Conflict Theory Essays (Examples)

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Comparing Labeling and Conflict Theories

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31250599

Labeling and Conflict Theory

Conflict theory is largely based upon a Marxist conception of human relations. It suggests that the definition of crime is created by social elites to bolster their social position. For example, for many years within the criminal justice system, the crime of using crack cocaine was penalized significantly more than the use of powder cocaine. Not coincidentally, a Marxist theorist would note, people living in the inner city were more likely to use the cheaper, crack alternative. Both drugs were equally dangerous and deleterious to society yet based upon social class, abusers were punished very differently. Conflict theorists regard crime as a subjective, class-based notion -- hence, an African-American person sitting at a 'whites only' lunch counter was considered a criminal in the south during the 1950s, despite the fact that such a law clearly violated the African-American's constitutional rights. Many actions considered crimes may actually have positive benefits. "Certain types of crime take on a different character. Stealing can be seen as an attempt to take away from the rich…like asocial banditry. Protest-related violence may actually be the start of proto-revolutionary movements, ultimately leading to a worker's revolt and the establishment of a just society"…… [Read More]


Greek, C. (2005). Conflict theory. Criminological Theory. Retrieved from:

Greek, C. (2005). Labeling theory. Criminological Theory. Retrieved from:
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Conflict and Functionalist Perspectives Regarding

Words: 782 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78394459

It is through the conflict theory that class systems are seen. It is the elite of society that dictates the rules to the masses. Institutions that are created are done so as a means of supporting those who are in power and those who are seen as superior within society. Any action that challenges those in power is perceived as deviant and discouraged. Conflict theory centers on: competition over scarce resources, inequalities in power, change as a result of conflict, and war as a unifier of society and an ender of societies ("Conflict theory," n.d.).

Prison institutions are easily understood in this view of society.

The elite of society need a way to maintain control of the individuals below them, utilizing the conflict paradigm.

Prison serves as punishment of those who deviate from the rules set forth, as well as serves as a deterrent for those who may be considering deviation. it's a powerful tool for those in power. However, just as in functionalism, the justification of its existence doesn't fully explain why America's rate of incarceration, specifically, is so high.

Like the functionalist viewpoint, the higher incidence of incarceration in the United States boils down to two distinct possibilities.…… [Read More]


Conflict theory. (No date). Retrieved October 10, 2007, at .

Holmwood, J. (2005). "Functionalism and its critics," in Harrington, a. (ed), Modern social theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Conflict and Functionalist Perspectives Regarding America's Incarceration Population
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Theories Sociology Has Been Defined S The

Words: 1350 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14213992


Sociology has been defined s the scientific study of human interaction and, as such, is accepted as a scientific activity (Leming 1997). Social science aims at discovering and explaining observed events of and in nature by means of a framework that can be tested. The goal of sociology is, therefore, to produce a body of knowledge that will provide not only an understanding of the causal processes influencing human behavior but also enable sociologists to predict social behaviors (Leming). As a science, it pursues observable and provable regularities and explains these regularities by means of a set of observable and provable propositions or statements of relationship (Leming). The very effectiveness or success of sociology lies precisely in the explanatory and predictive power of this body of knowledge derived from research.

The basic components or elements of a theory are a conceptual scheme, a set of propositions that states the relationships between variables, and a context for verification (Leming). The conceptual scheme consists of ideas that possess abstract properties not yet immediately verifiable by direct sensory observation. It also has a system of interrelated statements of relationships between variables, which seam the parts of the concept together. The conceptual scheme…… [Read More]


1. Leming, MR. Sociological Theory: a Social Science Approach to the Family. Sociology 371, 1997. 

2. Wallace RA and Wolf, A. Contemporary Sociological Theory: Expanding the Classical Tradition. 5th edition. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1999
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Conflict on Various Levels Is

Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88239712

The same might be said for those who committed torture in the Nazi camps.

Importantly, Austin et al. (2004, p. 161) note that both violence and non-violence are cumulative in nature. It is therefore important to recognize that the existence of violence perpetuates further violence, while the same is true for non-violence. This is also an important recognition in the international sphere.

