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Containment Policy of the United States
Containment was the United States' major attempt to stop the spread of communism. It involved several strategies as it tried to curtail the efforts of the Soviet Union to enlarge its communism influence to Eastern Asia. This policy, developed over four decades, greatly influenced the fighting of the Cold War. George F. Kennan was responsible for the term as he mentioned it in a communication cable that he sent in 1946 while he was a diplomat in Moscow. It was a bridge between rollback and detente.
During the post-World War Two period, the U.S. president Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) did not seem to have a clear stance regarding the Soviet Union. While open hostilities were not declared, the U.S. still wanted to have its way in the general cooperation that existed between the two countries. At the time, Stalin was the ruler of the…… [Read More]
The Soviets desire to establish their "sphere of influence" in Eastern Europe and disagreement with the U.S. over the fate of Germany was another reason. The U.S. retaliated by issuing the Truman Doctrine in 1947 that authorized U.S. aid to anti-Communist forces in countries threatened by Communists. The Soviet testing of the atomic bomb in 1949 and its tacit approval of a North Korean attack on South Korea that led to the Korean War further soured relations between the two nations. The Vietnam War in which the U.S. intervened militarily to prevent a Communist take-over of the country was another area of conflict between the U.S. And the Soviet Union. (Bell, 2001)
Containment." (2006). Nuclear Files.org: Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. etrieved on November 18, 2006 at http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/cold-war/strategy/strategy-containment.htm
Bell, P.M.H. (2001). The World since 1945 -- An International History. London: Oxford University Press Inc.
The U.S. represented democracy, individual liberty…… [Read More]
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]
They exploited the opportunities created by relaxing those standards and eventually brought about exactly the kinds of fiascos that previous laws governing the relationships among and between investment firms, insurers, and savings banks were intended to prevent (Ehrenreich, 2009). The same is true in the case of health care lobbyists and their influence over government policies. Since the historic 2010 Supreme Court decision granting free speech rights to corporations, the wealthy have become more politically powerful than ever before.
4. At least 100 words - Identify three uses or lessons that can be learned from policy analysis and include an example of each use.
olicy analysis can identify areas of fiscal waste and corresponding opportunities to reduce waste of public resources. For example, when the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) identified certain types of urinary tract infections in hospitals that were caused primarily by poor care delivery, it…… [Read More]
American Foreign Policy
The Policy of Containment post World War II
According to Bernstein (2002), in the post-World War era until the disintegration of Soviet Union in 1989-91, formulation of the foreign policy of U.S. was based on the plan of containment. United States continued following the policy of containment even in the 21st century to deal with countries with communist governments like Cuba, North Korea and China. Generally, containment means American endeavours to curtail spread of communism in the world through military, political and economic channels. Furthermore, this concept emerged after Second World War dynamics of global power and the concerns of U.S. leadership to avoid going into one more global war.
. In the view of Schoon (2011), primarily the concept of containment gained strategic importance and momentum after the author of the doctrine, George F. Kennan, a dominant foreign service officer in 1947 and further a regarded…… [Read More]
Foreign Policy of President eagan
Before the disastrous Vietnam War, the U.S. held an undisputed dominant position worldwide, recognized locally as well as by other nations. The nation's historic actions towards defending freedom, by restraining the fascist faction during the Second World War, followed by organizing a large free-state coalition for combating communism, were supported by profound and sweeping domestic consensus. This consensus was destroyed by America's decision to wage war on Vietnam. Despite the rationale being the protection of free peoples battling communism, the Vietnam War resulted in caustic doubt and destabilizing discord among Americans. This suspicion and discord incited and guided by people opposed to the war, rather than the enemy's weaponry and zeal, explains America's failure, above every other factor. The U.S. had to battle internal resistance more than resistance from the Vietnamese adversary, and resulted in a self-inflicted defeat (Brenes 2015; LAISON 2013). Extremely serious repercussions…… [Read More]
The state response to Ebola should be a coordinated communications effort. This will serve a number of purposes. First, it will maintain fiscal discipline. Second, communication is key to maintaining public order should there be an outbreak of Ebola. Third, communication helps to reduce the risk of an outbreak, because all members of our community will know how to avoid spreading Ebola.
The recent revelations that the World Health Organization and others botched their response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has done little to calm the public here at home regarding this disease. A government that deals in evidence and has a realistic world view does not need to address irrational panic, but the fact that global and national-level bodies seem challenged to come up with a plan to deal with Ebola places the onus on the state to devise such solutions. Already, some states, such as…… [Read More]
American foreign policy change from 1940 to the present?
Before the 20th century, the U.S. had a strong tradition of isolationism and non-interventionism. Beginning with American participation in World War I and continuing with its involvement in World War II after the invasion of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. increasingly began to conceive of itself as not only a player on the international stage, but also the ideological promoter and protector of democracy. When World War II ended with the U.S. bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was clear that America had taken a position of power in the world, both militarily and politically.
