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This betrayal by a power figure indelibly remains in the hearts and minds of the Congolese when interacting with other nations, even African neighbors (like wanda, with whom the DOC has had long-term and bloody conflicts).
A more empirical measure of the lasting effects that Belgian colonization has had on the Democratic epublic of the Congo is in the damage that has been done to the latter's natural resources. Almost every individual who comes into contact with the natural resources of the DNO, either through study, travel to the area, or prospecting in the mines and locations of other resources themselves has responded with, at the least, shock at the manner in which the Congo's vast natural reserves of precious metal, stones, and everyday resources like rubber have been depleted. Human ights Watch has issued a report stating that not only are these resources being depleted in a manner that…… [Read More]
" More precisely, the role of the esolution was to establish the UN Operation in the Congo. This came as a result of the vivid request of the Government for the UN to intervene, given the troop movement from the Belgian side.
The action taken by the Belgian was clearly justifiable. Similar to the cases of Somalia and wanda, the nationals from the colonizing country are at great risk at the moment of a civil war outbreak. At the same time, the nationals of other countries as well represent a potential subject for revenge or blackmail. The United Nations' mandate however and its subsequent actions would not have been possible without the explicit request from the government of the country. Therefore, although the UN had a legitimate reason for entering the Congo in the condition of potential lives being at risk, the mandate of the UN is politically authorized solely…… [Read More]
The ages and gender of the susceptible suggest the cause may be insufficient or incomplete immunizations, especially since women and girls can develop some immunity as a result of being exposed to immunized infants. (UN, 2010)
Although only five cases have been confirmed as polio so far, lab testing continues. Of three known strains of polio, the particular strain causing this outbreak is thought to originate from India, where it spread to nearby Angola. Previous experience shows that very rapid vaccination efforts can quell the outbreak (in 2006 in Namibia one was controlled within three months), but they must be swift and include all neighboring districts. In addition, surveillance efforts must continue for a full year after the vaccination efforts are complete, in order to ensure eradication. (PGEI, 2010)
Scientists attribute this outbreak in Congo to more than just poorly managed vaccination campaigns. Some argue that as long as poverty,…… [Read More]
However, with budgeting, management can easily see how much money is available for projects and what the most pressing issues of the company are. Without the budget, the company is doomed as it is unable to account for its cash flow and revenue streams (Sullivan, 2003).
Also, various financial models can be used to aid management. These tools can include sensitivity analysis and regression analysis. Sensitivity analysis in particular is a very crucial component within the overall business strategy of a firm. Sensitivity analysis helps properly forecast adverse scenarios under various market stressors. It also allows management to determine what variables have the greatest impact on the strategic outcome. Management must determine where capital should be deployed in the underlying business. Through budgeting management can determine to what extent capital should be deployed in a particular business. Budgeting is the foundation for proper financial planning. Through proper budgeting, financial planning…… [Read More]
King Leopold's Ghost Book Review
There are a couple of different reasons as to why the genocidal tendencies stemming from Belgium's King Leopold "and its immediate aftermath" (Hochschild 233) -- which were responsible for the mass deaths in Africa at the turn of the 20th century -- and other greedy estern imperialists remained mostly unknown throughout the United States and most of Europe. Keeping their deadly actions unknown enabled these imperialists to propagate them and to continue to rape the continent and the people of Africa. If individuals in estern society would have become aware of these facts there could have been more measures created to reduce the autonomy and the devastation wreaked by such tyrants.
Conrad's view of human nature was changed by what he witnessed in the Congo in a way that was definitely worse than his previous regard for human nature, specifically as it applied to esterners.…… [Read More]
It is thought that the forest imbues the semen of a married man with its own vital essence. In this way, Mosko argues, the children born of married unions are products of "the joyful intermingling of several simultaneous influences of mother, father, and forest" (899).
The forest is not only the source of the individual's sense of identity, but also defines the communal sense of identity as well. Bands see themselves as spheres within the larger sphere of the forest, and see all communal activity as reflections of the larger relationship between the band and the forest. The great sphere of the forest provides a powerful kinship-type relationship between bands as well. While biological kinship bonds between Mbuti bands are common, they are not largely recognized as the primary unifying force among bands. Instead, Mbuti consider the common lineage of the forest to be the most significant binding principle among…… [Read More]
consultancy firm expertise international business challenges issues. You present analysis a business report. Your report focus identification discursive analysis main issues include conclusions recommendations.
