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Genesis 12:10-20 and the Modern World:
Genesis 12:10-20 is a text about Abram and Sarai in Egypt that is considered as one of the great epos narrated in the ook of Genesis. efore the narration of this story, Abram is portrayed as an individual with several positive attributes including righteousness and humility. However, the story highlights several troubling concerns and questions regarding Abram's character, beliefs, and behaviors in relation to God and Sarai. These troubling questions and concerns have become the subject of interest and study throughout the ages. Actually, the concerns have been examined in various commentaries, adaptations and interpretations, and plot extensions. The story has mainly been examined from two schools of thought starting with a description of Sarai's beauty, attractiveness, and sexuality from the male perspective
. The second school of thought is typical expressions of male sexual discourse in light of Abram's disturbing behavior. Therefore, Genesis…… [Read More]
Spiritual Intelligence: How Do We Find Values in the Contemporary World
The focus of this brief research report is to examine the issue of finding values in the contemporary world. Values, in the context of this research study relates to principles, standards, ethics, deeply-held beliefs and guides for living however, values also is akin to 'meaning'. Therefore, this research study examines how values and meaning is constructed in the life of a contemporary individual.
There has been much written in recent years concerning cognition and emotional intelligence. Studies in these two areas have yielded positive constructs, which individuals and social groups have successfully developed individually or in terms of the group upon the bases of cognitive and emotional intelligence behaviors and functional processes. Little explored however, is the area relating to what is known as 'Spiritual Intelligence."
What is Spiritual Intelligence
Spiritual intelligence is reported as a "higher dimension of…… [Read More]
"One of the most important contemporary developments in the religious field among U.S. Latinos has been the rapid growth of evangelical Protestantism, particularly Pentecostalism," (Vasquez 617). Pentecostalism is a charismatic, evangelical Protestant denomination. Known best for its espousal of "speaking of tongues, faith healing, divine visions and miracles," Pentecostalism has enjoyed a strong presence in Latin America alongside Catholicism (Kunerth). Pentecostalism is growing among American Hispanics, too, both because of immigration from countries with an already strong Pentecostal base but also because of social, political, and personal psychological changes within the Hispanic-American community. Many new immigrants from Latin America, especially Nicaragua, Honduras and the Caribbean, are already Pentecostal because of the religion has flourished there for decades (Kunerth)
However, Pentecostalism was born in the United States. The religion reflects a uniquely American religious culture. William J. Seymour is widely credited with being the "father of Pentecostalism," after starting what…… [Read More]
Sect -- in sociology and anthropology, the term sect refers to a group that forms inside another group and takes on some individual characteristics that are based on, but not completely, like the parent or other group. In religion, for instance, denominations may be considered sects. Other academic definitions of the term tend to look at a socio-cultural definition, in that what is it that the group, the sect, is in tension with and why did it believe it had to separate (e.g. The Episcopalians separating over the ordination of a gay Bishop) (Wilson, 1992, 5-9).
Sects also occur in political, social, and cultural groups and, like religious sects, are splinter groups who leave a party or organization because of disagreement on some level. The early International Communist Parties of 1915-1935, for instance had numerous sects. All these were based on the doctrine of Marx & Engles, but took on…… [Read More]
Islam and Human Rights
a Critique of Contemporary Muslim Approaches
The basic objective of this research is note the errors that are committed by Muslims in their argument of human rights in Islam or in other words to explore possible means of formulation of a more coherent alternative expression of values to point out the errors committed by Muslims in their attempt to argue the case of human rights in Islam in the hope that efforts and resources expended in that direction can be derived to a more agreeable end; which is the exploration of possible means of formulating a more coherent alternative expression of values to the so-called "Islamic human rights."
