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Congress is the most important representative institution in a government. Each member's primary responsibility is to his or her constituency, and not to the congressional leadership, a party, or even Congress itself.
Purpose and Power of Congress
The purpose of the congress is agreed by most, is to legislate for the public interest, the public interest however is not agreed on. The Congress was established by the founders of this country, to be the first and most powerful branch of government. One of the first powers given to the congress was to lay and collect taxes. The agreement was to give such a power to the more common branch of government. The second power was to certify national elections. Third, determine who will replace President or Vice President if both are incapacitated. The last is the power to enforce other amendments through legislation.
Constraints on the Congress
The court noted…
He must bring certain traits, talents, and personality to the table to make certain that priorities are in order, the proper battles are fought and won, and that the country senses his urgency in effecting change in their interest.
An effective domestic policy president must be expert in two areas: working with Congress to effect real change, and using his pulpit to gain the support of the American people for his programs. If he can accomplish those two difficult tasks, he can have a successful domestic presidency. Effective presidents have a vision for the country and the ability and character to adhere to that vision and bring the country along with him. In other words, he must be a combination of John Kennedy, LJ, FDR, Teddy Roosevelt, and Ronald Reagan.
And there is one huge factor that can stop the most effective chief executive in his tracks -- an opposition…
Grant, A. (2004). The American political process. New York: Routledge.
Mount, S. (2001, November 30). Constitutional topic: Separation of powers. Retrieved November 9, 2009, from Usconstitution.net: http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_cnb.html
Rudalevige, A. (2009). The President at work: Domestic policy. Retrieved November 9, 2009, from millercenter.org: http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/policy/domestic
Sullivan, K. (2006, November 5). Separation of powers. Retrieved November 9, 2009, from philosophytalk.org: http://www.philosophytalk.org/pastShows/SeparationPowers.html
Congress ole in War Making
War has become a part of the human world. When we understand the events from the past to the present, for the purpose of dealing with conflicts, human beings have been pampered with weapons. Even though war has become an element of human custom, it has always been seen that efforts have always been made to control the outcome of war and the techniques employed in carrying forward the war. These efforts made to control the outcome of war has resulted in deciding the factors in the western civilization as to what should be the methods to be adopted to conduct the war and the proper time for carrying forward the war. In the case of America, the decision of which wing of government should make war has been a matter of dispute. There are several experts who are of the opinion that the president…
Broyles, David. "Fundamentals of Intelligence: Prudential Reason and the Founders Executive." Teaching Political Science 16 (Spring 1989): 99-105.
Farrar-Myers, Victoria A. "Transference of Authority: The Institutional Struggle Over the Control of the War Power," Congress & the Presidency, Vol. 25, No. 2, Autumn 1998, p. 190-198
Franck, Thomas M. "Rethinking War Powers: By Law or by 'Thaumaturgic Invocation'?" The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 83, Issue 4, October 1989, pp. 768-775
Hargrove, Erwin C. And Hoopes, Roy. "The Presidency: A Question of Power." Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975, pp.31-69
A Universal Answer
Identify means of applying social justice for vulnerable populations that eliminate health disparities. (paper)
Audience: Policy makers in government or an organization
Describe your audience.
Describe the method of communication.
Describe the goals of the communication of what you want to accomplish.
Present the communication in a format that fits the audience- email, letter, letter to the editor of the newspaper or a response to a blog posting, etc.
Evaluate how you would know if the communication was effective.
Include documentation to support the action that you are requesting.
APA format and spelling, grammar, writing scholarly.
This letter addresses an important problem in today's society: applying social justice for vulnerable populations to eliminate health disparities. Policy in this field is debated and concluded at a Congress/legislative level, so this paper will take the form of a letter addressed to a Congressman. It is…
Fukuda, S.P. (2001). The human development paradigm: Operationalizing Sen's ideas on capabilities. Feminist economics, 9(2 -- 3), 301-317. Abstract retrieved from http://www.ibero.edu.mx/humanismocristiano/seminario_capability/pdf/11.pdf
Harkness, G.A., & Demarco, R.F. (2012). Community and public health nursing evidence for practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Rugar, J.P. (2010). WHO | Health and social justice - World Health Organization. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/89/1/10-082388/en/_br
Swartz, Katherine, (2009). Health care for the poor: For whom, what care, and whose responsibility? Retrieved from http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/focus/pdfs/foc262l.pdf
The international human relations together with global policy-making processes have led to intensification of wars in various part of the world.
The justification of war is something that has taken root in the industrialized globe. Massive undertakings exist in the strategies and plans of many nations like the U.S.A., Afghanistan, ussia, and even in Germany. Moreover, justification of war has led to increase in simple crimes among individual nations. Global trends as applied in marketing have shifted to terrorism. Some cold war occurring without the interrupt of the global needs to have a globalized and universal world (Nassar, 2005). Evidently, the existence of the social media has also sought to advance many terrorist operations because of the enhance coordination. Such incidences of globalization have seen the growth of many terror groups because of the enhanced communication and ability to disguise the footsteps that might expose their operations. The aspect of…
Han, J., Kamber, M., & Pei, J. (2012). Data mining: Concepts and techniques. Amsterdam:
Hughbank, R.J., Niosi, a.F., & Dumas, J.C. (2011). The dynamics of terror: And creation of homegrown terrorists. Mustang, Oka: Tate Pub. & Enterprises.
Karawa-n, I., McCormack, W., & Reynolds, S.E. (2008). Values and violence: Intangible aspects of terrorism. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.
The American political system has been held up as an ideal for division of political labor. This is not the only system based on a constitution, of course, and an analysis of many different societies through history shows me that a system with a constitution is a system in which the people can point to a clear legal basis for their political structure. A constitution is a social covenant in written form, not merely a tacit agreement but an actual document by which subsequent actions can be judged. The American political system has survived and evolved precisely because there is a written document accepted and applied by the people. We may change how we view specific provisions, but we do not have to guess at what those provisions are. The people and the sovereign are both subject to the same regulating document as a framework for institutions and actions alike.…
subliminal advertising. Congress should create legislation to outlaw subliminal advertising, as it is subversive and distasteful.
Subliminal advertising is advertising that is buried in other forms of media, which the viewer only sees unconsciously. Many people have said it has existed for decades, while others have argued it does not exist at all. Subliminal advertising is a threat because it happens so quickly viewers are not aware of it, but the image or thought is implanted on their brain without their knowing, and they will often act on it.
Congress should outlaw this form of advertising because it takes advantage of a person subconsciously, and that should not be a method for advertising products. Americans are bombarded with advertising every day on television, radio, the Internet, in newspapers and magazines, and even billboards as they drive their car. Advertising is prevalent enough in our society without it being implanted on…
" (19:481) in order to wield the power of the opaque concept of 'national security' in foreign policy, the executers must use a careful construct of realities and perceptions that hang between an actual danger and a perceived threat. (9:144)
Taking into account the internal roots of an external problem, to have heft in the weight of international opinion, alliances are key to public diplomacy. The first Golf War reflected a profound gap between the national mood, Congress, and President that revealed itself most directly in the "stress test" with the United States' alliances, according to Michael renner. (19:665) While the end of the Cold War brought rise to a transformation in mutual security structures worldwide, their reform and renovation incited an introverted tactic of externally exerted power for the United States. As the West continued its reliance on the United States' directive leadership, the Gulf crisis revealed an tenuous…
Blease, W. Lyon. A Short History of English Liberalism. New York: Putnam, 1913.
Bock and Berkowitz, PG and Morton. "The Emerging Field of National Security." World Politics. Vol. 19. (Oct., 1966.)
Brenner, Michael. "The Alliance: A Gulf Post-Mortem." International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1994-). Vol. 67, No. 4. (Oct., 1991) p. 665.
Bush, George W. News Address with French President Jacques Chirac. November 5, 2001.
