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The sociological theory known as Conflict Theory is characterized as one of deviance. In simple terms, it is the idea that "Life is characterized by conflict rather than consensus" (Hamlin, 2004). It is, perhaps some would argue, the state of the world today, both globally, and locally -- at least in the collective imagination of the "oppressed" masses.
In truth, there is much in support of the idea that the "current state of affairs" in America is highly concurrent with the idea of Conflict Theory. After all, the central idea around which the theory is based includes a context in which "Norms and values are not equally distributed or accepted among members of society," and that "norms and values are not randomly distributed" (Hamlin). Of course, one of the most common examples of this state in American Society is the "Black vs. hite" conflict characterized by the Los…
Hamlin, John. "Conflict Theory." 2003. Retrieved from Web Site on July 31, 2004. http://www.d.umn.edu/~jhamlin1/conflict.html
Keel, Robert O. "Conflict Theories." 2003. Retrieved From Web Site on July 31, 2004. http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/conflict.html
USC. University of Southern California. "The Los Angeles Riot, 1992" 1995. Retrieved from Web Site on July 31, 2004. http://www.usc.edu/isd/archives/la/la_riot.html
This is where social distance comes in; the survey referenced by Parrillo (3-4) shows that non-ethnic Caucasian college student do not sense a social distance from each other, but when it comes to other Europeans, to African-Americans, Latinos -- and especially Muslims -- there is a gap in acceptance that falls into the category as social distance (4).
hile colleges are supposed to be a microcosm of the greater society, looking more closely at academic settings reflects that students tend to associate more easily with other cultures and hence the social distance between African-American and hites, and between hites and Latinos, is not as great (perhaps because all share a goal of education while in the mainstream of society there are myriad goals that people from all ethnicities are seeking) (Parrillo, 6).
The conflict theory is based on the writing of Karl Marx, and it extols the idea that the…
Parrillo, Vincent N. (2012). Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
A Worldwide Phenomenon and its Discontents
Globalization is ever present in today's world. It is found in our ability to speak with a person across the world in minutes, media coverage of distant lands and their strife, as well as constant outsourcing. Globalization is, thus, a phenomenon that is all around us, yet many do not truly understand what it means. Yet globalization means so much more than outsourcing and an increase in technology. This is a phenomenon, truly defined by the ongoing interconnectedness of the world. Yet this is not always positive. This paper will examine some questions as well as some sources that expand upon the above critiques.
The fist topic related to globalization are the on-going debates on whether a fence across the U..-Mexico border would be effective in curbing immigration in the United tates. Various camps give pro and con arguments, some of…
"Maquiladora Women." (2011). Video: YouTube.com. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from .
McClelland, K. (2000). Conflict Theory. Grinnell.edu. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from < http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Conflict.html >.
Messerli, J. (2011). Should the U.S. Build a Fence Across the Entire Border with Mexico to Slow Illegal Immigration? Balanced Politics. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from .
hat is different between conflict theories and previous sociological theories are that it theorizes that society evolves based upon conflicts between its groups, rather than striving to mend rifts such groups. Although societal order and peace may be a good thing, it is not inherent to the human, historical condition -- or so suggests conflict theory. Its view of human nature thus tends to be cynical rather than positive or cohesive. It counsels one to "think of people as animals maneuvering for advantage, susceptible to emotional appeals, but steering a self-interested course toward satisfactions and away from dissatisfactions." (Collins, 1974, 56-61) Despite its negativism, the theory has proved a useful sociological tool for economists, because of its acceptance of scarce material resources as a driving human motivational factor, rather than internal psychology, as well as for analysts of criminal behavior, and other situations where human beings are in a state…
Collins, Randall. (1974) Conflict Sociology. New York: Academic Press. Retrieved online 27 Jan 2005 at http://www2.pfeiffer.edu/~lridener/courses/COLLINR1.HTML
Thus their poverty is not a result of their unwillingness to work or their unfortunate decisions. It is a result of the fact that they find themselves at the lowest end of the line in the struggle for resources.
Structural functionalism is based on the idea that society is a system. Its cultural, political, and economic parts work together in such a way that people are born into (or alternately fall into) a particular stratus of society and a kind of systemic force keeps them there. The poor and their labor are needed to make capitalistic society run profitably, and the poor adopt the cultural attitudes and beliefs about themselves and their place in society that make such a situation possible. The idea in this theory is not that there is a struggle which keeps people down, but that things just are the way they are in this system, and…
conflict theory and functionalism in a sociological context, I have chosen world trade as the topic, mainly the way developing and poorer countries and developed economies evolve and act in the world trade arena.
Conflict theory seems perhaps better suited to explain the contradictions in world trade and, even more profound, the differences that normally appear between developed and developing countries, especially in World Trade Organizations Ministerial Conferences, but also in general trade relations.
The tools and general trends that world trade operates with are liberalization and protectionism (protective measures). High import taxes and subsidies are among the most common protective measures and these have the role of protecting national producers against lower priced, more competitive products that may enter the country and may force the national producers into bankruptcy.
The industrialized countries generally aim at imposing global lower import taxes on manufactured goods. This would ensure them better export…
1. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Functionalism -(sociology)
2. Conflict Theories. On the Internet at http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm
3. Article on Conflict Theory. On the Internet at http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/conflict%20theory
Conflict Theories. On the Internet at
Employer/Employee elationship Issues
The issue that the author of this paper will discuss is employer/employee relations. This issue is an important one for many different reasons. Firstly, the history of labor relations is really the history of civilized society. There has always been tension between the working class and their employers who frequently exploit them. As such, this is a timeless issue that is much more worthy for the author to address than some of the fleeting issues of technology or collegiate cliques that the author could have chosen to analyze.
The functionalist perspective is highly important to examining employer/employee relations. This viewpoint would maintain that relations between employers and their employees provides a critical function in society. Specifically, those who embrace a functionalist perspective would state that it is necessary to have a relationship for these two classes of people in order for society to properly function (Mooney et…
Mooney, Knox, and Schacht. (2007). The Three Main Sociological Perspectives. Retrieved from https://laulima.hawaii.edu / Retrieved from
Functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism all pertain to the institution of the family. These are three interrelated approaches that can and should be used together to provide a more accurate view of the family from a sociological viewpoint. Functionalism is a systems perspective, one that views social institutions like the family as being interconnected with other elements of the system like social norms, social class status, and gender identity. Using a functionalist perspective, a sociologist does not view the family in isolation, but incorporates elements related to how the role of family functions in the broader society. Conflict theory also takes into account broad sociological factors, the most important of which is access to wealth and social capital. The conflict theory is especially concerned with inequality and the need for social justice. With regards to the family, conflict theory can explain dysfunctionality within a family and its surrounding community…
"The Conflict Perspective." Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-family/the-sociological-perspective-on-the-family/the-conflict-perspective -- 4/
Crossman, A. (n.d.). Functionalist theory. About.com. Retrieved online: http://sociology.about.com/od/Sociological-Theory/a/Functionalist-Theory.htm
"The Functionalist Perspective," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-family/the-sociological-perspective-on-the-family/the-functionalist-perspective -- 4/
"Functionalist Perspective on the Family," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://vcampus.uom.ac.mu/soci1101/541functionalist_perspective_on_the_family.html
Marxist ideas have also provided as a starting point for many of the modern feminist theorists. Despite these applications, Marxism of any variety is still a minority position among American sociologists (Conflict Theory, 2000).
