the part of many American citizens,
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Modern Middle East

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6160131

Middle East/Gulf region has a complex history and has experienced a series of important events both during and in the years following Muhammad's influence in the territory. While Muhammad's ruling played an important role in shaping thinking in the region, his legacy was actually more important, taking into account that it practically influenced people in taking on certain attitudes and in expressing great interest in wanting to promote Islamic thought.

The Arab Caliphate greatly expanded the Islamic Empire and turned it into one of the greatest in all of history. It lasted from 632 until 1513 and it involved a series of leaderships: the Rashidun period, the Umayyad period, and the Abbassid period. These three dynasties kept Arabs together and provided them with a sense of unity and cultural identity. Introducing Arab as an official language further contributed to making individuals in the Middle East feel as if they were…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Barakat, Halim, "The Arab World," (UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 1993).

Hourani, Albert Habib, "A History of the Arab Peoples," (Harvard University Press, 2002)
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Yom Kippur War Can Be

Words: 2581 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57956512

Fear of oil shortages in the West drove oil prices to unprecedented levels, about three times the pre-war price. Gasoline shortages in the United States resulting from the Arab embargo, combined with the rise in oil prices, began a spiral of world-wide inflation and a recession in 1974-75.

Attempts began to resume the peace process when Security Council Resolution 338 was passed and a ceasefire was ordered on October 22, 1973. The resolution was meant to immediately terminate of all military activity, implementation of Resolution 242 and the start of negotiations "aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East." Resolution 338 subsequently became a companion piece to 242 as the basis of future proposals for a peace settlement. In December a Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva under the cochairmanship of the Soviet and American foreign ministers and the U.N. secretary-general. Egypt, Jordan and Israel…… [Read More]

References

Interview with Moshe Dayan by Rami Tal on November 22, 1976, Yediot Aharanot, April 27, 1997.

Anwar Sadat, in Search of Identity: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Row, 1977), P- 259;

Haim Herzog, the War of Atonement, October 1973: The Fateful Implications of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), p. 51

Abba Eban, Personal Witness: Israel Through My Eyes (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1992), p. 523.
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What Threatens Turkey Now and in the Future

Words: 2034 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27366124

Turkey Security Threats

Turkey faces several economic, social and political threats in both the near (5-year) and long (10-20-year) term. Its geopolitical situation in the Middle East makes it particularly sensitive not to only local contexts but to global contexts as well. Bordering Georgia to the north, Armenia and Iran to the east, and Syria and Iraq to the south, it has been neighbor to some of the most controversial courses of action in recent history. It is only natural that its own security should be affected by that of its neighbors as well as by superpower interests in the region. This paper will analyze the security threats as they apply to Turkey in both the near-term and the long-term.

The latest and nearest term security threat is the rise of IS, the Islamic State, whose self-appointed caliphate has declared a religious war against Shia Muslims in the Iraq and…… [Read More]

Reference List

Catholic Online. (2014). ISIS begins killing Christians in Mosul. Retrieved from  http://www.catholic.org/news/international/middle_east/story.php?id=56481 

Dawson, R. (2012). Syrian Super Thread. Anti-Neocons. Retrieved from http://www.rys2sense.com/anti-neocons/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=29233&start=7

Escobar, P. (2011). Playing Chess in Eurasia. Asia Times Online. Retrieved from http://www.afgazad.com/Zabanhaye-Eropaei/122211-Playing-Chess-in-Eurasia.pdf

Frizell, S. (2014). President Obama Explains Why the U.S. is Bombing ISIS. Time.
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The Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria

Words: 6077 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90828462

Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria

Shi'ism in the World

History, Objectives & General Outlook

Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).

The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…… [Read More]

References

Akhavi, S. (1983). The ideology and praxis of Shi'ism in the Iranian revolution. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 25(02), 195-221.

Campbell, J. (2015). "Massacre" of Shia in Northern Nigeria an Opening for Iran. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: http://blogs.cfr.org/campbell/2015/12/16/massacre-of-shia-in-northern-nigeria-an-opening-for-iran/

Cave, D. (2006). Telling Sunni from Shiite. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:shttp://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/shiite_muslims/index.html

Center for Security Policy. (2014). Will Sunni-Shia tensions spread to Nigeria? Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2014/11/03/will-sunni-shia-tensions-spread-to-nigeria/
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Yom Kippur War the Long-Term

Words: 3961 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4051183

This unity generally took the form of diplomatic and military opposition to the state of Israel. Egypt's leading role in the acceleration of Arab political unification would have a long-term effect of philosophically influencing such movements as the liberation front of Yasser Arafat in the Palestinean territory, and the host of other terror organizations which have waged guerilla campaigns in search of political recognition.