2nd Continental Congress attempted to bring us through the evolutionary War, but the members soon realized that we needed a form of central government on a permanent basis. The arguements began between Alexander Hamilton, the Federalist, and Thomas Jefferson, the anti-Federalist, over how much power the central government should actually be given. This assignment will address these issues and has several parts. Make sure you answer all parts of the question and write an essay at least 4 pages in length. 1. Discuss the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the reasons it failed. 2. Describe the makeup of the Constitutional Convention and the priorities of the delegates. 3. Compare Hamilton and Jefferson in their political and economic philosophies and their concept of Federalism. Do you feel Hamilton had too much influence under the administrations of Washington and Adams? I want you to give an assessment as to the…
Kelly, M. Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? About. http://americanhistory.about.com/od/governmentandpolitics/f/articles_of_confederation_fails.htm accessed on October 4, 2012
(2012). The world factbook -- United States. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html accessed on October 4, 2012
Hamilton vs. Jefferson. Country Studies. http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-41.htm accessed on October 4, 2012
United States Congress
Over the past 200 years or so, the relationship between the House of Representatives and the Senate has changed quite a bit, but not always for the better. The relationship between Congress as a whole and the Presidency has also changed during this time period, but the same is also true of it.
There are several reasons why this has happened, and they will be addressed in this paper. Also addressed here will be the extent to which these relationships have changed over the course of time. Both of these issues are very important, not just in understanding the history of our great country, but in making some kind of prediction for where it might be going in the not so far-distant future.
Some believe that the whole country is having problems and is on the verge of collapse. Major corporations have been found guilty of terrible…
Harris, Fred R. In Defense of Congress. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.
Josephy, Alvin. The American Heritage History of the Congress of the United States. New York: American Heritage Publishing Co, 1990.
Josephy, Alvin. On the Hill: A History of the American Congress. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979.
Mayhew, David R. America's Congress: Actions in the public sphere, James Madison through Newt Gingrich. New Haven: Yale, 2000.
Due to the level of trust the general public has on them, members of Congress ought to ensure that they conduct themselves in a manner that does not betray this level of trust. In the past, many members of Congress have been charged with various ethics violations. Those whose ethical inclination has been put to question include, but they are not limited to, Rep. Patrick Meehan, Rep. Ruben Kihuen, Rep. Trent Franks, and Rep. Anthony Weiner. On this front, I will concern myself with Rep. Duncan Hunter, where it was alleged that he did convert “tens of thousands of dollars of campaign funds from his congressional campaign committee to personal use to pay for family travel, flights, utilities, health care, school uniforms and tuition, jewelry, groceries, and other goods, services, and expenses” (Office of Congressional Ethics, 2018). On 31st Aug 2016, a recommendation was made by…
Brazan, E.B. & Henning, A.C. (2010). Impeachment: An Overview of Constitutional Provisions, Procedure, and Practice. Washington, DC: DIANE Publishing.
Committee on Ethics (2018). Code of Official Conduct. Retrieved from https://ethics.house.gov/publication/code-official-conduct
McKeever, R.J. & Davies, P. (2014). Politics USA. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis
Office of Congressional Ethics (2018). OCE Report Regarding Rep. Duncan D. Hunter. Retrieved from https://oce.house.gov/reports/investigations/oce-report-regarding-rep-duncan-d-hunter
Defining the Problem
The Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 is the Intelligence Community funding authorization tool for the Fiscal Year 2017. The bill is regarded an important congressional oversight element and, in essence, “sets policy and authorizes resources for intelligence, counterterrorism, war fighting, and cyber security activities” (U.S. House of Representatives Permanent Selection Committee on Intelligence – HPSCI, 2018).
Biblical guidelines: There are quite a number of references to intelligence gathering in the Bible. As a matter of fact, there are numerous biblical instances of intelligence gathering for not only political, but also tactical reasons. For instance, Joshua (in the Old Testament) sent spies on a covert operation to gather the relevant information in readiness for the City of Jericho’s attack. In Joshua 2:1, it is stated thus: “then Joshua son of Nun secretly sent two spies from Shittim. ‘Go, look over the land,’ he said, ‘especially…
Congressional Budget Office - CBO. (2016). Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate. Washington, DC: CBO.
Every CRS Repot. (2016). Intelligence Community Spending: Trends and Issues. Retrieved from https://www.everycrsreport.com/reports/R44381.html#_Toc466559962
Sapolsky, H.M., Gholz, E. & Talmadge, C. (2017). U.S. Defense Politics: The Origins of Security Policy. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
The Holy Bible, the New King James Version. (1984). Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
U.S. House of Representatives Permanent Selection Committee on Intelligence – HPSCI, 2018 U.S. Const. Preamble.
Proposed Stopgap Spending Bill
Budgetary changes are common in the public administration field. Governments make budgetary changes as part of public governance based on various factors relating to serving the interests of the public. However, the process of making budgetary changes is sometimes characterized by political issues and partisan approaches. Policymakers or politicians differ on the measures adopted by the government or public sector organization when proposing changes in the budget. This paper examines a recent publication regarding proposed budgetary change and how the change affects a particular population. The discussion includes an evaluation of the source as well as a personal opinion on the issue.
Summary of the Article
Cochrane (2020) published an article on the differing opinions between Democrats and Republicans regarding a recent spending bill. The recent looming government shutdown prompted Congressional leaders to enact a stopgap spending bill to mitigate the impacts of the shutdown. Prior…
United States v. American Library Association, 539 U.S. 194 (2003) saw the U.S. Supreme Court rule that libraries as well as public schools are subject to the authority of U.S. Congress concerning installation of web filtering software as a result of receiving E-Rate discounts. These discounts are part of federal funding. Any public school or library receiving such funds must install this type of software. The ruling demonstrated installation of such filtering software is not unconstitutional as it does not violate the First Amendment. This ruling provided the groundwork for the Children's Internet Protection Act to take full effect.
In 2000, Congress passed the CIPA or the Children's Internet Protect Act. This law served as the main issue for the 2003 case. In order for public libraries to qualify for and receive federal aid for internet access, they must install web filtering software. The software disabled access to pornographic/obscene images…
There are two chambers of Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has two representatives from each of the 50 states for a total of 100 senators. The House has representatives that from each state that are proportional to the state’s population. So some states have more representatives than others. This difference is so that big states do not have more say in the federal government over small states (i.e., this is how the Senate is made up) while at the same time big states with big populations are also represented fairly (i.e., this is how the House is made up). Senators are elected to six year terms. Representatives in the House are elected to two year terms and elections are held every even year (Visit the Capitol).
While women in positions of leadership is nothing new, there is the perception that there…
Debate: Harris/Pence. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_G0ia3JOV s
Horowitz, J., Igielnik, R. & Parker, K. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/09/20/women-and-leadership-2018/
Visit the Captial. https://www.visitthecapitol.gov/about-congress/two-bodies-one-branch
Presidency and Congress
Evaluate Dickinson's thesis, in the light of the evidence he provides in his article, and the evidence I provided in lectures. Is Congress now a nationalized legislature? Or is it still a collection of representatives of local and special interests?
Matthew Dickinson's article provides a fascinating take on the state of the U.S. Congress as society knows it- Dickinson states that "all politics are local" and that 'Congress had entered a new, more partisan area of increasingly nationalized politics"; but, though fascination, Dickinson is far from the mark. Congress remains partial and politics is very much apparent at the national level, in addition to the local level.
Foremost, the fundamental underpinning of Congress is that it would be a collection of representative from local districts and states, with each district and state fostering special interests. The reason that individuals elect certain people to Congress is to represent…
Agiest, Jennifer. "Government Shutdown Averted, But Bigger Battles are soon to come." Huffington Post 28 Sept 2011. n. pag. Web. 28 Sep. 2011. .
Feldman, Linda. "The Campaign Contribution Scramble: Will Mitt Romney keep his GOP Lead?" The Christian Science Monitor. 27 Sept 2011. Web. 28 Sept 2011.
Rauhala, Emily. "Goldman Case Splits SEC down party lines." Newser 20 April 2010. n. pag. Web. 28 Sep. 2011. .
United States Congress:
The legislature of the United States was established in 1789 under the country's constitution and divided structurally from the judicial and executive arms of the government. This legislative arm in separated into two houses which are the Senate and the House of Representatives. hile the Senate requires that each state is represented by two senators regardless of its size, the House of Representatives consist of members who are elected on the basis of population. The Congress was created by the pioneers of the American Constitution on the basis that a huge portion of the powers of the government needs to be on the legislative branch. hereas the two Congressional chambers are separate and distinct, they tend to have an equal role in the enactment of legislation in most cases. Representation, lawmaking, oversight, service to constituents, conflict resolution and public education are the six basic functions of the…
"Chapter 11: The Congress." Faculty and Staff, Georgia Perimeter College. Georgia Perimeter College. Web. 24 May 2011. .
"Congress of the United States." History.com - History Made Every Day. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Web. 24 May 2011. .
