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When most people think of Costa ica, they will often associate it with a tropical resort on the beach or in the mountains. This is because the country has been focused on creating a strong image through promoting itself to tourists and large corporations. ("Costa ica," 2012) The combination of these factors has improved the standard living and land ownership. To fully understand the business traditions and customs of the nation requires looking at a number of factors. To include: the differences in culture globally, the complexities of global finance / accounting, the economics of global business, how this relates to Matthew 28:19, the internal business / cultural perspectives, cross cultural management and the marketing differences among various cultures. Together, these elements will provide the greatest insights as to why Costa ica has become so popular.
The Difference in Cultures Globally
Costa ica is founded upon Spanish traditions…
Costa Rica. (2012). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Costa ica & Co.
Strategic analysis of the global agricultural economy
Competitive Financial Landscape
Dole Food Co. & Competitors
"Costa ica used to be known principally as a producer of bananas and coffee, but pineapples have surpassed coffee as the number two agricultural export. Manufacturing and industry's contribution to GDP overtook agriculture in the 1990s, led by foreign investment in Costa ica's free trade zone. Well over half of that investment has come from the United States. Del Monte, Dole, and Chiquita have a large presence in the banana and pineapple industries" (U.S. Department of State, 2010).
In consideration of Costa ica's booming agricultural industry, and its role in global supply of bananas and other tropical fruits as a target site for investors, strategic growth models should be designed to promote the expansion and sustainability of the nation's natural resource-based economy of scale. Selection of Costa ica was based on…
Background Note: Costa Rica (2010). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2019.htm
Chiquita Brands International, Inc. (2010). Hoovers. Retrieved from: http://www.hoovers.com
Chiquita Brands International, Inc. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.chiquita.com/
Del Monte Foods (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.delmonte.com/
Traditional Christmas foods in Costa Rica, on the other hand, include the tamal (corn flour dough stuffed with potatoes, vegetables and pork or chicken, then boiled in plantain leaves); pupusa (tortilla with cheese, corn and whatever); vigoron (cabbage, tomato, yucca and fried pork rind, served on a plantain leaf); and grilled pork, chicken and sausage. Many Costa Ricans also eat the traditional U.S. Christmas meal, but insist on their traditional tomal.
The Christmas Tree
Costa Ricans decorate fragrant cypress trees with ornaments and lights. Sometimes they use the dried branches of coffee shrubs or a large evergreen branch instead. In addition, they adorn their trees with white paint, brightly colored strips of paper, small figures, and place and they place a gold star on top of the tree. Americans use fir, spruce or pine for their trees, but decorate the trees in similar ways.
Religious Influence on Celebrations
Costa ica is a democratic republic, headed by President. Government is also headed by president. President and Legislative Assembly (parliament with 57 deputies) are elected once every 4 years. President unites executive power and he appoints cabinet of ministers. President is assisted by two vice presidents; one of them is also represented in cabinet. In 1969 Assembly ratified constitutional amendment, which imposed limitations on presidency and deputy only for one term. Nevertheless deputies can be reelected, while president got such right only in 2003 after amendment was recognized to be anti-constitutional. Such change allowed Oscar Arias to be reelected in president elections of 2006. Offices of Comptroller General of the epublic, the Procurator General of the epublic and Ombudsman are not controlled by government.
Executive central power in the provinces represented by governors appointed by president has limited power. In Costa ica provincial legislatures are absent and provincial agencies experience…
self-Sustainability been in Costa Rica when it comes to the environment and creating jobs.
Arriagada, R., Ferraro, P., Sills, E., Pattanayak, S., & Cordero-Sancho, S. (2012). Do Payments for Environmental Services Affect Forest Cover? A Farm-Level Evaluation from Costa Rica. Land Economics, 88(2), 382-399.
his article discusses PES or payments for environmental services. PES in the study shows an increase in forest cover from farmers who would ordinarily reduce forest cover to raise crops. he PES program incorporated with Costa Rican farmers has been the longest running program showing excellent recovery of the natural environment.
Blackman, A., & Naranjo, M. (2012). Does Eco-Certification have Environmental Benefits? Organic Coffee in Costa Rica. SSRN Journal, 83, 58-66. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1713888
Eco-certification improves the environmental performance of farmers and is gaining popularity in recent times for coffee crops. he article suggests it could lend to farmers conserving the environment more in order to…
The authors examined the Osa and Golfito region in relation to resource perceptions of community leaders. They discovered natural resources to be the #1 perceived community strength. Along with this is the perceived civic participation that could play a key role in producing sustainability in terms of tourism and environmental conservation.
Ra-thzel, N., & Uzzell, D. (2013). Trade unions in the green economy. New York, NY: Routledge.
In chapter 10, "Climate change, trade unions and rural workers in labor-environmental alliances in the Amazon Rainforest" by Joao Paulo, Candia Veiga, and Scott B. Martin, they discuss on-site assessment of a five-year long project in the Arapiuns River in the westeer Para region. They discusses Finnish involvement and the reason for the project. The project serves to reduce deforestations as well as strengthen local communities.