These examples will be relevant in discussion hereafter on the long-term effects of the conflict. In the immediate aftermath of the attack, it would become clear that these political implications were not accidental. Quite to the contrary, the Arabs understood quite well that they could not anticipate a military victory. Still, "in October 1973, Arab nations led by Egypt and Syria chose war as their instrument of policy -- their primary policy objective in waging war: to recover Arab lands occupied by Israel since the 1967…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anti-Defamation League (ADL). (2005). The 1973 Yom Kippur War. ADL.org.

Ehrenfeld, R. (2002). IRA + PLO = Terror. National Review Online. Online at http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/commentehrenfeld082102.asp

Horovitz, D. (2005). The Iran-Hezbollah Nexus. Chicago Jewish Community Online. Online at http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:6aPKBoRz9Q0J:www.juf.org/pdf/horovitz.pdf+iran+hezbollah&hl=en

Israel 1967-1991. (2004). Israel-Egypt Peace. Palestine Facts.
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United States' Task of Setting Policy With

Words: 2510 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38461137

United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html

Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm

Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm

Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
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Why the Kurdish Problem is Critical for Turkish Stability

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69308297

Turkey: The Kurdish Problem

Although Turkey has gained greater prominence in the news due to the influx of Serbian refugees into its borders, it is also struggling with another problem, namely the ethnic tensions pertaining to Kurdish separatists besieging critical areas. Like many Middle Eastern nations, despite its relative close proximity to Europe, Turkey is home to a wide variety of different ethnic groups with various religious affiliations, including the Kurds. The southeast of Turkey is home to a majority population of Kurds, which has sown the seeds of a longstanding civil war. Kurdish separatists have long been engaging in violent resistance against the government of Turkey, demanding their own separate state. Although the violence has existed for many decades, recent skirmishes have been characterized as "the worst seen in the past two decades" (Tharoor 2016). This is due in no small part to the recently emboldened Turkish separatist groups…… [Read More]

References

Basburg, I. (2016). What has strained U.S.-Turkey relations and what needs to be done?

The Daily Caller. Retrieved from: http://dailycaller.com/2016/11/29/what-has-strained-u-s-turkey-relations-and-what-needs-to-be-done/#ixzz4U5rmgCRN

Tharoor, I. (2016). As Syria burns, Turkey's Kurdish problem is getting worse. The Washington

Post. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/02/03/as-syria-burns-turkeys-kurdish-problem-is-getting-worse/?utm_term=.2db0309c8ba9
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Post War Iraq a Paradox in the Making Legitimacy vs Legality

Words: 14187 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57694954

Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality

The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1

The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990

Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003

Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.

Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
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Arab-Israeli War 1948 the War

Words: 3185 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20068053

It was after one of them bombed Cairo in July 1948, that the Israelis were able to establish air supremacy. Succeeding victories came in rapid succession on all three fronts. The Arab states all negotiated separate armistice agreements. Egypt was the first to sign in February 1949, followed by Lebanon, Transjordan and finally Syria. Iraq chose to withdraw its forces without signing an agreement. Israel significantly expanded its territory beyond the United Nations (UN) partition plan for Palestine at the expense of its Arab neighbors. The cost of victory was in more than 6,000 Israeli lives which represented approximately 1% of the population. After the peace agreement wartime recruits were rapidly dismissed. This made it difficult for the basic manpower problem of a small population faced with the need to mobilize a sizable army during a wartime emergency. After a study of the Swiss reservist system, Israel introduced a three-tiered…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"1948 Arab-Israeli War." 2007. 10 November 2009 <

 http://www.sixdaywar.org/content/Jerusalem1948arabisraeliwar.asp >

Frum, David. 2009. "1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War." 10 November 2009

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Intended to Give an Insight

Words: 4223 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48373856

Conservatism is right leaning and could tend to isolation as seen by the proponents of anti-immigration and anti-international policies. Therefore they view in alarm the neo-conservatives, which is strictly a term relevant to the U.S., who are a subclass of conservatives, but have a very aggressive foreign policy stance. (Conservatism)

