This is highlighting the overall culture of unethical behavior inside P. ("The Explosion at Texas City," 2006)
As the company, would engage in policy of denying their involvement of: responsibility and attribute the incident to employee error. This would tie up the proceedings for many years, allowing for them to maximize their profits (while being able to avoid the ethical challenges they were wrestling with). ("The Explosion at Texas City," 2006) as a result, these unethical views would have a dramatic impact upon the culture inside the organization itself. Where, mangers would often encourage employees to overlook safety and environmental regulations (in order to remain in line with the company's financial objectives). This meant that the odds increased dramatically, that the company would have an accident with: dire safety, economic and environmental consequences.
As a result, the Deepwater Horizon incident was the pinnacle of: the lack of investment and disregard…… [Read More]
Develop metrics. -- put tangible ethics measures in place and consider connecting compensation to ethical principles.
3. Create a cross-functional team. - include an HR professional in auditing team as well as an ethics and compliance manager and internal auditor and legal managers.
4. udit efficiently. -- udits frequently disrupt regular business schedule. Krell recommends conducting audit in such a way that it will limit disruption as much as possible.
5. Look for other issues. -- conducting the audit may reveal needs for improvement in other ethical-related matters. Share these with relevant sources.
6. Respond consistently and communicate. -- adhere consistently to ethical requirements and penalize ethical violations when they occur.
In short, Krelll believes that an ethics code can build a true corporate ethics and that HR professional have a core role to play in building this ethics.
(Krell, E. (2010) How to Conduct an Ethics udit SHRM, Vol.…… [Read More]
Having a code of conduct that is actively implemented must seem like the most visible way to regain that trust and reinstall a semblance of corporate ethical behavior. However, in the true spirit of inquiry, we should evaluate whether or not the grandiose values and lists of acceptable behaviors outlined in codes of conduct -- like BP's -- will really have the effect of improving the morality of corporate policies.
Unfortunately, corporate codes of ethics are not the same thing as a corporate culture, which cannot be artificially created no matter the best efforts of executives. We must return to our original definition of a code of ethics, which describes it as a management tool. In this sense, a corporate code of conduct is a tool used by corporate executives to advance certain policies and appearances, whether or not those values ever become integrated into the entire corporation. In order…… [Read More]
(Lenzner, 2008) hen scrutiny revealed that Madoff has for years fabricated these returns as a way to court wealthy investors, his would prove to be both the largest of such scams in history and demonstrative of the ethical void defining today's corporate culture. Indeed, "the shocking revelation that prominent investment manager Bernard Madoff's hedge fund, Ascot Partners, was a giant scam will intensify redemptions from scores of other hedge funds that will be forced to liquidate holdings and increase downward pressure on stock prices." (Lenzner, 2000)
This pattern is tied to the perception that behaviors such as those demonstrated by Madoff, and by Fuld and Stewart for that matter, are indicative of corporate culture absent of ethics, an individual disposition of moral ambivalence and an overarching detachment of corporate culture from a healthy or mainstream value system. In correspondence with the primary text by Ferrell et al., this constitutes a…… [Read More]
Capitalism does force us sometimes to make decisions in a context narrower than we need in order to make them morally, socially, environmentally (olston, 1988, p. 324).
olston points to several cases of corporate myopia that was changed as customers and potential customers made their views known and demonstrated that hurting customers would harm shareholders as well. He points to the DDT scare in the early 1960s which led to the banning of the chemical, which harmed shareholders of the company producing it; the improvement of the Alaska pipeline so consumer complaints served the needs of shareholders and added to the value of the pipeline; and automobile companies that responded to consumer complaints and produced cars with better emissions standards, thus serving shareholders by maintaining sales (olston, 1988, p. 325).
However, it is also evident that companies that pretend to be responsible toward their customers and the demands of those…… [Read More]
Corporate Ethics and Hacking
Although the predominant opinion expressed by governments and mainstream press regarding hacking is one of disapproval and unsubstantiated fear, the truth is that hacking may be deployed ethically or unethically depending on the situation, and in fact, hacking into a website or database is entirely justifiable in certain contexts. In order to see why this is the case as well as understand the complex role of corporations and CEOs in responding to hacking attempts, it will be useful to examine a variety of instances in which corporations have been hacked or otherwise had their data or systems compromised. By looking at the recent hacks of the security firm HBGary, the search engine giant Google, and the collection of blogs run by Gawker Media, it will become clear that not only do corporations have a social responsibility to protect their customers and clients from hacking attempts, but…… [Read More]
Here, "the governing statute and formal regulations give OSHA wide freedom at higher agency levels to make decisions and formulate programs concerning the inspection of workplaces. It does not follow, as the government seems to argue, that an employee who performs an inspection has the type and breadth of discretion which makes the inspection a discretionary function." (Fairchild, 23)
This would implicate political imperatives in shaping an OSHA policy of legal responsibility that should instead by determined by real and accurate field-compiled safety requirements. Any indications that a failed safety inspection might have contributed to the presence of the offending machine is also a support for the argument that more careful reflection must be engaged of Irving's testimony. Using the discretion clause, no such testimony is even heard. Indeed, according to the details of the case, "the District Court did not analyze the evidence and made no findings concerning OSHA's…… [Read More]
Corporate governance has attracted attention of a number of people due to its emerging importance for a proper economic development of corporations and the society in general. According to Trevino, Weaver and Toffler (1999) what has been seen as a practice within the corporation in the last two decades showed a sad tale of corporate ethics. In a number of times corporation managers or the CEO usually work together with stakeholders to protect each other interest in the corporation, a practice which has made a lot of investors to pull out their investments from such corporation.