isk analysis: Australia vs. Colombia and the Democratic epublic of Congo
New taxes are always worrisome, and the Australian government's recent decision to pass a 30% tax on profits from iron ore and coal have left many investors scurrying in search of other investment opportunities in alternate countries with lower tax rates and labor costs (Scott 2011). However, simply looking at a balance sheet to determine average tax rates and wages is only a small component of deciding whether a country is a worthwhile investment. With this caveat in mind, it must be cautioned that the proposed decision to shift resources to investing in the coal mining sector in Colombia and the iron ore sector in the Democratic epublic of Congo is neither viable nor cheaper…… [Read More]
Conflict in DC (Case Study)
Conflict in DC
Conflict in the Democratic epublic of Congo
Background of DC Conflict
The Democratic epublic of Congo (DC), otherwise also known as epublique Democratique du Congo from their French masters and formerly Zaire is a nation situated in Central Africa boasting of a very brief coastline that runs approximately 37 Kms. DC is the third largest country in the entire Africa and stands at 12th position in terns of size in the world scale with 2,345 Square Kms (U.S. Department of State, 2010). It is the eight in the world in terms of population and fourth in Africa with the 71 million populations.
DC is neighbored by Central Africa epublic and Sudan from the northern side, the Atlantic Ocean is on its West, to the south Zambia and Angola border it and wanda, Uganda and Burundi are its neighbors to the East.
DC…… [Read More]
Perceptions of Che Guevera
PERCEPTIONS OF CHE GUEVARA
Che Guevara was born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna in 1928 to a middle-class family (Castaneda 1998, 3). He was Argentinean by birth but was later awarded with an honorary Cuban citizenship in recognition of his contribution towards the armed struggle in the Cuban revolution. Studying to become a doctor, Guevara became influenced by Marxist ideals and teachings upon a motorbike trip across South America at the age of twenty-four where he observed the exploitation and deprivation of the poor people under capitalism (Castaneda 1998, 50). He became a champion of the class struggle against capitalism on an international level. He joined Fidel Castro in 1955 in overthrowing the Cuban government of atista. Subsequently, he became an important figure in Cuban diplomacy and a vocal critic of the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on he helped revolutionary groups…… [Read More]
They don't want to fight people; they want to do business with them" (Dos Passos 21). However, he soon learns about America, specifically what it means to be poor in America. He tells Emile and Marco, "It's the same all over the world, the police beating us up, rich people cheating us out of their starvation wages, and who's fault?" (Dos Passos 37). Out of all the book's characters, it seems as if Congo has the least drive and ambition, and yet he is one of few that gain the most in the novel, strictly by his own hard work and determination.
He seems to become more embittered about being poor as the book progresses, in fact, he says he wants to be an American citizen but will refuse to fight in the war because it is just a way to stop revolution of the working man around the world…… [Read More]
Formerly known as Zaire, the Democratic Republic of Congo gained its independence from Belgium in June of 1960. Education standards have risen since the nation became independent, but political strife and an ongoing civil war continue to plague the Democratic Republic of Congo, which is actually run as a dictatorship. Since 1998, civil war has caused poverty, disenfranchisement, and a general low standard of living. Hardest hit are the women in society, who have traditionally been subordinated to their male counterparts. Although suffrage is universal and women maintain certain political and economic rights, women are still viewed and treated as secondary citizens. One of the most notable manifestations of the gender gap is in the educational system. In the total population, 77.3% of people over the age of 15 are literate in one of the major languages (French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba), but only 67.7% of females over the age…… [Read More]
Horror, the Horror:
Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness vs. Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now
I stood on this hillside, I foresaw that in the blinding sunshine of that land I would become acquainted with a flabby, pretending, weak-eyed devil of a rapacious and pitiless folly. How insidious he could be, too, I was only to find out several months later and a thousand miles farther -- Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness
The director Francis Ford Coppola's 1979 Vietnam epic entitled Apocalypse Now makes a direct analogy in its symbolism as well as its plot structure with Joseph Conrad's famous 1899 novella about colonialism in the Belgian Congo entitled Heart of Darkness. This is most notable in the character played by Marlon Brando: Colonel Kurtz, who is named after Conrad's Kurtz, an important figure in a fictional ivory trading company in the Congo. Both works present white men that have, for…… [Read More]
In the future, this helps to give everyone a greater appreciation for the emotions and challenges that were endured. (Henry, n.d., pp. 522- 535) (Legett, n.d., pp. 802 -- 818) (Gray, n.d., pp. 678 -- 697)
In the Victorian Period, there is focus on showing the impact of the industrial revolution on society. In the poem Dover Beach, there is discussion about how this is creating vast disparities. Evidence of this can be seen with the passage that says, "Ah, love, let us be true
To one another! For the world, which seems. To lie before us like a land of dreams, So various, so beautiful) so new, Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light, nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain; and we are here as on a darkling plain. Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight, Where ignorant armies clash by night." (Arnold, n.d.) This…… [Read More]
Evolution of ape
One of the most controversial theories in evolutionary psychology is the idea that men have evolved a rape adaptation. This is considered a controversial notion because when this theory was introduced many people felt as if it was an attempt to provide excuse or justification for rape. For many years, sexual assault advocates focused on the idea that rape was about violence, not about sex, and it seemed as if the evolutionary idea might challenge that notion. However, that rape might be an evolutionary adaptation does not make it a moral or justifiable act, after all, there are undeniably evolutionary adaptations for situationally-dependent murder, but murder is universally considered immoral. Instead of viewing it as a reason to excuse rape, approaching rape as if there is a possibility that men have evolved a rape adaptation may actually help social scientist develop ways to decrease the frequency of…… [Read More]
Everywhere there is the drumbeat of the natives, and the ominous reminder of the presence of untamed native life. Blackness is the dominant image of the Congo in Heart of Darkness -- whirls of black limbs, the black water -- all of which suggest that the environment is anathema and destructive to white civilization, as manifest in the persona of Kurtz. The natural beauty of the land, its colors, and the nuances of local cultures of tribes that would be perceptible to an Africa blur into a singular image of darkness in Conrad's prose.
