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This is highlighting the overall culture of unethical behavior inside P. ("The Explosion at Texas City," 2006)
As the company, would engage in policy of denying their involvement of: responsibility and attribute the incident to employee error. This would tie up the proceedings for many years, allowing for them to maximize their profits (while being able to avoid the ethical challenges they were wrestling with). ("The Explosion at Texas City," 2006) as a result, these unethical views would have a dramatic impact upon the culture inside the organization itself. Where, mangers would often encourage employees to overlook safety and environmental regulations (in order to remain in line with the company's financial objectives). This meant that the odds increased dramatically, that the company would have an accident with: dire safety, economic and environmental consequences.
As a result, the Deepwater Horizon incident was the pinnacle of: the lack of investment and disregard…
Amid Search of Deepwater Horizon. (2010). CS Monitor. Retrieved from:
Blowout. (2010). CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/05/16/60minutes/main6490197.shtml?tag=contentMain;contentBody
BP Oil Spill Report (2010). Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2010/sep/08/bp-oil-spill-report-live .
Develop metrics. -- put tangible ethics measures in place and consider connecting compensation to ethical principles.
3. Create a cross-functional team. - include an HR professional in auditing team as well as an ethics and compliance manager and internal auditor and legal managers.
4. udit efficiently. -- udits frequently disrupt regular business schedule. Krell recommends conducting audit in such a way that it will limit disruption as much as possible.
5. Look for other issues. -- conducting the audit may reveal needs for improvement in other ethical-related matters. Share these with relevant sources.
6. Respond consistently and communicate. -- adhere consistently to ethical requirements and penalize ethical violations when they occur.
In short, Krelll believes that an ethics code can build a true corporate ethics and that HR professional have a core role to play in building this ethics.
(Krell, E. (2010) How to Conduct an Ethics udit SHRM, Vol.…
A reputation for poor ethics can lead to costs of replacing lost partners or going it alone. Labor, operating, and overhead costs may increase if the enterprise is perceived to be so unprincipled in its conduct toward employees that its recruiting and retention of skilled personnel are at risk. Similarly, purchasing, logistics, and overhead costs may increase if suppliers judge the enterprise to be unfair or dishonest. (p.38)
Seeing ethics in terms of the various legal instruments (such as the SOX) that have been created to promote it not only distorts people's understanding on the matter but also makes them see the principals in negative way. What ERM does, however, is that it presents the principles in a positive way whilst enabling managers to recognize their advantage. This leads to corporations more likely accepting and implementing ethical principles.
(Young, Greg; Hasler, David S. (2010)Managing Reputational Risks Strategic Finance;Nov2010, Vol. 92 Issue 5, p37)
Having a code of conduct that is actively implemented must seem like the most visible way to regain that trust and reinstall a semblance of corporate ethical behavior. However, in the true spirit of inquiry, we should evaluate whether or not the grandiose values and lists of acceptable behaviors outlined in codes of conduct -- like BP's -- will really have the effect of improving the morality of corporate policies.
Unfortunately, corporate codes of ethics are not the same thing as a corporate culture, which cannot be artificially created no matter the best efforts of executives. We must return to our original definition of a code of ethics, which describes it as a management tool. In this sense, a corporate code of conduct is a tool used by corporate executives to advance certain policies and appearances, whether or not those values ever become integrated into the entire corporation. In order…
BP sacked 252 for unethical behavior. (2005, April 12). The Financial Times. InfoTrac OneFile. Retrieved July 15, 2006.
Clark, A. (2001, April 20). BP chief fields barrage of questions on ethics. Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved July 16, 2006, at http://www.guardian.co.uk/petrol/story/0,475635,00.html
Code of conduct. (2006). BP. Retrieved July 16, 2006, at http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9007693&contentId=7014598
Codes of ethics. (n.d.). Institute of Business Ethics. Retrieved July 15, 2006, at http://www.ibe.org.uk/codesofconduct.html
(Lenzner, 2008) hen scrutiny revealed that Madoff has for years fabricated these returns as a way to court wealthy investors, his would prove to be both the largest of such scams in history and demonstrative of the ethical void defining today's corporate culture. Indeed, "the shocking revelation that prominent investment manager Bernard Madoff's hedge fund, Ascot Partners, was a giant scam will intensify redemptions from scores of other hedge funds that will be forced to liquidate holdings and increase downward pressure on stock prices." (Lenzner, 2000)
This pattern is tied to the perception that behaviors such as those demonstrated by Madoff, and by Fuld and Stewart for that matter, are indicative of corporate culture absent of ethics, an individual disposition of moral ambivalence and an overarching detachment of corporate culture from a healthy or mainstream value system. In correspondence with the primary text by Ferrell et al., this constitutes a…
Caruso, D. (2008). Prosecutors Subpoena ex-Lehman CEO Richard Fuld. Nachrichten English News. Online at http://www.welt.de/english-news/article2595425/Prosecutors-subpoena-ex-Lehman-CEO-Richard-Fuld.html
Changing Minds. (2009). Values, Morals and Ethics. Changing Minds.org. Online at http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/values_morals_ethics.htm
Cline, a. (2008). Ethics, Morals, Values: How Do They Relate? About Philosophy. Online at http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/phil/blfaq_phileth_values.htm
Ferrell, O.C., Hirt, G., & Ferrell, L. (2007). Business -- a Changing World, 6th edition. McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Capitalism does force us sometimes to make decisions in a context narrower than we need in order to make them morally, socially, environmentally (olston, 1988, p. 324).
olston points to several cases of corporate myopia that was changed as customers and potential customers made their views known and demonstrated that hurting customers would harm shareholders as well. He points to the DDT scare in the early 1960s which led to the banning of the chemical, which harmed shareholders of the company producing it; the improvement of the Alaska pipeline so consumer complaints served the needs of shareholders and added to the value of the pipeline; and automobile companies that responded to consumer complaints and produced cars with better emissions standards, thus serving shareholders by maintaining sales (olston, 1988, p. 325).
However, it is also evident that companies that pretend to be responsible toward their customers and the demands of those…
Cascini, K. & Vanasco, R.R. (1992). FCPA: The American Antibribery Legislation. Managerial Auditing Journal, 24-29.
Carroll, a.B. (1979). A Three-dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance.
Academy of Management Review 4, 497-505.
Coping with the Ups and Downs (1996, April 27). The Economist, 3-5
Corporate Ethics and Hacking
Although the predominant opinion expressed by governments and mainstream press regarding hacking is one of disapproval and unsubstantiated fear, the truth is that hacking may be deployed ethically or unethically depending on the situation, and in fact, hacking into a website or database is entirely justifiable in certain contexts. In order to see why this is the case as well as understand the complex role of corporations and CEOs in responding to hacking attempts, it will be useful to examine a variety of instances in which corporations have been hacked or otherwise had their data or systems compromised. By looking at the recent hacks of the security firm HBGary, the search engine giant Google, and the collection of blogs run by Gawker Media, it will become clear that not only do corporations have a social responsibility to protect their customers and clients from hacking attempts, but…
Anonymous. (2010, December 4). China leadership 'orchestrated google hacking'. Retrieved
Bright, P. (2011, March). Anonymous speaks: the inside story of the HBGary hack. Retrieved from http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/02/anonymous-speaks-the-inside-story-of-the-hbgary-hack.ars
Palmer, C. (2001). Ethical hacking. IBM Systems Journal, 40(3), 769-780.
Here, "the governing statute and formal regulations give OSHA wide freedom at higher agency levels to make decisions and formulate programs concerning the inspection of workplaces. It does not follow, as the government seems to argue, that an employee who performs an inspection has the type and breadth of discretion which makes the inspection a discretionary function." (Fairchild, 23)
This would implicate political imperatives in shaping an OSHA policy of legal responsibility that should instead by determined by real and accurate field-compiled safety requirements. Any indications that a failed safety inspection might have contributed to the presence of the offending machine is also a support for the argument that more careful reflection must be engaged of Irving's testimony. Using the discretion clause, no such testimony is even heard. Indeed, according to the details of the case, "the District Court did not analyze the evidence and made no findings concerning OSHA's…
Fairchild, SCJ. (1990). 909 F2d 598 Irving v. United States. United States Court of Appeals: First Circuit.