Located in the Northern Plains area of Costa ica, Monteverde is a bit more accessible than some of the other parks and preserves in the country, as well.
Identify the current monetary exchange rate.
The currency is the Costa ica Colon, and, according to the ONADA.com currency converter, the estimated exchange rate for Tuesday, October 14, 2008 is 1 U.S. Dollar = 560.810 Costa ican Colon or 1 Costa ican Colon
CC) = 0.001783 U.S. Dollar (USD).
Identify what travel documentation is required to enter your chosen country.
There are regulations regarding visas and other documents to enter Costa ica. You'll need a valid passport with at least one free visa page, and at least six months left before the passport expires. You're also required to have a return airline ticket and at least $200 in cash when you enter the country. All visitors must pay a $26 dollar exit…
Editors. (2008). Costa Rica in facts. Retrieved 14 Oct. 2008 from the Costa Rica Tourism Web site: http://www.tourism.co.cr/costa-rica-general-info/costa-rica-country-details/costa-rica-in-facts.html.
Editors. (2008). FSBO Costa Rica: Country facts. Retrieved 14 Oct. 2008 from the FSBO-Costa-Rica Web site: http://www.fsbo-costa-rica.com/costa-rica/index.html.
Editors. (2008.) So you've got three days in San Jose. Retrieved 14 Oct. 2008 from the Costa Rica Tourism Web site: http://www.tourism.co.cr/costa-rica-geographical-division/costa-rica-central-valley-region/so-youve-got-three-days-in-san-jose.html.
Editors. (2004). Tortuguero National Park. Retrieved 14 Oct. 2008 from the Costa-Rica-Guide Web site: http://costa-rica-guide.com/Natural/Tortuguero.html .
give me a brief overview of what you are going to do concerning eco-tourism, sustainable development, and cultural ecology and how they apply to Costa Rica
Costa Rica is internationally recognized for its continuous efforts in protecting natural resources and ensuring biodiversity. Research shows that the country supports more than five percent of global biodiversity. These conservation efforts of its citizens have continued to attract millions of tourists to the country's reserves and parks. The coastal environments, cloud forests, mountaintops, and volcanoes are famous for sheltering different species of animals. Different types of animals like scarlet macaws, toucans, quetzals, and hummingbirds are found in the country's tropical ecosystem. Costa Rica's remarkable biodiversity provides a base for nature-based tourism. The diverse landscape, coffee farms, agricultural fields, stunning beaches, mosaic forests, and pastures offer tourists and tourists alike a natural haven for exploration of tropical biodiversity, rich culture, and good…
Honey, Martha "Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise? Second ed. Washington, DC: Island Press. 2008. Print
Fennell, David. "Ecotourism: An introduction" London, England: Routledge. 1999. Print
Klak, Thomas Sustainable Ecotourism Development in Central America and the Caribbean: Review of Debates and Conceptual Reformulation" Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2007. Print
Destination Country: Costa ica
Aspects of product needing change in Costa ica
Emerging markets entry
Special services requirement
Forms of investment
Competitors in Costa ica
For any company that considers operating internationally, there are many alternatives to select from for the mode of entry in the foreign markets. While foreign direct investment (FDI) is considered most pervasive form of entry mode by transnational corporations, smaller firms often consider partnering with a local firm or exporting their merchandize to the foreign destination country. By exporting and partnering with local firms, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) better understand the political, economic, and regulatory environment of destination country. As a beginning point, the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) provides effective guidance for the U.S. firms investing abroad. The website of DOC publishes 'country commercial guide' for each country, thereby making it easier for local investors to select potentially lucrative industry sectors…
Dawar, N.N. & Chattopadhyay, A. (2002). Rethinking marketing programs for emerging markets. Long-Range Planning, 35(5), 457-474. Retrieved from: http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/39704/wp320.pdf
Export.gov. (2012). Country Commercial Guide Summary. Retrieved from: http://export.gov/costarica/doingbusinessincostarica/index.asp
IMF. (2012). Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from: http://www.imf.org/external /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Ecotourism Industry in Costa ica and Cuba
Many countries rely upon tourism as a major source of revenue for local businesses. The volatility in the industry has often caused major financial downturns for tourism-based economies. To deal with this problem many countries are targeting a new consumer, the eco-friendly traveler. Ecotourism is the fastest growing sector of the tourism industry with an average annual growth rate of 20 to 30%. (Egan, 2001). Many view ecotourism as a viable way to protect the natural environment and create social and economic benefits for local communities (Buchsbaum, 2004). The issue with ecotourism is whether or not its implementation in a given area is actually creating sustainable land use and conservation efforts or harming local economies and contributing to the overuse of natural resources.