Schelling (1960, p. 53) notes that international violence an also be manifest in terms of the concept of "limited war." This means that short conflicts could result when agreements cannot be reached within a certain amount of time. On the other hand, the limited war also requires some degree of mutual recognition or acquiescence. Once war begins, negotiation and communication among adversaries become difficult. The recent situation and Egypt and the current situation in Libya appear to be cases in point for this assertion.

Finally, in international relations, the main role players are no longer those with the strongest economy or the most assets, although these do still play a significant role (Baldwin, 2002, p. 180). Instead, the increase of knowledge and international relations is providing less developed countries with an increasing sense of power in the global…… [Read More]


Baldwin, D.A. (2002). Power and International Relations. Handbook of International Relations, editors Carlsnaes, W., Risse, T. And Simmons, B.A. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE

Schelling, T. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Barak, G. (2003). Violence and Nonviolence: Pathways to Understanding, Sage Publications.

Azar, E. (1990) the Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and Cases. Bookfield, VT: Gower Pub. Co.
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Conflict Paradigm Key Figures and

Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81653468

From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution. The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure." (Marx, p. 1)

This ideology would give way to more focused application of the Conflict Paradigm in smaller-scale contexts. For example, the text by Dhami & Olsson (2008) reports, Egon Brunswick first and Kenneth Hammond thereafter, would be instrumental in making the Social Conflict Theory applicable to interpersonal relations. Here, both thinkers advanced the concept that conflict may be understood also as the natural state of relations between individuals. This conflict may not be inherently hostile in nature but both thinkers bring research to the notion that 'cognitive conflict' finds individuals sometimes at cross-purposes even when working cooperatively. The text by Dhami & Olsson notes, "for instance, different parties may have different policies for solving a judgment problem in terms of the information they rely on. Inconsistency in how parties apply their judgment policies can also lead to disagreement." (p. 547)


The Conflict Paradigm is of critical importance to our understanding of human relations. Indeed, the consideration of Marx demonstrates…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Dhami, M.K. & Olsson, H. (2008). Evolution of the Interpersonal Conflict Paradigm. Judgment and Decision Making, 3(7).

Marx, K. (1859). A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy.
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Conflict and Security Current Situation

Words: 3159 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96896569

Political, financial and most of all ethnic interest are going to "to further muddle the results. Perhaps most dangerous is that the results did not yield a Parliament whose ethnic proportions match those of the country, and will therefore be perceived as unfair, whether the seats were won by fraud or not." (Rubin, 2010).

The other two perspectives to be taken into account in terms of the development of the Afghani society revolves around the social and the economic aspects of the country. As in every economy, there is a clear connection between the way in which the economy develops and the degree to which the society evolves.

In terms of economic prospects, Afghanistan is at the moment still the largest producer of cocaine. "In 2002, Afghanistan returned to its position as the world's foremost producer of heroin. The 2002 crop reached an estimated 3,400 mt., a 540% increase on the yield for 2001 and significantly higher than the 1,900-2,700 mt. earlier predicted for 2002." In this sense, despite efforts by the international community to reduce the Afghan production, the situation got worse by the year. More precisely, in 2005 "Afghan farmers had planted almost 60% more poppy than the…… [Read More]


Filkens, Dexter."Taliban Elite, Aided by NATO, Join Talks for Afghan Peace." The New York Times. 2010. Accessed at

Jones, Seth. "The Rise of Afghanistan's Insurgency: State Failure and Jihah" International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Spring 2008), pp. 7 -- 40.

RAND Corporation. "Afghanistan." America's role in nation building. From Germany to Iraq. 2004. 129-148.