OSHA. (2006). Fire Safety Standards. U.S. Department of Labor. Online at .
Corporate governance has attracted attention of a number of people due to its emerging importance for a proper economic development of corporations and the society in general. According to Trevino, Weaver and Toffler (1999) what has been seen as a practice within the corporation in the last two decades showed a sad tale of corporate ethics. In a number of times corporation managers or the CEO usually work together with stakeholders to protect each other interest in the corporation, a practice which has made a lot of investors to pull out their investments from such corporation.
However, corporate governance can be defined as a method in which the corporations are usually being directed and controlled. Its framework highlights how the rights and duties are distributed equally among various participants in the corporation, such as managers of the company, the board members, shareholders and it also highlights ways and procedures which…
Dandino P. (2004), "Corporate Governance: Something for Everyone," Franchising World, 36(1), pp 41.
Halbert, T, & Ingulli, E (2012). Law and Ethics in the Business Environment. 7th Edition. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Muhi.
Sethuraman, S (2006) Road Map for Information Security:What to Do After BS 7799 Certification.ISACA. Available online at http://www.isaca.org/Journal/Past-Issues/2006/Volume-2/Documents/jopdf0602-road-map-for-information-security.pdf
Trevino L., G. Weaver, D. Givson, B. Toffler (1999), "Managing Ethics and Legal Compliance: What Works and What Hurts," California Management Review, 41(2), pp131-151.
Ethics Job Description
ABC and Co. has a position open for the following designations.
Job Title: Corporate Ethics Officer
eports to: Managing Director
Based at: Los Angeles, California
Job Purpose: Identifying the key corporate ethics values of the company and devising a code of conduct for the company that incorporates the ethical values in the company's long-term strategic goals so as to take the rights and safety of stakeholders in to consideration.
The Corporate Ethics Officer should be able to take all organizational aspects and stakeholders into account and identify the corporate ethical values.
The Corporate Ethics Officer will be responsible for devising a code of conduct that incorporates all ethical values identified earlier and implement the code of conduct in the organization.
The Corporate Ethics Officer will be responsible for developing training programs and training the employees about organizational health and safety and ethical business…
Boyd, C. (2003). Human resource management and occupational health and safety. New York: Routledge.
French, P. (1995). Corporate Ethics. USA: Harcourt Brace.
Barth, S. (2003). Corporate Ethics: The business code of conduct for ethical employees.
Aside from the previously mentioned policies, the Intel ethic code also contains reference to intellectual property, gratuities, reciprocity, publicity, small and minority suppliers, controlled substances, environment, health and safety. The intellectual property right protection policy states the fact that Intel completely respects the rights of all business partners, suppliers and competitor companies. However, the publicity policy mentions that business partners are denied the right to sell their own products by associating them with Intel products.
In addition, the document of Intel's Ethics and Compliance provides that all Intel activities will be performed in total accordance with the laws applied in the United States and in the countries they collaborate with. Also, the company adopts transparency as means of conducting business and promises to make truthful statements to the press and the public. The ethical code of Intel forbids bribes within the company and mentions the sanctions applicable upon employees' engagement…
Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, March 6, 2006, Ethics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics , last accessed on March 6, 2007
American Heart Association, March 2007, Ethics Policy
http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3023721,last accessed on March 6, 2007
Theefoe, copoations have had to change thei viewpoints and stat looking at the long-tem consequences of thei behavio, as well as looking at the bottom line.
Businesses also have to be concened because consumes have also become awae of envionmental concens, and many consumes ae demanding eath-fiendly poducts and have shown a willingness to pay moe money to competitos who obseve envionmentally-fiendly pactices. Inteestingly enough, this demand has given ise to its own ethical dilemma; because thee is no eal egulation egading what a poduct must do to be egaded as eath-fiendly, companies detemine which of thei own poducts ae envionmentally fiendly. The esult is that some poducts ae labeled "geen" o "oganic" even though they have been poduced in a nomal manne, which means that consumes ae likely to pick them ove competing poducts, and may even pay a pemium pice fo those items. Theefoe, it is clea that…
Management Decision, vol. 40, no.9, pp. 862-870.
Key, S & Popkin, S 1998, 'Integrating ethics into the strategic management process: doing well by doing good.' Management Decision, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 331-338.
Klenke, K 2003, 'Gender influences in decision-making processes in top management teams.'
Management Decision, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1024-1034.
Ethics and Decision Making
A definition of ethics broadly stated could be as that 'ethics is the science that deals with conduct in so far as this is considered as right or wrong, good or bad.' (Shapiro; Stefkovich, 2001) The word 'Ethics' has its root in the Greek language where ethos was the word used for a custom or usage for individual groups. This later moved on to mean the general character of transactions, individuals and the way of acting and conduct. The question then is who has to approve the ways of acting? No doubt ethics is an important part of human life. If humans lack ethics they tend to become criminals and the decisions that they take tend to harm other individuals or the society. (Guy, 1990)
Ethics, laws and morals are different concepts but have a binding unity in the fact that in all these there is…
Beach, Lee Roy. (1996) "Decision Making in the Workplace: A Unified Perspective."
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
Fairholm, Gilbert W. (2001) "Mastering Inner Leadership." Quorum Books:
CSR in Beijing
Independent and dependent variable
Qualitative Case study
Research design Multiple case study and document review
Sampling selection and Data collections
Questionnaire Design and scale measurement
Data collection and Response rate
Data Analysis of the Pilot test
Quantitative Data Analysis
Reliability and Validity of Scaling echnique
Exploratory Factor Analysis
he overriding aim of the proposed project is to investigate the effect of CSR on the financial performance of Chinese companies. his, on one hand includes an investigation of how Chinese companies perceive the concept of CSR and how much they have incorporated the same into their corporate operations; and on the other hand, an exploration of the correlation between CSR and corporate performance. he specific research questions guiding the investigation have been restated;
RQ1: Is there a relationship between CSR and corporate performance?
RQ2: Does company CSR improve financial performance?
his chapter outlines the…
The Likert non-comparative scaling technique, in which case respondents point out some level of disagreement or agreement with a number of questions or statements, has been deemed appropriate. The questionnaire employs an odd-numbered Likert scale as proposed by Baker, Singleton and Veit (2010). According to the authors, having an equal number of favorable and unfavorable categories helps a study obtain objective data, free from forced choices. For this particular study, the middle/zero value has been labeled as 'neutral' to avoid situations whereby respondents with no opinion on a particular matter opt to leave a question unanswered.
Data Collection and Response Rate: respondents will be selected randomly among employees in the five companies selected for analysis. With the consent of management, and the go-ahead from the environmental bureau, questionnaires will be administered at different locations within each of the five companies to minimize the risk of bias. The researcher reckons that the steel manufacturing and cutlery industries are often very busy, and companies would most likely be reluctant to halt production for workers to be surveyed. In this regard, the questionnaires will only be administered during lunch breaks.
Participation will be entirely voluntary; the researcher will approach employees, explain the study objectives to them and ask if they were willing to spare fifteen minutes to take part in the survey. No reward will be given for participation. Willing participants will be given the questionnaire in a sealed envelope and will be required to fill the same out in the full glare of the researcher, re-seal it, and then hand it over. The researcher will then thank the participants, and reiterate that confidentiality would be
Ethics and CSR
President Barack Obama
Dear Mr. President:
First, let me congratulate you on your recent stance regarding both the U.S. Budget and your healthcare package. Indeed, both of these issues speak to the reason for my letter today. In general, I am concerned that the 21st century, while certainly improving organizational opportunities at home and abroad through technology and globalization, have not been as robust within the area of business and organizational ethics as both expected by 21st century stakeholders, or necessary to proactively and positively interact in a global environment.
