Conflict Theory Essays (Examples)

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Conflict and Functionalist Perspectives Regarding

Words: 782 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78394459

It is through the conflict theory that class systems are seen. It is the elite of society that dictates the rules to the masses. Institutions that are created are done so as a means of supporting those who are in power and those who are seen as superior within society. Any action that challenges those in power is perceived as deviant and discouraged. Conflict theory centers on: competition over scarce resources, inequalities in power, change as a result of conflict, and war as a unifier of society and an ender of societies ("Conflict theory," n.d.).

Prison institutions are easily understood in this view of society.

The elite of society need a way to maintain control of the individuals below them, utilizing the conflict paradigm.

Prison serves as punishment of those who deviate from the rules set forth, as well as serves as a deterrent for those who may be considering…… [Read More]

References

Conflict theory. (No date). Retrieved October 10, 2007, at    http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm   .

Holmwood, J. (2005). "Functionalism and its critics," in Harrington, a. (ed), Modern social theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Conflict and Functionalist Perspectives Regarding America's Incarceration Population
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Conflict on Various Levels Is

Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88239712

The same might be said for those who committed torture in the Nazi camps.

Importantly, Austin et al. (2004, p. 161) note that both violence and non-violence are cumulative in nature. It is therefore important to recognize that the existence of violence perpetuates further violence, while the same is true for non-violence. This is also an important recognition in the international sphere.

Schelling (1960, p. 53) notes that international violence an also be manifest in terms of the concept of "limited war." This means that short conflicts could result when agreements cannot be reached within a certain amount of time. On the other hand, the limited war also requires some degree of mutual recognition or acquiescence. Once war begins, negotiation and communication among adversaries become difficult. The recent situation and Egypt and the current situation in Libya appear to be cases in point for this assertion.

Finally, in international relations,…… [Read More]

References

Baldwin, D.A. (2002). Power and International Relations. Handbook of International Relations, editors Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T. And Simmons, B.A. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE

Schelling, T. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Barak, G. (2003). Violence and Nonviolence: Pathways to Understanding, Sage Publications.

Azar, E. (1990) the Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and Cases. Bookfield, VT: Gower Pub. Co.
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Conflict Paradigm Key Figures and

Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81653468

From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution. The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure." (Marx, p. 1)

This ideology would give way to more focused application of the Conflict Paradigm in smaller-scale contexts. For example, the text by Dhami & Olsson (2008) reports, Egon Brunswick first and Kenneth Hammond thereafter, would be instrumental in making the Social Conflict Theory applicable to interpersonal relations. Here, both thinkers advanced the concept that conflict may be understood also as the natural state of relations between individuals. This conflict may not be inherently hostile in nature but both thinkers bring research to the notion that 'cognitive conflict' finds individuals sometimes at cross-purposes even when working cooperatively. The text by Dhami & Olsson notes, "for instance, different parties may have…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Dhami, M.K. & Olsson, H. (2008). Evolution of the Interpersonal Conflict Paradigm. Judgment and Decision Making, 3(7).

Marx, K. (1859). A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Marxists.org.
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Conflict and Security Current Situation

Words: 3159 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96896569

Political, financial and most of all ethnic interest are going to "to further muddle the results. Perhaps most dangerous is that the results did not yield a Parliament whose ethnic proportions match those of the country, and will therefore be perceived as unfair, whether the seats were won by fraud or not." (ubin, 2010).

The other two perspectives to be taken into account in terms of the development of the Afghani society revolves around the social and the economic aspects of the country. As in every economy, there is a clear connection between the way in which the economy develops and the degree to which the society evolves.

In terms of economic prospects, Afghanistan is at the moment still the largest producer of cocaine. "In 2002, Afghanistan returned to its position as the world's foremost producer of heroin. The 2002 crop reached an estimated 3,400 mt., a 540% increase on…… [Read More]

References

Filkens, Dexter."Taliban Elite, Aided by NATO, Join Talks for Afghan Peace." The New York Times. 2010. Accessed at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/20/world/asia/20afghan.html?hp=&pagewanted=print

Jones, Seth. "The Rise of Afghanistan's Insurgency: State Failure and Jihah" International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Spring 2008), pp. 7 -- 40.

RAND Corporation. "Afghanistan." America's role in nation building. From Germany to Iraq. 2004. 129-148.

Rotberg, Weak and failing states: critical new security issues. n.d.
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Theories of Criminal Justice

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73487615

CIME

Criminal Justice System

Crime and the law

Crime, from the perspective of the criminal justice system, may be defined as violations of the law. What constitutes a criminal violation in one nation is not necessarily the case in all nations; also, an action may be unethical without actually being criminal. The social determinant of what constitutes crime requires a balancing of the rights of the individual to freedom with the need for society to maintain some sense of social order. Those who seek personal freedoms and civil rights are often at war within the criminal justice system with those who desire social order (Schmalleger 2015: 9). The goals of the criminal justice system are to create a sense of justice or fairness but this ideal must likewise be balanced with the need for order (Schmalleger 2015: 10). For example, it might be necessary to let an obviously guilty person…… [Read More]

References

Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century. (13th

ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA:

Curriculum Technology.
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Theory vs Creativity in Design Leaders Have

Words: 2363 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 863919

Theory vs. Creativity in Design

Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.

How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates

Integrity and…… [Read More]

References

American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from  http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51 

Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.

Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.

DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
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Conflict Our Interpretations Mediation Strategies and Communication

Words: 4710 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22152596

CONFLICT

Our interpretations, Mediation Strategies and Communication Types

The Nature of Conflict -- an introduction

hat is Conflict?

Conflict as Perception

Conflict as Feeling

Conflict as Actions

hat causes conflict?

Communication

Emotions

Values

Structure

Positive Communication

Interpersonal Conflict

Intrapersonal Conflict

Link between Interpersonal Conflicts and Effective Communication

Mediation and Dispute Resolution

The Nature of Conflict -- An introduction:

Conflict is a naturally existing problem in our society and the world as a whole. Conflict exists at all levels and it is so a certain extent quite natural and inevitable. ith a functionalist approach, it can be said that the existence of conflict is somewhat important for the society. It is however an understatement to say that we live amidst conflict. Conflict is present at every level in society and people at every second are reassuring each other as to how they are having a "discussion" instead of a conflict when…… [Read More]

Work Cited:

Bellafiore, Donna. 2010. Interpersonal Conflict and effective communication. Journal.

Bolton, R. (1986). People skills: How to assert yourself, listen to others, and resolve conflicts

(2nd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 067162248X

Cesaratto, T., (2006). The Good Will Hunting technique. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 3, 307.328.
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Conflict and Security in the

Words: 2130 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6129801

This was in keeping with the Marxist principle of a classless society. In the United Nations, the United States has had an equal standing with other nations such as ritain, France, and the Soviet Union. The United States has participated in United Nations actions and made a show of being a part of the international community while maintaining its superpower status outside of the United Nations' walls. In light of new global political conditions that emphasize global cooperation and governance, rather than government (aylis & Smith, 13), the United Nations still has an important role to play, and the United States has a role to play in it.