In the decade that followed World War II, American foreign policy pitted itself against Soviet Communism through the pursuit of "containment:" limiting the expansion of Soviet power and Communist ideology to other nations. This policy of containment was the primary driving force behind the "Cold War" and…… [Read More]
8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…… [Read More]
The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).
Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.
In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.
The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…… [Read More]
(Efimova, 2007, paraphrased)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
North Korea underwent internal changes as well as changes due to external factors that placed North Korea in a defensive stance in its focus on strategically avoiding threats and in rebuilding its own self-reliance economically. For North Korea since the erlin Wall fell the use of conventional weapons by North Korea in defending itself from external foes has not been a feasible proposition, therefore, it is apparent that North Korea acquired nuclear capabilities because of the value of these capabilities as use as a method for ensuring adequate self-defense in what the regime in North Korea views as a highly unstable security environment and one in which North Korea is quite terrified that will result in the United States becoming aggressive from a military standpoint.
It really can not be held as true that the reason for the development of nuclear capability in North…… [Read More]
post war policies that the U.. And the world have adopted towards Iraq. It has 8 sources.
The war in Iraq and the protests of people around the world has given a clear signal to the American government and policy makers that the world has become a different place. That every attempt of American expansionism and corporate imperialism will be opposed, the unilateral policies of United tates has to change and being a superpower it has to realize its responsibilities. The opposition from the European countries, the Arab community and China should be a great concern to America. The American foreign policies clearly show that the goal of its leader is to expand the American empire with the method of progressive imperialism. The United tates because of its policies has become isolated in the world and has become an object of hatred around the world. If the unilateral and expansionism…… [Read More]
But the U.S. must also set an example to the world on human rights, and that begins with a rejection of the kind of abuses that were carried out at Abu Ghraib in Iraq during the U.S. occupation of that sovereign nation.
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Butler, Desmond. (2010). Lawmakers stretching out Russia nuke pact debate. The Seattle
Times. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com.
Cardenas, Sonia. (2009). Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope.
Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hamid, Shadi, and Brooke, Steven. (2010). Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,
Policy Review, No. 59, 45-58.
McCain, John. (2010). National History and Universal Values: Prioritizing Human Rights…… [Read More]
" Regan was able to discourage Congress' previous prohibitions for aid to UNITA and instead launched into the covert plan to leverage American weight on the side fighting the Marxist supporters. The Soviet Union reacted quickly; Cuban expeditionary forces were sent to the region in their satellite guerilla's aid and, in the bloody fight between ethnic groups in Angola, the larger Soviet-American conflict played out.
In 1987, the struggle came to a head. The United States assumed its supportive role for UNITA as reason preside over the tripartite negotiation that would end the civil war. At the bargaining table were also Cuban and South African forces, reaffirming the battle as one led by other issues more than directed by the cause of Angolan success. Cuba agreed to leave Angola, ultimately, but South Africa also agreed to relinquish its control over Namibia. Twenty years earlier, Marxist South-West Africa eople's Organization launched…… [Read More]
It was however an essential move for the foreign policy of the United States in its quest for containment of the communist threat.
A proper example of the way in which the decisions taken in terms of foreign policy were the reflection of the interests of political parties vs. their electorate was the Carter administration that took some of the most important steps in the discussions with the ussian Communist forces on human rights issues. Better said, usually the first steps in improving the diplomatic relations with a country or a set of countries is the start of negotiations on smaller and less important aspects for the political forces. One such subject, in the late 70s and early 80s was the discussion on human rights. As opposed to the more stringent and real problems the U.S. had with the U.S.S.. that included nuclear threats or economic competition, the issue of…… [Read More]
Ronald Reagan Foreign Policy: Annotated Bibliography
ucker, Robert W. 1989. "REAGAN'S FOREIGN POLICY." Foreign Affairs 68, no. 1: 1-27.
he author of this article maintains that Ronald Reagan assumed the Presidential role rebuking the 70s' arms control attempts. As a majority of Reagan's fellow politicians were highly suspicious of any arms control pacts with Russia, the general belief was that the newly sworn-in President shared the same view. he cold-war agreement with respect to foreign policy remains consistently idealized since Vietnam. Rarely did it function with the now-envisaged efficacy and smoothness. his re-formation's key feature was, evidently, the restitution of a prevalent public opinion that perceived the exercising of U.S. power without guilt or distrust, once again. herefore, the chief Reagan foreign-policy legacy might well be that: the 40th President of the United States altered the inclination not to suffer for USA's global position into something of a firm resolve…… [Read More]
Evolution of U.S. oreign Policy under Presidents Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon towards the Soviet Union
oreign Policy towards the Soviet Union under Presidents Truman through to Nixon (1945-1974) was characterized by the "Cold War" -- a period of heightened tension between the two 'super powers' of the world. Even while being constrained by the compulsions of the 'Cold War,' the relations between the two countries gradually evolved into a less hostile association under successive U.S. Presidents in this period.