However, corporate governance can be defined as a method in which the corporations are usually being directed and controlled. Its framework highlights how the rights and duties are distributed equally among various participants in the corporation, such as managers of the company, the board members, shareholders and it also highlights ways and procedures which…… [Read More]
Ethics Job Description
ABC and Co. has a position open for the following designations.
Job Title: Corporate Ethics Officer
eports to: Managing Director
Based at: Los Angeles, California
Job Purpose: Identifying the key corporate ethics values of the company and devising a code of conduct for the company that incorporates the ethical values in the company's long-term strategic goals so as to take the rights and safety of stakeholders in to consideration.
The Corporate Ethics Officer should be able to take all organizational aspects and stakeholders into account and identify the corporate ethical values.
The Corporate Ethics Officer will be responsible for devising a code of conduct that incorporates all ethical values identified earlier and implement the code of conduct in the organization.
The Corporate Ethics Officer will be responsible for developing training programs and training the employees about organizational health and safety and ethical business…… [Read More]
Aside from the previously mentioned policies, the Intel ethic code also contains reference to intellectual property, gratuities, reciprocity, publicity, small and minority suppliers, controlled substances, environment, health and safety. The intellectual property right protection policy states the fact that Intel completely respects the rights of all business partners, suppliers and competitor companies. However, the publicity policy mentions that business partners are denied the right to sell their own products by associating them with Intel products.
In addition, the document of Intel's Ethics and Compliance provides that all Intel activities will be performed in total accordance with the laws applied in the United States and in the countries they collaborate with. Also, the company adopts transparency as means of conducting business and promises to make truthful statements to the press and the public. The ethical code of Intel forbids bribes within the company and mentions the sanctions applicable upon employees' engagement…… [Read More]
Theefoe, copoations have had to change thei viewpoints and stat looking at the long-tem consequences of thei behavio, as well as looking at the bottom line.
Businesses also have to be concened because consumes have also become awae of envionmental concens, and many consumes ae demanding eath-fiendly poducts and have shown a willingness to pay moe money to competitos who obseve envionmentally-fiendly pactices. Inteestingly enough, this demand has given ise to its own ethical dilemma; because thee is no eal egulation egading what a poduct must do to be egaded as eath-fiendly, companies detemine which of thei own poducts ae envionmentally fiendly. The esult is that some poducts ae labeled "geen" o "oganic" even though they have been poduced in a nomal manne, which means that consumes ae likely to pick them ove competing poducts, and may even pay a pemium pice fo those items. Theefoe, it is clea that…… [Read More]
Ethics and Decision Making
A definition of ethics broadly stated could be as that 'ethics is the science that deals with conduct in so far as this is considered as right or wrong, good or bad.' (Shapiro; Stefkovich, 2001) The word 'Ethics' has its root in the Greek language where ethos was the word used for a custom or usage for individual groups. This later moved on to mean the general character of transactions, individuals and the way of acting and conduct. The question then is who has to approve the ways of acting? No doubt ethics is an important part of human life. If humans lack ethics they tend to become criminals and the decisions that they take tend to harm other individuals or the society. (Guy, 1990)
Ethics, laws and morals are different concepts but have a binding unity in the fact that in all these there is…… [Read More]
CSR in Beijing
Independent and dependent variable
Qualitative Case study
Research design Multiple case study and document review
Sampling selection and Data collections
Questionnaire Design and scale measurement
Data collection and Response rate
Data Analysis of the Pilot test
Quantitative Data Analysis
Reliability and Validity of Scaling echnique
Exploratory Factor Analysis
he overriding aim of the proposed project is to investigate the effect of CSR on the financial performance of Chinese companies. his, on one hand includes an investigation of how Chinese companies perceive the concept of CSR and how much they have incorporated the same into their corporate operations; and on the other hand, an exploration of the correlation between CSR and corporate performance. he specific research questions guiding the investigation have been restated;
RQ1: Is there a relationship between CSR and corporate performance?