While the United States continues to be a member of the United Nations, it is no longer really a true team player. The United States, while still making a show of belonging to the United Nations, now more closely follows the principle…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baylis, J & Smith, S 2005, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hirst, P 2001, War and Power in the 21st Century, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Janis, Irving 1982, Groupthink, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Kaldor, M 1999, New Wars and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Stanford University, Stanford.
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Conflict and Negotiation

Words: 733 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93280726

Conflict and Negotiation

Examples of conflict abound in the movie "Glory." Colonel Shaw, acted by Matthew Broderick, employs both transformational and transactional leadership methods to achieve resolution to these conflicts. The movie uses the conflict of the Civil War as its' underlying canvas. What more appropriate theatre to understand human conflict, on every level, could there be?

The Civil War is a conflict of ideologies, aspirations, beliefs, and goals of a divided nation. Yet, these very same conflicts play out between the members of the 54th Massachusetts. Broderick, as Colonel Shaw, begins his leadership experience before the formation of the 54th Massachusetts. He is an abolitionist. He grew up with "people of color" in his household.

His first conflict is within himself. Can he accept the overwhelming responsibility of leading the first black troops, after his vicious experiences at Antietam? He leaves the celebration given in his honor to resolve…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=22910490

Coombs, C.H., & Avrunin, G.S. (1988). The Structure of Conflict. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27155862

Rosenbach, W.E., & Taylor, R.L. (Eds.). (1998). Contemporary Issues in Leadership (4th ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14114268

Schelling, T.C. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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Conflict in the Workplace One of the

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30916032

Conflict in the Workplace

One of the things that makes us human is our need and ability to form groups. We thrive in groups, merge into groups, and even the process of civilization and moving from hunter-gatherers to cities was part of group behavior. owever, when groups form, any number of interesting psychological issues occur: behaviors change, organizational issues occur, bonds and alliances are formed and lost, and even individual leadership behaviors change (Johnson and Johnson, 2008). Whether it be individuals, small groups, or large groups -- sometimes behavioral issues arise that cause conflict. Breaking one or more of these rules, however, or disagreeing with them to the point where it becomes unbearable or makes the group ineffective then becomes "conflictual" (Corey, 2008, pp. 149-51). This conflict happens in most cultures and some time or another. We see it in animal behavior as internal aggression. In some human cultures, while…… [Read More]

HR:

Let the record show that I am James X., Human Resource Manager for Zycon Corporation, a privately held corporation located in the City of Brisbane, Australia. Today is the 28th of June, 2011, and we are meeting with Mr. B., an employee of Zycon since March, 2001. Mr. B. has steadily worked his way up from a process worker to a section Forman since Spring 2008. Our meeting today is the result of a letter sent by Mr. B. demanding a review of a recent hiring decision made for Factory Manager. According to Mr. B's letter of June 10, 2011, Mr. B. feels that he did not receive the desired position promotion because of "discriminatory and unfair" labor practices, especially those from the Operations Manager. Reviewing the situation we find the following:

In April, 2011, due to corporate growth and efficiency studies, Zycon Corporation created a new position for our Brisbane Factory -- that Zycon believed it necessary to have an overall person who would be
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Conflict Between Protestants and Catholics

Words: 2636 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97872977

onsidering that the old order in Ireland was in place since two millennia and had always been under the control of the Gaelic chieftains, their removal from the leadership of the provinces of Ireland by the English rown was destined to arise the resistance of the majority who sought support in the atholic world and especially hoped in the papal authority. urtis points out that the resistance against the protestant faith that built up after Elisabeth took over Munster and Ulster was coming not only from inside the respective Irish provinces, but also from the dissidents in Italy, Portugal, Spain and the Low countries. On one hand they were gathering in the spirit of preserving the old faith, on the other, the Irish and the Anglo-Irish who opposed the Reformation were changing their ways supported by the Jesuits who helping the process of transforming the faithful into fanatics. On the…… [Read More]

Cronin, Mike. A History of Ireland. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 2001.

Curtis, Edmund. A History of Ireland: From Earliest Times to 1922. London:

Routledge, 2002.
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Theory vs Ideology What Is Ideology Ideology

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45628837

Theory vs. Ideology

What is ideology?

Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence. Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation. Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. wrong, just vs. unjust, and Evil Empire vs. God's Country. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cusac, Anne-Marie (2009). Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
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Conflict Its Nature and Sources

Words: 2694 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22853643

Conflict esolution

(c) Based on what you learned in T205A concept file 02, and T551 Linear Programming:

what is meant by conflict, its nature and sources?

Conflict in psychological development theory offered by Erik Erikson is a dichotomy. It can act both as a means of moving ahead towards growth and development or on the other hand lead to a dead stop. A situation that one finds oneself in causes internal emotions that are in direct opposition to each other (Cherry). A conflict can hence result in decisions that are least anticipated, even by the individual afflicted by it. Individuals working in organizations, specially, face conflicting situations regularly even though they may not realize it. The participants in the ADEA Leadership Workshop sought out the sources of conflicts. In organizational behavior, it was evident that the younger generation was not disposed to aligning with the values professed by the senior…… [Read More]

References

1) Cherry. What Is Conflict. Available: http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/conflict.htm. Last accessed 25 Mar 2015.

2) Hoelscher & Comer. (2002). Case II: Conflict Recognition -- The Case of the Misdirected Faculty. Journal of Dental Education. 6 (4), 526-532

3) Collani. (2010). "Response to 'Desired and Feared -- What Do We Do Now and Over the Next 50 Years' by Xiao-Li Meng." The American Statistician. 64 (1), 23-25.

4) Tschiesche. (2012). Logical Thinking: How to use your brain to your advantage . Available: http://bookboon.com/blog/2012/02/logical-thinking-how-to-use-your-brain-to-your-advantage/. Last accessed 25 Mar 2015.
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Conflict Management I Was Pleased

Words: 516 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93587526

I sometimes go for long periods of time where I do not talk to my brother, because it can just be too much stress. I still love my brother, but when the cost of maintaining that relationship becomes too high for me I start to re-evaluate it and withdraw.