Marx's sociology state that:
1. Particular forms of property, slavery, feudal landholding, and capital are upheld by the coercive power of the state. Thus classes formed by property divisions, slaves and slave-owners, serfs and lords, capitalists and workers are the opposing agents in the struggle for political power the underpinning of their means of livelihood.
2. Material contributions often determine the extent to which social classes can organize effectively to fight for their interests. These conditions of mobilization are a set of intervening variables between class and political power.
3. Other material conditions such as the means of mental production, determines which interests will be able to articulate their ideas and hence to dominate the ideological…
Babel-Fish. (2009). The complete "nasty-ism" of the world's elitist. Retrieved September 25,
2009, from Now Public Web site: http://www.nowpublic.com/world/complete-nasty-ism-world-s-elitist
Collins, Randall. (1974). Conflict Sociology. New York: Academic Press.
Conflict. (2005). Retrieved September 25, 2009, from Web site:
Hence, class struggles exist all the time -- the world is not in equilibrium as functionalism points out (Demerath, 1996).
Functionalism is also premised on the fact that people have already achieved a consensus -- the consensus by which reality is to be constructed and this allows them to successfully define and fulfill their roles in the society. On the other hand, conflict is premised on the fact that consensus has not been achieved because it is still a matter under constant struggle (ibid).
Lastly, functionalism is also being charged as failing to account for social change which conflict theory satisfactorily addresses. To maintain that the society is in constant movement towards the attainment of social equilibrium or balance, the theory fails to address the ways and mechanisms by which the society is changing (ibid).
Which is better?
This brings us to the question of which theory is more effective…
Demerath, N.J. (1996). Who Now Debates Functionalism? From System, Change and Conflict to "Culture, Choice, and Praxis. Sociological Forum, 11(2), 333-345.
Henslin, J. (1993). Sociology. Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon.
Merriam Webster Online Dictionary (2009). Effective. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/effective on April 3, 2009.
Zappen, J.P. (1997). Rhetoric, Community, and Cyberspace. Retrieved from http://www.rpi.edu/~zappenj/Publications/Texts/rhetoric.html on April 3, 2009.
The idea is that, eventually, as standards of living rise in Mexico, Mexican consumers will be able to buy all of the same kinds of goods now regularly purchased by their neighbors to the north. In the meantime, in addition to lower labor costs, the agreement also gives American and Canadian concerns access to cheaper raw materials, and an additional, migrant or resident, labor force of Mexicans, upon which to draw in their own countries. Mexico, as well, tends have to fewer, and more laxly enforced environmental and labor regulations; lower healthcare costs, etc., that make the cost of doing business in Mexico a winning proposition for multinational corporations. (Buckley & Ghauri, 2004) Flexibility is seen as key in these multinational enterprises. Programs must be able to be implemented in a manner consistent with the demands of a constantly changing and growing global marketplace. The system employed must be adaptable…
Bentley, C.S. (2006, July 24). Immigration & Integration. The New American, 22, 44.
Bronner, S.E. (2001). Socialism Unbound (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
" (Feste, 2004)
The work of Crenshaw (1981) makes the suggestion that the occurrence of terrorism is most likely where the masses are passive and:
elite dissatisfaction coincides; when discontent is not generalized or serious enough to provoke the majority of the population to act against the regime, but a small minority without access to the bases of power that would permit overthrow of the government seeks radical change." (Crenshaw, 1981; in Feste, 2004 p. 46)
Generally, an event precipitates the act of terrorism that "snaps the terrorists' patience with the regime" rendering the actions of the government as being an injustice which cannot be tolerated making the terrorist act a decision that becomes acceptable on a moral level. (Crenshaw, 1981; p. 384)
II. CONFLICT RESOLUTION NOT POSSILE WITH AL QAEDA
ecause al Qaeda is in the process of "building a movement to carry on an ideological struggle"... (Feste, 2004;…
Crenshaw, Martha "The Causes of Terrorism" Comparative Politics. Vol. 13 No. 4 (July, 1981) pp. 379-399.
Crenshaw, Martha "Why America? The Globalization of Civil War" in Current History. December, 2001. pp. 425-432.
Feste, Karen a. (2004) Intervention and Terrorism Conflict: Theory, Strategy and Resolution. Paper prepared for delivery at the Fifth Pan-European Conference on International Relations, the Hague, the Netherlands. September 9-11, 2004. Online available at http://www.sgir.org/conference2004/papers/Feste%20-%20Intervention%20and%20terrorism%20conflict.pdf .
Feste, Karen a. "International Intervention and Global Terrorism: 21st Century Bond?" Paper presented at the Second Annual Hawaii International Conference in Social Sciences, Honolulu, June 12-15, 2003b.
Weber's Class Conflict Theory
Weber defined 'class' as having in common "a specific causal component of their life chances in so far as (2) this component is represented exclusively by economic interests in the possession of goods and opportunities for income, and (3) it is represented under the conditions of the commodity or labor market" (Kasler, 1988, p.15). Class position does not necessarily lead to class ideological stance or class-directed action. Communal class action will arise when the classes realize the motive and needs of the struggle. In these postulations, Weber was similar to Marx. He differed from Marx in supplementing the existence of a 'status group'. Status groups are classes that are linked together by a certain lifestyle and consumption pattern rather than on their specific place in society (such s 'bourgeoisie' or 'working man'), This consumption pattern accords them a certain status and causes these demarcated groups to…
Dougherty, J. (June 21, 2011) Clinton switches gears, publicly praises Saudi women's driving protest. CNN
Kasler, D. (1988). Max Weber: an introduction to his life and work. University of Chicago Press: Chicago
One party may take power away from the other. One party may lose power. This interaction or exchange leads either to equilibrium between the wielders of power, or to disequilibrium and imbalance. One can take Coleman to be saying that power is an element of exchange (or retraction) within the field of conflict. It is like the goal struggled for between two opponents on a sports pitch. It includes also the devices and mechanisms by which that goal-oriented struggle progresses.
How do the dynamics actually play out then? From the beginning, Coleman speaks of "strategies and tactics employed" (p. 121). Power is no static element. It is a force that can be manipulated and wielded as if in contest. The situation of conflict manifests itself as the place where power is used. Those in conflict maneuver their power, whatever it may be, into positions of leverage. These maneuverings of power…
Coleman, P.T. (2006). Power and Conflict. In M. Deutsch, P.T. Coleman, & E.C. Marcus (Eds.), The handbook of conflict resolution: theory and practice (pp. 120-141). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley.
EMEGENCE OF VIOLENCE?
