1000+ documents containing “conflict theory”.
The sociological theory known as Conflict Theory is characterized as one of deviance. In simple terms, it is the idea that "Life is characterized by conflict rather than consensus" (Hamlin, 2004). It is, perhaps some would argue, the state of the world today, both globally, and locally -- at least in the collective imagination of the "oppressed" masses.
In truth, there is much in support of the idea that the "current state of affairs" in America is highly concurrent with the idea of Conflict Theory. After all, the central idea around which the theory is based includes a context in which "Norms and values are not equally distributed or accepted among members of society," and that "norms and values are not randomly distributed" (Hamlin). Of course, one of the most common examples of this state in American Society is the "Black vs. hite" conflict characterized by the Los Angeles "race….
Hamlin, John. "Conflict Theory." 2003. Retrieved from Web Site on July 31, 2004. http://www.d.umn.edu/~jhamlin1/conflict.html
Keel, Robert O. "Conflict Theories." 2003. Retrieved From Web Site on July 31, 2004. http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/conflict.html
USC. University of Southern California. "The Los Angeles Riot, 1992" 1995. Retrieved from Web Site on July 31, 2004. http://www.usc.edu/isd/archives/la/la_riot.html
This is where social distance comes in; the survey referenced by Parrillo (3-4) shows that non-ethnic Caucasian college student do not sense a social distance from each other, but when it comes to other Europeans, to African-Americans, Latinos -- and especially Muslims -- there is a gap in acceptance that falls into the category as social distance (4).
hile colleges are supposed to be a microcosm of the greater society, looking more closely at academic settings reflects that students tend to associate more easily with other cultures and hence the social distance between African-American and hites, and between hites and Latinos, is not as great (perhaps because all share a goal of education while in the mainstream of society there are myriad goals that people from all ethnicities are seeking) (Parrillo, 6).
The conflict theory is based on the writing of Karl Marx, and it extols the idea that the elite….
A Worldwide Phenomenon and its Discontents
Globalization is ever present in today's world. It is found in our ability to speak with a person across the world in minutes, media coverage of distant lands and their strife, as well as constant outsourcing. Globalization is, thus, a phenomenon that is all around us, yet many do not truly understand what it means. Yet globalization means so much more than outsourcing and an increase in technology. This is a phenomenon, truly defined by the ongoing interconnectedness of the world. Yet this is not always positive. This paper will examine some questions as well as some sources that expand upon the above critiques.
The fist topic related to globalization are the on-going debates on whether a fence across the U..-Mexico border would be effective in curbing immigration in the United tates. Various camps give pro and con arguments, some of which make sense, yet….
"Maquiladora Women." (2011). Video: YouTube.com. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from .
McClelland, K. (2000). Conflict Theory. Grinnell.edu. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from < http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Conflict.html >.
Messerli, J. (2011). Should the U.S. Build a Fence Across the Entire Border with Mexico to Slow Illegal Immigration? Balanced Politics. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from .
hat is different between conflict theories and previous sociological theories are that it theorizes that society evolves based upon conflicts between its groups, rather than striving to mend rifts such groups. Although societal order and peace may be a good thing, it is not inherent to the human, historical condition -- or so suggests conflict theory. Its view of human nature thus tends to be cynical rather than positive or cohesive. It counsels one to "think of people as animals maneuvering for advantage, susceptible to emotional appeals, but steering a self-interested course toward satisfactions and away from dissatisfactions." (Collins, 1974, 56-61) Despite its negativism, the theory has proved a useful sociological tool for economists, because of its acceptance of scarce material resources as a driving human motivational factor, rather than internal psychology, as well as for analysts of criminal behavior, and other situations where human beings are in a state….
Thus their poverty is not a result of their unwillingness to work or their unfortunate decisions. It is a result of the fact that they find themselves at the lowest end of the line in the struggle for resources.
Structural functionalism is based on the idea that society is a system. Its cultural, political, and economic parts work together in such a way that people are born into (or alternately fall into) a particular stratus of society and a kind of systemic force keeps them there. The poor and their labor are needed to make capitalistic society run profitably, and the poor adopt the cultural attitudes and beliefs about themselves and their place in society that make such a situation possible. The idea in this theory is not that there is a struggle which keeps people down, but that things just are the way they are in this system, and….
conflict theory and functionalism in a sociological context, I have chosen world trade as the topic, mainly the way developing and poorer countries and developed economies evolve and act in the world trade arena.