Just understanding where these types of attitudes and conflicts come from has made me so much more aware of my own feelings, and what is going on inside of me that contributes to how I see others. Just understanding how these things work makes it easier for me to manage how I relate to others. I feel that I already caught myself getting mad the clerk at the coffee shop for taking too long with one of the customers in front of me, chatting away. I realized, though, that I was hungry and tired, and maybe if I was feeling better…… [Read More]

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Conflicts & Dilemma the Author

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35935032

The other side of that coin is general competency and ability to do one's. Ignorance of how to do one's job correctly can unfairly or even irreecovactly change the lives of the people that stand to be affected by the work of a forensic psychologist and this would include children, people that have been injured, people that are at risk of violence but no actual violence has yet been proven and so forth. Being precise and adept with exquisite studying habits and attention to detail ia hallmark of any solid forensic psychologist and any of the same that are not on board with that need to find a new calling in life because forensic psychology should never be done half-way or half-you-know-what.

Finally, there is self-interest and this can be exceedingly dangerous. It is well-known that many forensic psychologists are hired by the court and they, as a result, should…… [Read More]

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Conflicts in Marital Counseling Although

Words: 5050 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54799142



You can't simply say you're going to integrate the science of psychotherapy with scripture." Moore argues, "because there are only sciences and theories of psychotherapy that are contradictory and incoherent." The implication that pastoral care and counseling and not and have not been Biblical, Vicki Hollon, executive director of the Wayne Oates Institute in Louisville, insists, was creating a false dichotomy. Hollon contends that Southern officials created the proverbial straw man. "And their movement away from science reveals a lack of faith, or at least a fear that somehow science is outside the realm of God's creation and domain." Some secular counselors encourage clients, including those in marital counseling, to refrain from reading the Bible and to stop going to church if that made them feel worse. Stuart Scott, a former pastor and current professor and convert to biblical counseling, became disillusioned with the answers psychology gives. Scott states he…… [Read More]

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019987790

Briggs, M.K., & Rayle, a.D. (2005). Incorporating Spirituality into Core Counseling Courses: Ideas for Classroom Application. Counseling and Values, 50(1), 63+. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019987790

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from: www.bartleby.com/66 / www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786083

Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.). (2003). Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786085 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786083

Daniel, R.L. (2003). Chapter 10 Counseling Men. In Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners, Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.) (pp. 189-207). New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786293 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005843832
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Sociological Theories Have Helped Widen People's Scope

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10234738

Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).

Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach…… [Read More]

References List

Giddens, A. (1997). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.

McLennan, G, Allanah, R., & Spoonley, P. (2000). Exploring society: Sociology

for New Zealand students. Auckland: Pearson.

Stephens, P., & Leach, A. (1998). Think Sociology. New York: Nelson Thornes.
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Sociological Theories Functionalism Is Usually Defined as

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46881781

Sociological Theories

Functionalism is usually defined as viewing society from the aspect of its different parts, and how those parts relate to each other and society as a whole. Many functionalists liken society to a biological form, such as the human body, with its different organs all working in conjunction to keep the body as a whole functioning. Each of the elements of the body has a "function- to maintain the whole, so ensuring the stability or order of the system." (Bissell, 2005, p.41) But while each element has a manifest function, or the function that is expected from it, there are also unexpected functions called latent functions.

On the other hand, Conflict Theory states that the different parts of a society are in a state of conflict over the limited resources available to society. While Functionalism stresses the unity between the different groups, "conflict theory emphasizes strife and friction"…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Margaret, Howard Francis Taylor. (2008). Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Print.

Bissell, Paul, Janine Morgall Traulsen. (2005). Sociology and Pharmacy Practice. London: Pharmaceutical Press. Print.

Ritzer, George. (1992). Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw Hill. Print.

Sifferlin, Alexandra. (9 Dec. 2013). "Sandy Hook Families Seek Privacy On Anniversary
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Town in Turmoil a Town in Conflict

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66974795

Town in Turmoil

A Town in Conflict

Every story can be told a number of different ways. Each person in a given narrative understands what went on from a particular perspective. Sometimes, if that person is especially perspicacious and especially curious, then she or he can see a particular event from the perspective or one or two other people. But the individual's perspective is always limited, and this is a good thing. If we cannot see the world from our own point-of-view then we have no hope of understanding our own virtues and vices, our own sense of cause and effect.

But it is also true that there is an important place in the world for understanding an event from a larger perspective. This is the role (or, at least, one of the roles) that scholarship plays in our lives. Scholarship provides that larger lens, that broader focus on the…… [Read More]

References

A town in turmoil. (2007). http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=389x1811248.

Holmwood, J. (2005) Functionalism and its Critics in A. Harrington, A., (Ed.) Modern social theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Macionis, J.J. (2011). Society. (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
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Consensus and Conflict Models

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95026946

consensus vs. The conflict model

Consensus and Conflict Models

Compare and contrast the consensus model and the conflict model:

And how do both fall short?

The 'conflict'-based model of criminal justice theory views all of human society as inherently gripped by conflict, with a specific emphasis on class-based conflict. Marxism is the economic theory primarily associated with the conflict theory. Marxists take a broad, sweeping view of all of human global history as an eternal, polarized struggle between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots' of the world. The haves, which in modern, industrialized society are the bourgeois property-owners, try to hold onto their power by manipulating all existing political and economic structures to disenfranchise the have-nots.

Naturally, the have-nots of the world occasionally chafe against this control. But, they often do so ineffectually, through petty crimes and unorganized and organized criminal activities. Crime can actually act as a kind of 'safety'…… [Read More]

References

Gaines, Larry K. & Roger Le Roy Miller. (2011). Criminal justice in action. New York:

Wadsworth. Retrieved December 16, 2011 at http://instruct.westvalley.edu/smith/aj1handouts/gaines_chapter1.pdf

Greek, Cecil. (2005). Conflict theory. Criminal Theory Homepage.

Retrieved December 16, 2011 at http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/conflict.htm
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Macroeconomic Theories and Nickel and

Words: 1683 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1337146



Bronfenbrenner's four systems consist of microsystems (i.e. nuclear family, neighborhood, schools, etc.); mesosystems (i.e. The specific connections between the individual and microsystems); exosystems (i.e. external environment and circumstances such as the work experiences of the parents); and macrosystems (i.e. The larger elements of society such as national culture and political climate). The additional (fifth) system is the chronosystem (i.e. The long-term patterns that describe the lifetime experiences of the individual in society such as in relation to the other four systems).

Ehrenreich's observations and conclusions seem to most exemplify the influence and effects of Bronfenbrenner's exosystems and chronosystems. Specifically, the exosystems concept explains how damaging to the child it can be for a parent to work in demeaning and backbreaking work day after day, especially without realistic hope of improving the life circumstances of the family. The privations of poverty are compounded by the various detrimental consequences of primary caretakers…… [Read More]

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Sociological Theories the Adfc Program

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53003570

The criminal justice system, according to Karl Marx, is thought to work for the rich while the resulting policies are more concerned with controlling the poor. Seigel and Welsh state that, "conflict theorists observe that while spending has been cut on social programs during the past few years, spending on the prison systems has skyrocketed." This leads to the conclusion that when there is a disparity between police and public and the rich and the poor, the conflict creates or influences antisocial or deviant behavior ( ).