A considerable amount of literature has been produced on these issues by competent Muslim thinkers and scholars but because they either
purposefully or 2) inadvertently chose to follow almost the same style as explored in the Western tradition…… [Read More]
"Be not conformed to this world" means that while we have to live in it, we do not have to believe in it or be led by it. We cannot free ourselves completely from the influence of culture (we live within it, after all), but we can achieve a high degree of insight about it. We can learn to let our lives be guided by God and thus be free-er than those people whose lives are guided by cultural assumptions, norms, practices, opinions, attitudes, and moral standards. Those people who are influenced and guided by the often conflicting forces of culture, without the mitigating guidance of Christianity, are the most enslaved. Jesus described them as "like sheep not having a shepherd." An extreme example of cultural enslavement is middle-eastern youths who grow up to become suicide bombers. They absorb from their culture the idea that they can be heroes by…… [Read More]
THE ROMAN WAY
Rome exerted tremendous pressure on its colonies to conform, and do things in the Roman Way. When in Rome, one does as the Romans do. The Via Romana is a road referring to the Roman way. Rome conquered Alexander's vast empire and then imposed the Imperium (the imperial right to rule) upon the world. Religio-Romana refers to the Roman religion of paganism and polytheism. Roman religion. Romans are to practice Rome's religion without changing it. The Roman practices will be executed as they have always been since the beginning of Roman civilizations. This includes worshipping the Roman emperor as god. The political connection between Rome's religion and the people impose the belief and practice: Roman religion is the truth. Mos Maiorum refers to the living traditions. People are to live their lives according to Roman traditions. This is the daily life of Romans extant in the…… [Read More]
Ethnic Music Humanities
a) Origin and Development of Traditional and Contemporary Ethnic Music
My personal experience in learning this subtopic reveals to me that music is a global cultural practice found in every known culture, both in the past and present, but with a wide variation with regards to time and place of practicing it. Since every ethnic group around the world, including some of the most secluded tribal groups, depicts their own forms of musical practices, I conclude that music might have been present among the ancestral populations prior to the dispersion of human populations around the world. This confirms that music must have been existing and evolving into different forms for over 50,000 years, and the first music might had been invented in Africa, which is regarded as the cradle of humankind. Then the music evolved through diverse parts of the world during human dispersion to become the…… [Read More]
Exegesis Hosea 10: 5-6
Hosea is a prophetic book and like many books in this tradition, it is a critique of the current ways of the Israelites and an explanation of why their words and deeds are in error. One of the central images of Hosea 10: 5-6 is that of idolatry, specifically that of the "calf" at which the inhabitants of Samaria "tremble" despite the explicit prohibition of worshipping graven images in Exodus; the calf specifically recalls the idolatry of the golden calf while the Israelites were in exile in the deserts.[footnoteRef:1] The priests that "wail" over it are said to be idolatrous themselves, specifically underlining their worship of graven images but also the sense of despair reflected in Hosea as a text. The fact that the calf will be taken to Assyria may be read as a symbolic warning of Israel being conquered by that nation…… [Read More]
plea to the hearts and minds of people who are being knowledgeable of the distinctive qualities and assert from the Episcopal Church. The charm from the Church tends to be realized all over our land. Its extensiveness of empathy for every situations of people, the highly convincing perspective regarding the joys of life, the liberty from peculiarity of practice and faith, have unveil the Episcopal Church to the awareness of a lot of people whose religious association have been interfered with or destabilized. e always come across some evident problem, Steve Klein (2007), which makes a lot of people not to join the Episcopal Church. The Church tends to be rather odd, or cold, or complex. It tends not to fulfill the condition that training which is done earlier results to majority anticipation in a church. The services are somehow rigid and obscure; the ways are complex; it has strange…… [Read More]
The Vairocana Buddha on the back wall has a Bodhisattva to his left wearing a crown and pearls. Bodhisattvas were still 'of the world,' beings in Mahayana Buddhism who temporarily did not seek Enlightenment to bring Enlightenment to the rest of the world. On his other side, a "divine general treads an evil spirit underfoot" ("acred Destinations," Longmen Caves, 2010). The combined images of the most spiritual and enlightened of all manifestations of the Buddha, a spiritual deity still striving to Enlighten those in the world, and national symbolism illustrate how Buddhism was not seen as innately contradictory with the aims of the nation-state.
"Longmen Caves." acred Destinations. March 1, 2010.
O'Brien, Barbara. "The Five Dhyani Buddhas: Vairocana Buddha" About.com.
ummarize the history of the porcelain traditions in China from the Yuan to the present. Give examples.
The Yuan Dynasty saw the development of what…… [Read More]
Before the Torah is replaced near the end of the service, it is carried throughout the assembled congregation. Worshippers may reach out and touch the Torah with prayer books (hands are not supposed to be used), then kiss the object that touched the Torah, a gesture of affection, respect, and loyalty to God. This ritual is (arguably) symbolically equivalent to Catholic Communion, where believers symbolically ingest the blood and the body of Christ (a sip of wine and a Communion wafer) thereby taking the Lord into themselves. Both practices reaffirm personal relationships to God. Such contemporary (and past) ceremonies and liturgical practices may or may not actually aid worshippers in understanding God (or on the other hand, provide roadblocks for interpretation of the sacred). However, both are powerful signs of a personal relationship between congregants and God.
Many sections of the Old Testament reaffirm monotheism. In Exodus 31-33, Moses leaves…… [Read More]
In verse 13, God directly challenges the false Gods to save the Israelites. God tells them that their idols will do them no good and that he can and will destroy them. God also reiterates his promise to the righteous that he will keep them safe and the land will be theirs. This verse demonstrates God's ultimate authority and superiority over the old pagan gods. It proclaims his undisputed position and his intolerance for the worship of other deities.
Chapter 57: It's Place in Isaiah
According to Isaiah, it is the duty of every Israelite to adhere to the morals and commandments of God
. Isaiah viewed Assyria as God's tool for doling out punishment to the rest of the world for transgressions
. Isaiah, Chapter 57 is a plea for the Israelites to take action as a nation so that they do not collectively suffer as sinners.