Harry Truman who became the U.S. President towards the end of World War II was the architect of the policy of containment of the Communism, led by the Soviet Union, around the world enshrined in the 'Truman Doctrine.' He was also instrumental in establishing a strong Western alliance called NATO in Europe that checked Soviet designs beyond Eastern Europe. Eisenhower continued with his predecessors' policy of "containment" without direct…… [Read More]
A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).
President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…… [Read More]
China's Economy And Foreign Policy
There have been radical changes in the internal political and economic scenario of China during the last two decades. (Lampton, 2001) The growing economic stability and control has increased the status of china to a great extent among its trading counterparts. Further, it has become obligatory on the part of the Chinese Government to make it certain that the economic development to restructure the political discipline whose ideology had a severe jolt with the fall of Soviet Union. (Part Two - Chinese Foreign Policy) Ever since the inception of economic reforms in China during 1978 there is a considerable enhancement in the Gross Domestic Product to the tune of 9.5% per annum on average. It is pertinent to probe on the factors responsible for such a great success. The success is attributed to the adoption of institutions and policies by the Chinese Government that could…… [Read More]
Chernobyl Nuclear disaster took place in 1986 in Ukraine which is a former Soviet State. This plant was built back in 1970 and consisted of 4 reactors. The plant was scheduled to undergo a scheduled and controlled shut down so as to test the generator's ability to produce electricity using the plant's safety system. eactor 4 of this plant exploded after interior energy increased beyond control discharging radioactive debris and smoke on close by cities and created a radioactive cloud that spread out to a big region of the U.S.S.. And Europe. This catastrophe involved over 500,000 workers, and over 18 million ubles. It was considered an International disaster due to the large area that it impacted negatively.
Immediately after the incident, firefighters arrived at the scene and tried to put off the fires. Lieutenant Pravik was among the first commandants to arrive at the scene and he died in…… [Read More]
Discussion Questions on International Terrorism
Explain the origins and evolution of long-term separatists and ethnic and nationalistic terrorism. Also, provide group names and their respective parts of the world.
Ethno- separatist/nationalist terrorism is not specifically a modern phenomenon. Historically, two Jewish movements in Judaea that desired to provoke the local population to rise against the oman occupiers used ethno-racial terrorism. However, it was only in 60s and 70s that terrorism came to be associated with ethnic- separatist/nationalist movements (Conser, Paynich & Gingerich, 2013). During that time, terrorism was seen as paying off on the reasons for effective, aggressive campaigns launched and won. The Palestine Liberation Organization's terrorist movement between 1968 and 1980 confirmed to other nationalist groups that internationalizing their cause could be valuable. The variety of ethnic-national/separatist terrorist movements effective worldwide, therefore, increased from three in 1968 to 30 in 1978 (Cassara, 2006).
Psychologists argue that the…… [Read More]
Japan had taken control of Vietnam during the Second World War. They had come in, in 1940, as a strategy to prevent China from ferrying weapons through the country. However, there was resistance to this through the efforts of Ho Chi Minh, who would later lead the independent country. He was a communist, and this would help him in accessing aid from the communist China when fighting against the French in the southern part of this country. The south was under the French rule, and thus, not part of the growing communism movement. Concerned over the threat of communist domination of the great part of Asia, the United States decided to back the French, so that they could set up a friendly government. However, they were defeated in the ensuing war, though they did not leave, but signed a peace agreement. Through the U.S. efforts, elections were halted…… [Read More]
The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is an agency under the prison health care systems. The Institution was established to provide a more humane and modern care for state prisoners, make the prison service more professional, and to oversee reliable and central management of the government prisons. The key role of this agency is to restrict perpetrator to a humane, safe, secure and cost-efficient location for them to spend time for the criminal offenses they have committed and receive the care that is needed. BOP also has a responsibility of reducing the possibility of future criminal offenses and law offenses wit programs where violators are prevented from breaking the law again. Statistically, these programs have proven to be very effective. BOP workers help criminals by offering a variety of services and programs to inmates, to help prepare them to regain a lifestyle with morals and live a life…… [Read More]
President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.
In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).
ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…… [Read More]
NSC-68 represented a departure point for what would be the political attitude towards the communist phenomenon during the Cold War. While pointing out the imminence of the threat the U.S.S.. posed, by describing its political structures in terms completely opposed to the U.S. system of politics, the secret document also presented four various courses of action possible in the confrontation with the U.S.S.. These were the "continuation of current policies, with current and currently projected programs for carrying out these policies; isolation; war; a more rapid building up of the political, economic, and military strength of the free world" (NSC-68, 1950).