Much like the First Lady's initiatives for movement and health, I would like to encourage you to form a bipartisan Congressional Committee to examine ways in which the government can assist and encourage Corporate Social Responsibility within the American business and organizational community.
There are numerous ways we have all noted how organizations have changed…
ASHE-ERIC. (2002). Understaning and Facilitating Organizational Change in the 21st Century. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 28(4), 1-162.
Burke, F. (1999). Ethical Decision-Making: Global Concerns, Frameworks and Approaches. Public Personnel Management, 28(4), 529-31.
Jahdi, K., et al. (2009). Marketing Communications and CSR. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(1), 103-13.
Kamm, F. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University press.
The second step is to initiate a supplier code of conduct. The greatest potential for ethical violations falls with suppliers such as agricultural firms or offshored service providers, and these violations can result in negative publicity for the company.
Ultimately, it is not expected that these ethical standards will form a competitive advantage for the company. Having high ethical standards is more of a hygiene factor in that it is something a company needs to have to avoid negative impacts, but few companies get any particular competitive mileage from their ethical policies. There is little impetus to join the fair trade or organic businesses for most of the products we sell. hile many consumers are willing to pay more for said products, it remains a niche category especially in Europe and the UK. This usually means that the volumes are too low to justify the effort. Overall, the best approach…
FAO. (2001). Ethical issues in food and agriculture. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X9601E/X9601E00.htm
HRW. (2010). Hellish work. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.hrw.org/en/node/91458/section/3
Hussein, M. (2009). Hiring and firing with ethics. Human Resource Management International Digest. Vol. 17 (4) 37-40.
Van Tulder, R. & Kolk, a. (2001). Multinationality and corporate ethics: Codes of conduct in the sporting goods industry. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 32 (2) 267-283.
Contemporary agency theory dictates that managers only act in the interest of maximizing shareholder (owner) wealth (Roberts, 2004). This standard can be reasonably viewed as the minimum ethical standard that the president of a company should have. Taking this view, Thomas Koltun is essentially in damage control mode. Because of the mistakes of the company in the past, Koltun is faced with significant downside risk from mishandling this situation. It could also be reasonably argued that Thomas Koltun still bears responsibility for the original ethical imperatives that the company has had all along as the result of bringing the Travel-Lite to market. If three-quarters of these products are as yet unaccounted for, then the company still bears ethical obligations as defined by the CPSC with regards in particular to consumers.
There are serious implications associated with a mishandling of these obligations. The company has suffered ethical failures in relation to…
Health Canada. (2005). Recalling consumer products -- a guide for industry. Health Canada. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/advisories-avis/child-enfant/recalling-guide-2005-04-rappel-eng.php
Rose, J. (2007). Communication styles. Suite 101. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://trainingpd.suite101.com/article.cfm/communication_styles
Johnson, R. (2008). Kant's moral philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2006). Consequentialism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/
The housing market was already strong, but the elimination of practical reasons for validating lender information opened several doors very wide, each with an unpleasant surprise hidden behind it. First, because realtors earn their commissions based on sales and on the relative value of property, they have little incentive to disqualify bad risks of eventual mortgage default. Second, banks became equally unconcerned with the veracity and accuracy of the financial information provided by prospective home buyers and it was no longer in anybody's interest to curb increasing home values. Third, the reliance on credit on the part of so many Americans fueled a housing and property development boom in many areas. Multiple Ethical Violations Provide the Ignition for Economic Disaster:
Lack of concern for verifying lender qualifications became so rampant in the first part of the 21st century that lenders offered "no-doc" loans that required no formal documentation of income…
Daft, R. (2005) Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000) Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Corporate Social esponsibility
I attaching assignment paper write essay CS.
Given the heightened level of international operations and globalization, pressure is mounting for corporations to behave ethically. Corporations are forced to developing standards, policies and behaviors as a demonstration of their sensitivity to concerns of stakeholder. The policies behaviors and standards are what a European commission called corporate social responsibilities. The Commission defined corporate social responsibility (CS) as "a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis" Commission, 2001.
Complementing this definition, McWilliams and Siegel. (2001)
, said CS include all actions that are intended to forge, beyond the firm's interest, a social good, and is a requirement in law.
Composition Corporate Social esponsibility
Corporate social responsibility entails coming up with solutions specific to a society. The corporation is however, not forcefully charged with an…
Balmer, John M.T., & Dinnie, K. (1999). "Corporate identity and corporate communications: the antidote to merger madness," Corporate Communications: . An International Journal,, 4, 68-86.
Balmer, J.M.T. (2001). Corporate Identity, Corporate Branding and corporate marketing European Journal of Marketing 34(4), 248-291.
Buckley, P.J., & Ghauri, P.N. (2004). Globalisation, Economic Geography and the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(2), 81-98.
Commission, E. (2001). Promoting a European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility.' Green Paper, 264.
For example, mergers and acquisitions are perceived as the latest fashionable trend to grow the company market share and profitability due to synergies affect. But as the practise has shown, out of the latest mergers, about 75% did not perform as they were expected by the top management.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was aimed to facilitate and solve some of these very difficult problems in the accounting and management of the companies. The companies now are restricted to the amount of intangible assets they can show in their balance sheets, which reduces the moral opportunism problems in the company. The company has also currently to hire the auditors which are completely independent from the management of the company and cannot carry out any other than audit services for the company. This solves the problems of insider trading, where the management take advantage of their internal knowledge of the real company situation.…
Available from www.wikipedia.org
Brealey, R., Myers, SC. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 4th Ed., McGraw & Hill, 2004.
Abrams, J. Quantitative Business Valuation: A Mathematical Approach for Today's Professionals, McGraw-Hill, 2000.
Available from: www.wikipedia.org
But the shareholders themselves need to be more aware and more involved in their company's business in order for any meaningful change to sustain itself:
Shareholders, the intended beneficiaries of the corporate vehicle, are the ultimate capitalists: avaricious accumulators with little fiscal risk and no legal responsibility for the way in which they pursue their imperative to accumulate. Shareholders, not corporations, show indifference to the needs and values of society. It is their behaviour that is most appropriately characterized as amoral indifference to the plight of others and their environment. Shareholders, not corporations, behave in a pathological manner. And shareholders should be the targets for the cure that we need for our ills. (Glasbeek 2005: 24)
There is also the problem of victimisation of other cultures in a global market. As Strike, Gao and Bansal (2006) point out in their article, 'Being Good While Being Bad: Social esponsibility and the…
Berkhout, Tom. 2005. 'Corporate Gains: Corporate Social Responsibility Can Be the Strategic Engine for Long-Term Corporate Profits and Responsible Social Development.' Alternatives Journal, January/February, pp. 15-22.
Carroll, B.A. 2004 'Managing ethically with global stakeholders: Annual Editions' Business Ethics 06-07: Contemporary Learning Series 30, pp. 114-120.
Dean, Dwane Hal. 2004. 'Consumer Reaction to Negative Publicity: Effects of Corporate Reputation, Response, and Responsibility for a Crisis Event.' The Journal of Business Communication 41:192-201.
Dickens, Charles. 1912. A Christmas Carol. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Parable of the sadhu teaches us the importance of a group's commitment to the welfare of an individual. In corporate ethics, this would mean the support of the entire organization for the welfare and career/personal growth of an employee. In the sense of individual ethics, it means instead of doing our bit and throwing the rest of others, we must pool our resources and offer complete commitment to the welfare of an individual in need and that is the only way we can hope to survive as a community. In the case, a group of few individuals from different countries are navigating the wild tracks of Himalayas in Nepal when they find a half-naked sadhu in very unstable condition. Each one in the group does something for the sadhu but rather reluctantly as if they wanted to get rid of him as soon as possible without feeling guilty and responsible.…
Aristotle: 1984, Nicomachean Ethics. Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill Educational Publishing, Book III 1115 b 15 -- 20.