The Great…… [Read More]
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…… [Read More]
Scriptures of James and Hosea
There are a few poignant similarities between the messages in the scriptures of James 2: 8-11 and Hosea 11: 1-3. A thorough analysis of these passages indicates that they each adhere to the same thematic issues and deal with similar subject matter. However, there appears to be a hierarchy in the way that these two scriptures relate to one another. The passage in James sets forth a specific principle in which the passage in Hosea provides an example.
The dominant theme found in the aforementioned verses from James is for individuals to heed the word of God. The word of God is law, and is referenced in this passage as royal law -- which is an allusion to the Ten Commandments. In buttressing this theme, the author of this passage expressly forbids favoritism and keeping some, yet not all, of God's commandments. However, the principle…… [Read More]
lives Jesus Mohammed relation respective religion. The paper formatted APA guidelines, include research sources. Be complete steps paper: 1. Trace lives Jesus Mohammed historically.
Jesus and Mohammed
Standing as the two principal religions on the planet, Christianity and Islam are most recognized for the individuals who made it possible for them to exist. Jesus is the major figure in the world of Christianity while Mohamed is the central figure in the Islamic world. Given religion is presently one of the most debated topics, one of the best methods of understanding each of the two religious faiths would be to analyze the characters that stand at the base of each of them.
Although there is no exact evidence to demonstrate when Jesus was born, most sources point toward the belief that the act occurred somewhere before the death of King Herod the Great. There are a series of scholarly accounts meant…… [Read More]
There are some generalizations from the survey that are useful in the sense that they offer solid social reasons why pastors should be in touch with today's unmarried parents, in order to provide services for them outside their attendance for Sunday sermons: one, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to live below the poverty line as married parents"; two, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to have dropped out of school as married parents"; three, unmarried parents are "twice as likely" to have reported being in some degree of trouble with alcohol or with illegal drugs; four, unmarried parents "are younger than married parents" by an average of 7 years; and five, forty-three percent of unmarried mothers "have children with at least two men," while just 15% of married mothers "have children with different fathers."
In conclusion, Parke writes that the data from the research helps to dispel the myth…… [Read More]
Temple Beth Am Site Visit
For people living in prior generations, the practice of one's religious beliefs was a private expression of faith to be shared only with fellow adherents. Christians worshipped alongside fellow Christians and seldom found either the opportunity or the desire to explore the religious beliefs of neighbors and friends who happened to be Jewish, Muslim, Hindu or any of the hundreds of creeds which are followed freely in the United States. Fortunately, this exclusionary attitude towards religion has been cast aside by today's youth, and people are now encouraged to visit places of worship with which they may not be familiar. As a practicing Roman Catholic, I have always been curious about Judaism, a faith which shares many of its influences with Christianity but has evolved throughout the ages to become the distinctly unique belief system we know today. In order to fully immerse…… [Read More]
In contrast, the exterior was almost undecorated" (25). Another significant church that was built contemporaneously with the Hagia Sophia was the cruciform Church of the Holy Apostles (536-546), which featured five domes (Nickel).
Figure 3. Cross-domed church. Most important type of ground-plan of the Middle Byzantine period. In addition to the central dome, more elaborate examples have domes over the corner chapels -- quincunx. From the tenth century onwards, the cross-domed church becomes widespread throughout Bulgaria. In Russia it develops into the dominant church type of the Middle Ages, the cruciform domed church. (Church of Theofokos, Monastery of Hosios Lukas, Greece, tenth century)
Source: Nickel 25
Constantine clearly set the architectural bar very high, and Christian architects would be hard pressed to match the Hagia Sophia in terms of size, organization and decorations, but the structure was clearly a model for future efforts. In this regard, Nickel reports that, "Compared…… [Read More]
Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.
Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.
Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…… [Read More]
" It caused missionaries to deal with peoples of other cultures and even Christian traditions -- including the Orthodox -- as inferior. God's mission was understood to have depended upon human efforts, and this is why we came to hold unrealistic universalistic assumptions. Christians became so optimistic that they believed to be able to correct all the ills of the world." (Vassiliadis, 2010)
Missiology has been undergoing changes in recent years and after much serious consideration Christians in the ecumenical era "are not only questioning all the above assumptions of the Enlightenment; they have also started developing a more profound theology of mission. One can count the following significant transitions:
(a) From the missio christianorum to the missio ecclesiae;
(b) the recognition later that subject of mission is not even the Church, either as an institution or through its members, but God, thus moving further from the missio ecclesiae to…… [Read More]
'For though beauty is seen and confessed by all, yet, from the many fruitless attempts to account for the cause of its being so, enquiries on this head have almost been given up"
illiam Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, (1753)
Not very encouraging words, but if the great artist illiam Hogarth felt himself up to the task, we can attempt at least to follow his lead. That beauty is enigmatic goes almost without saying. Different ages, different cultures, and even different individuals, will have their own definitions of "beauty." The problem is more than skin deep. Any term that can be so widely and irregularly employed is bound to trap the casual researcher ... Or reader ... Or viewer ... Or for that matter, any other human being who attempts to define what is and what is not "beauty." People, places, things -- even ideas dreams -- can…… [Read More]
extra lines paragraphs. Use footnotes endnotes ( author, title book, page number needed).