U.S. Congress is composed of two chambers, the House of Representatives (with 435 members representing fifty states) and the Senate (with 100 members, with two members elected from each State).
The Republican and Democrat parties select their candidates for the two chambers of the Congress in primary elections, "election in which registered voters in a jurisdiction select a political party's candidate for a later election (nominating primary)"
After winning a primary election, the candidate from the respective party runs in the Congress election, which are held, for both chambers, in November.
For the 2005-2007 legislation (the 109th Congress), the Republican Party dominates both chambers. As such, the Republican Party currently holds 55 seats in the Senate, with the Democrats having won 44 seats and one independent seat (James Jeffords). In the House of Representatives, the proportion between the Republican Party and the Democrat Party is 53% to 46%, with the…
1. Majority and Minority Leaders. On the Internet at http://clerk.house.gov/histHigh/Congressional_History/leaders.html
2. Vincent, Carol Hardy. Committee Types and Roles. March 1998. On the Internet at http://www.house.gov/rules/98-241.htm
3. About the Senate Committee System. On the Internet at http://www.senate.gov/general/common/generic/about_committees.htm
4. Groseclose, Tim and King, David. Committee Theories and Committee Institutions. John F. Kennedy School of Government. Harvard University. November 1997. On the Internet at http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/prg/king/committ.htm#2
Other Congressional Democrats too are withdrawing their support of the president, including Senator Paul Kirk, Jr. Of Massachusetts. Health care reform too has seen a parting of the ways for some Democrats and the president.
Health care reform was one of the primary issues President Obama focused on during his campaign. The historic vote in the House of epresentatives brought him one step closer to seeing this reform come to fruition. However, the vote revealed a significant decline in the president's support. Whereas all but one epublican voted for the bill, almost 20% of Democrats voted against Obama's flagship piece of legislation, allowing to pass by a very slim 220-215 vote ("Final vote," 2009). The Senate has yet to vote on the bill, but with a similar composition as the House, the vote is certainly to be close. Immigration reform too was a topic Obama espoused to voters along the…
Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA history). (2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.nyse.tv/dow-jones-industrial-average-history-djia.htm .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (10 Oct 2002). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2002/roll455.xml .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (7 Nov 2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2009/roll887.xml .
Groen, J. & Polivka, A. (Mar 2008). Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Monthly Labor Review Online, 131(3). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/03/art3exc.htm .
The House of Commons has nine represented parties (ibid). As such, we can infer that in the United States, getting the favor of one's co-party members is an important factor while in the House of Commons, getting the approval of local activists are sought.
iven the fact that the Parliament possesses executive powers, elections are placed upon government's discretion while for the Congress, elections happen on a specific time, de jure (ibid). The powers of the Congress are also purely legislative. Hence, we can infer that Parliament's power which is both legislative and executive in nature is stronger but provides little opportunity for opposition. The Congress, on the hand, can be seen as a mechanism for check and balances as it is considered a separate and independent entity from the overnment.
Petersen, R.E. (2005). Parliament and Congress: A Brief Comparison of the British House of Commons and the U.S.…
Given the fact that the Parliament possesses executive powers, elections are placed upon government's discretion while for the Congress, elections happen on a specific time, de jure (ibid). The powers of the Congress are also purely legislative. Hence, we can infer that Parliament's power which is both legislative and executive in nature is stronger but provides little opportunity for opposition. The Congress, on the hand, can be seen as a mechanism for check and balances as it is considered a separate and independent entity from the Government.
Petersen, R.E. (2005). Parliament and Congress: A Brief Comparison of the British House of Commons and the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved from www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32206.pdf on May 12, 2009.
f this group thinks that these laws are needed for all the rest of the businesses in the America then they should ethically think that these laws should apply to everyone including them. The fact that Congress is not held to the same standards as everyone else makes them appear untrustworthy and unethical, which undermines the government process as a whole.
4) in your opinion is it necessary to create laws to prevent unethical behavior?
There should be laws put into place in order to stop this type of unethical behavior from going on. There should not be a group of people that have an advantage over others just because of the job that they hold. There was a rule passed in the Senate in 1968 that requires lawmakers and aides to reveal information about their assets. The House of Representatives forced similar necessities at about the same time. The…
It is necessary to create laws to prevent insider trading within Congress because it is not fair to the public in general for the body of legislature that creates the laws in this country to then be exempt from those same laws. If this group thinks that these laws are needed for all the rest of the businesses in the America then they should ethically think that these laws should apply to everyone including them. The fact that Congress is not held to the same standards as everyone else makes them appear untrustworthy and unethical, which undermines the government process as a whole.
4) in your opinion is it necessary to create laws to prevent unethical behavior?
There should be laws put into place in order to stop this type of unethical behavior from going on. There should not be a group of people that have an advantage over others just because of the job that they hold. There was a rule passed in the Senate in 1968 that requires lawmakers and aides to reveal information about their assets. The House of Representatives forced similar necessities at about the same time. The regulations necessitate all members of Congress and several of the highest-paid congressional aides to reveal information yearly in regards to their finances. This includes their assets, debts, spouse's employment and other supplies of profits they earn, including capital gains from trading stocks. Not like many Executive Branch employees, lawmakers and aides don't have limitations on their stock holdings and possession interests in businesses that they supervise. Congressional rules state that necessitating employees to do so could protect a legislator from the individual and monetary benefits that their electorate, or society in general, has in governmental choices and strategy (Mullins, McGinty, and Zwig, 2010). These laws and regulations that have been put into place are a good start but they don't go far enough in order to prevent unethical behavior from taking place. There needs to be stronger, more specific laws enacted in order to make this unethical behavior illegal so that just like with other companies the people who work there cannot take advantage of inside information for their own personal gain.
While they may claim that they are in-tune with other Americans, they and their close friends may not have experienced the issues that plague most of the American people.
While this is a problem, it may seem like a difficult one to solve. But because representatives are elected by the people, it can actually be an easy problem to solve. The solution starts with erasing assumptions. People may assume that they have to vote for the smartest, most experienced, or most educated candidate. An information campaign is needed to educate people that it is not always better to go with the same type of candidate; citizens should vote for the person that they feel represents them best. Next, candidates who really represent the public must run for office. Grants and monies from private institutions are needed in order to make this possible. Thus, the fact that the makeup of congress…
Imperialism also became a key source of power for European nations. Colonial landholdings by the British, French, Spanish, and Dutch strengthened those nations politically and economically. Power could be substantiated by nationalistic propaganda. After 1870, the balance of power in Europe changed to accommodate for the emergence of two newly unified nations: Germany and Italy. The strategic alliances forged between various nation-states in Europe and the corruption that ensued led to the First and Second World Wars. Those wars in turn altered the balance of power throughout the world, allowing the United States to emerge as a superpower. Thus, nation-states in power, which are headed by elite and powerful social groups, help determine the course of history. Power is influence over a specific geographic region and can possibly translate to power globally.
4. Known as the Iron Chancellor, Otto von Bismark helped unified Germany and effectively consolidated power in a…
Donohue, L. (nd) "Congress of Vienna." Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.cusd.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/congress/vienessy.html
Kishlansky, M., Geary, P., & O'Brien, P. (2007). Civilization in the West. 5th edition. Pearson-Longman. Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://wps.ablongman.com/long_kishlansky_cw_5/0,6472,270050-,00.html
Kreis, S. (2000). "Origins of the French Revolution." The History Guide. Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture11a.html
Otto von Bismark: The Iron Chancellor of germany." Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/weekly/aa092000a.htm
Member of Congress Judy Chu
Judy Chu: Member of Congress
Judy Chu was elected to Congress in 2009, in a special election to replace Hilda Soliz in California's 32nd Congressional district when Hilda Soliz was confirmed as President Obama's Secretary of Labor. She has subsequently been re-elected twice and currently serves as the representative from her redistricted area known as Congressional district 27. The daughter of immigrants, Judy Chu has lived in Los Angeles and the San Francisco area and has been involved in education and politics for most of her adult life. First elected a member of her local school board in 1985, she later became a member of the city council of Monterey Park California and was later elected to the office of Mayor for three terms. In 1994 and 1998 she ran for the California State Assembly but lost. Then in 2001, during a special election Judy…
They are definitely a group that is picked for their passion for government affairs and who keep abreast of economic trends that affect the country.
Also, it is not necessarily the case that one who has insider knowledge will necessarily use it. One legislative aide remarked that he bought his shares at 12:50 P.M. On a date well after it was widely reported in the media.