Although there are several competing definitions of ecotourism, a commonly accepted explanation is it is "purposeful travel to…
Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha (May 3, 2004). Ecotourism and Sustainable: Development in Costa Rica. Retrieved from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05052004-171907/unrestricted/EcotourismCostRica.pdf
Egan, Timothy (May 20, 2001). Uneasy Being Green: Tourism Runs Wild. The New York Times.
Garen, Eva J (2000). Appraising Ecotourism in Conserving Biodiversity. Foundations of Natural Resources Policy and Management. (Clark, Tim, Willard, Andrew, and Cromley, Christina Eds.) Yale University Press: New Haven, 221-251.
Honey, M. (1999). Ecotourism and Sustainable Development. Who owns Paradise? Island Press, Washington D.C.
Pepperidge Farm Product Into Costa Rica
Marketing and Management Assessments:
To understand the business situation in any country one has to understand the situation of the country and its people. This particular country is a success story of the South Americas. This is a relatively peaceful country and since the 19th century there has been only two brief periods of violence that has interfered with its democratic development. There has been a development of the country in terms of the technology sectors and in the area of tourism. This is primarily because it is very close to the United States and near the Panama Region. The main production of the country comes from agriculture and the country has been suffering in that sector. The problem is not connected with land ownership as that is widespread. In terms of popular occupations, agriculture still employs 20% of the population, industry employs 22%…
'Business in Costa Rica" (2002) Retrieved from http://www.costarica.net/features/business.htm
Conceptual Proposal for a National Action Plan (December, 2002) "U.S.-Central America Free Trade Agreement, Integral Co-operation Agenda" Costa Rica. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.in/search?q=cache:QrtAUY0tpzMJ:www.ustr.gov/regions/whemisphere/camerica/2002-%20Costa%2520Rica%2520public%2520version.PDF+Costa+Rica+Business++competition+and+distribution& ; hl=en& ie=UTF-8
'Costa Rica" The World Fact Book. (18 December, 2003) Retrieved from http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/cs.html Accessed on 02/22/2004
"Investing and doing business in Costa Rica" (2000) Retrieved from http://www.businesscostarica.com / Accessed on 02/22/2004
Costa Rican Economy from the FDI Perspective
Development of a nation results from a number of national characteristics and policies, pertaining to extra-economic and economic matters. No Latin American nation is developed -- in fact, all are far from it, which is a harsh reminder of the fact that their task is challenging and mostly pending. However, the Latin American region is quite heterogeneous, with respect to both income (a 15:1 difference exists between the nation that is richest and that which is poorest) as well as relative achievements and strengths. Numerous Latin American nations exhibit, together with failures in salient policy, a few successes that are worth studying and, perhaps, emulating. In the past three decades, the Costa Rican nation has, fairly consistently, implemented major foreign investment and trade reform, among others. This has generated some valuable outcomes with respect to export composition and volume, economic sectorial composition, and…
Kahlke, Andreas, et al. Foreign Direct Investment in Costa Rica: Industrial Upgrading in a Competitive Global Economy-Some Factors. Diss. 2015.
Larrain, Felipe, Luis F. Lopez-Calva, and Andres Rodriguez-Clare. "Intel: a case study of foreign direct investment in Central America." Centre for International Development Working Paper 58 (2000).
OECD "ATTRACTING KNOWLEDGE-INTENSIVE FDI TO COSTA RICA: CHALLENGES AND POLICY OPTIONS." (2012). Online
Sohn, Ira. "Economic and financial reform in Costa Rica: challenges and opportunities to 2025." The Journal of Applied Business and Economics 15.1 (2013): 77.
Outcomes to be Assessed:
The primary objective is to see that subjects of the program cease smoking and remain abstinent from tobacco use. This will be the primary outcome to be assessed therefore. Individuals in both the experiment and control groups would be consulted at the six-month juncture and the one year point in order to determine how many among them have remained abstinent from tobacco use in that duration and up to that point.
Other outcomes to be assessed would be long-term health factors relating to the use of tobacco. According to statistics compiled and sponsored by the T.J. Samson Community Hospital in Glasgow, Kentucky and most recently updated in the spring of 2006, habitual smokers of cigarettes are "fourteen times as likely to die of lung cancer" and twice as susceptible to fatality by heart disease. (T.J.S.C.H, 1) This means, according to the Community Hospital, that…
American Heart Association (AHA). (2009). Smoking Cessation. Americanheart.org.
Bickman, L. & Rog, D.J. (2009). Randomized Controlled Trials for Evaluation and Planning. The Sage Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods.
Euromonitor International (EI). (2009). Tobacco in Costa Rica. Euromonitor.com
Fiore, M.C.; Novotny, T.E.; Pierce, J.P.; Giovino, G.A.; Hatziandreu, E.J.; Newcomb, P.A.; Surawicz, T.S. & Davis, R.M. (1990). Methods Used to Quit Smoking in the United States. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(20), 2760-2765.
9% of total GDP in Colombia (U.S.$3,524 million) and generates 386,000 direct jobs, equivalent to 1.8% of total employment in the country (Tourism Industry in Colombia).