Why do people engage in violence? It is so ingrained within society, yet we seem to not have a concrete understanding of what provokes it to the extent that recent events have shown violence can go. Violence has acquired several dimensions in the society and has become one of the leading causes of human conflicts that have spun over years and even decades. The quest to understand the main causes of violence is aimed at ultimately stopping the effects of violence to the community hence fostering more peace within the society. There are various factors responsible for the emergence of violence in the contemporary society, each of which re explored different by a number of perspectives. First, the literature review explores Marxist theories of violence and conflict within societies.
Marxist and Parsonian Conflict Theory
Ultimately, Marxism believes that class differences inherently breed class conflicts. More recently, here…
Galtung J., (2009). Theories of Conflict. Definitions, Dimensions, Negotiations, Formations. https://www.transcend.org/files/Galtung_Book_Theories_Of_Conflict_single.pdf
Elwell F., (2014). Karl Marx. http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/users/f/felwell/www/Theorists/Marx/Presentation/Marx.pdf
Weininger E.B. (2002). Class and Causation in Bourdieu. Pp. 49-114 in Current Perspectives in Social Theory, Vol. 21. Ed. Jennifer Lehmann. Amsterdam: JAI Press. http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~wright/Found-c4rev.pdf
Tittenbrun Jacek,(2013). Ralph Dahrendorf's Conflict Theory of Social Differentiation and Elite Theory. Innovative issues and approaches in social sciences, 2013, vol. 6, no. 3 . http://www.iiass.com/pdf/IIASS-volume6-number3-article7.pdf
billion people on the planet, social and political conflicts are inevitable. No two people are alike, even when they are from the same family, let alone from the same ethnic, religious, cultural, or national backgrounds. Conflict theory is one of the most salient theories in the social sciences, because it brings together elements of sociology and psychology, and can be applied to almost every practical area of research including economics and criminology. Conflict theory originally evolved from the sociological theories of Karl Marx, who investigated the ways conflict between different social classes in any given society can lead to problems like alienation and disenfranchisement (Turner, 1975). Alienation and disenfranchisement in turn create the potential for deviant behavior and criminality, which is why it is important to understand conflict theory and how it impacts our daily lives. Conflict theory also illustrates the ways power structures and social institutions perpetuate themselves. For…
Keel, R. (2008). Culture conflict theory. Retrieved online: http://conmanageportal.blogspot.ca/2008/01/culture-conflict-theory.html
Quinney, R. (2000). Conflict theory of crime. In Constructions of Deviance. Belmont: Wadsworth.
Turner, J. H. (1975). Marx and Simmel Revisited: Reassessing the Foundations of Conflict Theory. Social Forces, 53(4), 618-627.
Sociology: Social Conflict Theory
The model of social conflict shows that the society has many forms of inequality which bring about social change and conflict. This kind of study centers on the types of inequality found in the society, along with the subsequent conflict between the fortunate and less fortunate.
Thus, this paper will look at the theory of Social Conflict and its past and present role in the society.
The introduction entails the terminologies used along with their definitions. The terms include sociological theories, and the word theory itself. There is also an explanation of their roles in various areas, mostly centering on Sociology. Additionally, this paper contains the main theories relating to the area of Sociology.
The following part looks into the theory of Social Conflict, including its contents, assumptions or perspectives as well as the developers and advocates of the theory.
The final part of this paper…
Goodfriend, W. (2003-2016). Sociology's Four Theoretical Perspectives: Structural-Functional, Social Conflict, Feminism & Symbolic Interactionism. Retrieved July 20, 2016, from Study.com: http://study.com
Krawford, K. (2009). Power in Society - Marx Conflict Perspective & Elite Theory. Retrieved July 20, 2016, from Academia.edu: https://www.academia.edu
Mooney, L. A., Knox, D., & Schacht, C. (2009). Understanding Social Problems. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.
New World Encyclopedia. (2013, June 13). Conflict theory. Retrieved July 20, 2016, from New World Encyclopedia: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org
Conflict theory was first articulated by Karl Marx as a way to explain his perception that society was engaged in a continual struggle or conflict due to a finite supply of resources. As a result, the order of society is determined by the powers that rise to the top to control the resources. The subtext of this theory is that order is established by rule and tyranny rather than by consensus of the whole. This paper will examine the main concepts and principles of Conflict Theory, identify its strengths and weaknesses, discussed fallacies within the theory, and describe how it can be used to address differences in people.
The Theory: Main Concepts and Principles
Though rooted in Marxist ideology, conflict theory emerged in the 1950s as a reaction to structural functionalism (Ritzer, Stepnisky, 2017). Structural functionalism was a theory that proposed to explain the manner in which society functions…
Bartos, C., Wehr, P. (2002). Using conflict theory. UK: University of Cambridge.
Hirshleifer, J. (2001). The dark side of the force: Economic foundations of conflict
theory. UK: University of Cambridge.
Horkheimer, M., Adorno, T. (1944). The Culture Industry. UK: Routledge.
Horkheimer, M., Adorno, T. (2002). Dialectic of Enlightenment. CT: Stanford.
Morris, J. (2013). Libya and Syria: R2P and the spectre of the swinging pendulum.
International Affairs, 89(5): 1265-1283.
Ritzer, G., Stepnisky, J. (2017). Modern sociological theory. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Social-Conflict and Good ill Hunting
Social-Conflict theory espouses the belief that that conflict is a basic aspect of life and can never be fully resolved. According to this approach formal agencies of social control merely coerce the disenfranchised to comply with the rules established by those in power. This paper will examine this perspective in light of the 1997 movie Good ill Hunting, written by Matt Damon and Ben Affleck and directed by Gus Van Sant.
Social-conflict theory has its roots in the ideas of Karl Marx. Marx's conflict approach stresses a materialistic interpretation of social order. Marx felt that the way work is socially organized and the technology utilized in production have a strong impact on every other aspect of society. He maintained that everything of value in society results from human labor and viewed working men and women as engaged in making society and creating the…
Golfman, Noreen. "Getting Ahead of Class: Reflections on Good Will Hunting." Labour / Le Travail. Vol. 42 (Fall 1998): 323-327. 20 March 2011.
Kriesberg, Louis. "Social Conflict Theries and Conflict Resolution." Peace & Change. Vol. 8, Issue 2/3 (Summer 1982): 20 March 2011.
Schmalleger, Frank. Criminology Today: An Integrative Introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall 2009
Van Sant, Gus (Director). (1997). Good Will Hunting. [Motion picture]. United States: Miramax Films.
The Hmong are an ethnic group that spans the northern parts of Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Vietnam, Yunnan province of China, Myanmar and Laos. There are currently 226,000 Hmong in the United States, with the greatest concentration being in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metro area, with over 50,000 (MHS, 2009). Most of the Hmong in the United States have their roots in Laos.