It is extremely important that the Government create regulations to address insider trading. However, it may prove futile to prevent insider trading only, as the real danger of insider knowledge is that it might be passed on to larger groups of investors associated with congressional staff. Considering this, it may be necessary to create a new non-partisan agency to investigate the dealings and associations of congressional staff.
Partly because of the recent financial meltdown and the Government's self-interested response to it, citizen anger and…
Capitol Hill's Stock Trading: What the Academic Research Concludes, OCTOBER 11, 2010. Wall Street Journal.
BRODY MULLINS, TOM MCGINTY and JASON ZWEIG, Congressional Staffers Gain From Trading in Stocks, OCTOBER 11, 2010. Wall Street Journal.
BRODY MULLINS, TOM MCGINTY and JASON ZWEIG, Congressional Staffers Gain From Trading in Stocks, OCTOBER 11, 2010. Wall Street Journal.
Capitol Hill's Stock Trading: What the Academic Research Concludes, OCTOBER 11, 2010. Wall Street Journal.
International Congress on Harmonization
The ICH is a regulatory body that brings together all the other minor regulatory bodies in the Europe and America that are in charge of regulating clinical research endeavors. The aim of this union is to have research activities coordinated and harmonized in order to avoid unnecessary duplication of research procedures (Levine, 2011). In the event that the latter occurrence happens, there will be losses in terms of resources, time, and human capacity. Therefore, there is a need to have all the work of the scientists guided by regulations that streamline them with the aim of coming up with distinct yet helpful results. This was the founding principle of ICH.
ICH has four main guidelines on which their activities are directed. These include quality service guidelines, safety guidelines, multidisciplinary guidelines, as well as efficacy guidelines (ICH, 2014). These four guidelines, each spells out distinct…
Levine, R. (2011). Ethics and Regulation of Clinical Research (2nd Ed.). Baltimore: Urban & Schwarzenberg.
Wertheimer, A. (2011). Rethinking The Ethics Of Clinical Research: Widening The Lens. New York: Oxford University Press.
International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), (Retrieved, 2014) http://www.ich.org/products/guidelines.html .
Never the twain shall meet would be an appropriate descriptive. The prime example of this form of federalism is the U.S. government during the late 1700s through the early 1900s. With "dual" federalism, both separate and shared powers are present.
Marble-cake (or co-operative) federalism is "one big happy family" federalism. Co-operation between state and federal government is its signature. The two levels of government are actually one big government, interwoven and pursuing the same goals together. Crime reduction, better education for our children, and global warming are issues that both state and federal levels would be working on together with the same sense of accomplishment. Co-operative federalism became prominent in government between roughly 1930-1960.
s a matter of fact, under the original dual federalism during the early years of our country, each state that came into the Union was offered a "partnership" with the federal government. Every state knew what…
As a matter of fact, under the original dual federalism during the early years of our country, each state that came into the Union was offered a "partnership" with the federal government. Every state knew what they were getting into. The federal government could declare war, coin money, control immigration, sign treaties, appoint ambassadors, interpret laws, and control interstate commerce. These powers were granted to the federal government by the Constitution, Articles I-IV, and Article VI. Powers granted to the states consisted of passing laws within their territories, controlling health, police, education, marriage, voting requirements, and even trash collection. These were granted by Article IV and the Tenth Amendment. Shared powers were to levy taxes, create courts, and to create laws for the general welfare. These joint powers were based in the Tenth Amendment.
After the Civil War, the federal government began to exercise its own rights separate from the states with its newly gained momentum and responsibilities gained from winning the war. The layered-cake form of dual federalism came forth with both federal government and states operating independently but the federal government trying to retain control. This increasingly layered-federalism held until 1930, when, with FDR and the New Deal, brought us out of the Depression through the use of numerous federal programs that he delivered to the states for employment. It was an era of cooperation. With WWII and the Korean War, that era of cooperation continued.
Today, in the U.S. we are closer to dual -- modified layered cake -- federalism. However, for now, it is a devolving fiscal federalism as well. That is, the federal and state powers are separate as spelled out above. However, more fiscal responsibility is being "devolved" or delegated back to the states which are closer to the economic problems they face. The federal government is giving billions of dollars back to the states to cover programs and budget deficits.
International Congress on Harmonization
Clinical research guidelines
There are various bodies that are concerned with the stipulation of guidelines and rules that need to be followed within the medical field and in specific the clinical research areas. The guidelines have been summarized by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) into five major areas: those dealing with quality, safety, efficacy and multidisciplinary topics. Within the patient care discipline, guidelines are designed predominantly to support decision making process and the content of these guidelines are based on data from the evidence based approach that has been gathered over time hence has a wide application and reach. Evidence-based care has been gaining ground in the recent years, propagated by the clinicians, managers and even politicians who are concerned about the quality standards. This has further heightened the need and requirement of standards among the practitioners in the healthcare sector (Open Clinical, 2013).
BMJ, (1999). Potential benefits, limitations, and harms of clinical guidelines. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.bmj.com/content/318/7182/527
International Conference on Harmonisation, (2014). ICH Guidelines. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.ich.org/products/guidelines.html
Open Clinical, (2013). Clinical Practice Guidelines. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.openclinical.org/guidelines.html
Clinton, Bush, and Obama administrations and their support from Congress. With Barack Obama the first Democratic president since Bill Clinton, there are bound to be comparisons between the two administrations. They have some commonalities, such as a desire for health care reform, that are difficult to ignore. What the Obama administration manages to accomplish remains to be seen, but comparisons to their first year in office can now be analyzed for similarities and differences.
The Clinton administration ran on a platform of being "outsiders" in Washington D.C., and they believed they could clean up Washington and give the government back to the people. Unfortunately, that did not happen. The Clinton administration was extremely controversial, especially because of the sex scandals and the Whitewater Scandal that turned up during the first year of Clinton's presidency. He may be most remembered for the Monica Lewinsky affair, but he did accomplish many things…
Carroll, C. (2009). Bush deficit vs. Obama deficit in pictures. Retrieved 1 Dec. 2009 from the Heritage Foundation Web site: http://blog.heritage.org/2009/03/24/bush-deficit-vs.-obama-deficit-in-pictures .
Dickinson, M.J. (1998). No place for amateurs: Some thoughts on the Clinton administration and the presidential staff. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 28(4), 768.
Editors. (2009). Bill Clinton's transformative change vs. Barack Obama's incremental change. Retrieved 1 Dec. 2009 from the Talk Left.com Web site: http://www.talkleft.com/story/2009/12/1/111950/911 .
Eksterowicz, A., & Hastedt, G. (1998). Modern presidential transitions: Problems, pitfalls, and lessons for success. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 28(2), 299+.
representative at work does not just represent him or herself -- he or she also represents his or her district, and his or her actions reflect back on how that district is viewed in the House or Senate. dditionally, if the representative compromises his or her relations with other members of congress, this could result in a failure of the constituent's interests to be advanced and articulated. It is more significant than a company's resources being used to commit evil action. The actions of a congressman who makes sexual advances on a page compromise the interests of people who deserve to be heard. What about the citizens who lose jobs, for example, because money is not approved for a public works project because Foley has lost all of his political 'capital' and clout?
Response Elizabeth Laage Jul 21, 2011 10:18 M
ll people who agree to become members of certain…
All people who agree to become members of certain professions, such as lawyers and doctors, are held to higher standards than people who are not members of such professions. Of course, congresspersons are only human and deserve some 'me time.' However, the sexual actions of Foley were directly connected to his status as a congressperson. A good question to ask when evaluating behavior and to determine if it is worthy of consideration when evaluating someone's fitness for office is: could this behavior have taken place, even if the individuals in question did not have their workplace relationship? Given the significance of his power and his use of the congressional email system, the answer is 'no' regarding Foley. The impact of his actions regarding the office page was contingent upon the power discrepancy in their relationship. This is in contrast with an 'office fling' between two consenting persons of equal rank.
Response Elizabeth Laage Jul 21, 2011 11:06 AM
The 'fruit of the poisonous tree' doctrine has many exceptions. However, it is necessary because if it were not in existence, the temptation would be too great for law enforcement personnel to overlook suspect's rights. You are assuming that all suspects, by virtue of being suspects are guilty. There have been many recent highly-publicized incidents of people who are innocent, but were incarcerated because of inappropriate or sloppy actions of law enforcement. It is easy to want to overlook constitutional rights -- until YOU are the one accused of a crime you did not commit!