The Secure Communities program exists in certain states and is a Department of Homeland Security initiative, which aims to identify and remove criminal aliens. Law enforcement officials in certain states will fingerprint every person booked into jail and those fingerprints will be run through Homeland Security's national database to check for illegal immigrant status. Morton believes the program could transform the face of…… [Read More]

References

Reavy, Pat. (2010) "Program aids to better identify illegal immigrants." Deseret News.

Retrieved on May 20, 2010, from the Website:

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20100401/ai_n53004413/?tag=rel.

res2
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Sociology Theories How Do Berger

Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98964612



QUESTION THREE: "Is inequality of social classes inevitable?" The conflict theory put forward by Ralf Dahrendorf begins with a discussion of Marxism and the fact that in industry, the conflict between classes - the capitalist and proletariat (worker) - the worker had a natural inclination to be in conflict with the capitalists who were the authority, the bosses. The same kind of conflict carried over into the political realm as well, sometimes violent. The problem was that there was no system whereby conflicts could be resolved. But Marx's analysis, Dahrendorf goes on, was tainted because of his obsession with proletarian revolution.

At this point in his essay, Dahrendorf, though rejecting Marx in that context, asserts that since there are "interest groups" and "quasi-groups" those must then be considered "classes." And if there are classes, it is then logical to assume there will be groups, and quasi-groups that will always have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berger, Peter; & Luckmann, Thomas. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise

In the Sociology of Knowledge. Garden City NY: Anchor Books, pp. 51-55, 59-61.

Collins, Particia Hill. (1990). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Boston: UnwinHyman, pp. 221-238.

Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1959). Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford: Stanford
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Crime Theories Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773820

Crime Theories

Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.

ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]

References

Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/

Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.

Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.

Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
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Conference Theories to Support Conference

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89997042

A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.

eferences

Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ

Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.

Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow

Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA

Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and…… [Read More]

References

Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Public Policy Research 21(1). Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKiRnOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8Ryw-RdfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbROjWa5vU-CorRdw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ

Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.

Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWRScZuXra2PExRdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfRl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlRIUDHqnfiObow

Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXRvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_ShxR7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbReyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
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Educational Theories Historically There Have

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1538673

Finally, the third of the theories expects the student to develop in accordance with the interaction he had previously developed with the teacher. If the interaction was based on mutual respect and true feelings of cherishing and honesty, with also hard work, the individual is expected to further succeed. If on the other hand the interaction had been based on less fortunate feelings, beliefs and actions, the individual is likely to develop in a manner frowned on by society.

Having to choose a philosophy I would most agree with, I would select realism. The philosophy, promoted by Aristotle, amongst other great thinkers of all times, is a mixture of social influences and personal characteristics. It states that each individual is formed based on the events that occurred in his vicinity, but also by how his personal features made him relate and comprehend those particular events. In other words, realism promotes…… [Read More]

References

Stevens, W., Functional and Conflict Theory: A Point-of-View, 2008, http://www.helium.com/items/828440-functional-and-conflict-theory-a-point-of-viewlast accessed on September 10, 2008

Webb L., Metha a., & Jordan, K. 2007. Foundations of American Education 5th edition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall

2008, Theories of Education, Cliff Notes, last accessed on September 10, 2008
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Poor and the Powerless Conflict

Words: 2582 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66643894

The blue collar criminal faces much harsher consequences, even after the formal phase of their punishment is complete.

Social inequality can be seen in the punishments for various crimes. When the lower class commits a crime, such as theft, that threatens to dispossess the upper class, the punishments are much more severe than for "white collar" crimes. It is more likely that the white collar criminal is of higher socioeconomic status than the common thief. Therefore, these types of crimes are punished much less severely, once again to protect the status of the upper class. They must be able to take action, even if it is immoral to protect their social status. Any act that attempts to dispossess the wealthy of their material goods and status is viewed as much more "criminal" than when the wealthy attempt to further deprive the poor of material goods.

A prime example of social…… [Read More]

References

Doepke, M. & Zilibotti, F. (2005). Social Class and the Spirit of Capitalism. Paper 1277. The European Economic Association. 3(2-3), 516-524. Retrieved April 10, 2008 at http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3297&context=postprints

Dyer, Joel. (2000). The Perpetual Prisoner Machine: How America Profits From Crime. Boulder: Westview.

Mehlum, H., Moene, K., & Torvik, R. (2005). Crime induced poverty traps. Journal of Development Economics. 77 (2), 325-340. Retrieved April 11, 2003 at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VBV-4FTS34K-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=09d21c12671f63f5647177e201a01550.

Neiman, F (2000). Coincidence or Causal Connection? The Relationship between Thomas Jefferson's Visits to Monticello and Sally Hemings's Conceptions. William and Mary Quarterly, 27 (2), 198-210.
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Social and Political Theory

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67504373

Social and Political History

How do the functionalist and conflict theories relate to the conceptualizations of government and sovereignty presented by Heywood? How much is enough government? What level of government do we need to get our collective business done? How much sovereignty is appropriate for the American government to have, particularly in view of terrorist threats in the post 9/11 environment? When does government and sovereignty interfere with the full functioning of individuals in a free society? When and how might government be used to favor particular groups within the social order at the expense of others? How might this kind of favoritism be covered up? How does politics reflect, magnify and sometimes even hid social conflict?

Answer:

The social or "conflict" theory is one that is based on "how society motivates people and places in their proper position in the stratification process. The political or "functionalist" theory focuses…… [Read More]

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Managing International Conflict Diversity in

Words: 1757 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79564218

' The researchers did include one anecdote of a South African woman of Indian ancestry, and how she dealt with the unconscious racism of her colleagues, drawing upon a positive sense of community solidarity and avoiding some of the negative emotions such conflicts spawned in others. But other than her comment that professionalism and a strong sense of family identity was helpful in emotionally coping with racism, her remarks were not specifically insightful about working in a global, international organization in a formerly segregated area of the world.

Conclusion

The conclusions of the article regarding what organizational forces positively impact and do not impact identity seem fairly vague and generalized, despite the advantage that a case study format can have in terms of studying a highly specific context. Communication is suggested as the key to broaching identity conflicts, as well as having formal sensitivity training and grievance procedures. Although these…… [Read More]

Reference

Mayer, Claude H. (2009). Managing conflicts through strength of identity. Management Revue.

Retrieved through FindArticles.com on January 21, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5454/is_200907/ai_n42039398/
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Social Theories of Crime Social

Words: 429 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75019591

ational choice theory can in fact encompass the other two previously mentioned theories of criminal behavior due to the fact that acting rational may include conflicting with common culture or joining the neighborhood gang to eventually escape the ghetto.