Rotberg, Weak and failing states: critical new security issues. n.d.
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Theories of Criminal Justice

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73487615


Criminal Justice System

Crime and the law

Crime, from the perspective of the criminal justice system, may be defined as violations of the law. What constitutes a criminal violation in one nation is not necessarily the case in all nations; also, an action may be unethical without actually being criminal. The social determinant of what constitutes crime requires a balancing of the rights of the individual to freedom with the need for society to maintain some sense of social order. Those who seek personal freedoms and civil rights are often at war within the criminal justice system with those who desire social order (Schmalleger 2015: 9). The goals of the criminal justice system are to create a sense of justice or fairness but this ideal must likewise be balanced with the need for order (Schmalleger 2015: 10). For example, it might be necessary to let an obviously guilty person go free because the evidence against him or her was extracted in an illegal fashion to uphold constitutional principles: this is not necessarily moral but it is required to preserve individual liberties.

The American justice system is made up of police, courts, and corrections components (Schmalleger 2015:14). The criminal justice…… [Read More]


Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century. (13th

ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA:

Curriculum Technology.
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Theory Building There Are Many

Words: 1031 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32989562

I would agree with this statement, since theory and practice, when applied to each other appropriately, inform each other and cannot in fact be separated into two distinct entities. It is vitally important to use theory for informing practice, while practice would further inform theory, making the statement that a good theory is, in fact, practically true.


Benedict Spinoza, a post-Cartesian philosopher in the 17th century, held ideas of which many are still applicable to research and knowledge today (Dutton, 2005). One of these is his assertion about facts and theory. Specifically, the philosopher said: "if the facts conflict with the theory, either the theory must be changed or the facts." In practice this means that the concept of "facts" are not necessarily as static as the word suggests. Facts can change if the theory that conflicts with them is stronger than facts that have been proven by previous theory. New theories are continuously created and hypothesized. Which means that facts can change according to the theories created. However, the fact that theories are hypothesized means that they first need to undergo rigorous testing before a proven fact can be changed. One example of this may be the previously…… [Read More]


Anderson, R., Moore, T., Nagaraja, S., and Ozment, a. (2007, May 23). Incentives and Information Security. Retrieved from: 

Dutton, B.D. (2005, Jul. 7). Benedict Spinoza. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from:

Vansteenkiste, M. And Sheldon, K.M. (2006). There's nothing more practical than a good theory: Integrating motivational interviewing and self-determination theory. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 45. Retrieved from:
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Theory vs Creativity in Design Leaders Have

Words: 2363 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 863919

Theory vs. Creativity in Design

Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.

How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates

Integrity and honesty: Organizations must always reconsider the use of theories to keep up with the realities of the business environment. The management must be prepared for change and handle changes appropriately in the rapidly evolving world. Some of the relevant theories include situational, relationship, participative and transactional. Organizations have varied goals…… [Read More]


American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from 

Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.

Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.

DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
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Conflict Our Interpretations Mediation Strategies and Communication

Words: 4710 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22152596


Our interpretations, Mediation Strategies and Communication Types

The Nature of Conflict -- an introduction

What is Conflict?

Conflict as Perception

Conflict as Feeling

Conflict as Actions

What causes conflict?





Positive Communication

Interpersonal Conflict

Intrapersonal Conflict

Link between Interpersonal Conflicts and Effective Communication

Mediation and Dispute Resolution

The Nature of Conflict -- An introduction:

Conflict is a naturally existing problem in our society and the world as a whole. Conflict exists at all levels and it is so a certain extent quite natural and inevitable. With a functionalist approach, it can be said that the existence of conflict is somewhat important for the society. It is however an understatement to say that we live amidst conflict. Conflict is present at every level in society and people at every second are reassuring each other as to how they are having a "discussion" instead of a conflict when in reality this is often not the case. Even in organizations, many professionals are hired to ensure a conflict free planning and implantation process. Not everyone would agree with what the other person's point-of-view is and this is what may lead to internal conflicts. People sometimes hold a perception that…… [Read More]

Work Cited:

Bellafiore, Donna. 2010. Interpersonal Conflict and effective communication. Journal.

Bolton, R. (1986). People skills: How to assert yourself, listen to others, and resolve conflicts

(2nd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 067162248X

Cesaratto, T., (2006). The Good Will Hunting technique. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 3, 307.328.
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Conflict and Security in the

Words: 2130 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6129801

This was in keeping with the Marxist principle of a classless society. In the United Nations, the United States has had an equal standing with other nations such as Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. The United States has participated in United Nations actions and made a show of being a part of the international community while maintaining its superpower status outside of the United Nations' walls. In light of new global political conditions that emphasize global cooperation and governance, rather than government (Baylis & Smith, 13), the United Nations still has an important role to play, and the United States has a role to play in it.