There is little argument that the status quo in Congress leaves a lot to be desired. Indeed, the approval rating for Congress is rather low and not a whole lot gets done in Congress other than things that cannot be left to chance such as the debt ceiling and minimal budget measures that keep the government working. However, what is being proposed in the "Brand New Congress" site is not going to work, and for a couple of reasons. While the honesty and forthrightness of Bernie Sanders is certainly a break from what is normally seen, the system is a little more broken than Bernie Sanders supports want to believe and Bernie Sanders is not remotely mainstream in terms of his ideas and motivations.
First off, it should be addressed that Bernie Sanders is a rather hard-left liberal and his ideas are not within the mainstream of…
BNC. (2016). Brand New Congress. brandnewcongress.org. Retrieved 22 October 2016, from http://brandnewcongress.org/home
BNC. (2016). Brand New Congress. Brandnewcongress.org. Retrieved 22 October 2016, from https://brandnewcongress.org/teams
Exposure to cutting-edge technologies helps me understand the principles upon which technologies work, and can also prepare me for being able to use such technologies effectively in the future. Furthermore, I am interested in how it can transform hospital administration. I believe that one of the best ways to cut costs and reduce medical errors is to transition to a more robust it system.
Leadership Skills: Within the next five years, I intend to take on more challenging roles in my institutions. I want to understand the bigger picture of how hospital administration works and what I can do to improve it. At the AORN Congress, I will meet and network with perioperative nurses who have incorporated leadership positions into their daily work. In ten years, I may want to transition my career entirely into an administrative position.
Administrative Vision: he main reason why I am attending the 2011 AORN…
Technologies: While I work in an institution that is committed to acquiring the most advanced medical technologies on the market, I believe that perioperative nurses are too narrowly focused on what is being used in their operating rooms. I want to learn about the cutting-edge technologies that are being used in more progressive institutions around the world. Exposure to cutting-edge technologies helps me understand the principles upon which technologies work, and can also prepare me for being able to use such technologies effectively in the future. Furthermore, I am interested in how it can transform hospital administration. I believe that one of the best ways to cut costs and reduce medical errors is to transition to a more robust it system.
Leadership Skills: Within the next five years, I intend to take on more challenging roles in my institutions. I want to understand the bigger picture of how hospital administration works and what I can do to improve it. At the AORN Congress, I will meet and network with perioperative nurses who have incorporated leadership positions into their daily work. In ten years, I may want to transition my career entirely into an administrative position.
Administrative Vision: The main reason why I am attending the 2011 AORN Congress is to present myself with a bigger picture of the healthcare industry. I understand my role in the industry as a perioperative nurse, delivering the best possible quality of care to patients and keeping abreast with the techniques that save lives. The next step is to understand the decision-making processes that are at the root of our work. Issues like financial allocation, budgeting, account management, and human resources development are areas in which I need to improve my knowledge. Seeing the bigger picture of the healthcare industry is my goal. Therefore, ethical and legal considerations as well as issues related to corporate culture and improving the workplace environment are part of my overall learning plan goal. The 2011 AORN Congress will be instrumental in helping me become a more effective leader in healthcare.
France, too, had its borders subtly bur firmly redefined.
Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich was the host and one of the chief negotiators at the Congress; along with Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, who developed the Congress plan for Europe, he was one of the most prominent figures of the Congress. he French negotiator alleyrand was instrumental in securing leniency or his country and restoring the House of Bourbon. his restoration was accomplished in 1814 after alleyrand convinced the other European powers that it would provide the most security and stability in the region. Other factors that contributed to this were the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, which had contained more than 300 States, into a loose German Confederation of 39 states, and several smaller kingdoms. Russia and Prussia gained the most land, with Austria not far behind, and Great Britain's non-Continental colonial holds would be a major factor in…
The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of delegates from the Great Powers to determine the future boundaries and direction of Europe in the wake of the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the breakup of the Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon, after a brief return to power, was finally defeated at Waterloo and exiled to Elba. The Bourbon Restoration refers to the Bourbon dynasty of French monarchs being re-established after Napoleon's original defeat and exile in 1814, who maintained some power even during the "Hundred Days" of Napoleon's return and continued to rule after. The domination of the monarch over the State had ended, however, and Louis XVIII had to make many democratic concessions.
Part of the issue addressed at the Congress of Vienna was dealing with the former German States that had allied with Napoleon in a group known as the Confederation of the Rhine. Various rulers were restored or deposed based on their connection to Napoleon, and the results of the Congress of Vienna can be traced to the formation of a unified Germany. Other countries borders were altered or newly formed in the peace settlements between the Great Powers; Austria, Prussia, and Russia all gained or regained territory, and the beginnings of Great Britain's colonial empire were confirmed. France, too, had its borders subtly bur firmly redefined.
Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich was the host and one of the chief negotiators at the Congress; along with Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, who developed the Congress plan for Europe, he was one of the most prominent figures of the Congress. The French negotiator Talleyrand was instrumental in securing leniency or his country and restoring the House of Bourbon. This restoration was accomplished in 1814 after Talleyrand convinced the other European powers that it would provide the most security and stability in the region. Other factors that contributed to this were the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, which had contained more than 300 States, into a loose German Confederation of 39 states, and several smaller kingdoms. Russia and Prussia gained the most land, with Austria not far behind, and Great Britain's non-Continental colonial holds would be a major factor in nineteenth-century development. The major advancement here was the use of negotiation and treaties to divide and after the wars, instead of claiming the "Divine Right" of victory.
Congress and Models of Presidential Leadership
The following article presents a discussion on campaigning trends in modern congress with critical emphasis on plebiscitary politics and governing, as well as a look into the application of the following presidential leadership models; minimalist, self- reliant, and strategic competence.
VICTIMS RIGHTS MOVEMENT
Trends in Modern Congress
Robert Dahl, a political scientist, states that Congress is affected by the nature of American politics, which is increasingly becoming plebiscitary. Pushing for plebiscitary politics, Dahl propagates a more direct connection between elected officials and the public as well as the removal of intermediaries -- membership organizations and parties in this case -- that sought to represent public opinion to the officials they elected. If observed more keenly and directly, instead of mediated, public opinion is more crucial-- which is closer to Madison's dreams for the national legislature. New technologies facilitate plebiscitary politics. Developments…
John. (n.d.). U.S. Presidents and Their Influences on the Nation. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from http://www.stepbystep.com/
Oyaro. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2016, from Course Hero: https://www.coursehero.com
Quirk, P. (2002). Presedential Competence. Michael Nelson - Washington DC (p. 161). CQ Press.
Smith, S. S., Roberts, J. M., & Wielen, R. J. (2013). The American Congress - Fourth Edition. Cambridge University Press.
As reported by the New York Times
How: A Pakistani man accused of aiding Al Qaeda who was imprisoned in his home country for three years, has been released by the government.
Brief Analysis: The connections of Muhammad Naeem Noor Khan to terrorism are debated, as the CIA alleges he has been involved in terrorist activity but Pakistani officials have said that information from Mr. Khan led them to a Tanzanian wanted in connection with the 1998 bombings of American embassies in East Africa, which killed more than 200 people. They say he is not a terrorist, but merely had knowledge of the event, and thus upon gaining this information, he was released. This highlights how the international nature of terrorist organizations and the conflicting policies of nations in dealing with terrorists make it even more difficult to combat this threat.