Conclusions

Of all the theories of criminal behavior studied so far, rational choice theory is the most applicable to the current state of society in my opinion. Much too often criminals are often dismissed for their faults, when in actuality they are truly acting rational and within their known boundaries of experience. Blanket laws do little good when examining them under this theory. Followers of rational choice theory would agree that changes within the criminal justice system should be made to expose the relative circumstances surrounding each case and not assuming that common punishments meet the required solution for the problem. Warner tended to agree: "building stronger communities will require not…… [Read More]

References

Kurbin (nd). "Sociological Theories of Criminal Behavior II."

Warner, B. (2003). The role of attenuated culture in social disorganization theory. Criminology, 41(1), 73 -- 98.
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Compare and Contrast the Consensus and Conflict Views of Law and Crime

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34580931

Consensus and Conflict Views of Crime

The consensus view of crime is that crime is equally abhorrent to all elements of society. Therefore, the criminal law, particularly what is criminalized and the proposed punishments for those crimes, is believed to reflect the thoughts of society as a whole. Consensus is used because it reflects the idea that there is general agreement among people about the laws. "According to this particular view, the written rule that defines crimes in correlation with punishments is properly known as the substantive criminal law which ultimately reflects the opinions, beliefs, and values of mainstream society" (McGrath, 2009). The consensus model depends on the idea that society is an integrated whole that seeks stability. Society rests upon the consent of the members. Moreover, individual elements in society contribute to the good of society as a show. In a consensus model, law becomes more important as society…… [Read More]

References

McGrath, J. (2009). Theories of crime. Retrieved October 12, 2011 from Associated Content

Yahoo! website: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1680737/theories_of_crime.html

Siegel, L. (2006). Criminology: theories, patterns, and typologies. Retrieved October 12, 2011

from the University of Denver website: https://portfolio.du.edu/portfolio/getportfoliofile?fiuid=25903
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Crime and Social Theory Deviance Interpreted by

Words: 1590 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21153466

Crime and Social Theory

Deviance Interpreted by Social Theories

Illicit Drug Use

Illicit drug use has historically been seen as a global threat towards society and a primary contributing factor for the prevalence other crimes, such as smuggling, home invasions, property crimes, assault, and murder. In 1969 President Nixon stated publicly that illicit drug use is a serious national problem and in 1971 declared the "War on Drugs" (National Public adio, 2007). Over the two decades since, other governments around the world, including the United Nations, followed suit, but differed substantially from the United States in how much emphasis was placed on deterrence through incarceration (Bewley-Taylor, Hallam, and Allen, 2009, p. 1).

Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use

An estimated 21.8 million Americans were using illicit drugs in 2009, which represents about 8.7% of the population (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2010, p. 1). Of these, 16.7 million used…… [Read More]

References

Bewley-Taylor, Dave, Hallam, Chris, and Allen, Rob. (2009). The incarceration of drug offenders: An Overview, Report Sixteen. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme, International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College of London, University of London. Retrieved June, 2011 from http://www.idpc.net/php-bin/documents/Beckley_Report_16_2_FINAL_EN.pdf

Giugliano, John. (2004). A sociohistorical perspective of sexual health: The clinician's role. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 11, 43-55.

Lo, Celia C. (2003). An application of social conflict theory to arrestees' use of cocaine and opiates. Journal of Drug Issues, 33, 237-266.

Mauer, Marc and King, Ryan S. (2007). A 25-year quagmire: The War on Drugs and its impact on American society. The Sentencing Project: Research and Advocacy for Reform. Retrieved June, 2011 at  http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/dp_25yearquagmire.pdf
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Sociological Theories Understanding Society Also

Words: 315 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83805486

From a functionalist perspective, colleges are crucial parts or systems in the society because it promotes and makes possible education for the society. However, from a conflict theory standpoint, colleges can be considered structures or systems through which only those with access to education continue to perpetuate the 'oppression' of the "have-nots" -- people who cannot afford a college education. Symbolic interactionism, meanwhile, looks at colleges as an important tradition and process in the American society, wherein people are expected to be educated and go through the process of entering and having a college education, towards the goal of becoming a productive and/or learned member of the society. Primarily, symbolic interactionism focuses on the tradition of continuing education, and education as a critical part of every person's being and identity in his/her society.

eference

enzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and…… [Read More]

Reference

Renzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and Bacon.
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Sociological Class Theories

Words: 1940 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41664843

Sociological Class Theories - ush

In every society, people are grouped into a variety of categories in order to determine how they earn a living, and how much they earn that actually affects or is affected by the economy. This kind of social stratification is common in virtually all of modern societies, but social class theories can help explain or provide some insight as to why a certain economy works smoothly or inadequately. In effect, the real question becomes, is each social class being served fairly, or does one appear to have a class advantage over the others? The three primary theories of social class are 1) conflict, 2) functionalist, and 3) interactionist. If we examine George ush's economic policies we'd notice that these were implemented for the express purpose of benefiting the upper classes even though tax cuts may at first glance, seem like an equal benefit for all.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kornblum, William. Sociology in a Changing World Sixth edition New York: Thomson-Wadsworth, 2002.

Greider, William. "Bush's Touchy-Feely Economics: The Rich Still Get Richer and the Rest Get the Shaft, But It's Done in a Friendlier Way" The Nation (August 7, 2000) v271 i5 p24.

Herbert, Bob "There's A Catch: Jobs" New York Times (Oct 27, 2003) A21.

Graham Jill and Charlie Mitchell. "Pivotal Events in Congress" National Journal Feb 10, 2001 v33 i6 p416
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Criminology Radical and Neo-Critical Theory

Words: 498 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38022084

" Renouvier believed it was impossible to prove freedom in terms of being 'a fact'. He asserted the problem to be not only within actions but also within knowledge. Renouvier called the specific problem 'vertige mental' or a condition of psychopathological in nature, or a disturbance of rational harmony of self-possession which constitutes the essence of the personal consciousness."

In this state the individual has characteristics of hallucination. Stated is that Renouvier held that, "If all things are necessitated, then moral judgments, the notions of right and of duty, have no foundation in the nature of things." Accordingly the character vested in either 'virtue or crime' is lost with sentiments and feelings losing their meaning. Renouivier argues that, "if all is necessary, if all human actions are predetermined, then popular language is guilty of a grave extravagance and appears ridiculous, insinuating, as it does, that many acts might have been…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Conflict: Radical Theory Online at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/conflict.htm

Hil, Richard (2002) Facing Change: New Directions for Critical Criminology in the Early New Millennium?

Criminology: Radical and Neo-Critical Theory
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Race Theory the Issues of Race and

Words: 530 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88994937

Race Theory

The issues of race and its ramifications are some of the most pressing issues facing American society today, and will continue to challenge us in the decades to come. Of course, issues of race and socio-economic stratification have always been of vast importance, but in America the problems are magnified since the country and its people pride themselves on being a true melting pot, and the reality does not always match the ideals.