Q4. Some critics argue that you can only fully understand a piece of literature if you understand the historical events that were ongoing when it was being written. Others argue that each piece of literature is independent of its historical context and you should not have to look for information outside the text to understand it.…… [Read More]
On the other hand, this return to a people made largely more recognized by Turnbull's first ethnography does suggest something about the ethnography itself where anthropological purpose is concerned. Namely, the degree to which the people of the Mbuti tribes may have been exposed to the larger intersection with the modern world as a result of Turnbull's first work is illustrative of the way that research can actually interfere with and alter the course of its subject's experience.
To an extent, the ethnography may be a double-edged sword, with its apparent benefits through immersion taking on troubling implications where the researcher's immersion itself becomes a factor in shaping data and outcomes. In addition to distorting intended findings, this also calls into question various ethical concerns where scientific examination is concerned. It is conceivable to argue that an ethnography such as that crafted by Turnbull may have eschewed proper ethical considerations…… [Read More]
Blommaert's analysis however is not pictorial. It is linguistic due to his analysis of handwriting in History of Zaire
Tshibumba shows how the forms of genre can work to offer space for Tshibumba to define himself as a historian by being a produce of ordered and organized knowledge. His writing style was generically regimented, reflecting Tshibumba's pictorial style of historical representation. It is not so much fact as voice (interpretation). This goes as well for Tshibumba's paintings (Blommaert, 2004, 6).
Given the criteria laid down by Blommaert and Moten, we can now further analyze painting number 34 where Tshibumba is giving voice to the suffering man. hether or not a single living person that can be given a name is represented here, it is an archetype of a whole people's sufferings over the whole modern history of the Congo. Rather, what is historically true is the suffering of the Congolese…… [Read More]
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…… [Read More]
Barrier island beaches generally develop where:
a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore
During storms in winter:
a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches
b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands
c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed
Along the Midocean ridge
a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur
Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?
c British Columbia and Alaska
d Texas and the Gulf Coast
Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?
d None of the…… [Read More]
Other imperialist powers continued to exploit immensely naturally rich country and still made use of Force Publique, the army of mercenaries that Leopold had employed for his sinister objectives. They also used the tactics employed by Leopold to extract rubber in their own colonies. ith the outbreak of First orld ar, the world largely forgot about Congo and its horrifying past. Instead of showing outrage against Belgium for allowing such brutalities in one of their colonies, the Allies actually started the war against Germany on the pretext that it was trying to protect Belgium. It had taken just a few years for them to forget that "only a decade or two earlier, it was the King of the Belgians whose men in Africa had cut off hands." (p296)
"King Leopold's Ghost" confirms what Joseph Conrad had written in the Heart of Darkness. However what is really unfortunate is the politics…… [Read More]
Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest
The Mbuti pygmies are a nomadic tribe who inhabit the southern and central portions of the Ituri forest, in the epublic of Congo. They are an ethnocentric and homogenous society whose traditions, gender relations, kinship, social organization have remained unchanged until the last fifty years. The Mbuti tribe is divided into two sub-groups, the Efe and the Mbuti. Currently there are between 20,000 and 50,000 Mbuti people in the Congo (Ojo, 1996). The Mbuti pygmies are hunter-gatherers and have practiced hunting and foraging for thousands of years. Many of the foods they find in hunting and foraging expeditions, especially meat and wild honey, are used as trade items with neighboring tribes like the Bila or Bira people. The Mbuti pygmies are primarily net hunters while the Efe sub-groups of the Mbuti tribe use the bow and arrow. According to Denslow and Padoch (1988) in…… [Read More]
Heart of Darkness
It was written by Joseph Conrad. The story is set in London, but there is a large part of it that happened in Congo. The writer went to Congo in the year 1980, on June 12. The inspiration for his writing may have been derived from what Conrad experienced in Congo. At that time, Britain had the most influence and power in the world. The Britain Empire stretched throughout Africa, Asia and Europe. Joseph Conrad was born in 1857, in Ukraine. His original name was Jozef Konrad Teodor Korzeniowski. As the writer, Conrad was a foreigner who was looking out. He was neither of African nor British origin; hence he was an appropriate party for writing a story about Congo and Britain. After all, he had insight regarding both countries (Svensson).