Conflict theory seems perhaps better suited to explain the contradictions in world trade and, even more profound, the differences that normally appear between developed and developing countries, especially in World Trade Organizations Ministerial Conferences, but also in general trade relations.
The tools and general trends that world trade operates with are liberalization and protectionism (protective measures). High import taxes and subsidies are among the most common protective measures and these have the role of protecting national producers against lower priced, more competitive products that may enter the country and may force the national producers into bankruptcy.
The industrialized countries generally aim at imposing global lower import taxes on manufactured goods. This would ensure them better export capabilities to….
1. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Functionalism -(sociology)
2. Conflict Theories. On the Internet at http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm
3. Article on Conflict Theory. On the Internet at http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/conflict%20theory
Conflict Theories. On the Internet at
Employer/Employee elationship Issues
The issue that the author of this paper will discuss is employer/employee relations. This issue is an important one for many different reasons. Firstly, the history of labor relations is really the history of civilized society. There has always been tension between the working class and their employers who frequently exploit them. As such, this is a timeless issue that is much more worthy for the author to address than some of the fleeting issues of technology or collegiate cliques that the author could have chosen to analyze.
The functionalist perspective is highly important to examining employer/employee relations. This viewpoint would maintain that relations between employers and their employees provides a critical function in society. Specifically, those who embrace a functionalist perspective would state that it is necessary to have a relationship for these two classes of people in order for society to properly function (Mooney et al., 2007).….
Functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism all pertain to the institution of the family. These are three interrelated approaches that can and should be used together to provide a more accurate view of the family from a sociological viewpoint. Functionalism is a systems perspective, one that views social institutions like the family as being interconnected with other elements of the system like social norms, social class status, and gender identity. Using a functionalist perspective, a sociologist does not view the family in isolation, but incorporates elements related to how the role of family functions in the broader society. Conflict theory also takes into account broad sociological factors, the most important of which is access to wealth and social capital. The conflict theory is especially concerned with inequality and the need for social justice. With regards to the family, conflict theory can explain dysfunctionality within a family and its surrounding community based….
"The Conflict Perspective." Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-family/the-sociological-perspective-on-the-family/the-conflict-perspective -- 4/
Crossman, A. (n.d.). Functionalist theory. About.com. Retrieved online: http://sociology.about.com/od/Sociological-Theory/a/Functionalist-Theory.htm
"The Functionalist Perspective," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-family/the-sociological-perspective-on-the-family/the-functionalist-perspective -- 4/
"Functionalist Perspective on the Family," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://vcampus.uom.ac.mu/soci1101/541functionalist_perspective_on_the_family.html
Marxist ideas have also provided as a starting point for many of the modern feminist theorists. Despite these applications, Marxism of any variety is still a minority position among American sociologists (Conflict Theory, 2000).
Marx's sociology state that:
1. Particular forms of property, slavery, feudal landholding, and capital are upheld by the coercive power of the state. Thus classes formed by property divisions, slaves and slave-owners, serfs and lords, capitalists and workers are the opposing agents in the struggle for political power the underpinning of their means of livelihood.
2. Material contributions often determine the extent to which social classes can organize effectively to fight for their interests. These conditions of mobilization are a set of intervening variables between class and political power.
3. Other material conditions such as the means of mental production, determines which interests will be able to articulate their ideas and hence to dominate the ideological realm (Collins, 1974).
Babel-Fish. (2009). The complete "nasty-ism" of the world's elitist. Retrieved September 25,
2009, from Now Public Web site: http://www.nowpublic.com/world/complete-nasty-ism-world-s-elitist
Collins, Randall. (1974). Conflict Sociology. New York: Academic Press.
Conflict. (2005). Retrieved September 25, 2009, from Web site:
Hence, class struggles exist all the time -- the world is not in equilibrium as functionalism points out (Demerath, 1996).
Functionalism is also premised on the fact that people have already achieved a consensus -- the consensus by which reality is to be constructed and this allows them to successfully define and fulfill their roles in the society. On the other hand, conflict is premised on the fact that consensus has not been achieved because it is still a matter under constant struggle (ibid).
Lastly, functionalism is also being charged as failing to account for social change which conflict theory satisfactorily addresses. To maintain that the society is in constant movement towards the attainment of social equilibrium or balance, the theory fails to address the ways and mechanisms by which the society is changing (ibid).