During the 1970s, with the conflict in Southeast Asia, there was conflict in Laos as well, with a rising Communist movement. With the Cold War ongoing, and active conflict in Vietnam having just ended, the United States was engaged in Laos. The Hmong, an ethnic minority in that country, supported the United States in that conflict. When the Communists took over Laos, the Hmong fled, fearing retribution. Many first went to Thailand, but were granted refugee status in the United States in response to their contributions…
APIA HF (2003). Samoans in the United States. Asia Pacific Islander American Health Forum. Retrieved April 27, 2014 from http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Samoans_In_The_United_States.pdf
Davey, M. (2004). Decades after first refugees, readying for more Hmong. New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/04/us/decades-after-first-refugees-readying-for-more-hmong.html
MHS. (2009). Hmong stories. Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved April 27, 2014 from http://education.mnhs.org/immigration/communities/hmong
Shah, A. (2011). Settled after 35 years, Hmong must decide: What's next? Minneapolis Star-Tribune. Retrieved April 27, 2014 from http://www.startribune.com/local/minneapolis/120523029.html
Today in Society
A major event in today’s society is the RussiaGate scandal, which has been reported on the news for two years running. With the recent release of the Mueller probe, President Trump has declared victory—No Collusion, No Obstruction—and now many news media are doing damage control after basically accusing the president of colluding with Russia for the past two years (Collins & Jackson, 2019). From a sociological perspective, this event can best be interpreted by conflict theory and functionalism—with the best explanation falling in the middle of the two diverging approaches to sociological understanding.
The issue of the great Collusion-RussiaGate-Obstruction story occurred in the political context of Trump’s victory over Clinton in 2016. Democrats and the media, which overwhelmingly supported Clinton during the campaign, jumped onto the RussiaGate narrative to explain the loss: Russia hijacked the election and Trump colluded with Putin to win the White House—so the…
Adorno, T. & Horkheimer, M. (1944). The Culture Industry. UK: Routledge.
Collins, M. & Jackson, D. (2019). Donald Trump reacts to Mueller report: \\\\'It’s called no collusion, no obstruction\\\\'. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2019/04/18/mueller-report-trump-says-no-collusion-no-obstruction/3474814002/
The same might be said for those who committed torture in the Nazi camps.
Importantly, Austin et al. (2004, p. 161) note that both violence and non-violence are cumulative in nature. It is therefore important to recognize that the existence of violence perpetuates further violence, while the same is true for non-violence. This is also an important recognition in the international sphere.
Schelling (1960, p. 53) notes that international violence an also be manifest in terms of the concept of "limited war." This means that short conflicts could result when agreements cannot be reached within a certain amount of time. On the other hand, the limited war also requires some degree of mutual recognition or acquiescence. Once war begins, negotiation and communication among adversaries become difficult. The recent situation and Egypt and the current situation in Libya appear to be cases in point for this assertion.
Finally, in international relations,…
Baldwin, D.A. (2002). Power and International Relations. Handbook of International Relations, editors Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T. And Simmons, B.A. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
Schelling, T. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Barak, G. (2003). Violence and Nonviolence: Pathways to Understanding, Sage Publications.
Azar, E. (1990) the Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and Cases. Bookfield, VT: Gower Pub. Co.
Political, financial and most of all ethnic interest are going to "to further muddle the results. Perhaps most dangerous is that the results did not yield a Parliament whose ethnic proportions match those of the country, and will therefore be perceived as unfair, whether the seats were won by fraud or not." (ubin, 2010).
The other two perspectives to be taken into account in terms of the development of the Afghani society revolves around the social and the economic aspects of the country. As in every economy, there is a clear connection between the way in which the economy develops and the degree to which the society evolves.
In terms of economic prospects, Afghanistan is at the moment still the largest producer of cocaine. "In 2002, Afghanistan returned to its position as the world's foremost producer of heroin. The 2002 crop reached an estimated 3,400 mt., a 540% increase on…
Filkens, Dexter."Taliban Elite, Aided by NATO, Join Talks for Afghan Peace." The New York Times. 2010. Accessed at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/20/world/asia/20afghan.html?hp=&pagewanted=print
Jones, Seth. "The Rise of Afghanistan's Insurgency: State Failure and Jihah" International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Spring 2008), pp. 7 -- 40.
RAND Corporation. "Afghanistan." America's role in nation building. From Germany to Iraq. 2004. 129-148.
Rotberg, Weak and failing states: critical new security issues. n.d.
Criminal Justice System
Crime and the law
Crime, from the perspective of the criminal justice system, may be defined as violations of the law. What constitutes a criminal violation in one nation is not necessarily the case in all nations; also, an action may be unethical without actually being criminal. The social determinant of what constitutes crime requires a balancing of the rights of the individual to freedom with the need for society to maintain some sense of social order. Those who seek personal freedoms and civil rights are often at war within the criminal justice system with those who desire social order (Schmalleger 2015: 9). The goals of the criminal justice system are to create a sense of justice or fairness but this ideal must likewise be balanced with the need for order (Schmalleger 2015: 10). For example, it might be necessary to let an obviously guilty person…
Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century. (13th
ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA:
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Our interpretations, Mediation Strategies and Communication Types
The Nature of Conflict -- an introduction
hat is Conflict?
Conflict as Perception
Conflict as Feeling
Conflict as Actions
hat causes conflict?
Link between Interpersonal Conflicts and Effective Communication
Mediation and Dispute Resolution
The Nature of Conflict -- An introduction:
Conflict is a naturally existing problem in our society and the world as a whole. Conflict exists at all levels and it is so a certain extent quite natural and inevitable. ith a functionalist approach, it can be said that the existence of conflict is somewhat important for the society. It is however an understatement to say that we live amidst conflict. Conflict is present at every level in society and people at every second are reassuring each other as to how they are having a "discussion" instead of a conflict when…
Bellafiore, Donna. 2010. Interpersonal Conflict and effective communication. Journal.
Bolton, R. (1986). People skills: How to assert yourself, listen to others, and resolve conflicts
(2nd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 067162248X
Cesaratto, T., (2006). The Good Will Hunting technique. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 3, 307.328.
This was in keeping with the Marxist principle of a classless society. In the United Nations, the United States has had an equal standing with other nations such as ritain, France, and the Soviet Union. The United States has participated in United Nations actions and made a show of being a part of the international community while maintaining its superpower status outside of the United Nations' walls. In light of new global political conditions that emphasize global cooperation and governance, rather than government (aylis & Smith, 13), the United Nations still has an important role to play, and the United States has a role to play in it.
While the United States continues to be a member of the United Nations, it is no longer really a true team player. The United States, while still making a show of belonging to the United Nations, now more closely follows the principle…
Baylis, J & Smith, S 2005, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Hirst, P 2001, War and Power in the 21st Century, Polity Press, Cambridge.
Janis, Irving 1982, Groupthink, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Kaldor, M 1999, New Wars and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Stanford University, Stanford.
Conflict and Negotiation
Examples of conflict abound in the movie "Glory." Colonel Shaw, acted by Matthew Broderick, employs both transformational and transactional leadership methods to achieve resolution to these conflicts. The movie uses the conflict of the Civil War as its' underlying canvas. What more appropriate theatre to understand human conflict, on every level, could there be?
The Civil War is a conflict of ideologies, aspirations, beliefs, and goals of a divided nation. Yet, these very same conflicts play out between the members of the 54th Massachusetts. Broderick, as Colonel Shaw, begins his leadership experience before the formation of the 54th Massachusetts. He is an abolitionist. He grew up with "people of color" in his household.