According to Svensson, the novella clearly portrays the Imperialism of Europeans. The novella talks about…… [Read More]
Conflict with Getting Minerals from the DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo) is Important to China's Economy
Globalization is a significant part of the business world. It offers many opportunities for change and growth, and helps people connect to one another even if they are across the world from each other. eing able to buy something from the next town over or the other side of the world can make a person very happy, and can also help companies expand and gain new clients. However, what the person is buying and where the items are coming from is very important. Some globalization has resulted in a desire for items that are coming from countries where the people are not being treated well. When that happens, it can be a serious violation of human rights and can cause a significant number of problems in the country from which the items are being…… [Read More]
Diasporic Identities: In Othello and Heart of Darkness
The issue of Diaspora is often associated with only a single culture, that of the Jews who were challenged by the secular and Islamic leaders of their "homeland" to flee for their lives and believe that they are in constant wandering upon the earth. Yet the concept of Diaspora is much broader than that, as individuals and groups often feel disconnected from their homeland both figuratively and really in literature and life. In the two works, Shakespeare's Othello and Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness one can clearly see the literary expression of diasporic identities. This work will argue that each of these works, Othello and Heart of Darkness demonstrates the reality of the challenges one faces when one uproots him or herself from the origin culture and begins to wander the earth without a home and the feeling of security that the…… [Read More]
One of the pending cases involved a dispute between France and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Like the dispute with Belgium, this involved France's attempt to hold one of the Congo's ministers responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity. France sought to compel the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to appear as a witness, which the Congo claimed was a violation of its sovereignty.
nternational Court of Justice. (2008). Certain Criminal Proceedings in France (Republic of the Congo v. France). Retrieved April 10, 2008, from nternational Court of Justice
Web site: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3&p2=1&code=cof&case=129&k=d2
nternational Court of Justice. (2008). Judge Kenneth Keith. Retrieved April 10, 2008, from nternational Court of Justice.
Web site: http://www.icj-cij.org/court/index.php?p1=1&p2=2&p3=1&judge=157
nternational Court of Justice. (2008). Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Retrieved April 10, 2008, from nternational Court of Justice.
Web site: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3&p2=4&k=5a&case=131&code=mwp&p3=6
nternational Court…… [Read More]
Challenges to Democratic Development in Africa
The political life in Africa has largely been characterized by poor governance and an inherently poor democratic record. This has in most cases led to not only political disillusionment, but also despair – effectively stifling the continent’s economic advancement. In effect, the challenges facing the continent as far as democratic development is concerned stem from political misrule coupled with the adverse effects of imposed westernization, as well as globalization and resource exploitation. As a consequence, the continent continues to suffer demobilization on the political front which has effectively led to economic decapitation. Millions of the continent’s inhabitants continue to be afflicted by disease and poverty, and illiteracy levels continue to be high in most countries. This text assesses and evaluates challenges to democratic development in Africa in the context of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Democracy, as per its dictionary definition, has got…… [Read More]
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…… [Read More]
Human Rights: King Leopold's Ghost
King Leopold's Ghost: Human Rights
Conflicting arguments have been put forth in response to the question of whether or not colonialism is justified. Proponents of colonialism argue that it helps to bring civilization, progress and growth in the colonizer's religion. However, evidence shows that colonialism only benefits the colonialist nation at the expense of the colonized population. This text demonstrates why this is so using the book 'King Leopold's Ghost' by Adam Hochschild.
Those that plundered the Congo and other parts of Africa did so in the name of progress, civilization, and Christianity? Was this hypocritical? How? What justifications for colonial imperialism have been put forward over the past five centuries?
Simply stated, colonial imperialism is the establishment and maintenance of a nation's ruler over an alien nation that is subordinate, yet separate from the ruling power. Imperial powers from ancient to modern periods have…… [Read More]
print stories as background in order to climb into the cultural and ethnical perspectives of the subject of the article and to investigate that perspective in light of today's socio-political global issues. This will be helpful, in general, as providing means of better understanding the anecdotal actions of the other and helpful, in particular, in that it will grant us enhanced knowledge into how to respect the other be it as tourist or as fellow inhabitant of this world.
a print story on Hassidim and a contextual glimpse into the story with background connection to Jewish Poland; Buddha's birthday and the lotus symbol; the recent witch massacre in the Congo and its roots to American slavery; the attempts of a fringe orthodox Jewish group in Israel to obliterate female faces from its magazines; and messages to Our Lady of Guadalupe and their connection to the Mexican-American experience.