The common ground of both the conservatives and the neo-conservatives is the support for a strong U.S. military. The Conservatives, however have strong reservations with regard to military intervention and the so-called nation building of the neo-conservatives. The events subsequent to September 11, taken against the governments in Afghanistan and Iraq are clear indications that the neo-conservatives have no inhibitions to force regime change and reshape states believed hostile into the American image of what a state should be. This is alarming to the conservatives and gives support to the charge that the current administration is strongly under the influence…… [Read More]

References

Allies Find Signs of Iraq's Chemical Preparedness. Associated Press. April 04, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,83252,00.html. Accessed on 11/26/2004 special focus on the Middle East. Retrieved at  http://mondediplo.com/focus/mideast/ . Accessed on 11/26/2004

Buchanan, Patrick J. No End to War: The Frum-Perle prescription would ensnare America in endless conflict. The American Conservative. March 1, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.amconmag.com/3_1_04/cover.html. Accessed on 11/26/2004

Buchanan, Patrick, J. Whose War? A neo-conservative clique seeks to ensnare our country in a series of wars that are not in America's interest. Retrieved at http://www.amconmag.com/03_24_03/cover.html. Accessed on 11/26/2004

Conservatism. Retrieved from. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ConservativeAccessed on 11/26/2004
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How Effective Have Global Efforts to Reduce Terrorism Been

Words: 3530 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34194078

Global Efforts to Reduce Terrorism and Political Violence Been Effective in the Past Decade?

Conceptualizing Political Violence and Terrorism

Terrorism does not have an assigned definition. As a matter of fact, "few terms or concepts in contemporary political discourse have proved as hard to define as terrorism" (Weinberg, Pedahzur, and Hirsch-Hoefler, 2004). The authors further point out that from as early as the 1960s and 1970s, when terrorism as a subject first appeared (or made a reappearance), various professional commentators have fund it quite challenging to come up with an articulate definition of the term that could gain acceptance across the board. Essentially, terrorism is a contemporary form of political violence. Indeed, terrorism as Gurr (as cited in Ortlung and Makarychev, 2006) points out, it is a subset of political violence. For purposes of this discussion, the definition (and interpretation) RAND assigns to terrorism will be adopted. This definition will…… [Read More]

References

Apaza, C.R., 2011. Integrity and Accountability in Government: Homeland Security and the Inspector General. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.

Gartenstein-Ross, D., 2012. Bin Laden's Legacy Why We're Still Losing the War on Terror. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons

Hoffman, B., (2010). A Counterterrorism Strategy for the Obama Administration. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(4), pp. 359-377

Inbar, E. ed., 2013. The Arab Spring, Democracy and Security: Domestic and International Ramifications. New York, NY: Routledge.
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Assination of Rafik Hariri Extinguishing

Words: 4528 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74635393

Not long after the car bombing that claimed the life of Hariri and nine others, U.S. Secretary of State, Condaleeza Rice, issued a statement saying that the U.S. Ambassador to Syria had been recalled for consultations as a result of the assassination (the Washington Times, February 16, 2005, p. A01). Short of making a specific statement of accusation that Syria had been behind the murder, Rice called for an investigation of the murder (2005, A01). It is here, at this point, that question should follow: Who had the greatest interest in seeing Rafik Hariri eliminated from Lebanon and the Middle East scene? We must ask that question before we go any further, or perform review any additional information in order to keep an open mind as we process the reports that arose from the U.N. commissioned investigation of the events. At this it would serve anyone attempting to sort through…… [Read More]

Works Cited

After Mehlis; Charting a Better Future for Syrians." The Washington Times 31 Oct. 2005: A21. Questia. 20 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011586082.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001194754

Baroudi, Sami E. "Sectarianism and Business Associations in Postwar Lebanon." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 22.4 (2000): 81. Questia. 20 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001194754.

Car Bombing Kills Anti-Syrian Legislator; 9 Others Die in Latest Hit on Hariri Backers." The Washington Times 14 June 2007: A13. Questia. 20 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021237096.
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Sponsored Terrorism State Sponsored Terrorism

Words: 3599 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43979684

That assertion has been discredited by authoritative / independent sources subsequent to the American occupation of Iraq, but some members of the Bush Administration - and others who support the administration - still contend that Iraq (prior to the American occupation) was a state sponsor of terrorism.