The contemporary society largely owes its advancements to ancient peoples such as the Egyptians, considering the technological progress experienced in Egypt in times when the rest of the world was struggling to survive given the harsh conditions available. hile Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome were diverse civilizations and spread over several territories, Ancient Egypt concentrated on a particular geographical area. Even with this, the complex nature of this particular civilization makes it difficult for one to describe it similar to how he or she would describe the other two.
In order to have a better understanding of Ancient Egypt one would first have to consider its location. Most people associate it with the African continent as a whole while others are inclined to associate it with the northern part of the territory, considering that these people generally…… [Read More]
This entertainment is the ceremonial or festive taking of alcoholic drinks at events called "beer parties." Researchers noted the significance of the festive element of work among the laborers but showed beer as an essential aspect of work. The rule in these beer work parties are adjusted to the particular workers involved. It invokes the overall value and morality of helpfulness and reciprocity, which are part of beer-drinking events. It is an expression of a general interdependence between homesteads. Ordinary beer parties emphasize the general principle of mutual helpfulness and mutual relationships in homesteads. ut beer parties for harvest give thanks to ancestors for the homestead's harvest. These parties give recognition to those who plow the homestead's garden (McAllister).
A recent analyzed the relation between cooperative work and beer drinking. It found that beer drinks served as a contact point of everyday activity and ideas in the Xhosa society in…… [Read More]
high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…… [Read More]
1)" Yuen 10. However, in order to consistently be successful in this profession and in the completion of projects, there is a significant more amount of consideration and work to be done within this field. These additional considerations form an indelible component of the present research, which has stratified these concerns in ways that are germane to the proper implementation of project management, and which should not merely focus on the abilities of an individual (such as a project manager), but include a gestalt of "knowledge and skills from the areas of expertise of "project environments," "general management skills," and "Knowledge of the application area" (Yuen 386), that are "a deliberate orchestration of all these areas of expertise to complete a project."
By analyzing what these different environment areas were in previous centuries for the completion of successful projects in Europe and the Near East, the research contained within this…… [Read More]
44). She affiliated with the African Methodist Church (AME), preaching from New York State to Ohio and down South as well. She published her autobiography in 1849 and received "strong resistance and biting criticism," according to Frances Smith Foster (1993). "Lee used her alleged inferiority to emphasize the power of her message and in so doing, she…implies an authority superior to those whom she addresses" (Foster, p. 57). Indeed, Lee used the New Testament assertion that "the last shall be first" and in her autobiography she said she was an example of God's "ability to use even 'a poor coloured female instrument' to convert sinners…" (Foster, p. 57).
Another worthy source utilized for this paper is Dr. Edward R. Crowther, Professor of History at Adams State College in Colorado. Crowther published an article in the Journal of Negro History explaining how African-Americans got away from the white man's church after…… [Read More]
" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.
Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…… [Read More]
Finally, it is noteworthy to mention that all poetry was attributed to Apollo -- as such the classic literature conceived of and which defines western culture is a testament to Apollo's greatness.
Apollo was also worshipped in ancient Greece as the god of the sun. In ancient Greece and even in contemporary times (albeit to a lesser extent), the sun is considered a harbinger of light and learning and the spread of knowledge. Thus, a great deal of scholasticism and scholarship in Western civilization has its roots in Apollo's status as the god of the sun. Another cultural aesthete of a particular civilization is the degree of knowledge it has encompassed and produced. Greece was long renowned as a center of learning, and with advancements in technology, contemporary western culture leads the world in this application of knowledge. Thus, the aspect of knowledge associated with the sun and of a…… [Read More]
Laurie Long, a contemporary American artist, has a style most uniquely her very own. What she does is to fuse together disparate elements of pop culture, humor, and more predominantly, feminism and feminist culture. This combination is often seen in all her works of art, and today, one of her more fascinating pieces is that of 'The Secret History of Goddess Sites' wherein Laurie Long documents the several places in Europe where female deities are being worshipped, even today. The artist states that some of the sites may have been real, some of them dubiously reconstructed, and some more of them replaced by churches and other significantly archaeological treasures, and these were reconstructed by the artist with the help of several photographs and prints and so on. She has managed to re-contextualize each site, and also address important issues such as feminism and other gender issues within the artwork, and…… [Read More]
Troubled Youth and Aged Individuals: Contemporary Community Case Study
There are two age groups in the present population with specific needs required to fulfill and direct them at a pivotal moment in their life's development when paired together represent reciprocal provision of care during a critical stage in the lives of each of these two representative groups of contemporary society. The two age groups at focus in this study are today's youth and the present aged population in the community. Youth are disproportionately characterized as having behavioral problems and the community elders are a reservoir of guidance for these youth who in return have much to offer the aged as well.