The stories are…… [Read More]
Others might allege that Mugabe has held elections, unlike John Locke's legitimate sovereign. But the presence of elections does not necessarily guarantee the existence of a good and fair representative government, or even the existence of a legislature. The BBC news reported that during the 2002 Zimbabwe election "some people from Europe were in Zimbabwe to watch how the voting was run. The Norwegian observers said the election was severely flawed and failed to meet international standards." (BBC News, 2002) the numbers also tell a sorry tale, as Mugabe's Zanu-PF party still dominates what is virtually a one party state occupying 147 out of the country's 150 parliamentary seats. (BBC News, 2000)
Lastly, John Locke above all stressed that the citizens of all nations have a property in their own persons, that the labor of the citizen's body and the work of the citizen's hands properly belong to the citizen,…… [Read More]
Montano urges a rigorous critical examination of children's literature for racism, linguicism, sexism, and bias. The importance of critical examination is to empower teachers, students, and parents to recognize the root causes of bias, prejudice, and stereotype. The function is not simply to point out obvious instances of racism, linguicism, sexism, and other biases. Moreover, it is not enough to include literature written from multicultural perspectives in classroom syllabi. As Gonzalez & Montano (2008) point out, it is important to recognize bias in all its forms: "The mere inclusion of multicultural literature is not enough to disrupt privilege or injustice. Nor is it enough to ask teachers to deconstruct stereotypes in texts and images if teachers are unaware of the subtle biases that exist therein," (p. 77). Montano calls the process of analysis critical literacy.
The process by which critical literacy can be attained varies but Montano provides…… [Read More]
UNDP Report Study
Human Development Report 2011:
A Study of the Improvements and the Deteriorations in our Nations
Our world has changed immensely in the past twenty-one years. Major improvements, such as high-speed communication via the internet, have allowed East and West to link together, yet some countries have stagnated, and others have even deteriorated. The reason the world is unequal and many countries are still suffering from war, disease, and poverty is because development does not happen overnight and does not happen in a uniform way. However, it is troublesome that there are still countries that do not know about the internet, or do not use cellular phones, and do not therefore take part in the advancements that could propel our world and our civilization forward. The reality of this fact leads one to ponder how these countries have evolved, and how can some poor countries rise up to…… [Read More]
Darkwater: Voice From ithin the Veil, by .E.B Du Bois. Specifically, it will discuss the philosophy behind the book, and what Du Bois was trying to convey to his readers.
DARKATER have seen the human drama from a veiled corner, where all the outer tragedy and comedy have reproduced themselves in microcosm within" (Du Bois 483).
Many people consider .E.B. Du Bois to be one of the most influential African-Americans to work and write before the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. ritten in 1920, "Darkwater" has become a classic in African-American non-fiction. He believed Africans should govern themselves and argued seriously for the end of colonial rule in Africa. Many of the essays in this book also carry this central theme.
Colonies, we call them, these places where "niggers" are cheap and the earth is rich; they are those outlands where like a swarm of hungry locusts white masters…… [Read More]
Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad. Specifically it will discuss the self-discovery Marlow encounters on his journey through Africa. Marlow's journey from England to Africa and back to Europe is a journey of self-discovery and adventure. He encounters greed, savagery, and indifference along his journey, and he encounters prejudice, imperialism, and a new understanding of himself along the way, as well. In the end, he recognizes he is a changed man who no longer sees the world or himself in the same way.
Throughout the book, Marlow recognizes, as he looks back on his experiences, that he was on a journey of self-discovery on his trip to Africa. Literary critic Harold Bloom notes, "But Marlow reiterates often enough that he is recounting a spiritual voyage of self-discovery. He remarks casually but crucially that he did not know himself before setting out, and that he likes work for the chance it…… [Read More]
The chambers approach may be more suitable for states that seek a quick resolution to a particular dispute or for other compelling reasons; however, like the full Court, these alternatives are likewise voluntary in nature and require the consent of the disputants to have the case heard by one of the three foregoing chamber types. According to the Court's published information concerning "Chambers and Committees" (2009), "Despite the advantages that chambers can offer in certain cases, under the terms of the Statute their use remains exceptional. Their formation requires the consent of the parties. While, to date, no case has been heard by either of the first two types of chamber, by contrast there have been six cases dealt with by ad hoc chambers."