One way of examining race is the functionalist theory or perspective. The functionalist theory of social inequality contends that stratification exists because it is beneficial for society. Society must focus on and with human motivation because the duties associated with the various statuses are not all equally pleasant to the human species, important to social survival, and in need of the same abilities and talents.

In other words, society depends on certain types of people…… [Read More]

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Power & Conflict Power's Role

Words: 1255 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88664739

After all, a person's sense of self-worth depends on feeling competent and able to influence what is happening in one's life. How much power we perceive ourselves to have directly influences our sense of self-esteem.

In a discussion of power currencies, Hocker & Wilmot (2007) say how much power we have depends on whether we have "currencies" other people want. In other words your power over another person rests on your having something to give them that they need. For example, in the days when women had few rights and little power in their marriages, they did have sex (a valuable currency), which they could give or withhold in order to exert power. But it depends on the relationship what the currency is. Sex isn't a currency in a business relationship, for instance, and perhaps it shouldn't be used as a currency in an intimate relationship.

Every person has potential…… [Read More]

References

Hocker, J.L. And Wilmot, W.W. (2007). Interpersonal conflict. Seventh Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Sociological Theory in the 21st

Words: 2675 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4609524

In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).

ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…… [Read More]

Works cited

Adams, Bert, et al. Sociological theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. 2001. Print.

Calhoun, Craig, et al. Contemporary sociological theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.

Print.

Dunaway, Wilma. Emerging Issues in the 21st Century World-system: New theoretical directions for the 21st century world-system. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood
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Edwin Sutherland's Differential Association Theory

Words: 4613 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48469926

Warlords have apparently been in the process of financing their various struggles against the Western States in two different contexts. One is that which occurs in the several drug producing countries of the world, that is, those that come under the so called 'Golden Triangle', and the struggles that occur in the various different drug trafficking routes, like for example, in Sub-Saharan Africa, where there has been a complete erosion and fall of the central and the state authorities in military and in economic and in political areas. All these drug warlords in fact preside over anarchy, while at the same time attempting to manage the chaos in which they are forced to live. (Segell, 1997)

Therefore, the drug warlord becomes an individual who is a parochial militarist, and one who thrives on the lack of central authority on the one hand, while on the other, makes several attempts to…… [Read More]

References

Alonso, A; Rutan J.S. (November, 1984) "The impact of object relations theory on psychodynamic group therapy" The American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol: 141; No: 11; pp: 1376-1380.

Buckley, Peter. (2003) "Revolution and Evolution - A Brief Intellectual History of American

Psychoanalysis During the Past Two Decades" American Journal of Psychotherapy. Vol: 57; No: 1; pp: 1-17

Bulmer-Thomas, Victor. (2003) "Britain and Latin America, a changing relationship"
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Criminology - Theory Understanding Crime

Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25210065

Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).

In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Henslin, J.M. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
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Dissecting Criminal Labelling Theory Howard

Words: 584 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45508346

Thus, even "victimless" deviant activities are regulated through various methods of formal and informal control. The deviancy ascribed to Brenda's teen pregnancy, for example, stems largely from the way she challenges the norms regarding sexual behavior. Conflict theorists believe that laws and norms do not reflect values of society as a whole, but only of the dominant segment.

Similarly, it could be said that Brenda's drug habit is a victimless crime. If she pursues reasonable precautions, such as avoiding driving and staying in a private place, her drug use does not differ much from smoking or alcohol consumption. However, since drug use is frowned upon by the social elite, Brenda is seen as a criminal.

Feminist theory

Similar to conflict and Marxist theories, feminist theorists see much social inequity in society.

This social inequity is one that divides the sexes. Early on in Brenda's life, the loss of job of…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Theories of Crimnal Justice

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79294381

Criminal Justice System; Theorist Perspective

Analysis of the Broken Window Theory

The broken window model is a brainchild of Wilson Kelling as he described it in his article way back in 1982. The article capitalizes on supposed essence of disorder such as a broken window in encouraging serious crime. Although there is no direct correlation between disorder and serious crime, it leads to a heightened level of fear that inspires one to withdraw from society. Consequently, the scenario leads to crime because informal social control is then reduced.

The police can intervene in such a scenario effectively. They can focus on less serious crime and disorder in communities that are not known for serious crime and effectively quash incidences of withdrawal and fear by residents. Encouraging informal social control among these communities can enhance the responsibilities of such communities in taking control of events in their neighborhood and forestalling crime.…… [Read More]

References

CEBCP. (2013). Broken Windows Policing. Retrieved from Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy: http://cebcp.org/evidence-based-policing/what-works-in-policing/research-evidence-review/broken-windows-policing/

Foster, D. (2015, August 15). 'Guaranteed Conflict Theory' As An Explanation For Why The Police Keep Killing Black People. Retrieved from Politicus USA: http://www.politicususa.com/2014/08/15/guaranteed-conflict-theory-explanation-police-killing-black-people.htmlx

Kelling, G. L., & Coles, C. M. (1998). Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order And Reducing Crime In Our Communities . Free Press.

Kelling, G. L., & Wilson, J. Q. (1982). Broken Windows: The police and neighborhood safety. The Atlantic.
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How Useful Is the Concept of Structural Violence in Analyzing and Understanding International Conflict

Words: 4133 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49897815

Structural Violence Framework in International Conflict

Structural Violence

A Structural Violence Framework for Understanding & Analyzing International Conflict

Introduction to Structural Violence

Structural violence is differentiated from direct violence both in terms of etiology and nature. Direct violence is a result of events or the actions of individuals that kill or harm people. Structural violence, on the other hand, is a phenomenon made manifest through social inequalities (Christie, 1997). The organizational structures of political and economic systems cause and sustain the sort of hierarchical relations that enable dramatic differences between and across sectors of societies. Within these hierarchies, the people at the top have privilege, wealth, and power, while those at the bottom of the hierarchy are dominated, oppressed, and exploited (Christie, 1997). People are harmed and killed as a result of structural violence but, unlike direct violence, it occurs more slowly. The harm or death of oppressed people may…… [Read More]

References

Addison, T. And Murshed, M. (2001). From conflict to reconstruction: Reviving the social contract. UNU/WIDER Discussion Paper No. 48, Helsinki: UNU/WIDER, Retrieved at www.wider.unu.edu / research.

Barak, G. (2003). Violence and nonviolence: Pathways to understanding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Retrieved  http://www.greggbarak.com/custom3_2.html 

Barak, G. (2007). A critical perspective on violence. In Walter S. DeKeseredy and Barbara Perry (2006) Advancing Critical Criminology: Theory and Application, Lexington Books.