Which is better?
This brings us to the question of which theory is more effective in explaining the….
Demerath, N.J. (1996). Who Now Debates Functionalism? From System, Change and Conflict to "Culture, Choice, and Praxis. Sociological Forum, 11(2), 333-345.
Henslin, J. (1993). Sociology. Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon.
Merriam Webster Online Dictionary (2009). Effective. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/effective on April 3, 2009.
Zappen, J.P. (1997). Rhetoric, Community, and Cyberspace. Retrieved from http://www.rpi.edu/~zappenj/Publications/Texts/rhetoric.html on April 3, 2009.
The idea is that, eventually, as standards of living rise in Mexico, Mexican consumers will be able to buy all of the same kinds of goods now regularly purchased by their neighbors to the north. In the meantime, in addition to lower labor costs, the agreement also gives American and Canadian concerns access to cheaper raw materials, and an additional, migrant or resident, labor force of Mexicans, upon which to draw in their own countries. Mexico, as well, tends have to fewer, and more laxly enforced environmental and labor regulations; lower healthcare costs, etc., that make the cost of doing business in Mexico a winning proposition for multinational corporations. (Buckley & Ghauri, 2004) Flexibility is seen as key in these multinational enterprises. Programs must be able to be implemented in a manner consistent with the demands of a constantly changing and growing global marketplace. The system employed must be….
" (Feste, 2004)
The work of Crenshaw (1981) makes the suggestion that the occurrence of terrorism is most likely where the masses are passive and:
elite dissatisfaction coincides; when discontent is not generalized or serious enough to provoke the majority of the population to act against the regime, but a small minority without access to the bases of power that would permit overthrow of the government seeks radical change." (Crenshaw, 1981; in Feste, 2004 p. 46)
Generally, an event precipitates the act of terrorism that "snaps the terrorists' patience with the regime" rendering the actions of the government as being an injustice which cannot be tolerated making the terrorist act a decision that becomes acceptable on a moral level. (Crenshaw, 1981; p. 384)
II. CONFLICT RESOLUTION NOT POSSILE WITH AL QAEDA
ecause al Qaeda is in the process of "building a movement to carry on an ideological struggle"... (Feste, 2004; p.47) it is impossible to….
Crenshaw, Martha "The Causes of Terrorism" Comparative Politics. Vol. 13 No. 4 (July, 1981) pp. 379-399.
Crenshaw, Martha "Why America? The Globalization of Civil War" in Current History. December, 2001. pp. 425-432.
Feste, Karen a. (2004) Intervention and Terrorism Conflict: Theory, Strategy and Resolution. Paper prepared for delivery at the Fifth Pan-European Conference on International Relations, the Hague, the Netherlands. September 9-11, 2004. Online available at http://www.sgir.org/conference2004/papers/Feste%20-%20Intervention%20and%20terrorism%20conflict.pdf .
Feste, Karen a. "International Intervention and Global Terrorism: 21st Century Bond?" Paper presented at the Second Annual Hawaii International Conference in Social Sciences, Honolulu, June 12-15, 2003b.
Weber's Class Conflict Theory
Weber defined 'class' as having in common "a specific causal component of their life chances in so far as (2) this component is represented exclusively by economic interests in the possession of goods and opportunities for income, and (3) it is represented under the conditions of the commodity or labor market" (Kasler, 1988, p.15). Class position does not necessarily lead to class ideological stance or class-directed action. Communal class action will arise when the classes realize the motive and needs of the struggle. In these postulations, Weber was similar to Marx. He differed from Marx in supplementing the existence of a 'status group'. Status groups are classes that are linked together by a certain lifestyle and consumption pattern rather than on their specific place in society (such s 'bourgeoisie' or 'working man'), This consumption pattern accords them a certain status and causes these demarcated groups to structure….
Dougherty, J. (June 21, 2011) Clinton switches gears, publicly praises Saudi women's driving protest. CNN
Kasler, D. (1988). Max Weber: an introduction to his life and work. University of Chicago Press: Chicago
One party may take power away from the other. One party may lose power. This interaction or exchange leads either to equilibrium between the wielders of power, or to disequilibrium and imbalance. One can take Coleman to be saying that power is an element of exchange (or retraction) within the field of conflict. It is like the goal struggled for between two opponents on a sports pitch. It includes also the devices and mechanisms by which that goal-oriented struggle progresses.