The Composition of Tourism in Colombia
With 3,208 km of coastline (1,760 km on Caribbean Sea and 1,448 km on Pacific Ocean),
and 400 km of Amazon forest and Andean mountains, Colombia has a vast array of possible tourist destinations.
Some of the reasons tourists are interested in visiting Colombia would be its privileged location on the continent. All the environments of the tropics are present: glaciers, beaches, plains, rainforests, and deserts, which all add to its desirability (Where to go?).
Colombia also has countless tourist destinations offering a wide array of activities. Even the most jaded traveler can't help but be swept up by the magic of Cartagena, steeped in history and gentle people. Oozing romance, the old city is a warren of…
"1995-2000 Tourism-Sector Development Program." 2000. Mexico's Tourism Policy. 16 Apr 2009 .
"About Mexico." n.d. visitmexico. 15 Apr 2009 .
"Colombia Tourism." 1988. Geographic org. 16 Apr 2009 .
"Costa Rica has something for everybody." n.d. Costa Rica Tourism and Travel Bureau . 15 Apr 2009 .
mechanisms behind self-sustainability in Costa ica in regards to the environment and job creation. The world knows Costa ica as a self-sustained country; however, what kind of sustainability and the kinds of organizations that carry out such endeavors is also important to know. I would change this portion of the research paper in terms of providing visual aids like maps and pictures of the people in charge of the self-sustaining practices and organizations. The thing I like most about this portion of the paper is the ability to reflect on a topic that remains important throughout the world. That is conservation of the environment and job creation. The thing I like least about this section is the lack of use of visual aids to represent better the idea or concept.
What do you think is the best way to generate self-sustainability in an environmentally conscious country that also creates jobs…
Castro-Tanzi, S., Dietsch, T., Urena, N., Vindas, L., & Chandler, M. (2012). Analysis of management and site factors to improve the sustainability of smallholder coffee production in Tarrazu, Costa Rica. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 155, 172-181. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2012.04.013
Davies, A., & Leonard, L. (2012). Enterprising Communities. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Kuzdas, C., Wiek, A., Warner, B., Vignola, R., & Morataya, R. (2014). Sustainability Appraisal of Water Governance Regimes: The Case of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Environmental Management,54(2), 205-222. doi:10.1007/s00267-014-0292-0
Morgan, M. (2013). "Social Entrepreneurship: The Ideal Business for Humanity and the Econo" by Maya D. Horgan. Scholarship.claremont.edu. Retrieved 14 February 2015, from http://scholarship.claremont.edu/pomona_theses/79
Obviously, the concept of opportunity cost is very useful for making decisions (Mankiw, 2008) because at the end of the fiscal year, the person who chose to vacation for five days in Costa ica would have $1,700 less in his or her bank account that the person who chose to stay home and work instead of going to Costa ica. Without considering opportunity costs, a person could make the mistake of considering only the actual cost of the Costa ico trip and never realize that the decision would actually cost an additional $1,000 compared to the alternative choice being considered.
Mankiw, N.G. (2008).…
Mankiw, N.G. (2008). Principles of Economics. Chula Vista, CA: South-Western
ace and Sexuality
The Booysen rape case is quite enlightening since it uncovers legal suppositions of how before the law was subject to mediation by race and more particularly over determined by interception of blackness and femaleness properties. There were prohibitions of interracial marriages as well as sexual relations as found in the post emancipation legislation of the U.S. South. The cape slave emancipation came up in an era where there existed marked competing definitions of race. A study of more cases after the emancipation indicates that there was a limit when it came to the women's experience of freedom. Most of the authors in time have generally being concerned with elusive myths that concern white women as being victims of black rapists as opposed to ways through which colonialism had created conditions that authorized the pervasive rape of black women by white men. The Booysen case suggest the centrality…
Frohlick, S.(2003).Fluid Exchanges: The Negotiation of Intimacy between Tourist Women and Local Men in a Transnational Town in Caribbean Costa Rica.
Scully, P.(1997). Rape, Race and the sexual policies of colonial identities.
other intangible assets such as patents and management strength. Finally, those future earnings are discounted to arrive at a net present value. Interbrand discounts against current interest rates and also against the brand's overall risk profile to factor in brand strength. Considerations include market leadership, stability, and global reach -- or the ability to cross both geographic and cultural borders. The final result values the brand as a financial asset. BusinessWeek and Interbrand believe this figure comes closest to representing a brand's true economic worth. (Business Week, Aug, 2007 (http://www.businessweek.com/pdfs/2007/0732_globalbrands.pdf)
Among the top 100 brands the U.S. has the largest representation with a full 52 brands on the list. This is comparable to no other nation. The U.S. also boast the highest rankings in high tech brands, producing electronic support systems, like software and PCs and/or support functions for them, as well as food and beverage provider brands, while Japan…
BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2008, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:
Business Week, Aug, 2007, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:
International Marketing Plan
Although many countries have manufacturing facilities, each has benefits and drawbacks. When looking for a country to do business in, I considered costs related to manufacturing, transportation, export-import files, and tariffs. After choosing Costa Rica as my manufacturing provider, I further researched aspects of geographical, political, economic, and social nature in order to comfortably conduct business there. Lastly, I established my company, product, business, costs, revenues, and credit line in order to comfortably conduct business there.