The research proposed in this specific study involves collaboration with teacher, the school board, and counselors to prepare a method of providing school credits in return for volunteer work on the part of students who are also categorized as…… [Read More]
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…… [Read More]
art period's styles represent a theme art. Your comparison focus artists period styles. The pair choose drawn period styles. For essay, I compare a High Classical Greek artwork Early Italian Renaissance artwork.
The Artemision ronze vs. Donatello's bronze David
While most people are inclined to look at the Italia Renaissance as being innovative and as bringing new concepts to society, the artistic movement actually inspired from Ancient Greece. y looking at the Early Renaissance period and at the Classical Greek artistic movement one is likely to observe a series of parallels, as the more recent artists did not hesitate to inspire themselves from individuals that they considered to be particularly refined in producing artwork. To a certain degree, one can consider the two movements to have had a similar effect in individuals living contemporary to them, considering that they both brought on artistic revolutions. The Artemision ronze and Donatello's bronze…… [Read More]
Galatians believers had tried hard in keeping the law to attain some spiritual perfection, but all these did not succeed. Most of the churches were torn apart because of the conflicts and differences they had among themselves. The believers were seen to be biting as well, as devouring one another (v.15). The believer's devotion concerning the law did not let them to commit one another in love, thus made them to break the law. These issues generated many questions to Galatians believers since they were wondering where they could find motivation as well as, the power to resolve their conflicts, and renewing love among themselves.
Paul was astonished, and told them to try and live by the strength or the spirit (v. 16). Paul told them so because he knew that, the Christian life normally starts with the Spirit, and it is the only power which can sustain the life…… [Read More]
Bible esoteric and dated. Fee and Stuart in How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth, however, show the applicability of the Bible and provide readers with the tools of applying the Bible to their contemporary lives. For them there is no "then and there" to the text, rather than "then and there" of the text can equitably be applied to the "here and now" of contemporaneous living. The authors in effect build two bridges; there is the bridge between Church and lay man and the bridge between Church and exegetical scholar. Whilst the exegetical scholar approaches the text from the past trying to see 'what it meant," the author tell us that the text is far more than that: it is applicable not only for the "then" but also for the "now" and, therefore, people should approach it with the intent of 'what does it mean" and "what…… [Read More]
Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation
Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.
Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides…… [Read More]
tensions ambivalence. Yet Christian ignore Paul's theology pressed letters. Discuss The rationale essay critically explore, evaluate discuss questions: ho St. Paul-hat Paul write letters churches individuals ministry? hat cultural, social, political religious contexts readings received Paul's writings? How contemporary church reads interprets Paul's writings 21st century evangelism, mission, ministry, Christian character formation ethical teachings.
Theology of Paul
Saint Paul (originally named Saul of Tarsus) was one of the most influential individuals in the Christian world and a person who is largely responsible for how society perceives Christianity. Even with the fact that he was not one of the original Twelve Apostles, his involvement in taking Jesus' words further increased his role as an imposing Christian figure. Paul's letters to individuals and churches were meant to provide these bodies with more information concerning Christianity. The Apostle likely considered that it was essential for the world to gain a complex understanding of…… [Read More]
Queen Isabella initially challenged the basis of Columbus' right to enslave the subjects entrusted to her by the Pope.
4. How did Spain explain the purpose of the Encomienda system?
According to their view, the Indians were to be rightfully Christianized by Spanish forces. Since they resisted their efforts, the Encomienda suggested that enslavement was a tool necessitated to overcome the Indians' reluctance to work and their "laziness." Their enslavement into forced labor was a means of imposing order on them and of disciplining them as part of the duty of the Spanish to motivate the Indians to convert to Christianity.
5. How did the Spanish colonists and the King respond to Montesinos' critique of their treatment of the Indians? Why did the King have this reaction?
The Spanish colonists and the King responded that the Indians had a natural obligation and duty to accept their Christian teachings. In the…… [Read More]
289). Coady (cited in Halwani, 2006) points out that lack of a good definition makes it difficult, if not impossible, to address the moral implications of terrorism. Coady defines terrorism as "the organized use of violence to attack noncombatants ('innocents' in a special sense) or their property for political purposes" (p. 290). This definition focuses on the targets, innocent "noncombatants" and does not consider the goals the terrorists aim to achieve. It does specify for "political purposes" rather than criminal, and does not mention causing fear. There exists some disagreement on whether threats, for example, as opposed to real acts, constitute terrorism. If the goal of inducing fear is part of the definition, then threats would be included, but if terrorist goals are limited to "political purposes," then threats would not qualify as terrorist acts.