RQ2: Does company CSR improve financial performance?
his chapter outlines the…… [Read More]
Ethics and CSR
President Barack Obama
Dear Mr. President:
First, let me congratulate you on your recent stance regarding both the U.S. Budget and your healthcare package. Indeed, both of these issues speak to the reason for my letter today. In general, I am concerned that the 21st century, while certainly improving organizational opportunities at home and abroad through technology and globalization, have not been as robust within the area of business and organizational ethics as both expected by 21st century stakeholders, or necessary to proactively and positively interact in a global environment.
Much like the First Lady's initiatives for movement and health, I would like to encourage you to form a bipartisan Congressional Committee to examine ways in which the government can assist and encourage Corporate Social Responsibility within the American business and organizational community.
There are numerous ways we have all noted how organizations have changed…… [Read More]
The second step is to initiate a supplier code of conduct. The greatest potential for ethical violations falls with suppliers such as agricultural firms or offshored service providers, and these violations can result in negative publicity for the company.
Ultimately, it is not expected that these ethical standards will form a competitive advantage for the company. Having high ethical standards is more of a hygiene factor in that it is something a company needs to have to avoid negative impacts, but few companies get any particular competitive mileage from their ethical policies. There is little impetus to join the fair trade or organic businesses for most of the products we sell. hile many consumers are willing to pay more for said products, it remains a niche category especially in Europe and the UK. This usually means that the volumes are too low to justify the effort. Overall, the best approach…… [Read More]
Contemporary agency theory dictates that managers only act in the interest of maximizing shareholder (owner) wealth (Roberts, 2004). This standard can be reasonably viewed as the minimum ethical standard that the president of a company should have. Taking this view, Thomas Koltun is essentially in damage control mode. Because of the mistakes of the company in the past, Koltun is faced with significant downside risk from mishandling this situation. It could also be reasonably argued that Thomas Koltun still bears responsibility for the original ethical imperatives that the company has had all along as the result of bringing the Travel-Lite to market. If three-quarters of these products are as yet unaccounted for, then the company still bears ethical obligations as defined by the CPSC with regards in particular to consumers.
There are serious implications associated with a mishandling of these obligations. The company has suffered ethical failures in relation to…… [Read More]
The housing market was already strong, but the elimination of practical reasons for validating lender information opened several doors very wide, each with an unpleasant surprise hidden behind it. First, because realtors earn their commissions based on sales and on the relative value of property, they have little incentive to disqualify bad risks of eventual mortgage default. Second, banks became equally unconcerned with the veracity and accuracy of the financial information provided by prospective home buyers and it was no longer in anybody's interest to curb increasing home values. Third, the reliance on credit on the part of so many Americans fueled a housing and property development boom in many areas. Multiple Ethical Violations Provide the Ignition for Economic Disaster:
Lack of concern for verifying lender qualifications became so rampant in the first part of the 21st century that lenders offered "no-doc" loans that required no formal documentation of income…… [Read More]
Corporate Social esponsibility
I attaching assignment paper write essay CS.
Given the heightened level of international operations and globalization, pressure is mounting for corporations to behave ethically. Corporations are forced to developing standards, policies and behaviors as a demonstration of their sensitivity to concerns of stakeholder. The policies behaviors and standards are what a European commission called corporate social responsibilities. The Commission defined corporate social responsibility (CS) as "a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis" Commission, 2001.
Complementing this definition, McWilliams and Siegel. (2001)
, said CS include all actions that are intended to forge, beyond the firm's interest, a social good, and is a requirement in law.
Composition Corporate Social esponsibility
Corporate social responsibility entails coming up with solutions specific to a society. The corporation is however, not forcefully charged with an…… [Read More]
For example, mergers and acquisitions are perceived as the latest fashionable trend to grow the company market share and profitability due to synergies affect. But as the practise has shown, out of the latest mergers, about 75% did not perform as they were expected by the top management.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was aimed to facilitate and solve some of these very difficult problems in the accounting and management of the companies. The companies now are restricted to the amount of intangible assets they can show in their balance sheets, which reduces the moral opportunism problems in the company. The company has also currently to hire the auditors which are completely independent from the management of the company and cannot carry out any other than audit services for the company. This solves the problems of insider trading, where the management take advantage of their internal knowledge of the real company situation.…… [Read More]
But the shareholders themselves need to be more aware and more involved in their company's business in order for any meaningful change to sustain itself:
Shareholders, the intended beneficiaries of the corporate vehicle, are the ultimate capitalists: avaricious accumulators with little fiscal risk and no legal responsibility for the way in which they pursue their imperative to accumulate. Shareholders, not corporations, show indifference to the needs and values of society. It is their behaviour that is most appropriately characterized as amoral indifference to the plight of others and their environment. Shareholders, not corporations, behave in a pathological manner. And shareholders should be the targets for the cure that we need for our ills. (Glasbeek 2005: 24)
There is also the problem of victimisation of other cultures in a global market. As Strike, Gao and Bansal (2006) point out in their article, 'Being Good While Being Bad: Social esponsibility and the…… [Read More]
According to prior research studies, plagiarism is not just appearing in the academic environment. Now, plagiarism is being seen in corporate America as a way to "adjust" information that might otherwise seem unfavorable to stakeholders, higher-ups, or others who will be provided information regarding something to do with the company. Financial issues are often a part of the plagiarism issue, but there are other concerns that are not related to the company's finances. No matter what concerns a corporation has, it should be honest about those concerns and not attempt to cover them up with dishonesty of any kind. There are other dishonest practices other than plagiarism that are used in corporations today, but plagiarism is one of the more common problems that is discovered. It appears to be acceptable until it is discovered, and it is important that the researcher examines just how much plagiarism is permeating…… [Read More]
Parable of the sadhu teaches us the importance of a group's commitment to the welfare of an individual. In corporate ethics, this would mean the support of the entire organization for the welfare and career/personal growth of an employee. In the sense of individual ethics, it means instead of doing our bit and throwing the rest of others, we must pool our resources and offer complete commitment to the welfare of an individual in need and that is the only way we can hope to survive as a community. In the case, a group of few individuals from different countries are navigating the wild tracks of Himalayas in Nepal when they find a half-naked sadhu in very unstable condition. Each one in the group does something for the sadhu but rather reluctantly as if they wanted to get rid of him as soon as possible without feeling guilty and responsible.…… [Read More]
Ethical esponsibility of Corporate America
Many organizations strive to increase their profit margins by doing everything possible (including unethical practices) to increase their revenues. Nevertheless, the past three decades have seen some organizations embracing CS (Corporate Social responsibility). This idea has become significantly important to almost every organization that seeks to increase revenues. Corporate social responsibility is also referred to as community responsibility, stewardship, corporate sustainability, corporate responsibility, accountability and corporate ethics among others. In essence, CS enable organizations to bring in people and the environment into their decisions, strategies and plans (Anyango Ooko, 2014).
In this paper, the use of the term corporate social responsibility will mean a set of actions by enterprises that are geared towards meeting the legal, ethical, economic, and discretional responsibilities that the stakeholders expect them to fulfill. They should undertake the economic obligations of producing profits, and meeting the consumption requirements of the people;…… [Read More]
corporate ethical breaches in recent times, assess whether or not you believe that the current business and regulatory environment is more conducive to ethical behavior. Provide support for your answer.
Unethical behavior has drawn the attention of the public for the few last decades in all kinds of business. Many transformations in the business environment have taken place, including immoral conducts and the tendency for corruption. Unethical accounting behavior is also included as a consequence. So the government has been forced to increase regulations and inspect actions taken in business, most especially after the Enron, Tyco, WorldCom and other unethical accounting scandals. As a result of the mentioned scandals, the government then passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002 providing regulatory requirements for better precision in business action, accountability and assurance of ethical accounting behavior by publicly held companies and accounting firms. According to Calle (2000), the total number of boards…… [Read More]
Ethics and Leadership Failures: The Enron Case
Gibney's 2005 documentary film Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room reveals some of the main ethical weaknesses in an unbridled neoliberal capitalist market system. Barely addressing environmental and social justice issues, the filmmakers instead choose to focus on organizational culture, leadership, and ethical decision making within the corporation. The film illustrates the core concepts of business ethics and shows how executives shape company values and behaviors. Disturbingly, the Enron case also shows how unethical corporate behavior is linked with unethical behavior in government.
Summarize in one paragraph how you would explain Enron's ethical meltdown
Enron's ethical meltdown is a result of two interrelated issues: unethical individuals making unethical decisions, and an organizational culture that enables unethical decisions to proliferate. The unethical decisions and behaviors mainly have to do with stock market manipulation and the falsifying of information related to the actual performance…… [Read More]
Therefore, the best way to help employees act ethically is to view the workplace and daily operations as a training ground.
In your estimation why is there a growing need for organizational ethics programs? What are the factors contributing to ethical problems in the global corporate world? What are possible solutions?