While the United States continues to be a member of the United Nations, it is no longer really a true team player. The United States, while still making a show of belonging to the United Nations, now more closely follows the principle of realism in its practices. The United States now openly acts in its own self-interest and toward its own security, as the theory of realism predicts nations will do. The interest of the United States in the affairs of other nations, the economic sanctions it enacts against nations whose policies…… [Read More]


Baylis, J & Smith, S 2005, The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hirst, P 2001, War and Power in the 21st Century, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Janis, Irving 1982, Groupthink, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Kaldor, M 1999, New Wars and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Stanford University, Stanford.
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Conflict and Negotiation

Words: 733 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93280726

Conflict and Negotiation

Examples of conflict abound in the movie "Glory." Colonel Shaw, acted by Matthew Broderick, employs both transformational and transactional leadership methods to achieve resolution to these conflicts. The movie uses the conflict of the Civil War as its' underlying canvas. What more appropriate theatre to understand human conflict, on every level, could there be?

The Civil War is a conflict of ideologies, aspirations, beliefs, and goals of a divided nation. Yet, these very same conflicts play out between the members of the 54th Massachusetts. Broderick, as Colonel Shaw, begins his leadership experience before the formation of the 54th Massachusetts. He is an abolitionist. He grew up with "people of color" in his household.

His first conflict is within himself. Can he accept the overwhelming responsibility of leading the first black troops, after his vicious experiences at Antietam? He leaves the celebration given in his honor to resolve lingering inner conflicts he has with the war, and with his conceptions of equality. He is overwhelmed. He must make a bargain with himself. His resolution is swift. He announces his decision to his friend, Major Forbes. He will do this.

He will lead the newly formed 54th. "To study…… [Read More]


Coombs, C.H., & Avrunin, G.S. (1988). The Structure of Conflict. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Rosenbach, W.E., & Taylor, R.L. (Eds.). (1998). Contemporary Issues in Leadership (4th ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Schelling, T.C. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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Conflict in the Workplace One of the

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30916032

Conflict in the Workplace

One of the things that makes us human is our need and ability to form groups. We thrive in groups, merge into groups, and even the process of civilization and moving from hunter-gatherers to cities was part of group behavior. However, when groups form, any number of interesting psychological issues occur: behaviors change, organizational issues occur, bonds and alliances are formed and lost, and even individual leadership behaviors change (Johnson and Johnson, 2008). Whether it be individuals, small groups, or large groups -- sometimes behavioral issues arise that cause conflict. Breaking one or more of these rules, however, or disagreeing with them to the point where it becomes unbearable or makes the group ineffective then becomes "conflictual" (Corey, 2008, pp. 149-51). This conflict happens in most cultures and some time or another. We see it in animal behavior as internal aggression. In some human cultures, while the need for a win-win situation is important, cultural barriers prevent individuals from actually confronting one another in order to find the actual problem. Too, taken to the extreme, conflict may be seen as conflict between nations, or war. Because conflict is so culturally based, there are no exact methods…… [Read More]


Let the record show that I am James X., Human Resource Manager for Zycon Corporation, a privately held corporation located in the City of Brisbane, Australia. Today is the 28th of June, 2011, and we are meeting with Mr. B., an employee of Zycon since March, 2001. Mr. B. has steadily worked his way up from a process worker to a section Forman since Spring 2008. Our meeting today is the result of a letter sent by Mr. B. demanding a review of a recent hiring decision made for Factory Manager. According to Mr. B's letter of June 10, 2011, Mr. B. feels that he did not receive the desired position promotion because of "discriminatory and unfair" labor practices, especially those from the Operations Manager. Reviewing the situation we find the following:

In April, 2011, due to corporate growth and efficiency studies, Zycon Corporation created a new position for our Brisbane Factory -- that Zycon believed it necessary to have an overall person who would be
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Conflict Between Protestants and Catholics