Velasquez, Manuel G.: 2002, Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases. Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Prentice Hall, p.135.
Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics: Books VIII and IX. Translated, with commentary, by Micael
Pakaluk. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.
Ethical esponsibility of Corporate America
Many organizations strive to increase their profit margins by doing everything possible (including unethical practices) to increase their revenues. Nevertheless, the past three decades have seen some organizations embracing CS (Corporate Social responsibility). This idea has become significantly important to almost every organization that seeks to increase revenues. Corporate social responsibility is also referred to as community responsibility, stewardship, corporate sustainability, corporate responsibility, accountability and corporate ethics among others. In essence, CS enable organizations to bring in people and the environment into their decisions, strategies and plans (Anyango Ooko, 2014).
In this paper, the use of the term corporate social responsibility will mean a set of actions by enterprises that are geared towards meeting the legal, ethical, economic, and discretional responsibilities that the stakeholders expect them to fulfill. They should undertake the economic obligations of producing profits, and meeting the consumption requirements of the people;…
AnyangoOoko, G. (2014). The environmental factors that influence implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in an organization. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(12): 95-102.
Castka, P., Bamber, C., Sharp, J. (2005). Implementing Effective Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance: A Framework. UK: British Standards Institution.
Daft, R. L., & Marcic, D. (2006). Understanding management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western.
Pearce, J., Doh, J. (2005). The high impact of collaborative social initiatives. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(3): 30-38.
corporate ethical breaches in recent times, assess whether or not you believe that the current business and regulatory environment is more conducive to ethical behavior. Provide support for your answer.
Unethical behavior has drawn the attention of the public for the few last decades in all kinds of business. Many transformations in the business environment have taken place, including immoral conducts and the tendency for corruption. Unethical accounting behavior is also included as a consequence. So the government has been forced to increase regulations and inspect actions taken in business, most especially after the Enron, Tyco, WorldCom and other unethical accounting scandals. As a result of the mentioned scandals, the government then passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002 providing regulatory requirements for better precision in business action, accountability and assurance of ethical accounting behavior by publicly held companies and accounting firms. According to Calle (2000), the total number of boards…
Academy Of Management Learning & Education, Beenen Gerard, & Pinto Jonathan (2009). Resisting Organizational-Level Corruption: An Interview with Sherron Watkins. Academic Management Learning & Education, 8(2), 275-289.
Calle, J. (2000). Ethics in Business. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://www.pro2net.com
Gilman, S., Harned, P., Navran, F., & Brown, J. (2009, May 29). Ten Things You Can Do to Avoid Being the Next Enron. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://www.ethics.org / resource/ten-things-you-can-do-avoid-being-next-enron
Krugman, P. (2002, January 18). New York Times. System Corrupted., pp.A-23.
Ethics and Leadership Failures: The Enron Case
Gibney's 2005 documentary film Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room reveals some of the main ethical weaknesses in an unbridled neoliberal capitalist market system. Barely addressing environmental and social justice issues, the filmmakers instead choose to focus on organizational culture, leadership, and ethical decision making within the corporation. The film illustrates the core concepts of business ethics and shows how executives shape company values and behaviors. Disturbingly, the Enron case also shows how unethical corporate behavior is linked with unethical behavior in government.
Summarize in one paragraph how you would explain Enron's ethical meltdown
Enron's ethical meltdown is a result of two interrelated issues: unethical individuals making unethical decisions, and an organizational culture that enables unethical decisions to proliferate. The unethical decisions and behaviors mainly have to do with stock market manipulation and the falsifying of information related to the actual performance…
Therefore, the best way to help employees act ethically is to view the workplace and daily operations as a training ground.
In your estimation why is there a growing need for organizational ethics programs? What are the factors contributing to ethical problems in the global corporate world? What are possible solutions?
The need for organizational ethics program is growing for several reasons. First, organizational ethics have become crucial for companies to avoid legal and financial distress. Second, ethics help businesses run smoothly and well, attracting the best caliber of employee. Ethics programs are important especially in large organizations with a diverse staff. Global and multinational companies will be working with people from around the world, who operate in unique ethical environments. Ethics programs help multinational companies create standards for employees that will help avoid conundrums and miscommunication. Ethics programs bring all employees together on the same page and therefore become…
Education on ethics must be wider compared to "moral development" in that it must tackle the broader consideration of a wide-ranging vocation, and constricted in that it must tackle problems particularly to the accounting vocation. (esearch on Accounting Ethics)
Definite duties of the accounting profession are put forth in the different code of ethics circulated by important establishments like the AICPA. The AICPA's foremost rule of professional conduct declares: In discharging their duties as professionals, associates must implement responsive professional and moral views in all their works. (Business and Accounting Ethics) the failure of auditor sovereignty infringing ule 101 of the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct was the topic of a research project using 2,000 arbitrarily chosen AICPA members in public accounting profession as a staff auditor, senior, or manager. These executives were offered with 15 roles that are an infringement of ule 101 and were directed to give their…
Accounting and Accountability: A Challenge for corporate culture. The 13th International Symposium on Ethics, Business and Society. IESE Business School, University of Navarra. Barcelona, Spain. May 7-8, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.iese.edu/en/files/6_6343.pdf . Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
Schachter, Joseph. Research on Accounting Ethics. CPA Journal. April 1999. Retrieved at http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/1999/0499/News_Views/NV12.HTM . Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
Smith, Katherine T; Smith, Murphy. L. Business and Accounting Ethics. 21 June, 2003.
Retrieved at http://acct.tamu.edu/smith/ethics/ethics.htm. Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
Ethics Leadership Analysis
One of the biggest advantages of globalization is that many different companies are able to receive cheap labor to produce a wide variety of products that are sold at numerous retail stores in the United States. However, an ugly facet to what has been happening, is that there are a number of different sweat shops in a host of regions around the world and in some cases within the U.S. itself. Evidence of this can be seen with an investigation that was conducted by the Department of Labor. They found that over half of the companies they were looking at, were breaking numerous labor laws by operating 10,000 of these kinds of facilities illegally inside the nation. At the same time, they discovered that a variety of governments around the world were encouraging these kinds of factories. (Elliot, 2009)
In the case of Kathie Lee Gifford, her…
Youth and Labor. (2011). Department of Labor. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/youthlabor/
Elliot, J. (2009). Santa's Little Sweat Shop. Albimonitor. Retrieved from: http://www.albionmonitor.com/sweatshop/ss-intro.html
Farrell, O. (2009). Business Ethics. Mason, OH: South Western.
National Labor Committee. (2000). Children Found Sewing Clothes for Wal Mart. Harvard Law School. Retrieved from: http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/lwp/NLC_childlabor.html
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…
Anderson, K. (2009). Ethnographic research: A key to strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://hbr.org/2009/03/ethnographic-research-a-key-to-strategy/ar/1
Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition/
Kohlberg, L. (1971) From Is to Ought: How to Commit the Naturalistic Fallacy and Get Away with It in the Study of Moral Development. New York: Academic Press.
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Training is part of this process, so that people explicitly understand the ethical culture of the company. Ethical cultures tend to be self-perpetuating because the people within the organization will hold themselves and their co-workers accountable. When you look at a company like Enron, large parts of that company were devoid of ethical standards, so it was much easier for the frauds to occur. Enron also highlights the need for ethical leadership in order to develop a highly-ethical culture. The organization looks to its leaders for ethical guidance and will likely adopt as part of the culture the ethical standards of the leaders. This is the point of the provisions in SOX holding the CEO and CFO accountable for accounting fraud and raises a lot of red flags about companies that would go private to dodge this requirement.