His first conflict is within himself. Can he accept the overwhelming responsibility of leading the first black troops, after his vicious experiences at Antietam? He leaves the celebration given in his honor to resolve…
Coombs, C.H., & Avrunin, G.S. (1988). The Structure of Conflict. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27155862
Rosenbach, W.E., & Taylor, R.L. (Eds.). (1998). Contemporary Issues in Leadership (4th ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14114268
Schelling, T.C. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Conflict in the Workplace
One of the things that makes us human is our need and ability to form groups. We thrive in groups, merge into groups, and even the process of civilization and moving from hunter-gatherers to cities was part of group behavior. owever, when groups form, any number of interesting psychological issues occur: behaviors change, organizational issues occur, bonds and alliances are formed and lost, and even individual leadership behaviors change (Johnson and Johnson, 2008). Whether it be individuals, small groups, or large groups -- sometimes behavioral issues arise that cause conflict. Breaking one or more of these rules, however, or disagreeing with them to the point where it becomes unbearable or makes the group ineffective then becomes "conflictual" (Corey, 2008, pp. 149-51). This conflict happens in most cultures and some time or another. We see it in animal behavior as internal aggression. In some human cultures, while…
Let the record show that I am James X., Human Resource Manager for Zycon Corporation, a privately held corporation located in the City of Brisbane, Australia. Today is the 28th of June, 2011, and we are meeting with Mr. B., an employee of Zycon since March, 2001. Mr. B. has steadily worked his way up from a process worker to a section Forman since Spring 2008. Our meeting today is the result of a letter sent by Mr. B. demanding a review of a recent hiring decision made for Factory Manager. According to Mr. B's letter of June 10, 2011, Mr. B. feels that he did not receive the desired position promotion because of "discriminatory and unfair" labor practices, especially those from the Operations Manager. Reviewing the situation we find the following:
In April, 2011, due to corporate growth and efficiency studies, Zycon Corporation created a new position for our Brisbane Factory -- that Zycon believed it necessary to have an overall person who would be
onsidering that the old order in Ireland was in place since two millennia and had always been under the control of the Gaelic chieftains, their removal from the leadership of the provinces of Ireland by the English rown was destined to arise the resistance of the majority who sought support in the atholic world and especially hoped in the papal authority. urtis points out that the resistance against the protestant faith that built up after Elisabeth took over Munster and Ulster was coming not only from inside the respective Irish provinces, but also from the dissidents in Italy, Portugal, Spain and the Low countries. On one hand they were gathering in the spirit of preserving the old faith, on the other, the Irish and the Anglo-Irish who opposed the Reformation were changing their ways supported by the Jesuits who helping the process of transforming the faithful into fanatics. On the…
Cronin, Mike. A History of Ireland. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 2001.
Curtis, Edmund. A History of Ireland: From Earliest Times to 1922. London:
Theory vs. Ideology
What is ideology?
Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence. Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation. Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. wrong, just vs. unjust, and Evil Empire vs. God's Country. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its…
Cusac, Anne-Marie (2009). Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
(c) Based on what you learned in T205A concept file 02, and T551 Linear Programming:
what is meant by conflict, its nature and sources?
Conflict in psychological development theory offered by Erik Erikson is a dichotomy. It can act both as a means of moving ahead towards growth and development or on the other hand lead to a dead stop. A situation that one finds oneself in causes internal emotions that are in direct opposition to each other (Cherry). A conflict can hence result in decisions that are least anticipated, even by the individual afflicted by it. Individuals working in organizations, specially, face conflicting situations regularly even though they may not realize it. The participants in the ADEA Leadership Workshop sought out the sources of conflicts. In organizational behavior, it was evident that the younger generation was not disposed to aligning with the values professed by the senior…
1) Cherry. What Is Conflict. Available: http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/conflict.htm . Last accessed 25 Mar 2015.
2) Hoelscher & Comer. (2002). Case II: Conflict Recognition -- The Case of the Misdirected Faculty. Journal of Dental Education. 6 (4), 526-532
3) Collani. (2010). "Response to 'Desired and Feared -- What Do We Do Now and Over the Next 50 Years' by Xiao-Li Meng." The American Statistician. 64 (1), 23-25.
4) Tschiesche. (2012). Logical Thinking: How to use your brain to your advantage . Available: http://bookboon.com/blog/2012/02/logical-thinking-how-to-use-your-brain-to-your-advantage/ . Last accessed 25 Mar 2015.
I sometimes go for long periods of time where I do not talk to my brother, because it can just be too much stress. I still love my brother, but when the cost of maintaining that relationship becomes too high for me I start to re-evaluate it and withdraw.
Just understanding where these types of attitudes and conflicts come from has made me so much more aware of my own feelings, and what is going on inside of me that contributes to how I see others. Just understanding how these things work makes it easier for me to manage how I relate to others. I feel that I already caught myself getting mad the clerk at the coffee shop for taking too long with one of the customers in front of me, chatting away. I realized, though, that I was hungry and tired, and maybe if I was feeling better…
Conflict & Negotiation
The Bophuthatswana crisis of 1994
The Bophuthatswana crisis of 1994 entailed a devastating political crisis which started when the Bophuthatswana president, Lucas Mangope, made an attempt at crushing the widespread demonstrations and labor unrest from the people of South Africa as they demanded incorporation of the Bophuthatswana territory into the South African region pending the first multiracial election in 1994 (Holomisa, 2011; Lawrence & Manson1, 1994). Lucas Mangope was a Bantustan (Lentz, 2014). The crisis provoked violent protests after President Mangope made an announcement in 7th March 1994 to the effect that Bophuthatswana was intending to boycott the general elections in South Africa (Appiah & Gates, 2010). The violence quickly escalated into mutiny from local based armed forces and striking of civil servants. The crisis was further complicated when the right-wing extremists arrived with an intention to push for the preservation of Manope’s Bophuthatswana government (Cawthra, 1997).…
The other side of that coin is general competency and ability to do one's. Ignorance of how to do one's job correctly can unfairly or even irreecovactly change the lives of the people that stand to be affected by the work of a forensic psychologist and this would include children, people that have been injured, people that are at risk of violence but no actual violence has yet been proven and so forth. Being precise and adept with exquisite studying habits and attention to detail ia hallmark of any solid forensic psychologist and any of the same that are not on board with that need to find a new calling in life because forensic psychology should never be done half-way or half-you-know-what.
Finally, there is self-interest and this can be exceedingly dangerous. It is well-known that many forensic psychologists are hired by the court and they, as a result, should…
You can't simply say you're going to integrate the science of psychotherapy with scripture." Moore argues, "because there are only sciences and theories of psychotherapy that are contradictory and incoherent." The implication that pastoral care and counseling and not and have not been Biblical, Vicki Hollon, executive director of the Wayne Oates Institute in Louisville, insists, was creating a false dichotomy. Hollon contends that Southern officials created the proverbial straw man. "And their movement away from science reveals a lack of faith, or at least a fear that somehow science is outside the realm of God's creation and domain." Some secular counselors encourage clients, including those in marital counseling, to refrain from reading the Bible and to stop going to church if that made them feel worse. Stuart Scott, a former pastor and current professor and convert to biblical counseling, became disillusioned with the answers psychology gives. Scott states he…
Briggs, M.K., & Rayle, a.D. (2005). Incorporating Spirituality into Core Counseling Courses: Ideas for Classroom Application. Counseling and Values, 50(1), 63+. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019987790
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from: www.bartleby.com/66 / www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786083
Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.). (2003). Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786085 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786083
Daniel, R.L. (2003). Chapter 10 Counseling Men. In Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners, Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.) (pp. 189-207). New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786293 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005843832
Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).
Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach…
Giddens, A. (1997). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.
McLennan, G, Allanah, R., & Spoonley, P. (2000). Exploring society: Sociology
for New Zealand students. Auckland: Pearson.
Stephens, P., & Leach, A. (1998). Think Sociology. New York: Nelson Thornes.
Functionalism is usually defined as viewing society from the aspect of its different parts, and how those parts relate to each other and society as a whole. Many functionalists liken society to a biological form, such as the human body, with its different organs all working in conjunction to keep the body as a whole functioning. Each of the elements of the body has a "function- to maintain the whole, so ensuring the stability or order of the system." (Bissell, 2005, p.41) But while each element has a manifest function, or the function that is expected from it, there are also unexpected functions called latent functions.
On the other hand, Conflict Theory states that the different parts of a society are in a state of conflict over the limited resources available to society. While Functionalism stresses the unity between the different groups, "conflict theory emphasizes strife and friction"…
Anderson, Margaret, Howard Francis Taylor. (2008). Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Print.
Bissell, Paul, Janine Morgall Traulsen. (2005). Sociology and Pharmacy Practice. London: Pharmaceutical Press. Print.
Ritzer, George. (1992). Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw Hill. Print.
Sifferlin, Alexandra. (9 Dec. 2013). "Sandy Hook Families Seek Privacy On Anniversary
Town in Turmoil
A Town in Conflict
Every story can be told a number of different ways. Each person in a given narrative understands what went on from a particular perspective. Sometimes, if that person is especially perspicacious and especially curious, then she or he can see a particular event from the perspective or one or two other people. But the individual's perspective is always limited, and this is a good thing. If we cannot see the world from our own point-of-view then we have no hope of understanding our own virtues and vices, our own sense of cause and effect.
But it is also true that there is an important place in the world for understanding an event from a larger perspective. This is the role (or, at least, one of the roles) that scholarship plays in our lives. Scholarship provides that larger lens, that broader focus on the…
A town in turmoil. (2007). http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=389x1811248 .
Holmwood, J. (2005) Functionalism and its Critics in A. Harrington, A., (Ed.) Modern social theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Macionis, J.J. (2011). Society. (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
consensus vs. The conflict model
Consensus and Conflict Models
Compare and contrast the consensus model and the conflict model:
And how do both fall short?
The 'conflict'-based model of criminal justice theory views all of human society as inherently gripped by conflict, with a specific emphasis on class-based conflict. Marxism is the economic theory primarily associated with the conflict theory. Marxists take a broad, sweeping view of all of human global history as an eternal, polarized struggle between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots' of the world. The haves, which in modern, industrialized society are the bourgeois property-owners, try to hold onto their power by manipulating all existing political and economic structures to disenfranchise the have-nots.
Naturally, the have-nots of the world occasionally chafe against this control. But, they often do so ineffectually, through petty crimes and unorganized and organized criminal activities. Crime can actually act as a kind of 'safety'…
Gaines, Larry K. & Roger Le Roy Miller. (2011). Criminal justice in action. New York:
Wadsworth. Retrieved December 16, 2011 at http://instruct.westvalley.edu/smith/aj1handouts/gaines_chapter1.pdf
Greek, Cecil. (2005). Conflict theory. Criminal Theory Homepage.
Retrieved December 16, 2011 at http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/conflict.htm
Bronfenbrenner's four systems consist of microsystems (i.e. nuclear family, neighborhood, schools, etc.); mesosystems (i.e. The specific connections between the individual and microsystems); exosystems (i.e. external environment and circumstances such as the work experiences of the parents); and macrosystems (i.e. The larger elements of society such as national culture and political climate). The additional (fifth) system is the chronosystem (i.e. The long-term patterns that describe the lifetime experiences of the individual in society such as in relation to the other four systems).
Ehrenreich's observations and conclusions seem to most exemplify the influence and effects of Bronfenbrenner's exosystems and chronosystems. Specifically, the exosystems concept explains how damaging to the child it can be for a parent to work in demeaning and backbreaking work day after day, especially without realistic hope of improving the life circumstances of the family. The privations of poverty are compounded by the various detrimental consequences of primary caretakers…
The criminal justice system, according to Karl Marx, is thought to work for the rich while the resulting policies are more concerned with controlling the poor. Seigel and Welsh state that, "conflict theorists observe that while spending has been cut on social programs during the past few years, spending on the prison systems has skyrocketed." This leads to the conclusion that when there is a disparity between police and public and the rich and the poor, the conflict creates or influences antisocial or deviant behavior ( ).
The Secure Communities program exists in certain states and is a Department of Homeland Security initiative, which aims to identify and remove criminal aliens. Law enforcement officials in certain states will fingerprint every person booked into jail and those fingerprints will be run through Homeland Security's national database to check for illegal immigrant status. Morton believes the program could transform the face of…
Reavy, Pat. (2010) "Program aids to better identify illegal immigrants." Deseret News.
Retrieved on May 20, 2010, from the Website:
QUESTION THREE: "Is inequality of social classes inevitable?" The conflict theory put forward by Ralf Dahrendorf begins with a discussion of Marxism and the fact that in industry, the conflict between classes - the capitalist and proletariat (worker) - the worker had a natural inclination to be in conflict with the capitalists who were the authority, the bosses. The same kind of conflict carried over into the political realm as well, sometimes violent. The problem was that there was no system whereby conflicts could be resolved. But Marx's analysis, Dahrendorf goes on, was tainted because of his obsession with proletarian revolution.
At this point in his essay, Dahrendorf, though rejecting Marx in that context, asserts that since there are "interest groups" and "quasi-groups" those must then be considered "classes." And if there are classes, it is then logical to assume there will be groups, and quasi-groups that will always have…
Berger, Peter; & Luckmann, Thomas. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise
In the Sociology of Knowledge. Garden City NY: Anchor Books, pp. 51-55, 59-61.
Collins, Particia Hill. (1990). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Boston: UnwinHyman, pp. 221-238.
Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1959). Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford: Stanford
Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.
ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…
Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/
Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.
Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.
Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and…
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Public Policy Research 21(1). Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKiRnOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8Ryw-RdfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbROjWa5vU-CorRdw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWRScZuXra2PExRdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfRl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlRIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXRvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_ShxR7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbReyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Finally, the third of the theories expects the student to develop in accordance with the interaction he had previously developed with the teacher. If the interaction was based on mutual respect and true feelings of cherishing and honesty, with also hard work, the individual is expected to further succeed. If on the other hand the interaction had been based on less fortunate feelings, beliefs and actions, the individual is likely to develop in a manner frowned on by society.