Words: 2636 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97872977

Considering that the old order in Ireland was in place since two millennia and had always been under the control of the Gaelic chieftains, their removal from the leadership of the provinces of Ireland by the English Crown was destined to arise the resistance of the majority who sought support in the Catholic world and especially hoped in the papal authority. Curtis points out that the resistance against the protestant faith that built up after Elisabeth took over Munster and Ulster was coming not only from inside the respective Irish provinces, but also from the dissidents in Italy, Portugal, Spain and the Low countries. On one hand they were gathering in the spirit of preserving the old faith, on the other, the Irish and the Anglo-Irish who opposed the Reformation were changing their ways supported by the Jesuits who helping the process of transforming the faithful into fanatics. On the other side, the Protestants represented by the English installed as bishops, for example, although as zealous as their opponents, were unable to understand them since they were not interested in understanding their language and customs.

The roots of the conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics in Ireland spread in…… [Read More]

Cronin, Mike. A History of Ireland. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave, 2001.

Curtis, Edmund. A History of Ireland: From Earliest Times to 1922. London:

Routledge, 2002.
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Theory vs Ideology What Is Ideology Ideology

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45628837

Theory vs. Ideology

What is ideology?

Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence. Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation. Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. wrong, just vs. unjust, and Evil Empire vs. God's Country. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its existence. Another self-protective strategy often used is circular reasoning. For example, creationism is an ideology because it is almost always presented as fact by its proponents, but is inherently un-testable through scientific means and uses circular reasoning.

What are the differences between ideology and theory?

From a social scientist perspective,…… [Read More]


Cusac, Anne-Marie (2009). Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
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Conflict Its Nature and Sources

Words: 2694 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22853643

Conflict Resolution

(c) Based on what you learned in T205A concept file 02, and T551 Linear Programming:

what is meant by conflict, its nature and sources?

Conflict in psychological development theory offered by Erik Erikson is a dichotomy. It can act both as a means of moving ahead towards growth and development or on the other hand lead to a dead stop. A situation that one finds oneself in causes internal emotions that are in direct opposition to each other (Cherry). A conflict can hence result in decisions that are least anticipated, even by the individual afflicted by it. Individuals working in organizations, specially, face conflicting situations regularly even though they may not realize it. The participants in the ADEA Leadership Workshop sought out the sources of conflicts. In organizational behavior, it was evident that the younger generation was not disposed to aligning with the values professed by the senior colleagues, often taking up senior administrative positions higher up in the hierarchy (Hoelscher and Comer, 2002). The loyalty for the organization is thus found wanting. The second issue raising conflict is the respect for tradition. While the older generation prefers to adhere to experience and conventionally held values and knowledge…… [Read More]


1) Cherry. What Is Conflict. Available: Last accessed 25 Mar 2015.

2) Hoelscher & Comer. (2002). Case II: Conflict Recognition -- The Case of the Misdirected Faculty. Journal of Dental Education. 6 (4), 526-532

3) Collani. (2010). "Response to 'Desired and Feared -- What Do We Do Now and Over the Next 50 Years' by Xiao-Li Meng." The American Statistician. 64 (1), 23-25.

4) Tschiesche. (2012). Logical Thinking: How to use your brain to your advantage . Available: Last accessed 25 Mar 2015.
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Conflict Management I Was Pleased

Words: 516 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93587526

I sometimes go for long periods of time where I do not talk to my brother, because it can just be too much stress. I still love my brother, but when the cost of maintaining that relationship becomes too high for me I start to re-evaluate it and withdraw.