Coady (cited in Halwani, 2006) points out that some "acts of political violence may be…… [Read More]
" Real Americans support the right of religious people to worship, and would never base legislation on a religious conviction rather than a conviction based on constitutional rights, constitutional law, and Enlightenment ethics.
American political identity is continually changing also because of the incredible ethnic and cultural diversity within the nation's borders. hen gender, sexual identity, socio-economic class, and other factors are also included in the mix, America's political philosophy is naturally heterogeneous. hen new immigrants enter the United States, they contribute to the common ideals of a nation founded on principles like universal liberty and justice. "Debates about immigration and national identity cut to the core of our national self-image as a nation of immigrants, and invariably includes allusions to the past -- real and idealized -- as a way of under- standing and coping with social and demographic changes today," (Segura 278). hite supremacist Americans are currently in…… [Read More]
She is warm and straightforward, considerate and humble. She is not a hypocrite or a cheat, does not speak falsely and offers good advice in a prudent way and for the general welfare. She has a word and keeps it. She is modest in appearance and in manners. She respects others as she respects herself and keeps out of matters where she is not part of. She does not sow dissension or seek out hidden faults. No matter how achieved or excellent she may feel, she does not show off. She is not oppressive, but is, instead, fair and generous. She does not delight in the misfortune of another person but endeavors to help overcome it.
The bigots who put her down have ironically benefited the ideal Muslimah. They believe that the Muslim woman or any woman should keep her mouth shut as a result of her "original sin" in…… [Read More]
Christianity started as a literary faith, one firmly rooted in Scripture. Scriptural adherence grew out of the Jewish appreciation for sacred text. Therefore, it is no wonder that Christianity evolved as a literary and literate faith. The evolution of Christianity from the fall of the Temple in 70 CE to the 21st century is one punctuated and formed by writing and historical documents. Christian historiography reveals both the development of Christian religious thought including cosmology, theology, and metaphysics. Ethics and philosophy are also covered in the Christian canon. However, Christian historiography also goes beyond sacred wisdom. Christian texts have laid out methods by which Christianity -- and the Catholic Church in particular -- can and should function in the world as a political institution. Both spiritual and the political debates have led to conflicts in Christian identity development. Conflicting views of theological matters such as the nature of Christ's…… [Read More]
Capitalism and Culture
The works of Smith, Marx, Freud and Wolf center around the history of capitalism and its meanings as it has emerged from the west: first from western Europe and subsequently from the United States of America. However, this is not the only light in which world economy might be seen. There are various economic systems that are viable in various cultures. These will be considered in terms of the above-mentioned authors, together with authors who write from a different perspective, including Sahlins and Appadurai.
The main characteristic of the capitalist system is that those who produce actual goods are employees. They do not own and cannot buy their own equipment and materials. Through this system, and especially through the advent of the machine, workers have been separated form the production process. Such displacement has occurred through coercion, especially during the early stages of the system,…… [Read More]
Preliminary Report follow a, B, C . The temple: True Buddha Diamond Temple New York Inc. located Murray Hill, Flushing; The current revered grand master (Living Buddha Lian Shen), lineage guru True Buddha School.
The True Buddha Diamond Temple of New York Inc. provides visitors with the opportunity to interact with Buddhism in a series of ways. One does not necessarily have to be a Buddhist in order to access its services or to acknowledge the effect that its values has on a person. I chose to study this location as a consequence of observing its tendency to change people and make it possible for them to gain a more complex understanding of their role in the world. The temple is both aimed at changing matters on a local level and at being a part of a larger process of change.
b. The temple's address is 3332 148th Street Flushing,…… [Read More]
Weblogs and Their Influence
Weblogs have developed from a personal hobby and an Internet specialist niche to an important contemporary mainstream communications phenomenon. Weblogs or blogs have entered into almost every sphere of communications and knowledge sourcing. While blogging is relatively easy to explain in terms of the mechanics of its functioning, it is much more difficult to understand in terms of the implications and potential for development; particularly with regard to the fields of politics, journalism, academic research and education.
One of the essential functions of Weblogs is to filter the masses of online information, which is growing at an exponential rate. This is a crucial aspect as, through technology such as RSS syndication, the user can selectively access and edit large amounts of information from thousands of formal and informal sources. RSS and news reading software is one of the latest developments in the Weblog field and are…… [Read More]
Religious Taoism is the third objective of all Taoist followers although it entails a deep commitment into the priesthood. Priests in ancient China were more than just religious leaders -- they were the doctors, lawyers and intellects of the times as well as the individuals who could deal with evil spirits and the occult. Some things that have come from this function are ideas like Feng Shui where the church helped communities become in sync with nature or the absolute.
Confucianism can be considered to be nothing more than a type of humanism. In other words, it is a philosophy that focuses on just that, human beings. By dictating human achievements, interests and social conduct rather than with abstract ideas like god or heaven, Confucius made life simple.