Having to choose a philosophy I would most agree with, I would select realism. The philosophy, promoted by Aristotle, amongst other great thinkers of all times, is a mixture of social influences and personal characteristics. It states that each individual is formed based on the events that occurred in his vicinity, but also by how his personal features made him relate and comprehend those particular events. In other words, realism promotes…
Stevens, W., Functional and Conflict Theory: A Point-of-View, 2008, http://www.helium.com/items/828440-functional-and-conflict-theory-a-point-of-viewlast accessed on September 10, 2008
Webb L., Metha a., & Jordan, K. 2007. Foundations of American Education 5th edition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall
2008, Theories of Education, Cliff Notes, last accessed on September 10, 2008
The blue collar criminal faces much harsher consequences, even after the formal phase of their punishment is complete.
Social inequality can be seen in the punishments for various crimes. When the lower class commits a crime, such as theft, that threatens to dispossess the upper class, the punishments are much more severe than for "white collar" crimes. It is more likely that the white collar criminal is of higher socioeconomic status than the common thief. Therefore, these types of crimes are punished much less severely, once again to protect the status of the upper class. They must be able to take action, even if it is immoral to protect their social status. Any act that attempts to dispossess the wealthy of their material goods and status is viewed as much more "criminal" than when the wealthy attempt to further deprive the poor of material goods.
A prime example of social…
Doepke, M. & Zilibotti, F. (2005). Social Class and the Spirit of Capitalism. Paper 1277. The European Economic Association. 3(2-3), 516-524. Retrieved April 10, 2008 at http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3297&context=postprints
Dyer, Joel. (2000). The Perpetual Prisoner Machine: How America Profits From Crime. Boulder: Westview.
Mehlum, H., Moene, K., & Torvik, R. (2005). Crime induced poverty traps. Journal of Development Economics. 77 (2), 325-340. Retrieved April 11, 2003 at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VBV-4FTS34K-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=09d21c12671f63f5647177e201a01550 .
Neiman, F (2000). Coincidence or Causal Connection? The Relationship between Thomas Jefferson's Visits to Monticello and Sally Hemings's Conceptions. William and Mary Quarterly, 27 (2), 198-210.
' The researchers did include one anecdote of a South African woman of Indian ancestry, and how she dealt with the unconscious racism of her colleagues, drawing upon a positive sense of community solidarity and avoiding some of the negative emotions such conflicts spawned in others. But other than her comment that professionalism and a strong sense of family identity was helpful in emotionally coping with racism, her remarks were not specifically insightful about working in a global, international organization in a formerly segregated area of the world.
The conclusions of the article regarding what organizational forces positively impact and do not impact identity seem fairly vague and generalized, despite the advantage that a case study format can have in terms of studying a highly specific context. Communication is suggested as the key to broaching identity conflicts, as well as having formal sensitivity training and grievance procedures. Although these…
Mayer, Claude H. (2009). Managing conflicts through strength of identity. Management Revue.
Retrieved through FindArticles.com on January 21, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5454/is_200907/ai_n42039398/
ational choice theory can in fact encompass the other two previously mentioned theories of criminal behavior due to the fact that acting rational may include conflicting with common culture or joining the neighborhood gang to eventually escape the ghetto.
Of all the theories of criminal behavior studied so far, rational choice theory is the most applicable to the current state of society in my opinion. Much too often criminals are often dismissed for their faults, when in actuality they are truly acting rational and within their known boundaries of experience. Blanket laws do little good when examining them under this theory. Followers of rational choice theory would agree that changes within the criminal justice system should be made to expose the relative circumstances surrounding each case and not assuming that common punishments meet the required solution for the problem. Warner tended to agree: "building stronger communities will require not…
Kurbin (nd). "Sociological Theories of Criminal Behavior II."
Warner, B. (2003). The role of attenuated culture in social disorganization theory. Criminology, 41(1), 73 -- 98.
Consensus and Conflict Views of Crime
The consensus view of crime is that crime is equally abhorrent to all elements of society. Therefore, the criminal law, particularly what is criminalized and the proposed punishments for those crimes, is believed to reflect the thoughts of society as a whole. Consensus is used because it reflects the idea that there is general agreement among people about the laws. "According to this particular view, the written rule that defines crimes in correlation with punishments is properly known as the substantive criminal law which ultimately reflects the opinions, beliefs, and values of mainstream society" (McGrath, 2009). The consensus model depends on the idea that society is an integrated whole that seeks stability. Society rests upon the consent of the members. Moreover, individual elements in society contribute to the good of society as a show. In a consensus model, law becomes more important as society…
McGrath, J. (2009). Theories of crime. Retrieved October 12, 2011 from Associated Content
Yahoo! website: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1680737/theories_of_crime.html
Siegel, L. (2006). Criminology: theories, patterns, and typologies. Retrieved October 12, 2011
from the University of Denver website: https://portfolio.du.edu/portfolio/getportfoliofile?fiuid=25903
From a functionalist perspective, colleges are crucial parts or systems in the society because it promotes and makes possible education for the society. However, from a conflict theory standpoint, colleges can be considered structures or systems through which only those with access to education continue to perpetuate the 'oppression' of the "have-nots" -- people who cannot afford a college education. Symbolic interactionism, meanwhile, looks at colleges as an important tradition and process in the American society, wherein people are expected to be educated and go through the process of entering and having a college education, towards the goal of becoming a productive and/or learned member of the society. Primarily, symbolic interactionism focuses on the tradition of continuing education, and education as a critical part of every person's being and identity in his/her society.
enzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and…
Renzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Sociological Class Theories - ush
In every society, people are grouped into a variety of categories in order to determine how they earn a living, and how much they earn that actually affects or is affected by the economy. This kind of social stratification is common in virtually all of modern societies, but social class theories can help explain or provide some insight as to why a certain economy works smoothly or inadequately. In effect, the real question becomes, is each social class being served fairly, or does one appear to have a class advantage over the others? The three primary theories of social class are 1) conflict, 2) functionalist, and 3) interactionist. If we examine George ush's economic policies we'd notice that these were implemented for the express purpose of benefiting the upper classes even though tax cuts may at first glance, seem like an equal benefit for all.…
Kornblum, William. Sociology in a Changing World Sixth edition New York: Thomson-Wadsworth, 2002.
Greider, William. "Bush's Touchy-Feely Economics: The Rich Still Get Richer and the Rest Get the Shaft, But It's Done in a Friendlier Way" The Nation (August 7, 2000) v271 i5 p24.
Herbert, Bob "There's A Catch: Jobs" New York Times (Oct 27, 2003) A21.
Graham Jill and Charlie Mitchell. "Pivotal Events in Congress" National Journal Feb 10, 2001 v33 i6 p416
The issues of race and its ramifications are some of the most pressing issues facing American society today, and will continue to challenge us in the decades to come. Of course, issues of race and socio-economic stratification have always been of vast importance, but in America the problems are magnified since the country and its people pride themselves on being a true melting pot, and the reality does not always match the ideals.
One way of examining race is the functionalist theory or perspective. The functionalist theory of social inequality contends that stratification exists because it is beneficial for society. Society must focus on and with human motivation because the duties associated with the various statuses are not all equally pleasant to the human species, important to social survival, and in need of the same abilities and talents.