Bohman, J. (2010). Critical theory, [Web], The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved http://plato.stanford.edu/archives / spr2010/entries/critical-theory
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Human Services Administrator and the Conflict Situation

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66275626

human services administrator and the conflict situation you selected from the Roundtable Discussion. Then explain how you, as a human services administrator, might approach conflict in the selected situation to facilitate productivity and creativity. Be specific. inally, explain any insights you had or conclusions you drew related to using conflict as a tool for human services administration.

Social conflict occurs when two or more individuals oppose something within a social interaction. Conflict is part of human nature, and, as such, may be mitigated or managed through a variety of theories and psychological techniques. Conflict theory, for instance, emphasizes individual interests rather than norms of value: society is composed of groups that struggle to pursue their own interests and will use whatever advantage possible to pursue their goals. This has given rise to a number of theories -- including economic theories of production and exploitation (Marx) and the way that groups…… [Read More]

For instance, in the conflict scenario, Holly underscores the idea that conflict is important; it is how it is channeled and how it can be used to help individuals grow and develop. Further, if we think about modern business structures, we can see how tremendously complex they can be. There are pressures to remain profitable, to produce more, to be innovative, and to do far more with less staff. If we take this further though, we can view conflict as a necessary part of the organization, a necessary and important part of being human. Further, leaders can shape the culture of an organization by encouraging conflict as part of the new "innovation culture" (Gelfand, et.al., 2010).

In most cases, innovation is not clean, neat, and pretty. Instead, by its very nature, it is disruptive to the patterns and procedures within an organization. Often, this disruption takes the form of dissent -- meaning that individuals prefer to go in a different direction or pattern than the status quo. The difficulty for most managers, and all levels, is to encourage dissent without feeling threatened by it. As the axiom of a wise CEO said, "I don't shoot messengers -- that's why I have them."

In the Human Services scenario, Andrea had a situation in which two staffers were extremely critical of how the other performed their job. To mitigate this, Andrea had the two switch jobs -- and the problem actually diminished and the two became closer. This was an extremely effective and innovative management tool that had larger ramifications than just the jobs the two were doing. In human nature dissent does not always stay confined to areas that managers and owners find agreeable or even acceptable. However, the human psyche works in a way that it is typically "all or nothing" when giving an opinion. It is not typically possible to find an organizational culture that encourages dissent and free thinking -- but only in limited subjects defined by management. By walking in one another's shoes for a bit, they could each appreciate a better way to collaborate effectively. After all, particularly in non-profit organizations, each person should fully realize that they are working for something grander than themselves -- and most would seem to have
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Human Conflict and Violence

Words: 778 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4739166

Human Tendencies Towards Violence

A study that focuses on the emergence of conflict presumably aims to use whatever knowledge is gained in efforts to prevent conflict. The history of humanity is laden with accounts of people engaging in violence. It is so ingrained within society, yet we seem to not have a concrete understanding of what provokes it to the extent that recent events have shown violence can go. The study of conflict and violence in humans have been explained through various schools of thought, of which the conflict theory is the most prominent and more appropriate in the study of humans' tendencies towards violence.

Conflict theory explains that humans have the tendency to experience conflict within and in his/her society, demonstrating that to a certain degree, conflict and the emergence of violence is structural in nature. This school of thought further characterizes conflict into the following key stages: latent…… [Read More]

References:

Lund, M.S. (2009). Conflict prevention: Theory in pursuit of policy and practice. In J. Bercovitch, V. Kremenyuk, and I.W. Zartman (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution. London (UK): SAGE, pp. 287-308.

Pedersen, D. (2004). Political violence, ethnic conflict, and contemporary wars: Broad implications for health and social well-being. Social Science & Medicine, 55, 175-190. file: Pedersen%202002_Political%20violence.pdf

Popay, J. (2006). "Guidance on the conduct of narrative synthesis in systematic reviews." ESRC National Centre for Research Methods.

____. (2014). Understanding conflict. Chapter 1. Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC): Applied Knowledge Services. Australia: University of Birmingham. Retrieved from http://www.gsdrc.org/docs/open/CON70.pdf
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Conflict and Style

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83156199

KILMANN'S CONFLICT Management MODEL

assessment of conflict and style

Conflict management assessment using the Thomas Kilmann Mode

According to Kuhn and Poole (2000), conflict management style entails the consistent and general orientation towards a conflict situation or the other party. It manifests in the behaviors observable forming a pattern and sharing a characteristic that is common over time (Kuhn & Poole, 2000).

The conflict mode instrument by Kilmann assesses behavior of individual in a conflict situation. The mode instrument looks at conflict situations as those where individuals have differed incompatible concerns. In these situations, behaviors of individuals fall in two distinct dimensions. One is assertiveness where an individual seeks to satisfy strongly his or her own needs. Second is cooperativeness where the extent that an individual makes attempts to meet the other party's concerns. These two distinctions on observable behavior among individual in a conflict situation yield to the five…… [Read More]

References

Deutsch, M., Coleman, P.T., & Marcus, E.C. (2006). The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kuhn, T., & Poole, M.S. (2000). Do conflict management styles affect group decision making? Human Communication Research, 26(4), 558-590.

Thomas, K.W., & Kilmann, R.H. (1974). Thomas-Kilmann Conflict MODE Instrument. Tuxedo, NY:: Xicom.
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Conflict Which Has Repercussions in the Present

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66997610

conflict which has repercussions in the present time or one that is indeed actual. The following chosen conflict can actually be regarded as conflictive on two grounds which makes it all the more so important. First, hydraulic fracturing has been demonstrated to have severe environmental consequences on a negative scale which subsequently affect people's well-being. Second, as a technological development of the twentieth century, hydraulic fracturing, provided that the aforementioned is indeed true, would constitute reasonable grounds to estimate that the effects of industrialization have been detrimental to the common interest of the mere population while it has only boosted more financial benefits for the rich. The two grounds mentioned before make hydraulic fracturing a very current dangerous conflict which is why it has been chosen here. Moreover, certain companies seem to be given the right to drill internationally while the population is not made aware of the consequences, especially…… [Read More]

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Conflict Resolution and Their Application

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11774786

If we are dealing with a person who does not have the ability to negotiate, conflict resolution will simply not occur. Before setting up the processes for conflict resolution, we must make sure the right parties are involved or all the effort will be for naught.

The third premise of conflict resolution is interpersonal interaction. This area in the Manchester school builds upon the second premise: Not only do the levels of the conflict resolvers matter, but their personal interactions matter too. For instance, we may choose the right people at the right levels of their respective organizations to negotiate and resolve a conflict, but if their personalities subjectively don't jive - for instance, if they simply cannot work together because of issues of race, gender or sexual orientation - the conflict simply will not get resolved.