Given the significant representation by most of the countries of the world in the UN, the UCJ has the capability to provide a valuable forum in…… [Read More]
Sociology, one of the biggest areas that are receiving continuous amounts of focus is the inequalities that exist. Recently, disparities in income levels have become much larger. This is because the top 1% (who controls the majority of the wealth) is earning more at the expense of the other 99%. These are individuals that have to work every day (often controlling little to no amounts of personal assets). Throughout history, this conflict has often been the focus of different labor disputes and social revolutions. (inship)
However, globalization is having a dramatic impact with these divisions becoming even larger. In the article that was written by iniship (2012), he is talking about how these disparities are evolving. Evidence of this can be seen with statistics that were uncovered from the Congressional Budget Office. They found that the income levels of the ultra-wealthy increased from 8% in 1979 to 18% in 2007.…… [Read More]
The research also showed that Guevara's trip throughout Latin America as chronicled in his book, the Motorcycle Diaries, was a formative experience for him and transformed him into a revolutionary in spirit as well as in deed. Finally, the research also showed that unlike the reports of other iconographic figures from the 1960s, Guevara's death was confirmed by empirical observation but his popular identity continues to be developed through the use of famous photographic images and his legacy continues to be reinforced by people in search of heroes today.
arbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"
iography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.
enavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance
in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.
Gott, Richard. "Che Guevara and the Congo," New Left Review, a no. 220 (1996), 3-33.
"Guevara, Che." The Columbia Encyclopedia,…… [Read More]
UN Security Council
Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of the century, this sentiment has grown in strength across the world, and as a countermeasure to this threat, in 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed esolution 1540 to combat the dangerous nexus between the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorism. Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the esolution mandates that all member states criminalizes and put into place a national enforcement system to deter and punish proliferation activities. Additionally, provisions under esolution 1540 entail physical safety and security measures, as well as the adoption of border and export controls to detect, deter, prevent, and combat illicit trafficking. [1: During the 2010 Washington, DC Nuclear Security Summit, the United States President Barack Obama stated that…… [Read More]
Analysis of Theories
The field of international relations is based on many competing and complementary theories. These include realism, liberalism, constructivism, dependency theory, Marxism, etc. The theories are many; the field is expansive. What international relations seek to do is both formulate and analyze international politics, and work concomitantly with world governments, non-governmental organizations, and multi-national corporations. Due to the nature of work in these global affairs, several of the theories mentioned above are utilized to explain various phenomena. This paper will thus focus on a few questions as they relate to international relations and, specifically, to the theories which it employs.
To begin, one must understand that the field of international politics can be segmented into various categories, or levels of analysis. The most famous of these categories are Kenneth Waltz' groups, which include explanations of politics as being driven by individuals, by psychology, by states,…… [Read More]
AFICA'S PETOLEUM AND CHINA'S ECONOMIC GOWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
How Africa's Petroleum Supply Is Important to China's Economic Growth and Development
While China continues to grow, its oil demand is poised to grow rapidly. For China to ensure its oil security, it must obtain oil from the global world because it lacks adequate domestic resources to quench the thirsty appetite of the country's rapid economic development. Any approach for growth that the country takes in its demand for oil is likely to affect the global oil market and influence existing system and order of international oil. As one of its oil strategy, China's firms are reaching every corner of the world to purchase oil or invest in oil fields showing to have opportunities disregarding the possible enormous risks. Some of China's national oil enterprises have made outstanding investment activities in African countries (Ma, 2010). Today, China's largest imports from Africa continue…… [Read More]
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…… [Read More]
Does world trade make the world smaller by bringing people closer together? Or does it divide the globe by creating winners and losers through greater inequality?
Globalization is a complex phenomenon that is often misunderstood. Part of this trend deals with a movement toward more integrated economic and political systems. Yet, today's societies face both an internal and external political environment and socio-economic factors that are marked by unprecedented levels of bipolarization and inequality that have arguably reached new heights relative to any time in human history. Is important to note that globalization is not exactly a new phenomenon, but new developments in technology, more specifically relative to information technology (IT), have allowed citizens of the world to communicate in real time and engage with virtually anyone else in the world.
International organizations have leveraged these new developments and much of globalization is driven by companies that operate internationally…… [Read More]
Joseph Conrad and His Influence on British Literary History
Joseph Conrad was born in the Polish-dominated side of Ukraine in the year 1857, and was originally known as Jozef Teodor Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski. He was at sea for twenty years, after which he became an author. He wrote in English, which was the language he learnt third. hat he went through while in Africa, the Caribbean and Southeast Asia, along with all the reading and the knowledge he had about Europe were the bases for his writing. He was listed as the top British author of the 20th Century (Larabee).
He was well-known as a sophisticated and subtle observer of the physical world and the behavior of humans. Conrad was also a renowned literary artist. He had many writings including memoirs, novels and short stories, which are still widely read and studied today. For example, his 1899 story, Heart of…… [Read More]
The colonial time however was shaped by international events as well. The Cold War played a crucial role in the development of the Angolan state. Despite the fact that Angola is not a big country in terms of size and population, the battle for influence was related particularly to the strategy of the Cold War and that of the strategic zones in the world.
There are several issues to be taken into account when addressing the perspectives of the society as opposed to that of the government in reference to the future of Angola. The first one is the constant and ongoing civil disruptions over the diamond trade.