In other words, society depends on certain types of people…
After all, a person's sense of self-worth depends on feeling competent and able to influence what is happening in one's life. How much power we perceive ourselves to have directly influences our sense of self-esteem.
In a discussion of power currencies, Hocker & Wilmot (2007) say how much power we have depends on whether we have "currencies" other people want. In other words your power over another person rests on your having something to give them that they need. For example, in the days when women had few rights and little power in their marriages, they did have sex (a valuable currency), which they could give or withhold in order to exert power. But it depends on the relationship what the currency is. Sex isn't a currency in a business relationship, for instance, and perhaps it shouldn't be used as a currency in an intimate relationship.
Every person has potential…
Hocker, J.L. And Wilmot, W.W. (2007). Interpersonal conflict. Seventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).
ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…
Adams, Bert, et al. Sociological theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. 2001. Print.
Calhoun, Craig, et al. Contemporary sociological theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.
Dunaway, Wilma. Emerging Issues in the 21st Century World-system: New theoretical directions for the 21st century world-system. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood
Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).
In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…
Henslin, J.M. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
Thus, even "victimless" deviant activities are regulated through various methods of formal and informal control. The deviancy ascribed to Brenda's teen pregnancy, for example, stems largely from the way she challenges the norms regarding sexual behavior. Conflict theorists believe that laws and norms do not reflect values of society as a whole, but only of the dominant segment.
Similarly, it could be said that Brenda's drug habit is a victimless crime. If she pursues reasonable precautions, such as avoiding driving and staying in a private place, her drug use does not differ much from smoking or alcohol consumption. However, since drug use is frowned upon by the social elite, Brenda is seen as a criminal.
Similar to conflict and Marxist theories, feminist theorists see much social inequity in society.
This social inequity is one that divides the sexes. Early on in Brenda's life, the loss of job of…
Criminal Justice System; Theorist Perspective
Analysis of the Broken Window Theory
The broken window model is a brainchild of Wilson Kelling as he described it in his article way back in 1982. The article capitalizes on supposed essence of disorder such as a broken window in encouraging serious crime. Although there is no direct correlation between disorder and serious crime, it leads to a heightened level of fear that inspires one to withdraw from society. Consequently, the scenario leads to crime because informal social control is then reduced.
The police can intervene in such a scenario effectively. They can focus on less serious crime and disorder in communities that are not known for serious crime and effectively quash incidences of withdrawal and fear by residents. Encouraging informal social control among these communities can enhance the responsibilities of such communities in taking control of events in their neighborhood and forestalling crime.…
CEBCP. (2013). Broken Windows Policing. Retrieved from Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy: http://cebcp.org/evidence-based-policing/what-works-in-policing/research-evidence-review/broken-windows-policing/
Foster, D. (2015, August 15). 'Guaranteed Conflict Theory' As An Explanation For Why The Police Keep Killing Black People. Retrieved from Politicus USA: http://www.politicususa.com/2014/08/15/guaranteed-conflict-theory-explanation-police-killing-black-people.htmlx
Kelling, G. L., & Coles, C. M. (1998). Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order And Reducing Crime In Our Communities . Free Press.
Kelling, G. L., & Wilson, J. Q. (1982). Broken Windows: The police and neighborhood safety. The Atlantic.
Structural Violence Framework in International Conflict
A Structural Violence Framework for Understanding & Analyzing International Conflict
Introduction to Structural Violence
Structural violence is differentiated from direct violence both in terms of etiology and nature. Direct violence is a result of events or the actions of individuals that kill or harm people. Structural violence, on the other hand, is a phenomenon made manifest through social inequalities (Christie, 1997). The organizational structures of political and economic systems cause and sustain the sort of hierarchical relations that enable dramatic differences between and across sectors of societies. Within these hierarchies, the people at the top have privilege, wealth, and power, while those at the bottom of the hierarchy are dominated, oppressed, and exploited (Christie, 1997). People are harmed and killed as a result of structural violence but, unlike direct violence, it occurs more slowly. The harm or death of oppressed people may…
Addison, T. And Murshed, M. (2001). From conflict to reconstruction: Reviving the social contract. UNU/WIDER Discussion Paper No. 48, Helsinki: UNU/WIDER, Retrieved at www.wider.unu.edu / research.
Barak, G. (2003). Violence and nonviolence: Pathways to understanding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Retrieved http://www.greggbarak.com/custom3_2.html
Barak, G. (2007). A critical perspective on violence. In Walter S. DeKeseredy and Barbara Perry (2006) Advancing Critical Criminology: Theory and Application, Lexington Books.
Bohman, J. (2010). Critical theory, [Web], The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved http://plato.stanford.edu/archives / spr2010/entries/critical-theory
human services administrator and the conflict situation you selected from the Roundtable Discussion. Then explain how you, as a human services administrator, might approach conflict in the selected situation to facilitate productivity and creativity. Be specific. inally, explain any insights you had or conclusions you drew related to using conflict as a tool for human services administration.
Social conflict occurs when two or more individuals oppose something within a social interaction. Conflict is part of human nature, and, as such, may be mitigated or managed through a variety of theories and psychological techniques. Conflict theory, for instance, emphasizes individual interests rather than norms of value: society is composed of groups that struggle to pursue their own interests and will use whatever advantage possible to pursue their goals. This has given rise to a number of theories -- including economic theories of production and exploitation (Marx) and the way that groups…
For instance, in the conflict scenario, Holly underscores the idea that conflict is important; it is how it is channeled and how it can be used to help individuals grow and develop. Further, if we think about modern business structures, we can see how tremendously complex they can be. There are pressures to remain profitable, to produce more, to be innovative, and to do far more with less staff. If we take this further though, we can view conflict as a necessary part of the organization, a necessary and important part of being human. Further, leaders can shape the culture of an organization by encouraging conflict as part of the new "innovation culture" (Gelfand, et.al., 2010).
In most cases, innovation is not clean, neat, and pretty. Instead, by its very nature, it is disruptive to the patterns and procedures within an organization. Often, this disruption takes the form of dissent -- meaning that individuals prefer to go in a different direction or pattern than the status quo. The difficulty for most managers, and all levels, is to encourage dissent without feeling threatened by it. As the axiom of a wise CEO said, "I don't shoot messengers -- that's why I have them."
In the Human Services scenario, Andrea had a situation in which two staffers were extremely critical of how the other performed their job. To mitigate this, Andrea had the two switch jobs -- and the problem actually diminished and the two became closer. This was an extremely effective and innovative management tool that had larger ramifications than just the jobs the two were doing. In human nature dissent does not always stay confined to areas that managers and owners find agreeable or even acceptable. However, the human psyche works in a way that it is typically "all or nothing" when giving an opinion. It is not typically possible to find an organizational culture that encourages dissent and free thinking -- but only in limited subjects defined by management. By walking in one another's shoes for a bit, they could each appreciate a better way to collaborate effectively. After all, particularly in non-profit organizations, each person should fully realize that they are working for something grander than themselves -- and most would seem to have