Product manufacturing and distribution
Producing a product is not an easy task. There are many things to consider and decisions to make, such as cost, labor, and quality manufacturing. These questions, and other facets, need to be addressed, like the one which follow: Who will produce the product? What type of materials will be used to create the product. Where will this product be manufactured? Will the manufacturer be all inclusive…
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…
Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact
Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.
Tourism vs. The Environment
Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries. In fact, it is believed that tourism will grow at approximately four percent per year through the year 2010. Tourism is usually good for the economy but is it is not always good for the environment. Mankind does have a way of messing up whatever we touch. Whenever something is taken out of its natural environment and placed elsewhere, there is an effect on something. Hikers generally stay on paths. Every so often a hiker just must have a photograph of a flower in the middle of a field and trounces off to get it. In doing so, rare vegetation might be killed. Destroyed vegetation, air pollution, water pollution and refuge are just a few of the problems irritated by tourism.
Sprawl is - no pun intended - a growing problem. In Lancaster ounty, Pennsylvania, sprawl and relative…
Campbell, page 4.
Lindberg, page 11/
Sierra Club sues state of Hawaii before it funds tourism," http://www.mnplan.state.mn.us/issues/scan.htm. Retrieved 4 November 2002.
The definition of violence is one that might best be described as it is at Dictionary.com; i.e.; a violent act or proceeding. There are other definitions to be sure, however, the definition used herein is the one that most constitutes the premise of the question is violence socially constructed? Since the question, in this specific space, directly refers to whether I agree, or disagree, with the view that violence is socially constructed, I would have to say that I most vehemently agree that it is.
One need only look as far as the local newspaper to discern that America (as an example) is a very violent country. Constant reports of innocent (and not so innocent) bloodshed is broadcast on the nightly news, reports of murders, slayings, and violence in all its forms are abundant in nature. America is a nation of violence and its leaders adhere to that culture…
Aluf, B. (2011) Understanding history won't help us make peace, Foreign Policy, Issue 184, p. 70
Barron, P. & Sharpe, J.; (2008) Local conflict in post-Suharto Indonesia: Understanding variations in violence levels and forms through local newspapers, Journal of East Asian Studies, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 395 -- 423
Barron, P.; Kaiser, K.; Pradhan, M.; ( 2004) Local conflict in Indonesia: Measuring incidence and identifying patterns, Policy Research Working Paper No. 3384. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Diehl, P.F. & Lepgold, J.;( 2003) Regional conflict management, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield
Mexico's Trade Strategy
Mexico has pursued a three-dimensional trade strategy perhaps more diligently than even the United States according to Schott (Studer & Wise, 2007). Mexico has been an active participant in multilateral talks since its GATT accession in 1986 and was the host country for the special Summit of the Americas in Monterrey and for the hemispheric trade talks in Puebla. Mexico is perhaps most famous as the instigator of NAFTA as well as many other FTAs with countries around the world including key industrial markets such as the European Union (EU, The European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and Japan. In addition, Mexico entered in FTAs with olivia, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, The G3 (Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela), Honduras, Israel and Nicaragua during the period January 1995 to June 2001 (Schott in Studer & Wise, 2007). It is important to emphasize that Mexico has many more FTAs…
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, 1988. Basel Convention. Retrieved from: http://www.basel.int/
Bown, C.P. (2009). U.S. -- China Trade Conflicts and the Future of the WTO. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 33 (1), winter/spring 2009, pp. 27-48.
Bown, C.P & McCulloch (2005). U.S. Trade Policy Toward China: Discrimination and its Implications.
China and Mercosur: Perpectives for Bilateral Trade (2007). China Programme 11 (7). International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. Retrieved from: http://ictsd.org/i/news/bridges/3164/
Duneier, M. "Sidewalk" (p. 115-154)
Summary of the author's argument
Despite the reluctance of many more affluent citizens to accept them, there have been growing numbers of homeless people in general and homeless minority member in particular eking out a living in inner urban settings through recycling and scavenging. These processes are especially evident in New York City where the homeless were pressured by Amtrak police to leave Pennsylvania Station, creating a need for them to forge a new way of life on the peripheries. For instance, Duneir points out that, "Today, the sidewalks around Sixth Avenue and Eighth Street are bustling with many minorities from other parts of the city and the suburbs who must be assimilated into the neighborhood's sidewalk life" (p. 128). The process of assimilation was facilitated by laws that allowed the sale of written materials on sidewalks by otherwise-unemployable residents, a process that the author…
The Partido Revoluationario Institucional Party was an "enormous social network that reached the most remote parts of the country..." (Aerni, 2001) the PRI Party is accredited with having created "the largest public interest groups such as Unions, Farmer Organizations and Consumer Organizations and it somehow managed to keep the political influence of the powerful Catholic Church under tight control." (Aerni, 2001) in order to assess agricultural biotechnology and the environment from the view of developing countries it would also be necessary to asses the traditional crops grown in developing countries. For instance, Mexico begin modernizing its agriculture following World War II and established a research center CIMMYT which was an international research center for the improvement of corn and wheat and later added was high-yielding corn varieties. The agricultural revolution in the Philippines began when the International Rice Research Institute was established in the 1960s.