Lastly, there needs to be a compliance mechanism as well. Culture, training,…
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
IBE. (2010). Ethical due diligence in recruitment. Institute of Business Ethics. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from https://www.ibe.org.uk/userassets/briefings/ibe_briefing_17_ethical_due_diligence_in_recruitment.pdf
McConnell, T. (2010).. Moral dilemmas. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-dilemmas/
Morgenstern, M. & Nealis, P. (2004). Going private: A reasoned response to Sarbanes-Oxley? SEC.gov Retrieved April 25, 2014 from https://www.sec.gov/info/smallbus/pnealis.pdf
Ethics: Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
The main thrust of the readings
The readings focus on the U.S. statutes prohibiting U.S. companies, citizens, and employees from issuing any valuable thing to foreign government executives for securing business benefits. The underlying thrust of the readings is twofold: first, that corruption must be deterred and second that government officials must promote economic relationships between their companies and foreign firms through the promotion of ethical foreign investment.
The rigid enactment of the FCPA has placed these two thrusts in a state of tension. Law enforcers and courts could interpret the readings broadly. For instance, any valuable thing includes not just payments in cash but also meals, gifts, entertainment and drinks. This element is not associated with any de minimis value and makes companies uncertain when they are expected to comply with the FCPA. From the readings, the FCPA has been enforced and institutes criminal…
Brenkert, G.G., & Beauchamp, T.L. (2010). The Oxford handbook of business ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cory, J. (2005). Business ethics: The ethical revolution of minority shareholders. New York: Springer.
Kumar, B.N., & Steinmann, H. (2008). Ethics in international management. Berlin, Ge: Walter de Gruyter.
Pastin, M., & Hooker, M. (1980). Ethics and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Business Horizons, 23(6), 43
Ethics in Decision-Making
Clegg, Stewart Martin Kornberger & Carl Rhodes. (2007). Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making. he Sociological Review, 55:2.
According to Stewart Clegg, Martin Kornberger and Carl Rhodes' article, "Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making" from the Sociological Review, ethical decision-making is not optimized with either an outcome-driven consequentialist approach nor a rule-bound deontological approach. "We suggest that rules for ethical decision making, rather than ensuring ethical outcomes, can work to insulate organizations from moral responsibility" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 393). Because of recent ethical scandals, there has been a drive to seek a heavily prescriptive and rule-bound approach to ethics, but the authors believe that "ethics is best considered in terms of the way that organizations are sites for ethical difficulties, dilemmas and deliberations (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 394). heorizing ambivalence in ethical decision-making is the ambitious goal of the article. he article uses the…
The solution of 'going by the rules' is often offered because of the difficulties and complexities of managerial decision-making in large organizations. Managers cannot perfectly calculate the 'correct' decision. In contrast to the ideal of perfect rationality, contemporary organizational theorists tend to see organizations as 'garbage cans' or mixes of personal and organizational ethical orientations. It is often uncertain what will 'tumble out' decision-wise, even when there are efforts to have policies in words. In the face of such randomness, a personal ethical orientation and sense of justice is required. "In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).
For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by recent history, in which some of the least ethical actions (the accounting fraud at Enron, 'robo-signing' for foreclosures after the housing crisis) were done as a matter of routine, according to the set procedures of the organization.
What is called for in the article is more humane but also more difficult -- the sharpening of the ethical faculty of all corporate decision-makers. Responsibility cannot merely be technical, and ethics strives to affirm the humanity of the person whose fate is being decided, rather than to distance the decision-maker from that person through the affirmation of 'rules.' Instead of forcing workers to learn a corporate manual by rote, managers should strive to create virtuous beings: "management's task in relation to ethics should be one of enhancing and maintaining structures within which moral agents face, understand and act within the conditions of undecidability (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 405).
Ethics, Morality, Values, And Beliefs
According to "the ethics site," an Internet resource for college instructors regarding the teaching of different ethical systems, ethics may be defined as "the explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. The difference between ethics and morality is similar to the difference between musicology and music. Ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality, just as musicology is a conscious reflection on music." ("Glossary," The Ethics Site, 2005) In other words, ethics is the philosophy of what is right and wrong, while morality is the practice of ethics, or virtue in action.
The analogy between a musician and a musicologist proposed by the positioning of ethics vs. morality is interesting, because one might understand music very well, and be able to explain its theory and teaching as a musicologist. However, a great musicologist might be only a middling musician. In contrast, there…
"Glossary." The Ethics Site. 2005. http://ethics.acusd.edu/LMH/E2/Glossary.html. [11 Feb 2005]
According to the dictionary definition, ethics refer to the "set of principles of right conduct, or more specifically, "the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession." Ethics and morals are closely related, but ethics is the term more commonly used in the professional realm, whereas morals generally refer to guidelines for personal behavior. Both ethics and morals are reflections of beliefs and values, which are held by individuals and collectively, by whole societies. The development of ethics therefore stems from social and cultural factors as well as from personal ones. However, a few ethical codes are nearly universal. Ethics are complex; in the business realm they may vary widely from sector to sector. No organization is completely immune to ethics, even if the organization has no formal ethical code. Professional decisions are made with regard to personal ethics or to the…
Cline, Austin. "Ethics, Morals, and Values: How do They Relate?" About.com. Online at < http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/phil/blfaq_phileth_values.htm >.
'Ethics." Dictionary.com. online at .
With the Starbucks code of conduct, there are a few goods things. First, it touches on a wide range of subjects. There are actually several different reports such as human rights, social responsibility, health care, animal welfare and supplier code of conduct (Starbucks.com, 2014). Second, I like the fact that it addresses the farmers from whom the company buys its beans -- these are people doing manual labor in hot countries, band often do not receive a living wage. So that is good. Third, I like that the company has targets and tracks some of its social responsibility outcomes. This will help the company to improve its social responsibility performance, as well as its ethical performance.
As for the McDonalds statement the company also reflects social responsibility in its statement. This is something that McDonalds has been forced to address by protests and negative publicity and there isn't any…
McDonalds. (2014). Standards of business conduct for employees. About McDonalds.com. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/investors/corporate_governance/codes_of_conduct/standards_of_business_conduct.html
Starbucks.com (2014). Starbucks on the issues. Starbucks. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from http://www.starbucks.ca/responsibility/learn-more/policies
The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.
On the harm side, many…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v2n1/calculating.html
Cline, a. (2011). Deontology and ethics: What is deontology, deontological ethics? About.com. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://atheism.about.com/od/ethicalsystems/a/Deontological.htm
Miller, P. (2007). Genetic testing and the future of disability insurance: Thinking about discrimination in the genetic age. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Vol. 35 (2) 47-52.
Schafer, S. (2001). Railroad agrees to stop gene-testing workers. Washington Post. In possession of the author.
More than replacing a Code of Ethics, solutions to the issue might revolve around simply understanding, adopting, and enforcing codes that are already in place. For instance, the IACP code of ethics for law enforcement has four major themes that would clearly handle most situations: 1) Fairness towards everyone -- the public, clients, the accused, colleagues, etc. Fairness also implies the maxim of not using one's power to take advantage of the public (e.g. bribes for service, etc.); 2) Service -- Public service is a calling -- the community holds law enforcement personnel to a high standard, and expects service to be part of the regular job description; 3) Importance of the law -- Upholding the Constitution or the statues of the law that are mandated by the profession, and; 4) the importance of personal conduct -- law enforcement professionals must hold a standard of behavior that is consistent and…
Banks, J. (2004). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf
Chery, D. (May 7, 2009). Judges on Wrong Side of the Law. CBS News. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/08/04/national/main566433.shtml
IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology. (2012). Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions. Ethics.itt.edu. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://ethics.iit.edu/
Pollock, J. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
There are a couple of reasons for this. One is that outcomes are what the public sees. Therefore, it is the potential outcomes that should be the guiding ethical principles. Ethics are mainly a problem in business when a company is perceived as unethical. Monsanto is a great example - few people have any ethical problems with this company, so their lack of ethics does not impact their business prospects.