Baker, Al. (23 Aug 2007). "Critics Say…
Baker, Al. (23 Aug 2007). "Critics Say Lessons from 9/11 Were Not Followed in Deutsche Bank Blaze." The New York Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/22/nyregion/22fire.html?n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fT%2fTerrorism
Pakistan Releases a Man Accused of Aiding Al Qaeda." (21 Aug 2007). The New York
Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/21/world/asia/21pakistan.html?n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fT%2fTerrorism
Rutenberg, J. (7 Aug 2007). "Bush Still Wields Fear of Terrorism." The New York Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/07/washington/07assess.html?ex=1187928000&en=0b077e645f7d8104&ei=5070
If I was in Congress, I would not vote for such a tax. From an ethical perspective, such a tax is simply punitive. The oil companies are not strictly to blame if the price elasticity of demand for oil is low and they take advantage of that. Consumers have no inherent right to dirt cheap oil. The argument could be made that there are benefits to monopolistic profits such as further exploration, but that argument is actually a bit soft. First, drilling is already included on the income statement -- these are profits above and beyond what the companies need to sustain their business. And that is why they drill -- to sustain their business, so they're going to do it anyway. The reason you don't vote for such a bill has nothing to do with finding ways to make oil companies more profitable or less profitable; it is…
Constitution & Governmental Gridlock
Constitutional Change #1
A constitutional amendment is needed to overturn the Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United, Appellant v. Federal Election Commission. In this case, the United States Supreme Court held that the First Amendment prohibits the government from restricting political independent expenditures by corporations, associations, or labor unions. Corporations aren't people. Only people are people. The United States District Court for the District of Columbia reversed a provision of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) prohibiting unions, corporations and not-for-profit organizations from broadcasting electioneering communications within 60 days of a general election or 30 days of a primary election that held these actions violate the free speech clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Yet two-thirds of American small business owners say that Citizens United hurts their business, but only nine percent of the small businesses polled said that it was a…
U.S. Infrastructure Is in Jeopardy and Consequently So Are We
The federal highway trust fund is the fiscal foundation of the highway system in the United States. Without adequate funding, highway construction stalls and road construction workers are out of work. Congress has dallied with the economic future of America for years as it refused to pass a multiyear transportation bill. The reason for this is likely to be readily apparent to most people: the conservative Congress does not want to increase taxes, even to fund repairs and new roads to meet the infrastructure needs of the country.
A recent study from the White House reports that more than two-thirds of the nation's roadways need to be repaired and that the continued dilapidation results in higher eventual costs that run into the billions of dollars (unningen, 2014). The 27-page report released mid-July 2014 by the Council of Economic Advisers and…
Bennen, S. (2015, May 14). Boehner rejects Amtrak question as 'stupid.' The Rachel Maddow Show. MSNBC. Retreived from http://www.msnbc.com/rachel-maddow-show/boehner-rejects-amtrak-question-stupid#break
Buettner, R. And Fitzsimmons, E.G. (2015, February 12). In New York area, points where train and tragedy are likely to intersect. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/13/nyregion/at-rail-crossings-in-new-york-area-a-constantly-lurking-danger.html
Caygle, J. (2015, May 13). House panel votes to cut Amtrak budget hours after deadly crash. Politico. Retreived from http://www.politico.com/story/2015/05/amtrak-budget-house-panel-crash-117904.html#ixzz3aGPH9LPR
de Blaseo, B. And Cornett, M. (2015, May 13). Let our cities move. The Opinion Pages. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/24/nyregion/metro-north-engineer-tried-to-slow-train-before-crash-with-suv-report-says.html
Contemporary Political Issue: The War on Terror
On September 20th, 2001, President George W. Bush proposed the new Office of Homeland Security to help confront a new threat to national security in the first step of what became the War on Terrorism (Select Committee on Homeland Security, 2004). One week earlier, Congress had signed off on the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), allowing the president broad scope for using military force against countries or organizations who “planned, authorized, committed, or aided” terrorism (Ackerman & Hathaway, 2011). 17 years and more than $2 trillion later, the War on Terrorism continues with no sign of easing up (Amadeo, 2018). Though President Trump ran a campaign on getting American soldiers out of the Middle East and letting other countries handle the ISIS threat, the war on terror rhetoric out of the White House has continued unabated, with sights now set…
Bill Becomes a Law
Federal laws do not start off as laws, obviously. First, they begin their life as bills introduced by a member of Congress, either in the House of Representatives or in the Congress. The "author" of the bill is said to the be sponsor and there can be a number of sponsors and co-sponsors for a bill.
Once a bill is introduced into the House or Senate, it is assigned a number and passed to a committee, whose job it is to oversee all such bills generated in regards to specific issues. It can happen that one bill will be passed to several committees if it happens that the proposed piece of legislation touches on several issues. The bill can also go to a subcommittee.
This step is followed by the decision by the committee chairman to "mark up" the bill -- which means adding amendments to…
"How Our Laws are Made." Congress.gov. Web. 3 October 2015.
"The Legislative Process." United States House of Representatives. Web. 3 October
"Steps in Making a Bill a Law: The Federal Legislative Process." NAEYC. Web. 3
Hernando County and NCLB: Mandate for Drastic Change
The Hon. Ginny Brown-Waite
North Main Street
Hernando County's Current NCLB Situation
The Hernando County Situation in a Larger Context
National Commentary on NCLB
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) eport -District Level, Hernando
1004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) eport, Hernando
FCAT Grades and AYP Status, Hernando County Schools
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act has stamped modern American education with the mark of mediocrity. In mandating that all school districts in the nation live up to a set of standards or lose important Title 1 funding for their disadvantaged schools, and by imposing sanctions that are draconian in their effects, the federal government is imposing the will of Congress on the choices of parents. In addition, the dissonant requirement that states set their own standards creates disparity of a magnitude unimaginable before the federal government decided to intrude into this…
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report-District Level, Hernando. Retrieved June 18, 2004, from Florida Department of Education Web site: http://web.fldoe.org/NCLB/default.cfm
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report. Retrieved June 18, 2004 from Florida Department of Education Web site: http://web.fldoe.org/NCLB/default.cfm?action=report2&level=District&district=27 tough law deserves tough questions; Four Maryland elementary teachers examine the new "No Child Left Behind Act" and tell NEA Today exactly what they think. (April 2002) NEA Today, 20 (7), p. 14+. Retrieved June 18, 2004: www.questia.com.
Bacon, Deborah. (June 15, 2004) Seven county schools win A grades. Hernando Today. Retrieved June 18, 2004:
The Court rejected Medellin's argument that the President's 2005 Memorandum was binding on state courts. The Court accused the President of attempting to unilaterally converting a non-self-executing treaty into a self-executing one." The government had also claimed that the Memorandum was an exercise of the President's authority to resolve international claims under his executive authority. The Court recognized that this was a long-standing practice, but prior uses of executive authority to settle international disputes had occurred in narrow circumstances, and did not involve the complete setting aside of state law, as the Medellin sought.
In the Medellin v. Texas oral argument, Justice Scalia says, "Usually when we have treaties that are not self-enforcing, the judgment of whether that international law obligation shall be made domestic law is a judgment for the Congress. Congress passes a law to enforce the treaty. " the United States must abide by its international commitments…
Photographic Analysis of Dorothea Lange's Political And Artistic Vision:
Candidate for Congress (General alter Faulkner) and a Tennessee farmer. Crossville, Tennessee
"Although many do not know her name, her photographs live in the subconscious of virtually anyone in the United States who has any concept of that economic disaster" (Gordon 698). Yet, as noted by professor of history Linda Gordon, Lange was not someone who idly wandered in amongst the farm workers whose images she captured on film. She had a highly specific political agenda and had been hired by the Farm Security Administration (FSA) to capture her images. There has been a dual, contrasting interpretation of Lange through the ages, one perspective which views her work as essentially political, like Gordon, while others like James Curtis who see her work as more personal than political: "Lange sought to create a transcendent image that would communicate her sense of the…
Curtis, James C. "Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, and the Culture of the Great
Depression." Winterthur Portfolio, 21, No. 1 (Spring, 1986): 1-20
Gordon, Linda. "Dorothea Lange: The Photographer as Agricultural Sociologist." The Journal of American History, 93. 3 (Dec., 2006): 698-727
Letter to the Legislative epresentative
Whom It May Concern
This letter is in connection with a bill previously proposed to you -- the Equity of Care Act. Its purpose is satisfying the health requirements of racial and ethnic minorities in regard to quality care access and delivery by reinforcing healthcare-related safety nets. Thus, dealing with this issue is of utmost significance. For pushing the Act to make it a law, it must follow the path described below:
The Path a Bill Takes to Become Federal and State Law
Introducing the Bill and eferral to a Committee
Legislation can be introduced by any Congressional member (NAEYC, 2015). Every introduced bill is allotted a number: S. is used to denote Senate bills, while H.. indicates House bills. Subsequently, the bill goes for reference to one or more committees that have jurisdiction over the legislation's key issue. Sometimes, it is referred first to…
Boundless. (2015, July 21). Interest Groups, Lobbyists, and PACs. Retrieved from Boundless Political Science: https://www.boundless.com/political-science/textbooks/boundless-political-science-textbook/congress-11/how-congres
(2009, August 10). Breaking News, Daily News and Videos - CNN.com. Disruptions drown out debate at health care meetings - CNN.com. Retrieved December 10, 2015, from http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/08/10/health.care.questions/
Models Of Public Policy-Making. (2002). Retrieved from California State University Long Beach Graduate Center for Public Policy and Administration: http://web.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa590/models.htm
Many countries signed treaties and trade agreements that that allowed financial institutions to move beyond international borders while bypassing significant regulations.