While the first options were argued and dismissed, the last one represented in the view of the document "the only course which is consistent with progress toward achieving our fundamental purpose. The frustration of the Kremlin design requires the free world to develop a successfully functioning political and economic…… [Read More]
And many have got successful too in earning the market share. The emerging competition by new companies is a growing threat for the company and it should be tackled properly to avoid any future disturbances.
In order to further describe the competition Southwest Airlines is facing a Competitive Profile Matrix is designed. The following Competitive Profile Matrix tells about the tough competitors which are in a good position to have an edge over Southwest Airlines. It tells about the strengths and weaknesses of other competitors in contrast with Southwest Airlines.
Factors Weight Southwest Airlines United Airlines Delta Airlines Ratings Score
Score 1. Low fares.15 4.60 3.50 4.60 2. Customer Service.15 2.30 4.60 3.50 3. Employee Relations.15 4.60 3.50 3.50 4. Rate of Expansion.10 2.20. 4.50 4.50 5. Marketing.15 4.60 4.50 4.50 6. Finance Structure.15 4.40 4.40 4.40 7. Management Policies.15 4.60 4.60 2.20
EXTERNAL FACTOR EVALUATION MATRIX
The external…… [Read More]
More often than not, the plan of containment has been used to describe U.S. foreign policy. It is equally frequently traced back to the achievements of President Truman with regard to the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
In 1950, there was a shift in foreign U.S. policy after President Truman moved from passive to active containment by signing the top-secret policy plan NSC-68. It took a much more drastic approach towards the spread of Communism, which according to the new twist, claimed that Russia was en route for the domination of the world. It should be noted however that the doctrine had some major weaknesses and was repeatedly subject to contradictory interpretations. This may have led several other presidents and policy makers to toy with it at will. It could also very well explain some of the many long involvements of the U.S. In diverse wars and…… [Read More]
Healthcare Practices in Nursing Today
Over the last 50 years, health care systems all over the world have experienced rapid and significant changes. Some of these changes have been the result of innovative developments in medical science and technology that have greatly benefited patients, prolonging and saving the lives of millions. Some of these changes, however, have had the unfortunate result of limiting patient access to prescribed treatment and diminishing the overall quality of care.
Significant challenges are being faced in health care as systems restructure and reinvent themselves in a difficult and often painful effort to make more efficient use of their available resources (ICN, 2001). Since health care is such a labor-intensive industry, the stresses on these systems inexorably trickle down to affect those employed by the system. Nurses, who are the most highly trained caregivers who have ongoing, regular patient contact, stand at the very heart of…… [Read More]
Kennedy Doctrine and the Cold War
In his inaugural address as the President of the United States on January 1961, John F. Kennedy (popularly called "JFK") delivered a message that directly discussed the United States' official stance regarding its move to implement a foreign policy waging a "cold war" against Communist forces that have been gaining popularity in Asia, South America, and parts of the Middle East during this period. his U.S. foreign policy, popularly called the containment policy against Communism, was the pretext from which the eventual Cold War between Democratic and Communist forces escalated until the 1970s. During this period, JFK was assigned the task of continuing the American legacy of democracy and liberty by promoting a campaign of international alliance and cooperation against the Communist forces. At this point, Communist forces were gaining ground in South America, increasing the threat to both American soil and the country's…… [Read More]
Vietnam War: Its History and Harmful Effects
The Vietnam War is considered as one of America's failure to promote its containment policy in Southeast Asia during the latter 1950s until 1970s. The Vietnam War is a military conflict between South and North Vietnam during the period of 1959-1975, wherein the U.S. had actively participated and supported South Vietnam against the North Vietnamese, who are considered supporters of Communism.
Communism plays a big part for the escalation of and participation of U.S. In the Vietnam War. America's Containment Policy in Southeast Asian nations was implemented right after World War II, wherein the spread of Communism was prevented by fighting the elements that support and spread Communist principles and beliefs, as well as actively participating in a military arms struggle for the cause of Communism. The U.S. containment policy is implemented during Dwight Eisenhower's term s president of the U.S., wherein the…… [Read More]
During the 1940s, America had just experienced the onslaught of World War II. After massive fighting against the Axis power nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan), America, along with its allies in the war, was able to conclude the conflict by deciding to drop the atomic bomb in Japan. The war ended with the Axis power conceding defeat, and America went on to rehabilitate its nation after the war. The rehabilitation of America as a nation weary of possible atrocities among nations in the world is twofold. After the war, America experienced a resurgence in economic growth, primarily brought about by the development of new technologies that spurred the country's commercial market. Furthermore, the growth of new technologies and manufacturing industry in America encouraged social mobility, enabling the middle class society to increase in number, narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor. Thus, the technological revolution and…… [Read More]
The second motive behind the internationalist actions was a desire for control. This is especially seen in Kennedy's reaction to Guatemala. By the mid-1960's, Guatemala had finally begun creating an independent government. hat's more, the people even wanted to have an open election. However, Kennedy caught wind of a threat by the former dictator Arevalo, who planned to re-enter the country and run in the election. Instead of trusting the people to elect the right leader, Kennedy reacted in fear and used American military and intelligence to rig the election in favor of a civilian leader (Rabe 56) and a military independent of that government.