In another article published by the Council on Foreign Affairs, the writer explains that Saddam Hussein's regime has provided training camps, operating bases, headquarters and other kinds of support to terrorists groups that were fighting against the regimes in Turkey and in Iran, both countries which border Iraq. Also, during the Gulf War in 1991, it was explained in the Council on Foreign Affairs article, Saddam paid for several terrorist attacks on U.S. facilities, but those failed to be completed.

In the Bill Clinton Administration, there was a time when Saddam Hussein was accused of sponsoring (or planning, or providing support for) a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bergesen, Albert J.; & Lizardo, Omar. "International Terrorism and the World-System."

Sociological Theory 22.1 (2004): 38-52.

Clarke, Richard a. Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror. New York: The Free

Press, 2004.
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United Nations Alternative Approaches in Resolving Global Challenges

Words: 1864 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33532174

Secretary of the United Nations

Since 1946, many international organizations, like the United Nation, have been involved in bringing peace and stability in different parts of the world experiencing instabilities. Reasons such as poor policies, ineffective legal procedures, economic and political schemes, and religious disagreements contribute to instabilities (Rhoads 2016, p. 54). There are growing levels of terrorism, conflicts, and the toppling of regimes in the Middle East and parts of Africa today. For the last five years, evidence shows that at least one or more countries in every continent have experienced an increase in the short-term political risks. Governments are the mainstream in leading them. In particular, they are asserting control measures over natural resources as uprisings try to overthrow regimes and take control of them. Foreign investors are being expropriated amidst selfish interests from local individuals and political movements. Thus, political instabilities have continually remained as part of…… [Read More]

References

Iqbal, Zaryab, and Harvey Starr. 2016. State failure in the modern world. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press

Rhoads, Emily Paddon. 2016. Taking sides in peacekeeping: impartiality and the future of the United Nations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Imperialism in Iraq and Iran

Words: 4064 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87629388

Iran and Iraq

Analysis of the Impact of Imperialism on Iran and Iraq

The modern nation of Iraq was formed in 1932 when the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the United Kingdom. It had been placed under the authority of Great Britain as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia by the League of Nations in 1920. Prior to that, it was part of the Ottoman Empire. This delineates the history of imperialism in Iraq as beginning with the arrival of the Ottomans the 15th century, through independence from the Great Britain. These two stage of imperial rule had several different impacts on modern-day Iraq.

The first is the borders of the current state of Iraq were the direct result of British rule. The Ottomans had administered Iraq differently, with three main provinces. Under Ottoman rule, Baghdad, Mosul and Basra were all provinces within the Ottoman Empire. Iraq was not Iraq…… [Read More]

References

Butch, T. (2015). Why China will intervene in Iraq. Asia Times. Retrieved May11, 2016 from http://atimes.com/2015/09/why-china-will-intervene-in-iraq/

CIA World Factbook (2016). People's Republic of China. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html

Dawson, J. (2014). Why Britain created monarchies in the Middle East. New Statesman. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2014/08/why-britain-created-monarchies-middle-east

Dehghan, S. & Taylor, R. (2013). CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup. The Guardian. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/19/cia-admits-role-1953-iranian-coup
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Countering Terrorism Failure of the U S Government

Words: 3205 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75154395

U.S. Policy and the War on Terror: An Ineffective Strategy

Since 9/11 the U.S. government has pursued a policy of combating terrorism with all of its resources (intelligence, technology, military, economic sanctions, etc.). However, the question remains, nearly a decade and a half later, with terror attacks occurring more and more frequently around the world, whether the U.S. has been effective in its countering of terrorism. According to various studies, it can be shown how far from actually eradicating terrorism, the policies of the U.S. government have actually helped to foster the spread of terrorism. Now, as Russia steps into the Middle East to fight ISIS at the request of Syria, a disinformation campaign in the West has been put into practice by the mainstream media to show how Russia and Syria are hurting the war against terrorism, when the reality is that Russia has been far more effective in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barzegar, Kayhan. "The Terror Plot, An Ideological War for Geopolitical Interests," Iran

Review. 24 Oct 2011. Web. 12 Dec 2015.

Britton, Neil. "Dog or Demon?" in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions,

Ed. Ronald W. Perry & E.L. Quarantelli. International Research Committee on Disasters, 2005.