However, there is evidence to support the fact that the Gramm-Leach Bliley Act, that essentially repeal the Glass-Steagall Act, increased the bank failure rate, affect the cost of funds, and also increased stock market volatility (Cebula, 2010). Many people have actually proposed that a form of the Glass-Steagall Act be reintroduced. The U.S. Congress attempted to sign into law a Financial Reform Bill by the fourth of July, 2010 that was intended to re-enact Glass-Steagall type reforms to ban banks from speculative trading with depositor's money, introduce a consumer protection bureau to police credit products, and empower the government with authority to seize failing systemically important institutions (Lopes, 2010). However, not all of these items were instituted. Furthermore, deregulation is still a problem while markets to have continued to…
Cebula, R. (2010). Bank Failures in Light of the Gramm-Leach Bliley Act. International Atlantic Economic Society, 455-456.
Fraser, D., & Hebb, G. (N.d.). Conflict of Interest in Commercial Bank Security Underwritings: United Kingdom Evidence. University of Nebraska, 79-96.
Lopes, J. (2010). Re-enactment of the Glass-Steagall Act 1933: is this a step in the right direction for global reform? Law and Financial Markets Review, 428-433.
Ngassam, C. (2013). The Mortgage Industry's Role in the Current Financial Meltdown: Historical Perspective and Recommendations. Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies, 1-24.
In addition to barriers to coverage, HIPAA presents problems for patients wishing to keep their medical information private. HIPAA professes to protect patient privacy and information security. While the provisions of HIPAA do outline the strict rules for informed consent, there are a slew of loopholes that would permit the disclosure of information. Those loopholes can be readily taken advantage of by numerous parties, including but not limited to the primary care provider, health care administrator, insurer, employer, and government agency.
When HIV / AIDS information is disclosed, stigma and prejudice are almost guaranteed. For this reason, patients with HIV / AIDS should be offered greater protection under the law. The prevention of HIV / AIDS depends on education and awareness as well as improving patient access to quality care. Paranoia about HIV / AIDS has led to a dismantling of privacy rules that would otherwise be invoked. Patients with…
Avert (n.d.). HIV & AIDS stigma and discrimination. Retrieved online: http://www.avert.org/hiv-aids-stigma.htm
Biel-Cunningham, S. (2003). HIPAA: Understanding Your Rights of Insurance Portability and Privacy. The Body. Retrieved online: http://www.thebody.com/content/art32201.html
Columbia University Medical Center (n.d.). Uses and disclosures of HIV / AIDS information. Retrieved online: http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/hipaa/policies/hiv.html
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (n.d.). Health information privacy. Retrieved online: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/
For example a study in 1982-83 had found that illegal aliens were contributing more to the economy than the state was spending on them. (Cited in LeMay, ed. 1989, 10)
There is much confusion in connection with the economic impact. Some studies feel that illegal aliens contribute very little considering the fact that they are usually employed in low paying jobs.
Economists have consistently argued back and forth as to whether or not illegal immigrants are actually driving down wages and making working conditions even worse. Some economist saw it from a different angle. They felt that some employers need to fill the low wage niche as they need to make some profit too and this niche can only be filled by illegal aliens who are willing to work at very low wages. If it had not been for those immigrants, some small firms would go out of business. This…
Muller and Espanshade 1985, 11-12; LeMay 1987, 73-102; and Stanley Lieberson, a Piece of the Pie (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1980).
LeMay Michael. 1985. The Struggle for Influence. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.
Speech to local Chamber of Congress -- Macroeconomic vs. Microeconomic influences today
Let's take a macro view of this problem! Let's take a micro view of this problem! hen we use such expressions colloquially, we usually mean taking a large vs. A small picture perspective. It is usually assumed that having a big picture perspective is the better one, because it is more far reaching in its nature. But a critical holistic view of macro and microeconomics theory shows that decisions made on the small-scale, or microeconomic level, can critically impact average buyers and sellers in ways that often are invisible to the naked economic eye of the consumer or capitalist as well. Both micro and macro factors must be considered together when making economic decisions on a personal level.
Microeconomics, also defined as classical economics as first preached by Adam Smith in his text the ealth of Nations, or…
"Aggregate Demand." (2005) The Digital Economist. Retrieved Jul 17 at 2005
Bick, Julie. (17 Jul 2005) "Listen Kids." The New York Times. Retrieved Jul 17 at 2005 http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/17/business/yourmoney/17lemonade.html
Greenhouse, Steven. (17 Jul 2005) "How Costco became the Anti-Wal-Mart." The New York Times. Retrieved Jul 17 at 2005
Strict Liability & Securities Law
Congress defined security laws to include investment contracts, but "investment contract" is not itself defined in law (Condomimiums as Investment Contracts under the Security Laws, 2011). An Eleventh Circuit court decision indicated "The test for an investment contract is whether the contract is (1) an investment of money (2) in a common enterprise (3) made with expectation of profits to be derived solely from efforts of others" (Condomimiums as Investment Contracts under the Security Laws, 2011). ecause law is lacking in adequate definitions, it is completely possible for a business owner to operate a business without fully understanding the laws that govern the individual practices.
The Trust Indenture Act of 1939 applies to debt securities such as bonds, debentures, and notes offered for public sale (The Laws That Govern the Securities Industry). The Securities Acts of 1933 and 1934 govern the disclosure of financial information…
White Collar Crime. (2008). Retrieved from Encyclopedia.com: http://encyclopedia.com/topic/white-collar_crime.aspx
Condomimiums as Investment Contracts under the Security Laws. (2011). Loyala's Institute for Investor Protection Major Appelate Court Decisions, 1(12),October.
Securities Fraud. (n.d.). Retrieved from Legal Information Institute: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/securities_fraud
The Laws That Govern the Securities Industry. (n.d.). Retrieved from Security Exchange Commission: http://www.sec.govb/about/laws.shtml
Moral Community: A group in America that is clearly being marginalized politically and socially is the community of undocumented immigrants. An estimated 11.1 million immigrants are living and working in the United States, and notwithstanding that the U.S. Senate and the executive branch have passed a bill allowing undocumented immigrants a path to citizenship, the Republicans resist supporting this legislation. Cultural relativism helps to understand why 11.1 million people are being denied the right to work towards citizenship. Cultural relativism: the beliefs of one culture (in this case, those immigrants that are not yet citizens) should also be understood by others (in this case conservatives don't relate to the cultural beliefs of immigrants and vice-versa). A conservative "moral argument" is that there are a limited amount of goods and jobs in the U.S. And immigrants take these away from citizens here legally, but cultural bias and racism also certainly play…
Foley, E. (2014). GOP Reveals Immigration Reform Principles. HuffPost Politics. Retrieved June 18, 2014, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Bauer's personal experience taught her that members of congress are among the least respected groups in American society, and for many congressmen that is probably a worthy curse. However, the fact that many congressmen are incompetent or corrupt makes it so that even honest, hardworking representatives cannot be taken seriously or given any respect. Picketers, protesters, harasses, stalkers, and enemies from all walks of life will often be more common in a representative's life than meeting the average constituent that makes up a majority of the population he or she represents. Bauer reminds the public to keep in mind the congressperson is still a person.
Daily life as a congressman or congresswoman is demanding. If the representative is truly honest and qualified, it may be even more difficult than for those representatives who are simply going with the flow of the system. There are many qualifications that must be met…
Bauer, Monica. "A Personal Perspective on Congress." Chapter 11: The Legislative Branch.
O'Rourke, P.J. National Busybodies: Congress.
The Powers of Congress." Chapter Ten: Congress. Part Four: Political Institutions.
Suppose I was asked to donate money to "Citizens for Better Schools," what would I need to find out about the group first? The first thing would be find out if they are a bona fide public charity -- a 501 C3 -- and if they were, I would examine their bylaws and mission statement. Secondly, I would locate board members and examine public statements they have made and projects they have injected themselves into. Something with a vague title like this one has could actually be a protest group trying to remove certain board members from the school board or they might be advocating to have the science textbooks changed so evolution isn't taught. I would also look through newspaper reports to find what the group has been advocating in its public pronouncements.