The third motive, and one that is rarely considered, behind the assaults on Latin America was imperialism. Prior to the cold war, America kept its own boundaries safe and nothing else. It only went to war when absolutely necessary and did not concern itself with…… [Read More]
Primarily, both Bushes wanted to show the world that America is a powerful force with which to be reckoned -- even if not a single or sole superpower, a force that can at least militarily have its way in the world, especially with regard to rogue, weaker states.
Also, both Bushes believed in cut-and-dried reactions. Communism and Saddam Hussein are simply "bad" without complicating factors such as reasons or motivations for their actions. Going hand in hand with that assessment, communism and Saddam Hussein must be defeated thoroughly, recognizing that even small victories on the part of Iraq, for instance, could draw support to Hussein's ranks and erode America foreign policy world opinion.
However, that is where the similarities ended. For George Bush, the homeland in the United States was never under a serious threat. The most perilous years of the Cold War were behind America when Bush took the…… [Read More]
In the words of BBC Middle East analyst Gerald Butt (2001), "…his (Saddam's) opponents have not been able to nominate anyone else who might hold Iraq together -- with its Kurds in the north, Sunni Muslims in the centre [sic], and Shi'a in the south. What the outside world calls terror, Saddam calls expediency." Interestingly, Butt's analysis took into consideration the fact that despite the atrocities that Saddam had and has purportedly done to Iraqis and Iraq's neighbors, world leaders, particularly Western leaders like the U.S. And Britain, are still actually taking an active role in Saddam's political decision-making, albeit the latter has chosen to contain himself within Iraq's borders. Prior to 9/11, U.S. leadership continued to tolerate Saddam's regime, only until the point that it is able to find a 'suitable' replacement for the dictator (Dickey and Thomas, 2002).
In addition to "covert actions" taken to secure that Iraq…… [Read More]
Lukacs, RN, asserts (Lukacs, 1984, p. 11). So, with those issues clearly on the table (as they are today in many hospitals), strategic planning in hospitals offers nursing directors a direct path to increased effectiveness, Lukacs explains. The way for nurses to get in on the strategic planning movement and increase their clout and effectiveness within the hospital structure, Lukacs explains, is to do the research necessary that matches patient / client needs and preferences "with specific provider strengths and competencies" (p. 12). Doing that research and making certain that those data and narrative get into the strategic plan is paramount to upgrading their departments, Lukacs goes on. "Knowledge of user needs must be accompanied by free and direct communication with the public," Lukacs reminds. She goes on, insisting that nurse executives "…carefully review and contribute to information upon which institutional plans are based…in order to identify implications for nursing…… [Read More]
It is in this context that the U.S. felt Soviet Union as a threat, since improved and increased production of space technology meant that there is also a corresponding increase in the capacity of the country to defend itself militarily. This threat was verbalized by the U.S., wherein containment of Communist nations such as Soviet Union was necessary because "...the Soviet Union has acquired awesome military capabilities" (Mueller, 2004:621).
The unprecedented and initial launching of Sputnik I, which served as the catalyst for the space race between Soviet Union and the U.S., compelled the latter to create alliances to support its military activities in Eastern Europe and Asia. In light of the expanding scope of the Communist ideology in both regions, U.S. deemed it wise to create a strong alliance with another Western country, Great ritain. Prior to the threat of communism, Soviet Union, U.S., and Great ritain were considered…… [Read More]
The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), the co-beneficiary of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947, was established in Philadelphia by individuals from the Religious Society of Friends (i.e., the Quakers) in Spring 1917. The link between AFSC and the Religious Society of Friends was always tenuous as the activism of the organization was something universal that many non-Quakers around the world could celebrate, while the actual tenets of Quakerism were not nearly as popular as the peace movement that the Religious Society of Friends took part in. Initially, the goals of the committee were limited; however, over the 20th century, AFSC epitomized the pacifist convictions and social-change driving forces of Philadelphia’s Quaker-led world-class fight for peace (Ingle, 2016). The AFSC essentially helped to support and come to the aid of the victims of war, whether they were Jewish, Russian, European, African, etc. (Frost, 1992). This paper will discuss the…… [Read More]
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…… [Read More]
Fred I. Greenstein, The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Barack Obama, Third Edition. Princeton University Press, 2009.