How do the dynamics actually play out then? From the beginning, Coleman speaks of "strategies and tactics employed" (p. 121). Power is no static element. It is a force that can be manipulated and wielded as if in contest. The situation of conflict manifests itself as the place where power is used. Those in conflict maneuver their power, whatever it may be, into positions of leverage. These maneuverings of power….
EMEGENCE OF VIOLENCE?
Why do people engage in violence? It is so ingrained within society, yet we seem to not have a concrete understanding of what provokes it to the extent that recent events have shown violence can go. Violence has acquired several dimensions in the society and has become one of the leading causes of human conflicts that have spun over years and even decades. The quest to understand the main causes of violence is aimed at ultimately stopping the effects of violence to the community hence fostering more peace within the society. There are various factors responsible for the emergence of violence in the contemporary society, each of which re explored different by a number of perspectives. First, the literature review explores Marxist theories of violence and conflict within societies.
Marxist and Parsonian Conflict Theory
Ultimately, Marxism believes that class differences inherently breed class conflicts. More recently, here is the….
Galtung J., (2009). Theories of Conflict. Definitions, Dimensions, Negotiations, Formations. https://www.transcend.org/files/Galtung_Book_Theories_Of_Conflict_single.pdf
Elwell F., (2014). Karl Marx. http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/users/f/felwell/www/Theorists/Marx/Presentation/Marx.pdf
Weininger E.B. (2002). Class and Causation in Bourdieu. Pp. 49-114 in Current Perspectives in Social Theory, Vol. 21. Ed. Jennifer Lehmann. Amsterdam: JAI Press. http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~wright/Found-c4rev.pdf
Tittenbrun Jacek,(2013). Ralph Dahrendorf's Conflict Theory of Social Differentiation and Elite Theory. Innovative issues and approaches in social sciences, 2013, vol. 6, no. 3 . http://www.iiass.com/pdf/IIASS-volume6-number3-article7.pdf
Conflict Theory The sociological theory known as Conflict Theory is characterized as one of deviance. In simple terms, it is the idea that "Life is characterized by conflict rather than…Read Full Paper ❯
This is where social distance comes in; the survey referenced by Parrillo (3-4) shows that non-ethnic Caucasian college student do not sense a social distance from each other,…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Conflict Theory/Globalization Globalization: A Worldwide Phenomenon and its Discontents Globalization is ever present in today's world. It is found in our ability to speak with a person across the world in minutes,…Read Full Paper ❯
hat is different between conflict theories and previous sociological theories are that it theorizes that society evolves based upon conflicts between its groups, rather than striving to mend rifts…Read Full Paper ❯
Thus their poverty is not a result of their unwillingness to work or their unfortunate decisions. It is a result of the fact that they find themselves at…Read Full Paper ❯
conflict theory and functionalism in a sociological context, I have chosen world trade as the topic, mainly the way developing and poorer countries and developed economies evolve and…Read Full Paper ❯
Sociology - Counseling
Employer/Employee elationship Issues The issue that the author of this paper will discuss is employer/employee relations. This issue is an important one for many different reasons. Firstly, the history of…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Sociology Functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism all pertain to the institution of the family. These are three interrelated approaches that can and should be used together to provide a more…Read Full Paper ❯
Marxist ideas have also provided as a starting point for many of the modern feminist theorists. Despite these applications, Marxism of any variety is still a minority position…Read Full Paper ❯
Hence, class struggles exist all the time -- the world is not in equilibrium as functionalism points out (Demerath, 1996). Functionalism is also premised on the fact that people…Read Full Paper ❯
The idea is that, eventually, as standards of living rise in Mexico, Mexican consumers will be able to buy all of the same kinds of goods now regularly…Read Full Paper ❯
" (Feste, 2004) The work of Crenshaw (1981) makes the suggestion that the occurrence of terrorism is most likely where the masses are passive and: elite dissatisfaction coincides; when discontent is…Read Full Paper ❯
Weber's Class Conflict Theory Weber defined 'class' as having in common "a specific causal component of their life chances in so far as (2) this component is represented exclusively by…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
One party may take power away from the other. One party may lose power. This interaction or exchange leads either to equilibrium between the wielders of power, or…Read Full Paper ❯
EMEGENCE OF VIOLENCE? Why do people engage in violence? It is so ingrained within society, yet we seem to not have a concrete understanding of what provokes it to…Read Full Paper ❯