The need for organizational ethics program is growing for several reasons. First, organizational ethics have become crucial for companies to avoid legal and financial distress. Second, ethics help businesses run smoothly and well, attracting the best caliber of employee. Ethics programs are important especially in large organizations with a diverse staff. Global and multinational companies will be working with people from around the world, who operate in unique ethical environments. Ethics programs help multinational companies create standards for employees that will help avoid conundrums and miscommunication. Ethics programs bring all employees together on the same page and therefore become…… [Read More]
Education on ethics must be wider compared to "moral development" in that it must tackle the broader consideration of a wide-ranging vocation, and constricted in that it must tackle problems particularly to the accounting vocation. (esearch on Accounting Ethics)
Definite duties of the accounting profession are put forth in the different code of ethics circulated by important establishments like the AICPA. The AICPA's foremost rule of professional conduct declares: In discharging their duties as professionals, associates must implement responsive professional and moral views in all their works. (Business and Accounting Ethics) the failure of auditor sovereignty infringing ule 101 of the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct was the topic of a research project using 2,000 arbitrarily chosen AICPA members in public accounting profession as a staff auditor, senior, or manager. These executives were offered with 15 roles that are an infringement of ule 101 and were directed to give their…… [Read More]
Ethics Leadership Analysis
One of the biggest advantages of globalization is that many different companies are able to receive cheap labor to produce a wide variety of products that are sold at numerous retail stores in the United States. However, an ugly facet to what has been happening, is that there are a number of different sweat shops in a host of regions around the world and in some cases within the U.S. itself. Evidence of this can be seen with an investigation that was conducted by the Department of Labor. They found that over half of the companies they were looking at, were breaking numerous labor laws by operating 10,000 of these kinds of facilities illegally inside the nation. At the same time, they discovered that a variety of governments around the world were encouraging these kinds of factories. (Elliot, 2009)
In the case of Kathie Lee Gifford, her…… [Read More]
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…… [Read More]
Training is part of this process, so that people explicitly understand the ethical culture of the company. Ethical cultures tend to be self-perpetuating because the people within the organization will hold themselves and their co-workers accountable. When you look at a company like Enron, large parts of that company were devoid of ethical standards, so it was much easier for the frauds to occur. Enron also highlights the need for ethical leadership in order to develop a highly-ethical culture. The organization looks to its leaders for ethical guidance and will likely adopt as part of the culture the ethical standards of the leaders. This is the point of the provisions in SOX holding the CEO and CFO accountable for accounting fraud and raises a lot of red flags about companies that would go private to dodge this requirement.
Lastly, there needs to be a compliance mechanism as well. Culture, training,…… [Read More]
Ethics: Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
The main thrust of the readings
The readings focus on the U.S. statutes prohibiting U.S. companies, citizens, and employees from issuing any valuable thing to foreign government executives for securing business benefits. The underlying thrust of the readings is twofold: first, that corruption must be deterred and second that government officials must promote economic relationships between their companies and foreign firms through the promotion of ethical foreign investment.
The rigid enactment of the FCPA has placed these two thrusts in a state of tension. Law enforcers and courts could interpret the readings broadly. For instance, any valuable thing includes not just payments in cash but also meals, gifts, entertainment and drinks. This element is not associated with any de minimis value and makes companies uncertain when they are expected to comply with the FCPA. From the readings, the FCPA has been enforced and institutes criminal…… [Read More]
Ethics in Decision-Making
Clegg, Stewart Martin Kornberger & Carl Rhodes. (2007). Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making. he Sociological Review, 55:2.
According to Stewart Clegg, Martin Kornberger and Carl Rhodes' article, "Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making" from the Sociological Review, ethical decision-making is not optimized with either an outcome-driven consequentialist approach nor a rule-bound deontological approach. "We suggest that rules for ethical decision making, rather than ensuring ethical outcomes, can work to insulate organizations from moral responsibility" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 393). Because of recent ethical scandals, there has been a drive to seek a heavily prescriptive and rule-bound approach to ethics, but the authors believe that "ethics is best considered in terms of the way that organizations are sites for ethical difficulties, dilemmas and deliberations (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 394). heorizing ambivalence in ethical decision-making is the ambitious goal of the article. he article uses the…… [Read More]
Ethics, Morality, Values, And Beliefs
According to "the ethics site," an Internet resource for college instructors regarding the teaching of different ethical systems, ethics may be defined as "the explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. The difference between ethics and morality is similar to the difference between musicology and music. Ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality, just as musicology is a conscious reflection on music." ("Glossary," The Ethics Site, 2005) In other words, ethics is the philosophy of what is right and wrong, while morality is the practice of ethics, or virtue in action.
The analogy between a musician and a musicologist proposed by the positioning of ethics vs. morality is interesting, because one might understand music very well, and be able to explain its theory and teaching as a musicologist. However, a great musicologist might be only a middling musician. In contrast, there…… [Read More]
According to the dictionary definition, ethics refer to the "set of principles of right conduct, or more specifically, "the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession." Ethics and morals are closely related, but ethics is the term more commonly used in the professional realm, whereas morals generally refer to guidelines for personal behavior. Both ethics and morals are reflections of beliefs and values, which are held by individuals and collectively, by whole societies. The development of ethics therefore stems from social and cultural factors as well as from personal ones. However, a few ethical codes are nearly universal. Ethics are complex; in the business realm they may vary widely from sector to sector. No organization is completely immune to ethics, even if the organization has no formal ethical code. Professional decisions are made with regard to personal ethics or to the…… [Read More]
With the Starbucks code of conduct, there are a few goods things. First, it touches on a wide range of subjects. There are actually several different reports such as human rights, social responsibility, health care, animal welfare and supplier code of conduct (Starbucks.com, 2014). Second, I like the fact that it addresses the farmers from whom the company buys its beans -- these are people doing manual labor in hot countries, band often do not receive a living wage. So that is good. Third, I like that the company has targets and tracks some of its social responsibility outcomes. This will help the company to improve its social responsibility performance, as well as its ethical performance.