Just understanding where these types of attitudes and conflicts come from has made me so much more aware of my own feelings, and what is going on inside of me that contributes to how I see others. Just understanding how these things work makes it easier for me to manage how I relate to others. I feel that I already caught myself getting mad the clerk at the coffee shop for taking too long with one of the customers in front of me, chatting away. I realized, though, that I was hungry and tired, and maybe if I was feeling better myself I would not be so mad at the clerk and the chatty customer. This is just a little thing, but I feel that if I better understand how emotions are developed within myself, I can manage them better and just feel happier about life. I think this is what…… [Read More]

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Conflicts & Dilemma the Author

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35935032

The other side of that coin is general competency and ability to do one's. Ignorance of how to do one's job correctly can unfairly or even irreecovactly change the lives of the people that stand to be affected by the work of a forensic psychologist and this would include children, people that have been injured, people that are at risk of violence but no actual violence has yet been proven and so forth. Being precise and adept with exquisite studying habits and attention to detail ia hallmark of any solid forensic psychologist and any of the same that are not on board with that need to find a new calling in life because forensic psychology should never be done half-way or half-you-know-what.

Finally, there is self-interest and this can be exceedingly dangerous. It is well-known that many forensic psychologists are hired by the court and they, as a result, should act in an impartial and dispassionate manner. The facts should be collected, summarized in full and nothing should be omitted that is relevant or included that is not verifiable unless it is made crystal clear that it's just a theory or a possibility and not a fact. Staying on the…… [Read More]

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Conflicts in Marital Counseling Although

Words: 5050 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54799142

You can't simply say you're going to integrate the science of psychotherapy with scripture." Moore argues, "because there are only sciences and theories of psychotherapy that are contradictory and incoherent." The implication that pastoral care and counseling and not and have not been Biblical, Vicki Hollon, executive director of the Wayne Oates Institute in Louisville, insists, was creating a false dichotomy. Hollon contends that Southern officials created the proverbial straw man. "And their movement away from science reveals a lack of faith, or at least a fear that somehow science is outside the realm of God's creation and domain." Some secular counselors encourage clients, including those in marital counseling, to refrain from reading the Bible and to stop going to church if that made them feel worse. Stuart Scott, a former pastor and current professor and convert to biblical counseling, became disillusioned with the answers psychology gives. Scott states he found his confidence in the Bible began to wane at one point when he practiced secular counseling. He questioned, "What good is the Bible if it's not helping God's people?'" While counseling one couple experiencing marriage problems, Scott began to utilize the process of asking the couple questions and then…… [Read More]


Briggs, M.K., & Rayle, a.D. (2005). Incorporating Spirituality into Core Counseling Courses: Ideas for Classroom Application. Counseling and Values, 50(1), 63+. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database:

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from: /

Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.). (2003). Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database:

Daniel, R.L. (2003). Chapter 10 Counseling Men. In Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners, Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.) (pp. 189-207). New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from Questia database:
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Sociological Theories Have Helped Widen People's Scope

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10234738

Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).

Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach to the social change within the family; and how each of the theories affect the views of the society.

Sociological theories enable one to understand how a given society operates. They also help in demystifying how members of a society relate with one another. Problems that arise in a society…… [Read More]

References List

Giddens, A. (1997). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.

McLennan, G, Allanah, R., & Spoonley, P. (2000). Exploring society: Sociology

for New Zealand students. Auckland: Pearson.

Stephens, P., & Leach, A. (1998). Think Sociology. New York: Nelson Thornes.
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Sociological Theories Functionalism Is Usually Defined as

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46881781

Sociological Theories

Functionalism is usually defined as viewing society from the aspect of its different parts, and how those parts relate to each other and society as a whole. Many functionalists liken society to a biological form, such as the human body, with its different organs all working in conjunction to keep the body as a whole functioning. Each of the elements of the body has a "function- to maintain the whole, so ensuring the stability or order of the system." (Bissell, 2005, p.41) But while each element has a manifest function, or the function that is expected from it, there are also unexpected functions called latent functions.

On the other hand, Conflict Theory states that the different parts of a society are in a state of conflict over the limited resources available to society. While Functionalism stresses the unity between the different groups, "conflict theory emphasizes strife and friction" between groups. (Anderson, 2008, p. 21) This theory has its basis in the writings of Karl Marx, who emphasized the different parts of society and how they grapple for social and economic resources. According to Marx, order in society is maintained by the supremacy of one group over the other…… [Read More]


Anderson, Margaret, Howard Francis Taylor. (2008). Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Print.