Stakeholder Perception of Domestic Problems…
Dunlap, Riley E. (1994) International Attitudes Towards Environment and Development. In Helge Ole Bergesen and Georg Parmann (eds) Green Globe Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development 1994. Oxford University Press. 115-126. Online available at http://www.fni.no/YBICED/94_09_dunlap.pdf
Holl, Karen D. et al. (1999) Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Population Growth and the Environment: University Students in Costa Rica and the United States. Environmental Conservation Journal 1999. Cambridge University Press 10 May, 2002.
Aerni, Phillip (2001) Public Attitudes Toward Agricultural Biotechnology in Developing Countries: A Comparison Between Mexico and the Philippines. STI Research Report. 2001 July. Harvard University. Online available at http://www.botanischergarten.ch/debate/AerniHarvard20010710.pdf
30-Country Poll Finds Worldwide Consensus that Climate Change is a Serious Problem (2006) Concern Growing Sharply 25 Apr 2007. World Public Opinion Organization. Online available at http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/btenvironmentra/187.php?lb=bte&pnt=187&nid=&id=
They might make good holiday spots but they do not make good political partners.
Because almost all of the countries that do not maintain a military have treaties with nations that do, few nations can be classified as being truly demilitarized. The nations with explicit pacifist clauses in their constitutions like Costa Rica would be unable to withstand invasion from a hostile nation and are therefore useless in terms of political coalitions. Although not despised per se, nations like Costa Rica would simply be obliterated at the hands of an aggressor.
No nation with meaningful economic or political assets has ever been unarmed. Like Machiavelli points out, wise leaders study the great societies of the past and model their states after them to ensure stability. Even nations with small populations and a reputation for non-interference like Canada have relatively strong militaries. Just as any wealthy person would want an alarm…
Countries without Armies." Army.com. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://www.army.com/countires_without_armies.html
Largest Military Expenditures, 2005." InfoPlease. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0904504.html
List of Countries by Size of Armed Forces." Wikipedia. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_size_of_armed_forces
List of Countries Without Armed Forces." Wikipedia. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_without_an_army
Sustainable Tourism Development
The aim of the essay is to gain an understanding of the rational and different approaches to tourism planning and development, sustainable tourism, current issues and impacts of tourism.
The aim is to increase awareness of the need to plan and manage tourism destinations within an international, national, regional, and local framework. Investigate current trends in planning for tourism development in a range of destinations. The stages in the planning process are discussed and apply theoretical models to practical case studies and site visits.
Understand the differing approaches to tourism planning and development and understand the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry (1000+ words)
Using the EBSCO article: The effectiveness of public policies and structural funds in enhancing tourism development.The case of Romania.
a) Discuss, using appropriate references, why a long-term approach is beneficial to destinations like Romania, and state the advantages to stakeholders…
Hence, the conflict for the London Olympics 2012 surface when the choice between the two developments had to be made. There was no denying that the city needed development but the choice was made to prepare and finish the Canary Wharf development first so as to have a good, sustainable and efficient mode of transportation that would lead the Olympic grounds to the main city. Once, the Canary Wharf was completed, the focus then turned towards the docklands. It was far more important to have the Canary Wharf structure up and ready for clear and trouble-free transportation structure during the London Olympics 2012.
Task 3B - Explain the implications of balancing supply and demand which will need to be considered in the Olympics development. You need to state why there is a need to balance the supply and suggest possible consequences if this is not considered by the planners:
Evaluation of the Canary Wharf advancement has actually been extremely polarized. A brand-new monetary center has actually been built and analyses recommend that 'every a-g 1 million of public sector expense produced net extra advantages in the Urban Advancement Location of 23 tasks, 8300 sq m of workplace flooring area, 7.8 real estate devices plus numerous various other varied perks' (Rhodes and Tyler, 1998:32 estimated in Hamnett 2003:242). However, criticism has actually concentrated upon the elimination of neighborhood democratic controls and the replacement of the existing populace by a brand-new, more thriving team of young experts. In between 1981 and 1991 Tower
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…
Applegate, Ed and Johnsen, Art. Cases in advertising and marketing management: real =
situations for tomorrow's managers Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Adhikary, Nripal. "Treatment Process." Abari Adobe and Bamboo Research Institute. 2009.
Web. Available at: . 09 October 2009.