As for the McDonalds statement the company also reflects social responsibility in its statement. This is something that McDonalds has been forced to address by protests and negative publicity and there isn't any…… [Read More]
The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.
On the harm side, many…… [Read More]
More than replacing a Code of Ethics, solutions to the issue might revolve around simply understanding, adopting, and enforcing codes that are already in place. For instance, the IACP code of ethics for law enforcement has four major themes that would clearly handle most situations: 1) Fairness towards everyone -- the public, clients, the accused, colleagues, etc. Fairness also implies the maxim of not using one's power to take advantage of the public (e.g. bribes for service, etc.); 2) Service -- Public service is a calling -- the community holds law enforcement personnel to a high standard, and expects service to be part of the regular job description; 3) Importance of the law -- Upholding the Constitution or the statues of the law that are mandated by the profession, and; 4) the importance of personal conduct -- law enforcement professionals must hold a standard of behavior that is consistent and…… [Read More]
There are a couple of reasons for this. One is that outcomes are what the public sees. Therefore, it is the potential outcomes that should be the guiding ethical principles. Ethics are mainly a problem in business when a company is perceived as unethical. Monsanto is a great example - few people have any ethical problems with this company, so their lack of ethics does not impact their business prospects.
The other reason why outcomes should be the guiding principle is because one of the most significant sources of ethical problems for companies is front-line managers. These low-level managers face strong pressure from above, but are generally not the firm's best decision-makers. As a result, they make poor decisions in response to pressure. If these managers were guided by duty as their main ethical principle, they would respond to pressure by doing whatever they feel senior management wants them to…… [Read More]
Ethics are at the core of human behavior and decision-making. This paper evaluates the results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory, a proprietary software designed to measure a person's ethical stance. The results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory can be applied to that person's psychology, and can help supervisors make human resources decisions related to the individual. Moreover, organizational psychologists especially benefit from ethical inventories. It is important to apply ethical awareness and psychological principles to personal, social, and organizational issues.
The Ethics Awareness Inventory is proprietary software designed to profit off of the need to evaluate and analyze every single human decision. Available for a select group of people, the Ethics Awareness Inventory "is a program that can evaluate one's ethical style," in the same way a quiz can evaluate what food, country, or sexual position is most appropriate (Collack, 2007). As with most quizzes, the Ethics Awareness…… [Read More]
A comprehensive approach to ethical journalism might incorporate all three concerns by focusing on the duty to protect the welfare of the people within the U.S. By ensuring that all journalism is truthful, unencumbered by conflicts of interests, and only deviates from the absolute truth when necessary to protect the public. In that case, deviation from the truth must be limited to the withholding of information rather than the deliberate publication of untrue information or the inference that untrue information is, in fact, true.
The New York Times violated that ethical obligation in 2006 by publicizing information detailing law enforcement methods of tracking potentially terrorist-related funds because that publication compromised that particular strategy. Various news organizations violated their ethical responsibility during the 2008 presidential election campaign by repeatedly reporting Sarah Palin's ridiculous characterization of now President Barack Obama as having ties to known terrorists because that emphasis had the effect…… [Read More]
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility
The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.
A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…… [Read More]
" Thus this principle is founded on an individual's ability to predict a given action's consequences. On predicting such consequences, an individual is supposed to choose the course of action which would in the end benefit the greatest number of people. In such a case, the choice selected would be considered ethically correct. For instance, if one innocent person has to be killed so as to save the entire human race, then it would be ethically right to kill such a person from a utilitarian point-of-view. An application of this principle in our scenario seems somewhat straightforward. To determine the right course of action in this case, the question to be asked is; of all the alternative courses of action at Dr. Doight's disposal, which course of action would benefit the greatest number of people? In my opinion, seeking to ensure that the situation is brought under control no matter…… [Read More]
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Studies have…… [Read More]
However, those who have serious ethical and moral integrity will generally do what it takes to get a problem corrected, even if they have to lose out personally or professionally to protect the health and welfare of other people under their care. It does not appear that Dr. Doight did any of that. He determined that following procedure was enough to fulfill his duties, whether or not that procedure resulted in any resolution for the patients.