Bissell, Paul, Janine Morgall Traulsen. (2005). Sociology and Pharmacy Practice. London: Pharmaceutical Press. Print.

Ritzer, George. (1992). Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw Hill. Print.

Sifferlin, Alexandra. (9 Dec. 2013). "Sandy Hook Families Seek Privacy On Anniversary
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Town in Turmoil a Town in Conflict

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66974795

Town in Turmoil

A Town in Conflict

Every story can be told a number of different ways. Each person in a given narrative understands what went on from a particular perspective. Sometimes, if that person is especially perspicacious and especially curious, then she or he can see a particular event from the perspective or one or two other people. But the individual's perspective is always limited, and this is a good thing. If we cannot see the world from our own point-of-view then we have no hope of understanding our own virtues and vices, our own sense of cause and effect.

But it is also true that there is an important place in the world for understanding an event from a larger perspective. This is the role (or, at least, one of the roles) that scholarship plays in our lives. Scholarship provides that larger lens, that broader focus on the world that helps us to place our own perspective into the whole perspective of an historical moment. However, just to keep things complicated, there are different scholarly views as well as different individual ones. The paper examines a series of events that took place in the town of Jena, Louisiana,…… [Read More]


A town in turmoil. (2007).

Holmwood, J. (2005) Functionalism and its Critics in A. Harrington, A., (Ed.) Modern social theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Macionis, J.J. (2011). Society. (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
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Consensus and Conflict Models

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95026946

consensus vs. The conflict model

Consensus and Conflict Models

Compare and contrast the consensus model and the conflict model:

And how do both fall short?

The 'conflict'-based model of criminal justice theory views all of human society as inherently gripped by conflict, with a specific emphasis on class-based conflict. Marxism is the economic theory primarily associated with the conflict theory. Marxists take a broad, sweeping view of all of human global history as an eternal, polarized struggle between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots' of the world. The haves, which in modern, industrialized society are the bourgeois property-owners, try to hold onto their power by manipulating all existing political and economic structures to disenfranchise the have-nots.

Naturally, the have-nots of the world occasionally chafe against this control. But, they often do so ineffectually, through petty crimes and unorganized and organized criminal activities. Crime can actually act as a kind of 'safety' valve or release for criminal impulses spawned by economic injustice. For example, if drug dealers profit off of their sales, and drug abuse and selling is only partially contained through the criminal justice system, then the poor can view the sale of illicit drugs as a potential way of circumventing…… [Read More]


Gaines, Larry K. & Roger Le Roy Miller. (2011). Criminal justice in action. New York:

Wadsworth. Retrieved December 16, 2011 at

Greek, Cecil. (2005). Conflict theory. Criminal Theory Homepage.

Retrieved December 16, 2011 at
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Macroeconomic Theories and Nickel and

Words: 1683 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1337146

Bronfenbrenner's four systems consist of microsystems (i.e. nuclear family, neighborhood, schools, etc.); mesosystems (i.e. The specific connections between the individual and microsystems); exosystems (i.e. external environment and circumstances such as the work experiences of the parents); and macrosystems (i.e. The larger elements of society such as national culture and political climate). The additional (fifth) system is the chronosystem (i.e. The long-term patterns that describe the lifetime experiences of the individual in society such as in relation to the other four systems).

Ehrenreich's observations and conclusions seem to most exemplify the influence and effects of Bronfenbrenner's exosystems and chronosystems. Specifically, the exosystems concept explains how damaging to the child it can be for a parent to work in demeaning and backbreaking work day after day, especially without realistic hope of improving the life circumstances of the family. The privations of poverty are compounded by the various detrimental consequences of primary caretakers who are perpetually exhausted and hopeless. Likewise, Bronfenbrenner's chronosystems concept accurately describes the perpetual, multigenerational nature of long-term membership in the social class of the working poor whose children have substantially less opportunity to succeed in society than better economically situated individuals.