A. (RECOPE, S.A), based on Costa Rica. There is also the Columbian nationalized oil conglomerate operating under the name Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos (ECOPETROL). oth of Chevron's largest global competitors are nationalized by the nations they operate in, which make pricing and market execution strategies in these specific countries difficult. In addition, there are significant cultural differences between the U.S. And these countries as well. As a result, there continues to be a strong push towards creating more co-ownership of oil refineries, production centers and operations between U.S..-based companies working in the area and national governments. In the case of the razilian government, who approached Chevron about such an arrangement in 2008 specifically for partnership with Petroleo rasileiro S.A., Chevron declined to enter into a nationalized-based alliance with the company and nation and instead sold the assets of their refineries to rasileiro S.A. instead (Wall Street Journal, 2008). In Mexico,…
Arun Agrawal, Maria Carmen Lemos. (2007). A Greener Revolution in the Making? Environmental Governance in the 21st Century. Environment, 49(5), 36,38-45. Retrieved January 10, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1286913401).
Chevron, (2008). SEC Filings by Chevron. Retrieved January 10, 2009, from Chevron Investor Relations Web site: http://investor.chevron.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=130102&p=irol-sec&secCat01.1_rs=11&secCat01.1_rc=10
Amber Corrin (2008, November). Chevron Sells Marketing Interests in Kenya, Uganda. Global Refining & Fuels Report, 12(22), Retrieved January 10, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1593172881).
Joanna Franco (2008, March). Chevron Sanctions Four Refinery Upgrade Projects. Octane Week, XXIII (11), Retrieved January 10, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1455081191).
Globalization and American Health Care
What explains the directionality of flows in health care? Patients, health workers, managerial practices?
Globalization has brought in the information revolution and this has again brought changes in the medical profession and the way health care is being administered. It has also brought in unforeseen problems and expansion of the health care issues and running debates on health care is still strong. The flows of healthcare primarily have to deal with the patient -- how the patient is induced to seek treatment and the process of the treatment and the final discharge and post treatment care. This also involves lot of information exchange, and abiding by insurance contracts, payment options and quality care for the patients. (Phillips, 2005)
The second set is the personnel who include doctors, paramedics and all staff. The flow of work of these sections follows the patient and there are changes…
Bloche, Maxwell Gregg. (2003) "The privatization of health care reform: legal and regulatory perspectives" Oxford University Press.
Briesacher, Becky; et al. (2003) "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Prescription Coverage and Medication Use" Health Care Financing Review, vol. 25, no. 2, pp: 63-66.
Edelheit, Jonathan. (2007) "Understanding the American Healthcare System" Global
Healthcare Magazine, Retrieved 14 June, 2011 from http://www.globalhealthcaremagazine.com/issue-detail.php?item=5&issue=1
A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization
The Maya are a group of people of southern Mexico and northern Central America with some three thousand years of loaded history. The Maya were a division of the Mesoamerican Pre-Columbian civilizations. Dissimilar to popular belief, the Maya people never vanished completely, there are millions that still live in the area, and a lot of them still speak one of the many Maya languages (A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization, 2011). The Maya are perhaps the most well-known of the traditional civilizations of Mesoamerica. Mayan history began in the Yucatan around 2600 B.C., Mayan history grew to fame around A.D. 250 in contemporary southern Mexico, Guatemala, western Honduras, El Salvador, and northern Belize (Mayan History, n.d.).
Building on the innate inventions and thoughts of previous civilizations such as the Olmec, the Maya advanced astronomy, calendrical systems and hieroglyphic writing. The Maya…
A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.art-poster-
Cecil, Jessica. (2011). The Fall of the Mayan Civilisation. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/cultures/maya_01.shtml
Central America: Connecting Continents, Keeping Oceans Apart. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globio.org/glossopedia/article.aspx?art_id=46#
In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)
Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…
Krieger N. & Smith, G.(2004) Bodies County and body counts: Epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiological Review Journal 200:26:92-103
Coker, AL et al. (2004) Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Pediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology 2004 Jul; 18 (4): 260-9. University of Texas School of Public Health.
Bohn, D.K. et al. (2004) Influences of Income, Education, Age, and Ethnicity on Physical Abuse before and During Pregnancy. Journal Obstetrics Gynecology Neonatal Nursing 2004 Sep-Oct; 33(5): 561-71.
Salihu, Boy a. (2004) Intimate Partner Violence and Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review International Journal of Fertility Women's Medicine 2004 Jul-Aug; 49(4): 159-64. Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.
The Impact of Outsourcing on Information Technology in the U.S.