The UN sanctions imposed on UNITA, the ones responsible for most of the illegal trade diamond had no consistent effect because the trade embargo was not respected, as the Canadian Ambassador mentioned on one occasion
. In this sense, the social constraints…… [Read More]
imperialism is necessary for cultures to progress. The United States is not often thought of as an imperialistic nation, because we like to think that we would not subjugate or take over other countries. However, that is just what we did when our forefathers came to this country and shoved aside the Native Americans. We subjugated and eradicated a culture and way of life, and that is the textbook definition of imperialism. Imperialism is wrong and shameful, but it seems that as much it may be hard to say, it is necessary for securing our way of life, and it is crucial in developing new trade and commerce.
First, it is necessary to define imperialism. Imperialism is the name for larger, more powerful nations to take over smaller, weaker nations, usually because of the promise of wealth or resources they can exploit. There is a long history of imperialism throughout…… [Read More]
The VCC clarifies the VCD and limits the diplomatic immunities in such as way that should prevent abuses. The problem is enforceability. Many law enforcement officials on a local level are not familiar enough with the particulars of both documents to make a proper judgment. They are aware of diplomatic immunity, so in order to avoid making a potential mistake, they will not arrest someone who has any type of diplomatic immunity. It is not that diplomatic immunity under the VCD allows diplomats and their families to commit crimes and get away with it. The principles contained in the Vienna Convention were in place as customary procedure even before the Vienna Convention was codified (Uribe, 1997). Nations do not have to maintain consulars and embassies, this practice is optional (Gross, 1980).
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the authority that is responsible for decisions regarding whether a country violated…… [Read More]
Brazil and Chili -- a Cultural Comparison
Brazil was originally colonized by Portugal, while the Spanish colonized Chili. The natural resources that provide jobs and help the economy in Brazil include gold, timber, tin, nickel, iron ore, oil and hydropower. Chili's natural resources include hydropower, copper, nitrates, molybdenum and timber as well. Chili only has 2.62% of its land that is arable; in Brazil, 6.93% of the land is arable. Brazil's fishing industry has a lot of fresh water and ocean to use, 55,460 square kilometers (with 7,491 miles of coastline); the Chilean fishing industry has just 12,290 square kilometers of ocean and fresh water to use (with 6,435 miles of coastline).
In Brazil the deforestation of the Amazon Basin (rainforest) is severe and has put many species of plants and animals in jeopardy. Improper mining tactics have caused Brazil's environment great harm and severe oil spills have caused degradation…… [Read More]
At which point, workers are either fired or arrested by the police. The subcontractor will then, hire other people to work in the place of employees that are creating problems. Over the course of time, this can cause feelings of animosity inside the community. Moreover, there are no social responsibility practices for these regions. This means that no one is focusing on understanding the social, economic and environmental impact of the company's activities on different areas. Once this occurs, is when there is the possibility that there will be some kind of backlash from these issues. This information is showing how Apple and its third party suppliers are walking a thin line when it comes to their practices in regions such as China. Therefore, this source is supporting the hypothesis that was presented earlier. (Stonebreaker, 2009, pp. 161 -- 177)
The different sources that were examined are showing how…… [Read More]
The ole of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and their Involvement in the elief Efforts Following the 2002 Nyirangongo Eruption
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) operates under the remit of the United Nations Secretariat, with 35 global offices and approximately 1,900 staff (OCHA, 2012). The organization has four principle roles which are stated as being a part of its' mission (OCHA, 2012). The first role is as an inter-agency body; involved in the mobilization and coordinating of actors that respond to humanitarian emergencies, which it aims to perform in a principled manner to help alleviate the suffering caused by disasters and emergencies (OCHA, 2012). The actors that are mobilized and coordinated by the OCHA include United Nations (UN) actors and non-governmental organizations (NGO's) at both national and international levels (OCHA, 2012). The second role of the OCHA…… [Read More]
Breakdown and Reconstruction of Characters' Faith in the Poisonwood Bible
In The Poisonwood Bible, Barbara Kingsolver uses Biblical references in part to delineate the differences in her characters' relationship to religious faith as they deal with their father's participation in the estern assault on the Congolese. These differences in levels of faith that her characters experience are Kingsolver's primary method of characterization in the novel. Although all of the characters acquire much of their individuality through Kingsolver's depiction of their differing degrees of faith in God, the Bible and Nathan Price, the voices of Leah and Orleanna Price are particularly marked by their use of Biblical allusions. In the first book "Genesis," Leah believes aggressively in her preacher father's overbearing attempt to bring Christianity to the Congolese. As the narrative progresses, however, her quotes become increasingly ironic, and when she loses her connection to her father, the quotes…… [Read More]
Earliest Origins of Jazz
Jazz has several origins and influences that make it what it is today. The earliest origins of jazz can be traced back to the Congo where the slave trade was based. Here the Congo natives had a tradition of music that consisted of a single line of melody and had a pattern of the call-and-response that is typical of jazz today. The rhythms found in this native music also consisted of a structure that was a cross-beat. This cross-rhythm drove the sub-Saharan styles of music in Africa and was related to the speech patterns of the Africans. The relationship between the beats of the music is what made it complex, for one could not be separated from the other, as they participated in a kind of dialogue, so to speak. This supports the call-and-repeat scheme of the overall structure of this early influence on the development…… [Read More]
The Bushmen reached advanced age despite living under harsh conditions caused by periodic famine and untreated illness. Some of the Bushmen coding alleles have been associated with disease. The results of the present study may help to reevaluate these earlier reports. They may also help to identify potential population-specific incompatibilities of drugs that are prescribed globally.