The other reason why outcomes should be the guiding principle is because one of the most significant sources of ethical problems for companies is front-line managers. These low-level managers face strong pressure from above, but are generally not the firm's best decision-makers. As a result, they make poor decisions in response to pressure. If these managers were guided by duty as their main ethical principle, they would respond to pressure by doing whatever they feel senior management wants them to…
Ethics are at the core of human behavior and decision-making. This paper evaluates the results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory, a proprietary software designed to measure a person's ethical stance. The results of the Ethics Awareness Inventory can be applied to that person's psychology, and can help supervisors make human resources decisions related to the individual. Moreover, organizational psychologists especially benefit from ethical inventories. It is important to apply ethical awareness and psychological principles to personal, social, and organizational issues.
The Ethics Awareness Inventory is proprietary software designed to profit off of the need to evaluate and analyze every single human decision. Available for a select group of people, the Ethics Awareness Inventory "is a program that can evaluate one's ethical style," in the same way a quiz can evaluate what food, country, or sexual position is most appropriate (Collack, 2007). As with most quizzes, the Ethics Awareness…
Collak, V. (2007). Ethics awareness inventory. Retrieved online: http://collak.net/index.php?view=article&id=50&tmpl=component&print=1&page&Itemid=60&option=com_content
"Ethical Leadership," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_58.htm
A comprehensive approach to ethical journalism might incorporate all three concerns by focusing on the duty to protect the welfare of the people within the U.S. By ensuring that all journalism is truthful, unencumbered by conflicts of interests, and only deviates from the absolute truth when necessary to protect the public. In that case, deviation from the truth must be limited to the withholding of information rather than the deliberate publication of untrue information or the inference that untrue information is, in fact, true.
The New York Times violated that ethical obligation in 2006 by publicizing information detailing law enforcement methods of tracking potentially terrorist-related funds because that publication compromised that particular strategy. Various news organizations violated their ethical responsibility during the 2008 presidential election campaign by repeatedly reporting Sarah Palin's ridiculous characterization of now President Barack Obama as having ties to known terrorists because that emphasis had the effect…
Ethics arise throughout the field of economics simply because professionals in the field are provided with access to the financial assets of members of the public. Because financial professionals have an infinitely greater understanding of the processes and mechanisms of economic institutions, transactions, and investment strategies, they would be in position to profit personally at the expense of their clients and shareholders of publicly traded corporate entities. Ethics need to be applied (and enforced by compliance laws) in the economics field that ensure honesty and full disclosure, and that prohibit any conflicts of interests that could harm customers, clients, institutions, and the general public.
State in your own words what the principle of ethical responsibility in journalism entails, and discuss an example of a time you have seen this principle either upheld or broken by the press. Ethical responsibility in journalism is susceptible to various definitions: mainly, the different schools of thought are that ethical journalism relates primarily to abstract concepts like truth and justice, or to the United States, or to the members of the public. A comprehensive approach to ethical journalism might incorporate all three concerns by focusing on the duty to protect the welfare of the people within the U.S. By ensuring that all journalism is truthful, unencumbered by conflicts of interests, and only deviates from the absolute truth when necessary to protect the public. In that case, deviation from the truth must be limited to the withholding of information rather than the deliberate publication of untrue information or the inference that untrue information is, in fact, true.
The New York Times violated that ethical obligation in 2006 by publicizing information detailing law enforcement methods of tracking potentially terrorist-related funds because that publication compromised that particular strategy. Various news organizations violated their ethical responsibility during the 2008 presidential election campaign by repeatedly reporting Sarah Palin's ridiculous characterization of now President Barack Obama as having ties to known terrorists because that emphasis had the effect of increasing that false perception in the public. Conversely, most American news organizations upheld the ethical responsibility by withholding primary election results until their publication could no longer influence voters not to bother voting for trailing candidates.
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility
The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.
A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…
Animal Ethics. Virtue ethics and care ethics - Animal Ethics. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.animal-ethics.org/virtue-ethics-care-ethics/
Berger, J. (2010, December 25). Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Obama's Reversal on 'Indigenous Peoples' Rights Stirs Concern Over Legal Claims | Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/12/24/obama-reversal-indigenous-peoples-stirs-concern-legal-claims/
Calman. (2004). Teaching and learning ethics Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. Retrieved, from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/366.full
Difference Between Similar Terms and Things. Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology | Difference Between | Utilitarianism vs. Deontology. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-utilitarianism-and-deontology/
" Thus this principle is founded on an individual's ability to predict a given action's consequences. On predicting such consequences, an individual is supposed to choose the course of action which would in the end benefit the greatest number of people. In such a case, the choice selected would be considered ethically correct. For instance, if one innocent person has to be killed so as to save the entire human race, then it would be ethically right to kill such a person from a utilitarian point-of-view. An application of this principle in our scenario seems somewhat straightforward. To determine the right course of action in this case, the question to be asked is; of all the alternative courses of action at Dr. Doight's disposal, which course of action would benefit the greatest number of people? In my opinion, seeking to ensure that the situation is brought under control no matter…
Bredeson, D. (2011). Applied Business Ethics: A Skills-Based Approach. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J. & Ferrell, L. (2008). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Freeman, R.E. (2010). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lozano, J.M. (2002). Ethics and Organizations: Understanding Business Ethics as a Learning Process. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Weber, J., & Glyptis, S.M. (2000). Measuring the impact of a business ethics course and community service experience on students' values and opinions. Teaching Business Ethics, 4, 341-358.
Weber, J., & Green, S. (1991). Principled Moral Reasoning: Is it a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 325-333.
Wynd, W.R., & Mager, J. (1989). The business and society course: Does it change student attitudes? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(6), 486-491.
However, those who have serious ethical and moral integrity will generally do what it takes to get a problem corrected, even if they have to lose out personally or professionally to protect the health and welfare of other people under their care. It does not appear that Dr. Doight did any of that. He determined that following procedure was enough to fulfill his duties, whether or not that procedure resulted in any resolution for the patients.
It would appear that Dr. Doight followed the deontological argument that one only has to follow the rules to be ethical. For many people, that is an acceptable choice. For others, the rules would not be important and would not have anything to do with whether something was considered to be ethical. With Dr. Doight, it is not just the possibility that he feels he has done what is ethical, but also possible that…
Becker, L.C., & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics, (2nd ed). New York, NY: Routledge.
Fagothey, a. (2000). Right and Reason. Rockford, IL: Tan Books & Publishers.
Kamm, F.M. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. (2012). Chapters 7&8, the utilitarian approach & the debate of utilitarianism." The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Their primary duty is that of guiding the spiritual and religious aspects of the lives of their community members. They should give the highest priority to their duties towards the community including church service, counseling and other ceremonial functions required by their profession. As part of their professional and ethical duties, pastors are also required to show an interest in community development and increase their participation in community activities. This has become a necessity in modern culture because people expect institutions to take an interest and an active role in the community development efforts. Institutions cannot expect to benefit from the resources of the society and not give back. This is why business organizations, universities and even political parties make community development a part of their organization's commitment to the society and the people they serve. eligious institutions like the church are also expected to follow this example. The pastor,…
Arnold, W.V. (1982). Introduction to Pastoral Care. Westminster John Knox Press.
Bush, J.E. (2006). Gentle Shepherding: Pastoral Ethics and Leadership. Chalice Press.
Gula, R.M. (1996). Ethics in Pastoral Ministry. Paulist Press.
Hewart-Mills, D. (2011). Pastoral Ministry. Xulon Press.