It would appear that Dr. Doight followed the deontological argument that one only has to follow the rules to be ethical. For many people, that is an acceptable choice. For others, the rules would not be important and would not have anything to do with whether something was considered to be ethical. With Dr. Doight, it is not just the possibility that he feels he has done what is ethical, but also possible that…… [Read More]
Their primary duty is that of guiding the spiritual and religious aspects of the lives of their community members. They should give the highest priority to their duties towards the community including church service, counseling and other ceremonial functions required by their profession. As part of their professional and ethical duties, pastors are also required to show an interest in community development and increase their participation in community activities. This has become a necessity in modern culture because people expect institutions to take an interest and an active role in the community development efforts. Institutions cannot expect to benefit from the resources of the society and not give back. This is why business organizations, universities and even political parties make community development a part of their organization's commitment to the society and the people they serve. eligious institutions like the church are also expected to follow this example. The pastor,…… [Read More]
People behave in the most outrageous manner when it comes to success and money because it has become a dog eat dog world where no one wants to be left behind in the rat race. When a professional chooses to act in a morally sound manner, he may often find himself left behind by those who couldn't care less about ethics and then others are also tempted to cheat, steal and rob.
What they fail to see is the long-term impact of their actions. Both the ethically upright person and the crook need to see that their actions involve a long-term impact. The repercussions of their actions may not become apparent immediately but eventually they will unless they correct their behavior before public disclosure. I would always want to be a person who can keep the long-term picture in view. This is easier said than done but that is the…… [Read More]
Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…… [Read More]
Ethics Must Be Global Not Local
Ethics Must Be Global, Not Local
International Business equirements
Global Business Ethics
The large business units expand their operations in global markets through their own presence as well as franchising and distributors. The business operations are expanded on the basis of various standard practices. The business freedom provided by countries and various global practices are utilized as a basis for taking global operational decisions. The business also encounters various legal, operational, and ethical issues related to the local market. However in order to expand business beyond borders and physical boundaries of countries it is required to maintain a degree of uniformity in products and ethical practices followed throughout the manufacturing processes. It is advised to understand various aspects of international business requirements, global operations, ethical practices, and recommendations to assert a standard for global ethical business operations.
International Business equirements:
The global…… [Read More]
Summary of the purpose of Corporate Sustainability Reporting
Reporting corporate sustainability is one of the best ways to ensure that a company is not only doing well financially in the present but also in securing a better and more certain future. The reporting of corporate suitability ensures that the current needs of the organization are effectively met without comprising future needs of the organization. Reporting on corporate sustainability also ensure that organization are able to keep up with all changes in the industry, with ensuring that new innovations have been developed, maintained and employed in the daily operations of the organization. Corporate sustainability is developed on a grid developed to ensure that the future is secure, and that the organization will survive for a long time.
Corporate sustainability also encompasses the assessment of current and future risks that the organization is likely to endure. As such, a majority…… [Read More]
Ethics primarily acts as a check to ensure that the corporate strategy is enacted effectively. arely do firms take ethics into account as a key element of strategy, though it does happen once in a while. Generally, the role that ethics plays is tangential to strategy aside from its role as a check. obin and eidenbach (1988) elaborate further on this idea, noting that "without the integration of ethics at the very beginning of the planning process… the organizational culture may not provide the checks and balances needed…" Their argument is that while corporations tend to put the profit motive forward first, a lack of ethics can undermine the objective of maximizing shareholder wealth. Having a strong program of ethics built into the organizational culture reduces the risk of major ethical lapse.
A couple of recent issues highlight the importance of building an ethical culture to maximizing shareholder wealth. Enron…… [Read More]
The employee is faced with ethical requirements throughout their workday that must be met with knowledge and a trained attitude. Workplace ethics is one of the most crucial elements whether the person involved in an ethical dilemma is a high-level manager or an entry-level employee. An ethical stance is important because it is what guides the interactions that the employees will have with each other, their management, and the customers that patronize their products. It is also important that the business leaders follow an internal and external ethical stance so that the culture generated within the company is one that promotes positive ethical practices. This paper begins by talking about the way that the business leaders view the external world of ethics through accounting practices and how they deal with other companies. The discussion then moves inside the company and how the management treats its employees. Employee to employee…… [Read More]
Ethics, Corporate Governance and Company Social esponsibility
OCED state-owned enterprises and Privatized companies
In the past few decades, emerging economies have launched ambitious plans to privatize their state owned enterprises (SOEs). The volume of privatization in emerging economies has increased from $8 billion in 1990 to about $65 billion in 1997 (Dharwadkar, George, & Brandes, 2000). In privatization, ownership is transferred from the state to new private and public owners, which may include management, employees, local individuals, institutions, and foreign investors, with the state also retaining a certain percentage of ownership after privatization. The new diversified ownership structure after privatization makes corporate governance an important issue in emerging economies (ajagopalan and Zhang, 2008).