Fred I. Greenstein's central point The Presidential Difference is that in the modern U.S. political system since the Great Depression and Second World War, the presidents are now they key actors, far more so than the pre-1933 period when Congress was the most important branch of government. Because the role of the executive expanded exponentially in both foreign and domestic affairs, the leadership style of the presidents became a crucial factor in policymaking and policy failures. He analyzes the leadership style of the thirteen presidents from Franklin Roosevelt to Barack Obama, including their communication abilities (or lack thereof), personality and emotional makeup, cognitive/intellectual abilities, and organizational talents. If Roosevelt set the pattern and served as the template for the modern chief executive -- and there seems to be little doubt that…… [Read More]
Changing Nature of arfare
According to generals like Rupert Smith and David Petraeus, postmodern conflict is radically different from warfare between industrialized states, such as the American Civil ar and the world wars of the 20th Century. It does not begin with a condition of peace or return to it after the total defeat of the enemy, but rather is a "continuous crisscrossing between confrontation and conflict," often with indecisive results (Smith 19). Confrontations with North Korea and Serbia, for example, continued long after the end of the actual fighting on the battlefield, and the political issues that gave rise to the conflicts remained unresolved. These types of conflicted often dragged on for years or even decades, as in Afghanistan and Somalia, and were always fought among the people, with enemies who had a strong tactical advantage over their better funded and equipped opponents because of their familiarity with local…… [Read More]
Japanese and Chinese forces battled against each other from 1937-1945 to gain control of the Chinese mainland. The Communist China defeated the Nationalist Japan and this incident gave birth to a number of other conflicts.
United States entered into the Sino-Japanese War after the Japanese attack on the Pearl Harbor. China declared war on Germany and Italy as well. Thus, the World War II began. China was helped by the United States and Britain who gave it immense loans and supplies. The two Super Powers also established their military air bases in China. With the help of America and Britain, China was able to overpower the Japanese troops ("Sino-Japanese War, Second").
Cold War is the difference of opinion between the Soviet Union-led Communist Nations and the United States-led Egalitarian nations. Nations all over the world involve themselves in cold war through half truths, economic conflicts, diplomatic negotiations and…… [Read More]
He was labeled for a belief that he did not openly admitted subsisting to; he was labeled based on the fact that he refused to testify against an ideology.
It is not surprising, then, that the primary message of "The Crucible" resonated his thoughts and feelings about the McCarthy administration's containment policy against Communism. The arguments he presented in the play showed how Miller viewed the government's offensive action against Communism not only futile, but reflection of how American society was slowly developing into: "...for good purposes, even high purposes, the people of Salem developed a theocracy, a combination of state and religious power whose function was...to prevent any kind of disunity that might open it to destruction by...ideological enemies."
This passage aptly described the American society's condition under the paranoid and highly-offensive McCarthy administration. Like John Proctor in his play, Miller refused to say anything against an ideology that,…… [Read More]
Vietnam Turning Point
The Alleged Attack on U.S. Maddox in 1964
Why is your chosen turning point actually a turning point and not just another event?
The incident leading up to the claim of an attack against the U.S. Maddox, a Destroyer naval vessel is a turning point in history. This is because it sparked the beginning of a war with Vietnam that would last nearly ten years and divide and change U.S. citizens feelings about government authority forever. Up until this time Americans were unified in support of the President and Congress for the most part and willing to send their young men into war. Fathers and Mothers felt it was their patriotic duty to support the U.S. Military and citizens admired and respected those that served in the Armed Forces. This would change dramatically over the course of this war with Vietnam which in reality was not between…… [Read More]
A third approach in this area is the establishment of new co-pay programs which force patients to bear the costs of more procedures and treatments. This theory tends to shift part of the blame for over treatment back on the patient. Doctors claim that they order additional treatments because their patients insist on them. Forcing patients to share a greater portion of the costs of these additional treatments should arguably result in their being less demanding about receiving them.
Bureaucracy and overhead created in the delivery of health care and the administration of insurance benefits has also contributed to the substantial increase in health costs (Woodhandler 2003). The health insurance industry has campaigned to reduce health care costs but, in the process, has created a bureaucratic system that has effectively contributed to the problem. Additionally, compliance with governmental regulations has contributed to the bureaucratic difficulties as well. Practicing physicians and…… [Read More]
The bulk of quality improvement measures are working for managed care by providing insight as to what can be done to improve care therefore reduce mortality rates, and maintain a high level of customer satisfaction which in turn helps to build the managed care health business.
Population Health Focus
Population health refers to the physical, social, cultural, and economic environment in which we work and live (adzyminski, 2006)."
This has become a focus of many managed health care organizations as they work to reduce the risks to their local consumers by way of stress, environmental factors and other elements that have a direct impact on the consumer health concerns.