Should journalists have the right to protect their sources? The answer is yes. One example relates…
Department of Homeland Security. (2003). "Executive Order (EO-13284): Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection with the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security." Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0072.shtm.
Executive Order 9066. "The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Retrieved March 12,
2012, from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154 .
FindLaw. "Williams v. State of North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942)." Retrieved March 12,
This study reviews Pat obertson's "Courting disaster: How the Supreme Court is usurping the power of Congress and the people." Pat obertson is the founder and chairperson of the Christian Broadcasting Network, founder of egent University, and The Center for Law and Justice. He and his wife have four children and thirteen grandchildren. They reside in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Using both legal and religious points-of-view, obertson attempts to prove that the current operation of the judicial system is dangerous to both the republican form of government and our individual freedoms. While seeking to strengthen his argument, the author has compiled fascinating facts, quotes, case decisions, and opinions of the Court (Mu-ller-Fahrenholz, 2007).
From this study, it is evident that obertson undertook a political expedition seeking to identify various issues that bedeviled the American society. However, he fails to provide solutions to the identified problems. This is an action…
Barrett, P., & Smolla, R.A. (2010). A year in the life of the Supreme Court. Durham [u.a.: Duke Univ. Press.
Edwards, L., & Meese, E. (2011). Bringing justice to the people: The story of the freedom-based public interest law movement. Washington, DC: Heritage Books.
Melashenko, E.L., & Smith, D.B. (2009). Rock-solid living in a run-amok world. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald Pub. Association.
Mu-ller-Fahrenholz, G. (2007). America's battle for God: A European Christian looks at civil religion. Grand Rapids, Mich. [u.a.: William B. Eerdmans Publ.
Powers and ights of the Constitution
INSTITUTIONAL POWE: The Constitution gives the federal government the right to form a military service, including what is now the National Guard (Army National Guard, 2011), though it does so in cooperation with the states and localities to serve their interests as well. This section is important for a number of reasons, including the fact that it reinforces the differences between the state and the federal government without weakening the role of the states to protect and defend themselves. It also helps ensure that the troops and resources are readily available in each locality when urgent issues of various kinds result. They can be used for natural disasters, various forms of social control, helping in other times or need, as well as to address more complicated issues like war and terrorism. This latter issue has become most important recently as localities look to be…
Army National Guard (2011). Legal basis of the national guard. Viewable at http://www.arng.army.mil/aboutus/history/Pages/ConstitutionalCharteroftheGuard.aspx
Bancuk, L. (n.d.), Right to assemble. Learning to Give. http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper57.html
Crosses of Lafayette (2007). Private website. Viewable at http://lafayettecrosses.blogspot.com/ .
Cuban Missile Crisis (2011). Viewable at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_Missile_Crisis .
TVA v. Hill Questions
Do you agree with the Court's decision, based upon the language of the Endangered Species Act quoted above? That is, did the Endangered Species Act preclude construction of the dam? Should the ESA have precluded construction of the dam? as Congress right to amend the ESA to permit the dam to be built?
The Supreme Court acted correctly in its decidedly rigid invocation of Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). According to its decision, Section 7 asserts that "all Federal agencies must take such action as is necessary to ensure that actions authorized, funded, or carried out by them do not result in the destruction or modification of this critical habitat area." (U.S. Supreme Court, p. 1)
Given that $100 million of federal funds had already been funneled into the Tellico Dam project, it is clear that Congress was explicitly responsible for…
Church, T.W. (2007). Review: The Snail Darter Case: TVA vs. The Endangered Species Act by Kenneth M. Murchison. Law and Politics Book Review, 17(8).
Courts, Cats, and Carbon (CCC). (2013). Special Feature: Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill. Courtscatscarbon.com/
Garrett, E. (2009). The Story of TVA v. Hill: Congress Has the Last Word. Weblaw.usc.edu.
Rizzardi, K. (2008). Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill -- 437 U.S. 153. ESA Blawg.
This leads to a high degree of autonomy for some subcommittees, while other subcommittees have only limited autonomy. Those with a high degree of autonomy will play a more direct role in legislative issues.
In addition to the committees, Congress has an entrenched leadership system. The highest rank is the Speaker of the House. Each party also has a Leader and a hip. The leader runs the party's activities in the House. The hip keeps track of legislation and works to make sure that party members vote in the manner desired by the party leader. The Speaker is the leader of the majority party; while the Majority Leader is second-in-command of the party. The Minority Leader is the leader of the minority party.
Leadership of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States. The party leaders have more power, however. Each party has a leader, as well as…
Heitshusen, V. (2007). Committee Types and Roles. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 13, 2009 from http://www.rules.house.gov/archives/98-241.pdf
Orthodox Church is indeed in a state of canonical disarray and this paper aims to put together a set of plausible arguments in favor of this statement. The best place to start is likely with Viscuso's study "A Quest for Reform of the Orthodox Church: The 1923 Pan-Orthodox Congress," which looks back at the 1923 as a quintessential moment in the process of reform that the Orthodox Church could have embarked on at the beginning of the 20th century.
This reform process could have positively affected the development of the church, including by making it more adaptable to the requirements of the 20th century. Some of the initiatives that Melenios put forward at the Congress were, in fact, targeting organizational needs. With the expansion of the Orthodox creed on new continents, including North and South America, his goal was to concentrate leadership in the hands of the Patriarch of Constantinople…
1. Lossky, Vladimir. Orthodox Theology: An Introduction. New York, 1978.
2. Allen, Joseph J. Orthodox Synthesis -- the Unity of Theological Thought. New York, 1981.
3. Viscuso, Patrick. A Quest for Reform of the Orthodox Church: The 1923 Pan-Orthodox Congress. Berkeley, 2006.
marriage must always precede ordination and whether priests and widowhood may be allowed to remarry after widowhood or divorce was one of the topics of discussion at the revolutionary 1923 Pan-Orthodox Congress, which aimed to produce reform-oriented results that would allow the Orthodox Church to be better adapted to the new realities of the world in the period after World War I.
On both issues, beyond any economic or social arguments, the discussion should always revert back to the Scriptures and to what the Scriptures say about these elements. For example, the Congress agreed that the Scriptures allow for marriage after ordination (or, in fact, that there is nothing in the Scriptures that prohibits that, meaning, by extrapolation and law principle, that whatever is not prohibited, is considered to be in line with the canonical law).
In his initial analysis, Viscuso also makes an important note on why that is:…
1. Viscuso, Patrick. A Quest for Reform of the Orthodox Church. Berkeley, 2006.
There are studies done by researchers that endorse that foreign direct investment effects the economic growth by means of different networks. Firstly, by means of the technological modification where the worth of human capital plays a vital position in attracting the technology. Secondly, the environmental circumstance of the host (receiver) nation likewise effects financial growth. The ecological situation was evaluated utilizing the expansion of the local monetary system. The answers reinforced the study done by the researchers. The development of technology through the monetary system can aid in the means of assigning foreign direct investment funds more professionally.
International relation is another vital environmental aspect that can be a solution for economic growth. This is good because it will be able to measure the political friendliness that goes on among nations. If there is no friendliness among the nations than it will be very hard to receive any…
Plummer, P., & Taylor, M. "Entrepreneurship and human capital: Distilling models of local economic growth to inform policy. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development." Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 11.4 (2007): 427-439.
Ricardo, a.A., & Gilberto, T.L. "A a structural economic dynamics approach to balance-of-payments-constrained growth." Cambridge Journal of Economics 31.6 (2007): 755-774.
Yeh, R., & Lawrence, J.J. "ndividualism and confucian dynamism: A note on hofstede's cultural root to economic growth." Journal of International Business Studies, 23.9 (2009): 655-655.
International Clinical Harmonisation
PROPER SYSTEMS IN PLACE
The International Congress Harmonisation
WHO Principles of Good Clinical Practice
Clinical research is conducted to insure the safety and efficacy of health and medical products and practices (WHO 2002). In the past, randomized controlled trials gave most of the information about the safety and efficacy of these products and treatments. Randomized clinical trials were considered the foundation of evidence-based medicine but reliably only when conducted according to principles and standards. These principles and standards comprise good clinical research or GCP. The guidelines were created to help national regulatory authorities, sponsors, investigators and ethics committees to implement GCP for overall clinical research. These were based on the guidelines provided by major international organizations, such as the International Conference on Harmonization or ICH GCP, and used as reference (WHO).
GCP incorporates accepted and established ethical and scientific quality standards complied with for the design, conduct,…