People behave in the most outrageous manner when it comes to success and money because it has become a dog eat dog world where no one wants to be left behind in the rat race. When a professional chooses to act in a morally sound manner, he may often find himself left behind by those who couldn't care less about ethics and then others are also tempted to cheat, steal and rob.
What they fail to see is the long-term impact of their actions. Both the ethically upright person and the crook need to see that their actions involve a long-term impact. The repercussions of their actions may not become apparent immediately but eventually they will unless they correct their behavior before public disclosure. I would always want to be a person who can keep the long-term picture in view. This is easier said than done but that is the…
Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…
Career Services. The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from:
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain.. APEC
Human Resources Development Working Group. Retrieved from: http://hrd.apec.org/index.php/Corporate_Social_Responsibility_in_the_Global_Supply_Chain.
Ethics Must Be Global Not Local
Ethics Must Be Global, Not Local
International Business equirements
Global Business Ethics
The large business units expand their operations in global markets through their own presence as well as franchising and distributors. The business operations are expanded on the basis of various standard practices. The business freedom provided by countries and various global practices are utilized as a basis for taking global operational decisions. The business also encounters various legal, operational, and ethical issues related to the local market. However in order to expand business beyond borders and physical boundaries of countries it is required to maintain a degree of uniformity in products and ethical practices followed throughout the manufacturing processes. It is advised to understand various aspects of international business requirements, global operations, ethical practices, and recommendations to assert a standard for global ethical business operations.
International Business equirements:
Beer, L.A. (2010). A Strategic and Tactical Approach to Global Business Ethics. USA: Momentum Press.
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. USA: South-Western Pub.
George, B. (2008, February 12). Ethics must be global, not local. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2008-02-12/ethics-must-be-global-not-localbusinessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice
Martens, P., Akin, S.-M., Maud, H., & Mohsin, R. (2010). Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health.Globalization and Health, 6(1), 16.
Summary of the purpose of Corporate Sustainability Reporting
Reporting corporate sustainability is one of the best ways to ensure that a company is not only doing well financially in the present but also in securing a better and more certain future. The reporting of corporate suitability ensures that the current needs of the organization are effectively met without comprising future needs of the organization. Reporting on corporate sustainability also ensure that organization are able to keep up with all changes in the industry, with ensuring that new innovations have been developed, maintained and employed in the daily operations of the organization. Corporate sustainability is developed on a grid developed to ensure that the future is secure, and that the organization will survive for a long time.
Corporate sustainability also encompasses the assessment of current and future risks that the organization is likely to endure. As such, a majority…
Chee Tahir, A., and Darton, R. C, 2010, "The process analysis method of selecting indicators to quantify the sustainability performance of a business operation." Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, 1598 -- 1607.
Kaufman, A. And Englander, E, 2011, "Behavioral Economics, Federalism, and the Triumph of Stakeholder Theory." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 102 No.3, 421-438.
Fassin, Y, August 2012. "Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 109 No.1, 83-96.
Pryor, M, Humphreys, J, Oyler, J, Taneja, S. And Toombs, L, December 2011, "The Legitimacy and Efficacy of Current Organizational Theory: An Analysis." International Journal of Management Part 2, Vol. 28 No.4, 209-228.
Ethics primarily acts as a check to ensure that the corporate strategy is enacted effectively. arely do firms take ethics into account as a key element of strategy, though it does happen once in a while. Generally, the role that ethics plays is tangential to strategy aside from its role as a check. obin and eidenbach (1988) elaborate further on this idea, noting that "without the integration of ethics at the very beginning of the planning process… the organizational culture may not provide the checks and balances needed…" Their argument is that while corporations tend to put the profit motive forward first, a lack of ethics can undermine the objective of maximizing shareholder wealth. Having a strong program of ethics built into the organizational culture reduces the risk of major ethical lapse.
A couple of recent issues highlight the importance of building an ethical culture to maximizing shareholder wealth. Enron…
Dahlsrud, A. (2006). How corporate social responsibility is defined: An analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from http://www.mcxindia.com/csr/newsarticle/pdf/csr_news45.pdf
Davis, S. (2013). Examples of social responsibility strategies. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-social-responsibility-strategies-10633.html
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Robin, D. & Reidenbach, R. (1988). Integrating social responsibility and ethics into the strategic planning process. Business and Professional Ethics Journal Vol 7 (3-4) 29-46.
The employee is faced with ethical requirements throughout their workday that must be met with knowledge and a trained attitude. Workplace ethics is one of the most crucial elements whether the person involved in an ethical dilemma is a high-level manager or an entry-level employee. An ethical stance is important because it is what guides the interactions that the employees will have with each other, their management, and the customers that patronize their products. It is also important that the business leaders follow an internal and external ethical stance so that the culture generated within the company is one that promotes positive ethical practices. This paper begins by talking about the way that the business leaders view the external world of ethics through accounting practices and how they deal with other companies. The discussion then moves inside the company and how the management treats its employees. Employee to employee…
Brandt-Rauf, S.I., Brabdt-Rauf, E., Gershon, R., Li, Y., & Brandt-Rauf, P.W. (2011). Genes, jobs, and justice: Occupational medicine physicians and the ethical, legal, and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace. Ethics & Medicine, 27(1), 51-55.
Dinkins, C.S. (2011). Ethics: Beyond patient care practicing empathy in the workplace. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(2), 1-8.
Embse, T.J.V.D., Desai, M.S., & Ofori-Brobbey, K. (2010). A new perspective on ethics safeguards: Where is the clout? SAM Advanced Management Journal, 75(3), 4-13.
Klimek, J., & Wenell, K. (2011). Ethics in accounting: An indispensable course? Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 15(4), 107-113.
Ethics, Corporate Governance and Company Social esponsibility
Information that is essential to share includes financial performance, business strategy and overall company actions (Pfeffer, 1998). Sharing this information gives the employees the power to evaluate their performance and help them make the right decisions on how they can improve it. This is a simple and very straightforward practice but most companies are still apprehensive about this practice. One cause for this is that information is power and by sharing essential information like financial performance the management is scattering that power. Another reason is that the management is concern about information escaping to competitors. This will put the organization in an unfavourable position. But what companies do not realize that the competition most probably already know this information. Thus if a company withheld information they are only leaving their own employees in the dark. Because of this, employees will reply on speculation…
Green, K.W., Wu, C., Whitten, D., & Medlin, B. (2006). The impact of strategic human resource management on firm performance and HR professionals' work attitude and work performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(4), 559-579.
Hammer, L.B., Kossek, E.F., . Yragui, N.L., Bonder, T.E., and Hanson, G.C. (2009). Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure of FamilySupportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB). Journal of Management. 35(4), 837-856.
Harris, L., & Ogbonna, E. (2001). Strategic human resourcemanagement, market orientation, and organizational performance. Journal of Business Research, 51(2),157?166.
Hatch, N.W., & Dyer, J.H. (2004). Human capital and learning as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 25(12), 1155?1178.
Ethics, Corporate Governance and Company Social esponsibility
OCED state-owned enterprises and Privatized companies
In the past few decades, emerging economies have launched ambitious plans to privatize their state owned enterprises (SOEs). The volume of privatization in emerging economies has increased from $8 billion in 1990 to about $65 billion in 1997 (Dharwadkar, George, & Brandes, 2000). In privatization, ownership is transferred from the state to new private and public owners, which may include management, employees, local individuals, institutions, and foreign investors, with the state also retaining a certain percentage of ownership after privatization. The new diversified ownership structure after privatization makes corporate governance an important issue in emerging economies (ajagopalan and Zhang, 2008).
On the one hand, the new ownership structure creates the traditional principal agency problem whereby self-interested executives aim to maximize their private interests rather than the owners' interests. To address this problem, it is necessary to design…
Aman, H. And Nguyen, P. (2008). Do stock prices re-ect the corporate governance quality of Japanese "rms" Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 22(4), 647 -- 662.