Role Theory

In some human societies (such as…… [Read More]

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Sociological Theories the Adfc Program

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53003570

The criminal justice system, according to Karl Marx, is thought to work for the rich while the resulting policies are more concerned with controlling the poor. Seigel and Welsh state that, "conflict theorists observe that while spending has been cut on social programs during the past few years, spending on the prison systems has skyrocketed." This leads to the conclusion that when there is a disparity between police and public and the rich and the poor, the conflict creates or influences antisocial or deviant behavior ( ).

The Secure Communities program exists in certain states and is a Department of Homeland Security initiative, which aims to identify and remove criminal aliens. Law enforcement officials in certain states will fingerprint every person booked into jail and those fingerprints will be run through Homeland Security's national database to check for illegal immigrant status. Morton believes the program could transform the face of immigration enforcement (Reavy 2010). This program is a prime example of social conflict theory. The program is controversial in that in states like Arizona, the law gives police the right to ask residents about their immigration status and orders that they must carry proof that they are in the United…… [Read More]


Reavy, Pat. (2010) "Program aids to better identify illegal immigrants." Deseret News.

Retrieved on May 20, 2010, from the Website:

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Sociology Theories How Do Berger

Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98964612

QUESTION THREE: "Is inequality of social classes inevitable?" The conflict theory put forward by Ralf Dahrendorf begins with a discussion of Marxism and the fact that in industry, the conflict between classes - the capitalist and proletariat (worker) - the worker had a natural inclination to be in conflict with the capitalists who were the authority, the bosses. The same kind of conflict carried over into the political realm as well, sometimes violent. The problem was that there was no system whereby conflicts could be resolved. But Marx's analysis, Dahrendorf goes on, was tainted because of his obsession with proletarian revolution.

At this point in his essay, Dahrendorf, though rejecting Marx in that context, asserts that since there are "interest groups" and "quasi-groups" those must then be considered "classes." And if there are classes, it is then logical to assume there will be groups, and quasi-groups that will always have "conflicting latent interests..." He mentions trade unions and employers' associations; a classic example of those two groups in conflict is the current writer's strike, the Writers Guild of America vs. The big corporations who run the movie studios. The writers claim there is a degree of inequality because they are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berger, Peter; & Luckmann, Thomas. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise

In the Sociology of Knowledge. Garden City NY: Anchor Books, pp. 51-55, 59-61.

Collins, Particia Hill. (1990). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Boston: UnwinHyman, pp. 221-238.

Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1959). Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford: Stanford
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Crime Theories Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773820

Crime Theories

Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. Rational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.

Rational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different needs and goals. "The variety of reasons in which one offends can be based on a variety of personal needs, including: greed, revenge, need, anger, lust, jealousy, thrills, and vanity," (Dechant, 2009).

According to Turner (1991), rational choice theory is based on the assumption that human beings are "purposive and…… [Read More]


Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online:

Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.

Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.

Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
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Conference Theories to Support Conference

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89997042

A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.… [Read More]


Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Public Policy Research 21(1). Retrieved online:

Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.

Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Retrieved online:

Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. Retrieved online:
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Educational Theories Historically There Have

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1538673

Finally, the third of the theories expects the student to develop in accordance with the interaction he had previously developed with the teacher. If the interaction was based on mutual respect and true feelings of cherishing and honesty, with also hard work, the individual is expected to further succeed. If on the other hand the interaction had been based on less fortunate feelings, beliefs and actions, the individual is likely to develop in a manner frowned on by society.

Having to choose a philosophy I would most agree with, I would select realism. The philosophy, promoted by Aristotle, amongst other great thinkers of all times, is a mixture of social influences and personal characteristics. It states that each individual is formed based on the events that occurred in his vicinity, but also by how his personal features made him relate and comprehend those particular events. In other words, realism promotes the idea that the individual is the result of "the world of nature or physical things and our experiences and perceptions of those things" (Webb, Metha, and Jordan, 2007). The realist theory is quite similar to the functionalist theory, as both aim to prepare the individual for his future integration…… [Read More]


Stevens, W., Functional and Conflict Theory: A Point-of-View, 2008, accessed on September 10, 2008

Webb L., Metha a., & Jordan, K. 2007. Foundations of American Education 5th edition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall

2008, Theories of Education, Cliff Notes, last accessed on September 10, 2008