The goal of population health is to maximize the health of any given population. In doing so it contains elements of program development, development/evaluation of health care policy, and program and systems evaluation. It uses an approach that concentrates on…… [Read More]
Land Use Planning Policies and Urban Sprawl
Land planning for distribution has progressed manifolds in the past century. Increase in the number of communities in the country raises the demand for urban development. Developments are often referred as revolutionary plans meant for better living. However, by the end of the 20th century perception of better living means away from the mainstream urbanism. Communities shifted to new areas with open space, tranquility and yet with almost the same kind of amenities as those in the urban areas [illiams, 2000].
Urban spread has become a major concern for various reasons. According to some urban sprawl should be controlled through extensive planning campaigns. Proponents of this group argue that the open spaces for farmland, once considered an off-limits arena for the urban commuters, today with the help of developers has slowly encroached on farm designated land. Opponents to sprawl are quick to…… [Read More]
egistered nurses are both qualified, educated, and certified to provide a high quality of various care services that an individual may need in a home setting or elsewhere. Hence, providing these practitioners with the power to certify and provide home care is a solution to an overwhelming problem that has plagued the health care environment in recent years. Nursing practitioners, as a result of the nature of their work, are closely connected to the needs of individual patients. This means that they, more than many other health care providers and institutions, are able to assess the needs of individuals, their households, and the level of care they require. This places them in a position to accurately determine the need and/or of such individuals to obtain long-term home care and when such home care becomes unviable. As such, registered nurses who serve individuals in the home setting are able to maintain…… [Read More]
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…… [Read More]
Unless the physicians can succinctly argue their case for care and services, the managed care entity will, for reasons of medical necessity, deny access to care and services.
What Cost-Added atio Based on Illegal Immigrant Population?
The argument by opponents that loopholes exist that would allow illegal immigrants to access Obama's proposed legislation on healthcare services is rendered moot in lieu of the fact that those illegal immigrants are currently receiving healthcare services Medicaid and through Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS). The Federal eimbursement of Emergency Health Services Furnished to Undocumented Aliens states:
"Section 1011 of the (Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) (P.L. 108-173)) MMA appropriated $250 million dollars in FY 2005 through 2008 for payments to eligible providers for emergency health services provided to undocumented aliens and other non-specified citizens who are not eligible for Medicaid (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2009, found online, p.…… [Read More]
The CDC has provided almost $7 million in funding to establish DPPs for research purposes, which means the number of pre-diabetes individuals helped by these programs will be very limited (CDC, 2012). While these programs will probably provide free or nearly-free diabetes preventive services to a large number of individuals, most underserved patients will not benefit from these programs.
S. 452 is worded in such a way that establishing DPPs under Medicaid will be optional for states (Sebelius, 2010). As of 2010, 43 states covered the expense of screening Medicaid patients for diabetes, but only 13 states provided reimbursement for obesity preventive services. This suggests that states are willing to pay for screening, but not preventive services like lifestyle interventions; however, if only a few states implement DPPs for Medicaid recipients, this will provide a proof-of-principle experiment in a real-world setting and establish the overall healthcare savings such programs can…… [Read More]
Here, criminal law is of course preemptive in all jurisdictions, yet enforcement is restricted to agencies dedicated to law enforcement investigation and apprehension of individuals.
In spite of billions of dollars spent on homeland security, in the aftermath of Katrina pediatric-specific preparations continue to lag behind. Lack of disaster readiness for hospitalized children and for those undergoing reunification process sheds light on the disjuncture of public administration duty to rescue of minors; regardless of state intervention as 'duty' in all other areas of their lives (i.e. foster care). Children's advocates argue that,
"federal and state policy makers should dedicate research funding for the development of redundant strategies for implementation in states to assure timely reunification of infants, toddlers, and children and with their correct parents and caregivers" (Dolan and Krug, 64).
Articulation of those terms and the implications of not doing so are inflected in a broader discussion that is…… [Read More]
Strangely, America's role as policeman in Europe actually led to its becoming involved in military conflicts in Southeast Asia. Although the U.S. did not fight the Soviet Union directly in Korea or Vietnam, both conflicts were due to the U.S.'s policy of defeating the spread of Communism no matter where it might occur. Fears of escalation during both the Korean and Vietnam conflicts caused the U.S. To adopt a military strategy that favored limited warfare (Brodie).
The Cold ar had a tremendous impact on the growth of the United States as an industrial and world military power. America's presence throughout the world militarily and the dependence of estern Europe and Japan on the American economy for the sustenance of their own economies caused America's political and economic influence to expanded substantially. Beginning with the Berlin airlift (Reeves) where the United States provided food and other vital items to est Berliners…… [Read More]
capital purchase, costing $5,000, company benefit . Examples include a X-ray machine, MI processor, software filing patient records, a research library, large item company . o Identify management goals expenditure support
The health care field is becoming presented with more and more pressures in today's society. There are numerous changes in the social and economic environments, which become combined to generate new pressures for the health care providers. The life expectancy of the population increases, generating increased needs for medical care for several years. Then, the Baby Boomers are retiring, causing a demanding generation, used to financial resources and access to services, to turn to the medical care sector for more services. The policies regulating the field also change as do the demands and expectations of patients.