The fourth premise deals with semantics and rhetorics. This premise hinges directly on…… [Read More]

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Conflict Model

Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62402201

Deutsch, Coleman and Marcus (2006), conflict is an inevitable consequence of the human condition. Conflicts betweens humans frequently involve competition over scarce resources, but history has shown time and again that conflicts can occur for virtually any reason and that some people thrive on conflict while others actively avoid it. One recent conflict that has gained national attention has been the series of strikes by fast-food workers seeking a higher minimum wage. These strikes have gained momentum and the most recent one in December 2013 affected fast food establishments in more than 100 American cities across the country. This paper provides a description of this conflict situation, a description of the social context and participants, and an identification of antecedent conditions to the strikes. An identification of the behavior reflecting the cognition and personalization by individuals of the conflict and identification of a relevant conflict management model, the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict…… [Read More]

References

Bacon, J. (2013, December 5). Fast-food workers strike, protest for higher pay. USA Today.

Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2013/12/05/fast-food-strike-wages/3877023.

Bratkovic, B. (2010, June). Managing conflict. Government Finance Review, 26(3), 51-55.

Bryce, D. (2000, November). Motivation by the book. Training & Development, 54(11), 66.
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Theory Its Usefulness in the Workplace Today

Words: 1362 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59285246

theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today

Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive.…… [Read More]

References

Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from:

 http://www.personalityresearch.org/attachment.html 

Hinde, Robert A. (1976). On describing relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 17, 1-19. Retrieved from:

http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/online/Hinde_describing_relationships.pd0f
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Theory Therapy Levy Meehan Kelly

Words: 4158 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86662734



Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…… [Read More]

References

Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.

Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.

Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.

Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
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Theory on Work and Management

Words: 1415 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68822701

Work and Management

AND Management

The objective of this study is to compare House's Path-Goal theory of leadership with the Situational Leadership model. This study will make provision of an example or application of the two theories utilizing the writer's work situation.

This study will describe the leadership styled utilized by the writer's boss or other CEO or high level personnel in the work organization. For part two of this study examined is how causes of conflict can be found in the organizational and personal characteristics of those involved in the conflict.

This study will answer as to the similar organizational and personal factors and provide examples using the organization the writer is most familiar with.

For part three of this study, Chapter 17 on Career Management will be examined and the following questions answered: (1) What aspects of9 the New vs. Old Career Paradigms can you relate to your…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Free Personality Test (2014) 16 Personalities. Retrieved from: http://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test Basu, C. (2014) Difference Between Situational Leadership & Path Leadership Theories. Small Business Chronicle. Retrieved from:  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-situational-leadership-path-leadership-theories-33446.html 

Chapter 17: Career Management (pp. 278-0) Career Management: Chapter Objectives, 2007 Cengage Learning Inc.
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Conflict the Theme of Freedom

Words: 2503 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56411818

The choice cannot be repudiated or duplicated, but one makes the choice without foreknowledge, almost as if blindly. After making the selection, the traveler in Frost's poem says, "Yet knowing how way leads on to way/I doubted if I should ever come back" (14-15). And at the end, as one continues to encounter different forks along the way, the endless paths have slim chance of ever giving the traveler a second choice. One can see this as similar to Mrs. Mallard's change. As she looks out into the future, she sees endless possibilities for choice and nothing feels like she would ever return to the determinate state of marriage.

The final two lines of "The Road Not Taken" say, "I took the one less traveled by / and that has made all the difference" (19-20). Unlike in Chopin, the traveler determines to take the path. In Chopin, the path forces…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carver, Raymond. (1981). Cathedral: stories. New York: Vintage.

Chopin, Kate. (2003). The Awakening and selected short fiction. New York: Barnes & Noble.

Frost, Robert. (1969). The Poetry of Robert Frost: the collected poems E.C. Lathem, Ed. New York: Holt.
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Conflict Style

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20400681

Cultural Assessment

The Intercultural Conflict Style (ICS) inventory seeks to explain intercultural communication style along two dimensions. One is direct/indirect and the other is emotional expressiveness/emotional restraint. The theory is that the items in the questionnaire are mutually exclusive, such that one can evenly distribute the points. That was not my experience, but that is the working theory. The results of my quiz showed a score of 16 along the indirect/direct line, which is said to indicate a tendency towards indirectness. That's an interesting finding. Along the emotional expressiveness/restraint axis, I scored a 30, indicating a tendency towards emotional expressiveness. That makes more sense. This puts me in the dynamic style of conflict resolution.

Hammer (2005) notes that the dynamic style is oriented towards indirect strategies. Traits include hyperbole, associative arguments, ambiguity, repetition and use of third party intermediaries. These are not good traits for debate, quite frankly, but again…… [Read More]

Reference

Hammer, M. (2005). The intercultural conflict style inventory: A conceptual framework and measure of intercultural conflict resolution approaches. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Vol. 29 (2005) 675-695.

Appendix A:

Conflict Resolution Chart

Intercultural Conflict Style Inventory
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Conflict Management and Conflict Resolution

Words: 2832 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89863702

e. Lindle 1996). Also, the conflict management design under the SBM structure does not work well under dictatorship; in fact when the principal becomes too domineering, the researches showed obvious instances of dissatisfaction amongst the staff and decreased incentive from the students to work and engage in the learning process. The conflict management design under the SBM structure is heavily dependent upon the contribution of the committees and cannot succeed without it. Numerous studies have shown that the most ineffective principals have been the ones who have appointed committees but haven't given them enough authority over the real executive tasks or enough room to perform and contribute to the overall managerial structure. The problem, as highlighted in numerous studies, with this approach is that there is an obvious tussle for authority between the principal, the teachers and the peripheral agencies like the investors. This tussle has a negative effect on…… [Read More]

References

Arnott, M.A. And Raab, C.D. (2000). The Governance of Schooling: Comparative Studies of Devolved Management. Routledge. London.

Bryk, A., Sebring, P., Easton, J., Luppescu, S., Thum, Y., Nagaoka, J. And Bilcer, D. (1998a). 'Chicago School Reform: Linkages Between Local Control, Organizational Change, and Student Achievement. The American Educational Research Association. San Diego.

Bryk, A., Sebring, P., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S. And Easton, J. (1998b). Charting Chicago School Reform: Democratic Localism as Lever for Change, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

David, J. (1996). The Who, What, and Why of Site-based Management. Educational Leadership, 53-4:4-9.
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Theory Analysis Why We'll Keep Going to War

Words: 1814 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1771271

overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army,    http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf    (accessed 23 July 2014).

Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).

Joint Publication 3-0, "Joint Operations," Department of the Navy and Department of the Army,   http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_0.pdf   (accessed 23 July 2014),

Prados, John and Ames, Christopher (Eds.), "The Iraq War -- Part II: Was There Even a Decision?" The George Washington University, http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB328 / (accessed 23 July, 2014