Confucianism entails that man is the center of the universe but he must also share the universe with his fellow man…… [Read More]
Typically, Japanese marry before a Shinto altar and are buried, after cremation, in a Buddhist funeral. Many people, young and old, pay a New Years visit to a Shinto shrine and visit family graves once or twice a year. Young couples take their children to a Shinto shrine at the shichi-go-san festival to celebrate the ages 3, 5, and 7. For funeral and periodic memorial services, a family invites a priest from a Buddhist temple that belongs to the same Buddhist sect with which the family ancestors were affiliated.
The Japanese, both officially and unofficially resisted the influence of the western religions, while at the same time conglomerating the traditional faiths of the region into an amalgamated faith of sorts.
In the past, every family in Japan had to be registered at a Buddhist temple to comply with the antiChristian policy of the Tokugawa government (1600-1868). After the…… [Read More]
180). Effectively, social constructivism is helping "reconstruct" the field of psychology (Bohan, 1990, p. 86). In that, it seems the future of social constructionism can only grow and alter, just as the field of psychology has grown and altered since its inception. The role of the social constructionist is to always question, and because of this, when it is applied to psychology, it can only bring change, new understanding, and continued growth and comprehension to the entire field.
In conclusion, social constructionism and psychology go hand-in-hand, especially in the modern world. Psychology is certainly a science, and science may explain many outcomes in the psychological profile. However, social constructionism is much more viable in the modern, socially complicated world society exits in today. Social interactions, constraints, and expectations all help mold the modern individual, and social constructionism makes the science of psychology more relevant and helpful in the modern world.…… [Read More]
These remarks could be applied equally to anything in Giotto's oeuvre. The total effect of Giotto's work is one of bold religious feeling. It inspires the viewer to accept the mythology and challenges him to understand his relationship to the God both preached by the Church and challenged by heretics. Giotto's works, like Pisano's or Duccio's, certainly inspire religious feelings and thoughts. They are dignified, spiritual, and affirmative. They put into realistic terms the very humanity of the saints, prophets, patriarchs, and the Christ by depicting each as a real human being in a realistic setting. They emphasize the reality of the Faith -- which was being challenged already by men like yclif, and which would undergo its most formidable test yet with the coming Protestant Reformation.
In conclusion, Giotto di Bondone depicted traditional religious subjects but drew the viewer into a more personal relationship with the ideas didactically expressed…… [Read More]
As Jeffrey Stout has it, following James' "Will-to-Believe," "We need not agree on all matters of moral importance to agree on many, and where our judgments happen to coincide we need not reach them for the same reasons." (Fackre, 2003)
Fackre states that there are five pluralist views as follows:
View 1: Common Core. At the center of all the great religions of humankind is found a common core of divine (however conceived) doing, disclosing and delivering. Each faith approaches it through its own heroes, expresses it in its own language, celebrates it in its own rituals, formulates it in its own rules of behavior, and passes it on in its own communal forms. While the rhetoric of each religion may claim that its way, truth and life are for all, these absolutist professions are, in fact, "love talk," the metaphors of commitment, not the metaphysics of reality. Jesus is,…… [Read More]
Disorder does not descend from Heaven,
It is the spawn of a woman. 10
Contemporaneous with relocating the capital from Edo to Tokyo was the drawing up of the 'Memorandum on Reform of the Imperial Palace' in which Article 1 states that the emperor would 'deign to hear about all political matters' in the front throne room adding that 'women are to be prohibited from entering the front throne room' 11.
Yoshii Tomozane, enior ecretary for Court Affairs peremptorily dismissed all court ladies, after which a rare few were reselected for appointment. In his dairy, he noted: 'this morning, the court ladies were dismissed in their entirety… the power of women already lasting for centuries has been erased in a single day. My delight knows no bounds." 12.
In this way the power of the 'hens' was removed from the 'Enlightened regime' of Meiji rule and suppressed throughout the country.…… [Read More]
Schultz relates in this work that the child of God carries' the essence of God wherever they go and that even during the time of Naomi's loss and bitterness that Ruth was drawn to her because of having been drawn to God.
At the beginning of the story of Naomi and Ruth, it is obvious that Naomi does not acknowledge and clearly does not recognize Ruth for her true value and all that she represents for Naomi's future. However this story does inform the reader that a child was born to oaz and Ruth who was named Obed and that this child, upon his birth was taken and laid into the arm's of Naomi, a woman's whose hands had been so empty.
Summary & Discussion
There are several lessons learned from this study and the first of which is the lesson of hope, faith, and the everlasting love of…… [Read More]
Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the hiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the unnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as ufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.
Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are unnis whilst 10-20% are hiites. The key difference between unnis and hiites is that unnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The alafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from unnism. hiites, on the other hand, believe in the…… [Read More]
The first five books were separated from the whole about 400 B.C. As the Pentateuch. Jean Astruc in the eighteenth century noted that the Pentateuch is based on even earlier sources. The two chief sources have since been identified in Genesis on the basis of their respective uses of Yahweh or Elohim in referring to the deity. They are called J. For the Jehovistic or Yahwistic source and E. For the Elohistic source, and P. For the Priestly source was later separated from the E. source (Miller and Miller 698-699).
Consider just the complexities involved in the construction of the first book of the bible, Genesis, in its present form. It is believed that at an early time in human history, perhaps as early as the eleventh or tenth century B.C., someone put together the stories of God's dealing with the fathers from oral forms then in circulation. Such a…… [Read More]
Language and Identity
A large part of culture has to do with the language that people speak. It is a unifying concept that allows a group of people to identify one another as belonging to the same group. It does matter how the group is bounded, usually more by geographical bounds than ethnic of racial, it matters more how the person related to the world through the spoken word. This paper looks at the culture of the Caribbean, especially those people who were brought to the region as slaves from the African continent, and how they have maintained their identity through the commonality of language.
Many examples exist in literature that solidify the notion that language and identity are very closely intertwined. As a matter of fact, one author states "Language and identity are inseparable. The quest for identity is another prevalent concern in Caribbean literature" (Dance 5). hy…… [Read More]
One of the most curious aspects of American culture to residents of other industrialized democracies is the American attitude towards freedom, as currently expressed in the healthcare debate. Americans have articulated a great deal of hostility about being 'forced' to buy health insurance, despite the fact that 1. National and state government-run programs already exist in the form of Medicare and Medicaid and 2. Healthcare is a necessity. Bankruptcies due to health-related issues are nonexistent in nations such as Great Britain and Canada, where participation in the national system of health insurance is mandatory, yet in America there is a tendency to view that 'what you get is what you deserve,' and those who fall behind in their healthcare bills are somehow exhibiting moral failings regarding their ability to budget or to find work that provides health insurance.
Given that self-employed businesspeople often lack health insurance, while the…… [Read More]
Theological position of Dwight N. Hopkins
The biblical presentation of human existence and its origin and our own experience of human life in this world are to accept the fact that Adam and Eve were real persons and they are the descents of all human beings. The biblical representation is not limited to the Genesis but it represents a broader perspective which is related to the God's creation. The biblical representation reveals the God's presence in this world in the form of light and playing a unique role and dignity for mankind. This is what we all experience in our daily lives. All human desire for God and need Him, depends on Him to fulfill their wishes and forgiveness of their sins. Thus all the aspect of human creation and their living is governed and known by God (Collins, 2010).
The essay on theological position of Dwight N. Hopkins will…… [Read More]
Bad Experience ith a Priest:
comparison of the Catholicism aspects in Scott's Ivanhoe and Twain's a Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
In reading Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, one cannot deny that the blame for the collapse of Hank's new civilization falls on the Church. Throughout the novel, Twain paints a negative image of the Church and its priests. This negative image can also be found in Sir alter Scott's Ivanhoe. Scott gives us characters such as the confused Templar and the misaligned Prior. Both writers have poor views of religion and this is evident in their unflattering portraits of the corrupt medieval church.
Scott's portrait of the Prior is not a very pleasant one. Nothing about him seems to be spiritual. hen we first meet him, his costume is basically appropriate for a priest, but it is said to be "composed of materials much…… [Read More]
Holi, Colors speak and people Play!
Indian culture is enriched with traditions, religious ceremonies and festive celebrations. The paper is about historical and religious significance of Holi, a spring celebration which is also referred to as the 'celebration of colors'. However, the event dates back to ancient Hindu religious celebrations. In South Asia, Holi has also gained popularity among non-Hindus. It is majorly celebrated in India, Nepal and other parts of the world wherever Hindu communities reside. The event starts a night before Holi with Holika, which is the bonfire where people gather in masses to dance and sing around the fire. The very next morning Holi is celebrated by playing with colors, singing and dancing. However, there are few symbolic elements prominently observed in Holi carnival. Every single person adorns in complete white, has water gun fight, plays with colors in the shape of dry powder and drinks "Bhang."…… [Read More]
Giotto and Duccio
The Arena Chapel (Scrovegni) of Giotto (1303) and Duccio's Maesta (1308) are both masterpieces of medieval European art. The Arena chapel contains the fresco cycle and is indicative of the movement towards a more humanistic view of religiosity, while the maestro is a large altarpiece that includes multiple images. Both have a similar subject but were constructed with divergent intentions and distinctive artistic styles.
Giotto di Bondone was a late Middle Age painter and architect and contemporary of the famous writer Dante (The Divine Comedy). Historians comment on his importance as a leader in style and subject matter for generations of artists after him. From an art history perspective, he is important because he broke with the Byzantine style that was so prevalent in his time. In fact, may consider him to be a clear forerunning of the Italian enaissance style of painting, with less stylized figures,…… [Read More]