In such a context, the health care institutions find themselves in a position in which they have to be better managed…… [Read More]
S. administration after Truman's adopted Kennan's policy of 'containment' or its variation as a cornerstone of their foreign policy right until the eventual collapse of Communism in 1989. ("Kennan and Containment" n.d.)
Bell, P.M.H. (2001). The World since 1945 -- an International History. New York: Oxford University Press
George F. Kennan on the Web" (2005). History Politics and Future. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/2496/future/kennan.html
Historian Walter Lefeber on Truman's Soviet Policy." (2000). PBS Online. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/truman/filmmore/it_1.html
Kennan and Containment." (n.d.) Bureau of Public Affairs: U.S. Department of State. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/17601.htm
Legvold, . (2005). "Cold War." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta Online. etrieved on May 28, 2005 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374/Cold_War.html#p11
While the U.S. represented democracy, individual liberty and capitalism, the U.S.S.. was committed to the spread of the communist revolution among the 'down-trodden' masses of the world
The USS had…… [Read More]
S. officials and other entities were very well informed), but rather on indecisiveness and incapacity to react with direct, concrete means in these situations.
5. The major issues of American foreign policy during the 1950s were generally circumscribed to the Cold War between the U.S. And the Soviet Union and the relations between these two countries, ranging form mutual containment to escalation (towards the end of the decade).
The first issue emerging from this policy was the Korean War. The Korean War, characterized by the initial invasion of South Korea by North Korean troops and the subsequent implication of American and Chinese troops, was a direct consequence of the post-WWII conditions when each superpower attempted to promote and spread its own military and ideological system.
With the American army first pushed back all the way to Pusan and then following General Macarthur's landing at Inchon behind enemy troops and the…… [Read More]
Default Dispute Termination of Contract
Default and Dispute (contract law)
In government contracting, the government through a contracting officer who is the government agent enters into a legally binding agreement with a contractor. This contractor is a seller who is to deliver services and the government as the buyer pays for these services as agreed upon in the contract. However, situations arise where the agreements may be terminated in order to settle disputes that arise between the contracting agents and the contractor. Normally, the government may terminate the contract for default of the contractor or by convenience (Kathuria, 2009). Federal Acquisition egulations define termination for convenience as the exercise of the government's right to terminate a contract when it is in the government's interest
Termination for default
The government has a right to terminate a contract on a situation where the contractor does not meet the set contractual obligations (umbaugh,…… [Read More]
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…… [Read More]
In this regard, the conflict in question is a small occurrence in a company with hundreds of employees. However, leaving it unmitigated could result in severe future conflicts and related failures. Because employees are encouraged to contribute to corporate governance in an egalitarian way, the unmitigated conflict could lead to major future problems that could relate to significant financial or reputation losses for the company. Simplification can result in a global ethical principal that all the company's employees should contribute to and adhere to.
The third principle of anticipation is Sensitivity to Operations. This means that all employees are aware of the systems responsible for the smooth functioning of the company. For the conflict involved, this is probably the most important principle. If both employees in question are aware of the system underlying the operations of MTO and how to effectively promote these operations, the conflict would be much easier…… [Read More]
Predict the economic impact (e.g., costs, benefits, efficiency, cost containment) on healthcare delivery at the local, state, national, or international level if the legislative bill were enacted.
This paper examines the economic impact upon the nation if the bill, the Palliative Care and Hospice Education and Training Act, were passed. Fundamentally, the economic impact of the bill would ultimately be a positive one. The bill proposes the necessity for better training and support for the clinicians who will ultimately work in palliative care. The bill represents a long-term investment: more expenditure to better train and educate these professional healthcare personnel, but with the understanding that definitive savings will be substantial. First of all, there's almost always a substantial amount of fiscal savings when the quality of care is improved; this has been demonstrated in a range of studies and is something which is experienced at the local and national level.…… [Read More]
Health care is a large part of the federal budget and it is increasing in importance. The rate of growth in health care outlays is greater than the rate of growth in the budget itself. The poses a problem, because the federal budget deficit is increasing in size. Debt service is going to be the most rapidly growing component of the federal budget over the next several years, highlighting the need to control costs in all aspects of the budget. The challenge, however, is that both demographic trends and health care cost inflation trends signal a dramatic increase in health care costs in the coming couple of decades. Health care reform is expected to help with cost containment, primarily through shifting some eligibility requirements, but greater solutions are required. Privatizing health care would take if off the government's books, but would have significant negative externalities with respect…… [Read More]