Furthermore, the results of this study have implications of admixtures that may be determined from further research. Population-wide PCA defines the Bushmen as distinct from the Niger-Congo populations as from Europeans. Within-Africa analysis separates the Bushmen from the divergent western and southern population, although ABT is within the southern Bantu cluster. However, variable relatedness of the Xhosa to Yoruba may suggest past admixture and/or historical diversity within this population. Within the Bushmen group, the authors predict that the Ju/' admixture and HGDP are essentially the same population. Divergence of KB1 and MD8 may be…… [Read More]
Because most of these intrastate conflicts involve identity issues they become intractable quickly. Identity is central to all human beings. It is part of everyone's self-esteem and affects how one interprets the world. This is why in ethnic conflicts the violence intensifies so quickly and strongly. Everyone involved is concerned with his or her personal security. One's home, family, and way of life are in peril. Needless to say, in these type of situations it can be expected the individuals involved will battle with every ounce of their resolve to insure that the factors that formulate their identity are protected. (egan)
Examining conflicts from a structural viewpoint results in a much different result in that the conflict is looked by examining the forces external to the people involved. Little consideration is afforded the involvement of the citizenry and their interests in the conflict. ather, the conflict is viewed through the…… [Read More]
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…… [Read More]
Hence, the model of preparation applies to Guevara's situation and choices perfectly because all of the prior knowledge and experience he had through his medical visits across Latin America motivated him to be absolutely prepared for a long battle, hence he not only stayed in the area where he could learn the most, he associated with people who had been pursuing the same goal longer then him and knew more about the things that he wanted to be aware of .
Domain knowledge that Guevara gained by staying in Guatemala and preparing was also of significant importance to sharpen the technical skills he needed to possess to succeed. Two of the most important aspects that Guevara aimed to gain through the domain knowledge were:
To familiarize himself with the rules with which a revolution or change within different societies operates in differing environments and the practical wisdom to compete in…… [Read More]
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…… [Read More]
C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).
Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…… [Read More]
private military companies Iraq illustrate a trend warfare? -No, Historical reasons great empires employed a large number mercenaries.-What reasons, -Type firms, divided types- type spear
Private military companies
Today's society is more challenging and dynamic than it has ever been. And this trend is manifested within the military sector as well. Here, the employees in the division have to be better motivated in order to risk their lives and this motivation has to be complex, and include both financial and non-financial incentives. While the major non-financial incentive would be the sense of fighting to protect one's country, the financial incentive has to be substantial and significantly larger than that of any other category of employees.
The modern day army then integrates technologic developments to improve the nature and outcome of its operations. It as such strives to answer the more and more complex demands of the contemporaneous society and, in…… [Read More]
million Africans were abducted forcibly from West Africa alone and enslaved (Centre for lack & African Arts & Civilisation, 2002, 1). This paper endeavours to explore the "impact of the slave trade on West Africa." The historical injustices of the slave trade have undeniably affected West Africa detrimentally in the political, economic and social arenas. The gravity of such a negative impact is what leaders of nations historically involved in the slave trade are discussing as they determine what reparations can be made to the victims of this inhumane practice.
efore embarking on the political, economic and social fallout of the slave trade on West Africa, it is important to give a brief description of this blight in history. From the middle of the 15th century, the Portuguese initiated the slave trade. They were followed by the Spaniards, and at a lengthier period (1562) by the ritish. Then in rapid…… [Read More]
Sociology -- Theoretical Paradigms
The Structural-Functionality of the Poor and Poverty
In the study of sociology, three classical paradigms dominate the process of sociological analysis: structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist theories. The structural-functionalist paradigm posits that individuals and groups in the society play specific roles in society that creates equilibrium to society's dysfunctions. The conflict theory, meanwhile, states that there exists, inevitably, oppression in the society, which results to a struggle by the oppressed group and social revolution that shall create reforms or changes in the society. Lastly, symbolic interactionism theorizes that symbols are the basis of life, and it is through interaction of these symbols that people reach an understanding of what s/he is and how society perceives him/her.
Given this set of paradigms in the study of sociology, this paper utilizes the structural-functionalist paradigm to discuss and analyze the role that the poor and poverty play in societies…… [Read More]