On the one hand, the new ownership structure creates the traditional principal agency problem whereby self-interested executives aim to maximize their private interests rather than the owners' interests. To address this problem, it is necessary to design…… [Read More]
Ethics, Corporate Governance and Company Social esponsibility
Information that is essential to share includes financial performance, business strategy and overall company actions (Pfeffer, 1998). Sharing this information gives the employees the power to evaluate their performance and help them make the right decisions on how they can improve it. This is a simple and very straightforward practice but most companies are still apprehensive about this practice. One cause for this is that information is power and by sharing essential information like financial performance the management is scattering that power. Another reason is that the management is concern about information escaping to competitors. This will put the organization in an unfavourable position. But what companies do not realize that the competition most probably already know this information. Thus if a company withheld information they are only leaving their own employees in the dark. Because of this, employees will reply on speculation…… [Read More]
Finally, any company materials including but not limited to design blueprints will be considered intellectual property.
Privacy: We believe that privacy is a fundamental human right as well as a legal right. Therefore, we assure our employees that their personal information will be kept confidential and will not, except under obligation to a court of law, divulge any personal information about any of our employees. Similarly, we expect that our employees and management personnel to respect the privacy of their coworker. Employees are forbidden from divulging the personal information of any member of the organization to the media without prior written consent or legal assent. Any complaints regarding issues related to privacy can be taken up with management.
Information Technology: The information technology infrastructure in our organization was established and is paid for and maintained by the organization. Therefore, we will limit the use of all the organization's information technology…… [Read More]
Imagine that it's your responsibility to select an ethics officer for your organization. What qualities, background, and experience would you look for? Why? Would you ever be interested in such a position? Why or why not?
An ethics officer plays a significant role for an organization. In the selection of the right ethics officer for my organization, I would have to consider several major factors such as the personal qualities, background and experience. First of all, the ethics officer should posses the following qualities: honesty, truthfulness, integrity, fairness, accuracy, and significance of moral values. These qualities are the basic ingredients that should be searched thoroughly in the ethics officer during the selection process.
The background of the ethics officer should be related to any field such as business, medicine, engineering, sociology, psychology or armed forces, but it should be kept in mind that the ethics officer belongs to a…… [Read More]
c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics
d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics
e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics
f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics
g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics
Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.
Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…… [Read More]
Corporate Governance & Business Ethics
It is quite interesting to note that, academic research in business ethics was a totally distinct discipline from research in corporate governance, and the application of the word 'ethics' was uncommon in available research on corporate governance. The chief responsibility of corporate governance was understood to be safeguarding the benefits of the shareholders. Because of the severance between ownership and management, and the incapability of the independent owners to supervise the performances of those managers, a possibility was available for vital strategic decisions to be taken which would advantageous for the managers to a more larger extent compared to the owners. For example, takeovers not related to the organization's core competence outcome in a bigger corporation, however, it does not result in a more profitable company all the time. Certainly, research has proved that extremely increased extent of isolated diversification normally resulted in lower…… [Read More]
PENALTIES - CIVIL & CIMINAL
There are statutes that impose penalties both civil and criminal for government contractors who commit fraud, waste or abuse. Some of those statutes are as follows:
False Claims Act;
False Statements Act;
Bribery and Gratuities statutes;
Mail and Wire Fraud statutes; and the Public Integrity Act and recent legislative initiatives to strengthen criminal penalties for violations of conflict of interest laws. (Peckar & Abramson, 2007)
The government has the right to audit the records of the contractor for up to three years following a contract for the government being completed. Companies with contracts exceeding $5 million are required to: (1) post a fraud hotline poster; (2) establish a written code of ethics; (3) establish an employee ethics and compliance training program; and (4) establish an internal control system. (New ule for Government Contractors, nd)
SUMMAY & CONCLUSION
The Corporate Compliance Plan…… [Read More]
Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a hreat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA oday, Volume 130, Issue 2678, 62.
he author discusses different types of advertising and promotion and finds ethical problems in the way many are handled, especially with reference to advertising and promoting goods and services to children. He cites the use of focus groups for toy companies and the ethical implications of improving advertising to kids.
Cohn, E. (2000, January 31). Marketwatch: Consuming Kids. he American Prospect, Volume 11, Issue 6, 13.
he author questions the promotion of certain products to children and finds marketers hiring psychologists to shape the message so as to reach children. Other psychologists have denounced such actions and have called for an emendation of the ethics code to govern this sort of promotion in the future.
Ethics in Pricing
Cranberg, G.…… [Read More]
Accepting Client Assignments
Outstanding client service begins with a full understanding of the client organization, its business needs and the position to be filled. An AESC member should:
Accept only those assignments that a member is qualified to undertake on the basis of the member's knowledge of the client's needs and the member's ability to perform the specific assignment.
Disclose promptly conflicts of interest known to the AESC member and accept assignments only if all affected parties have expressly agreed to waive any conflict.
Develop an understanding with the client that, among other things, makes clear the organizational entity that is defined as the client organization, the fees and expenses to be charged, and any ongoing assurances or guarantees relating to fulfillment of the assignment.
Agree with the client concerning any "off-limits" restrictions or other related policies that govern when and how the member may recruit from the defined client…… [Read More]