Buchanan, J. And Deakin, S. (2007). Japan's paradoxical response to the new "Global Standard" in corporate governance. Accessed on October 12, 2011 from http://ssrn.com/abstract=1013286
Dharwadkar, R., George, G., & Brandes, P. (2000). Privatization in emerging economies: An agency theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 650-669.
Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs. (2005). Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises: OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. Accessed on October 14, 2011 from: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/46/51/34803211.pdf
Finally, any company materials including but not limited to design blueprints will be considered intellectual property.
Privacy: We believe that privacy is a fundamental human right as well as a legal right. Therefore, we assure our employees that their personal information will be kept confidential and will not, except under obligation to a court of law, divulge any personal information about any of our employees. Similarly, we expect that our employees and management personnel to respect the privacy of their coworker. Employees are forbidden from divulging the personal information of any member of the organization to the media without prior written consent or legal assent. Any complaints regarding issues related to privacy can be taken up with management.
Information Technology: The information technology infrastructure in our organization was established and is paid for and maintained by the organization. Therefore, we will limit the use of all the organization's information technology…
Imagine that it's your responsibility to select an ethics officer for your organization. What qualities, background, and experience would you look for? Why? Would you ever be interested in such a position? Why or why not?
An ethics officer plays a significant role for an organization. In the selection of the right ethics officer for my organization, I would have to consider several major factors such as the personal qualities, background and experience. First of all, the ethics officer should posses the following qualities: honesty, truthfulness, integrity, fairness, accuracy, and significance of moral values. These qualities are the basic ingredients that should be searched thoroughly in the ethics officer during the selection process.
The background of the ethics officer should be related to any field such as business, medicine, engineering, sociology, psychology or armed forces, but it should be kept in mind that the ethics officer belongs to a…
Luthans, F. (2003). Organizational Behavior."Ethics," 2nd Ed, .pp.441-494.
Trevino, L.K. & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing Business Ethics -- Straight talk about how to Do it Right -- Fourth Edition John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright 2007 ISBS 0-471-75525-7
c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics
d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics
e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics
f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics
g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics
Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.
Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…
Trevino, L.K., & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right (4th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Corporate Governance & Business Ethics
It is quite interesting to note that, academic research in business ethics was a totally distinct discipline from research in corporate governance, and the application of the word 'ethics' was uncommon in available research on corporate governance. The chief responsibility of corporate governance was understood to be safeguarding the benefits of the shareholders. Because of the severance between ownership and management, and the incapability of the independent owners to supervise the performances of those managers, a possibility was available for vital strategic decisions to be taken which would advantageous for the managers to a more larger extent compared to the owners. For example, takeovers not related to the organization's core competence outcome in a bigger corporation, however, it does not result in a more profitable company all the time. Certainly, research has proved that extremely increased extent of isolated diversification normally resulted in lower…
Beekun, Rafik; Singh, Manohar; Stedham, Yvonne. Center for Corporate Governance and Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.unr.edu/facultysenate/reports_proposals/documents/ccge_ms_14_ys.pdf Accessed on 26 June, 2005
Corporate Governance & Business Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.pwcglobal.com/Extweb/service.nsf/docid/FB60A9175892EEB185256D9100699076 Accessed on 26 June, 2005
Ethics and Corporate Governance: Is There One Best Way? Conference Overview: Prudential Business Ethics Center at Rutgers. March 25, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.pruethics.rutgers.edu/conf/corpgov2004 / Accessed on 26 June, 2005
Hollinger, Susan. B. Corporate Governance: Codes of Ethics to Guide Corporate Conduct. July 2002. Retrieved from http://www.gcglaw.com/resources/bs/ethics.html Accessed on 26 June, 2005
PENALTIES - CIVIL & CIMINAL
There are statutes that impose penalties both civil and criminal for government contractors who commit fraud, waste or abuse. Some of those statutes are as follows:
False Claims Act;
False Statements Act;
Bribery and Gratuities statutes;
Mail and Wire Fraud statutes; and the Public Integrity Act and recent legislative initiatives to strengthen criminal penalties for violations of conflict of interest laws. (Peckar & Abramson, 2007)
The government has the right to audit the records of the contractor for up to three years following a contract for the government being completed. Companies with contracts exceeding $5 million are required to: (1) post a fraud hotline poster; (2) establish a written code of ethics; (3) establish an employee ethics and compliance training program; and (4) establish an internal control system. (New ule for Government Contractors, nd)
SUMMAY & CONCLUSION
The Corporate Compliance Plan…
Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a hreat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA oday, Volume 130, Issue 2678, 62.
he author discusses different types of advertising and promotion and finds ethical problems in the way many are handled, especially with reference to advertising and promoting goods and services to children. He cites the use of focus groups for toy companies and the ethical implications of improving advertising to kids.
Cohn, E. (2000, January 31). Marketwatch: Consuming Kids. he American Prospect, Volume 11, Issue 6, 13.
he author questions the promotion of certain products to children and finds marketers hiring psychologists to shape the message so as to reach children. Other psychologists have denounced such actions and have called for an emendation of the ethics code to govern this sort of promotion in the future.
Ethics in Pricing
This author also considers the ethics of distribution in terms of the distribution of goods to foreign markets and also uses the Nestle case of the distribution of baby formula as the primary example. He also offers a review of literature on the subject of cross-cultural marketing.
Pinstrup-Andersen, P. (2005, December 1). Ethics and economic policy for the food system. American Journal of Agricultural Economics.
The author notes that economists usually do not address ethical issues but that he will do so in terms of questions about the food system and how ethical considerations affect the way food is distributed.
Accepting Client Assignments
Outstanding client service begins with a full understanding of the client organization, its business needs and the position to be filled. An AESC member should:
Accept only those assignments that a member is qualified to undertake on the basis of the member's knowledge of the client's needs and the member's ability to perform the specific assignment.
Disclose promptly conflicts of interest known to the AESC member and accept assignments only if all affected parties have expressly agreed to waive any conflict.
Develop an understanding with the client that, among other things, makes clear the organizational entity that is defined as the client organization, the fees and expenses to be charged, and any ongoing assurances or guarantees relating to fulfillment of the assignment.
Agree with the client concerning any "off-limits" restrictions or other related policies that govern when and how the member may recruit from the defined client…
Atkins, B. (2006) "Corporate Social Responsibility: Is it irresponsibility?," the Corporate Governance Advisor, pp.28-29.
Baker M.J. (2003) Business and Management research: How to complete your research project successfully. Argyll, Westburn Publishers.
Beach, Elaine 1999: The business of consulting - the basics and beyond. San Francisco, USA:
(Southwest Airlines Corporation)
The employees are always put first at Southwest Airlines, and according to the CEO Herb Kelleher, who was responsible for founding the company Southwest Airlines, the philosophy that employees come first is deeply embedded in the psyche of the company, and if the employees of the company are happy and contented and fully satisfied with their work, then they will most definitely take better care of the customers of the company, and this is exactly what happens at Southwest Airlines. When the customers are happy at the treatment that they receive at Southwest Airlines, they, quite naturally keep coming back for more, and this in turn makes the shareholders extremely happy and satisfied. The employees at Southwest Airlines are some of the best and most highly paid employees of any airline, and in general, all the walls of the company are always filled with several pictures of…
Abenes, Fiorello B. "Marketing Study of Southwest Airlines" Retrieved at http://www.csupomona.edu/~lbabenes/MBA/SouthwestMarketingStrategies.doc. Accessed 30 August, 2005
Aviation Accident Brief" (2002) Retrieved at http://www.ntsb.gov/publictn/2002/AAB0204.htm . Accessed 30 August, 2005
100 Best Corporate Citizens for the year 2005" (Spring 2005) Business Ethics Magazine.
Retrieved at http://www.business-ethics.com/whats_new/100best.html . Accessed 29 August, 2005