The greatest impact of outsourcing has been the decrease in the number of jobs in U.S. And this is only a continuation of the process that had begun earlier with the contracting of jobs by the large companies to small suppliers. Only now the jobs are going overseas and this is hurting the chances of certain categories of Americans from getting jobs. In the case of Information Technology jobs, this is a recent development, and even in 2003, the state of Ohio had forecast the career of IT as certain to succeed sort of a career. According to the Department of Job and Family Services in that state had said that the number of computer support specialists would grow by a certain 87% or a total of 1,682 persons a year throughout the next ten years. Following this group…
Brunelli, Mark. Report: Offshore outsourcing helps U.S. job market. (15 April, 2004)
Accessed 15 May, 2005. Available from http://searchcio.techtarget.com/originalContent/0,289142,sid19_gci959840,00.html
Gambling with the Health of the U.S. Economy? Accessed 15 May, 2005. Available from http://www.royalforum.com/article.php?id=59
Griswold, Daniel. Foreign Outsourcing Invigorates U.S. Economy. Accessed 15 May, 2005.
" However, osch's writings were by no means one-dimensional, for he addressed many universal aspects of life. Indeed, osch's versatility as a writer is reflected in his ability to write works of fantasy, political thought, biographies, history, social realism, and cultural commentaries. He also published several poems and short stories in Cuban and Dominican newspapers and magazines, and worked for a period of time as literary editor for the influential newspaper, Listin Diario.
The fact that Juan osch was, first and foremost, a humanist who was interested in all aspects of human interest and welfare is clearly reflected in his writings. for, osch did not merely dwell on the miserable plight of the rural poor, but also reflected on the materialism and hypocrisy of the upper classes. For instance, in La bella alma de don Damian (the eautiful Soul of Don Damian), osch depicts Don Damian's soul examining itself with…
Alexander, R.J. Presidents of Central America, Mexico, Cuba, and Hispaniola:
Conversations and Correspondence. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
Cambeira, a. Quisqueya La Bella: The Dominican Republic in Historical and Cultural
Perspective. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997.
When this takes place, it is up to the principal to implement the required changes through his influence on the teachers. This is a very time consuming and perseverant effort for all administrators and that includes principals. This brings us to another point that has to be enquired among principals - their perseverance. At the same time, principals are the natural leader among teachers and they are always expected to give the direction and support for all teachers.
This includes providing guidance for identification, selection and development of programs to meet the needs of the students subject to the vision of the school. He also has to ensure that teachers are provided the time, resources, and opportunities for professional development so that the entire curriculum is taken care of. This is probably the most important duty for a principal, and unless the curriculum is actually put into effect, all changes…
Assessment of Experience." World Education Forum. Retrieved at http://www2.unesco.org/wef/en-leadup/findings_techno%205.shtm. Accessed on 23 May, 2005
Change Process" Retrieved at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/envrnmnt/drugfree/sa3chang.htm. Accessed on 23 May, 2005
Lawrence, Jon. "Letter from the Chair: Curricular Change" Retrieved at http://www.ps.uci.edu/physics/news4/lawrence4.html. Accessed on 23 May, 2005
MacDonald, Brock W "Trends in General Education and Core Curriculum: A Survey." Retrieved at http://www.erin.utoronto.ca/~w3asc/trends.htm . Accessed on 23 May, 2005
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
Cashew fruit Maranon.
Cashews (also known as Maranon) are fruits from the cashew tree and originate in tropical America. It is easy to confuse the actual cashew fruit as a result of its appearance, as it has a peduncle uniting it to the tree. Some people experience trouble eating this fruit because they either believe that they should eat the peduncle or that they can eat the fruit itself without roasting it first. Trying to bite on the shell results in a very bitter taste and the fruit is actually poisonous in its raw version (Blake, 2009, p. 105). The peduncle is similar to a paprika while the nut is smaller, tough, and it is positioned outside of the paprika-like peduncle.
The peduncle separating the seed from the tree can be dried and it tastes like a combination between a prune and a fig. Its color varies and it can…
Blake, B. (2009). The New Key to Costa Rica. Ulysses Press.
Rogol, E. (2010). Tropical Immersion: A Year in Costa Rica and Beyond. iUniverse.
"Maranon," Fruit And Nut Tree !." Retrieved September 11, 2013, from http://vienaqui.com/2012/12/04/maranon-fruit-and-nut-tree/
Direct IMPACT that Catholic Voices had on the media contributing to the perceived success of the Pope's visit in 2010 amidst the volatile negative climate surrounding the Catholic Church in that year
Even if people are interested in knowing about various religions and getting inspired from them, a lot many get put off from the topic when religious intolerance begets riots and uproars in a city, an instance that was observed in America when the issue of burning the Korans arose. Also, the issue of the New York Islamic centre sparked a number of controversies (Ingebretsen, 2005). One way that the Catholic Church and Pope have been able to avoid such criticism in the past is by befriending the media. One of the most recent examples of this is the formation of the group -- Catholic Voices -- the primary purpose and objective of this group was to "amplify the…
Catholic Voices Official Website (2010). Accessed on March 12, 2011 from http://www.catholicvoices.org.uk/home
Angela Ann Zukowski and Pierre Be ' langer (ed.) Radio Presence. A Collection of International Stories & Experiences (Brussels, 2000). See articles such as: Radio vs. dictators, Unda Newsletter, x (5) (Brussels, June 1966), 1, about the role of Radio Soleil in Haiti against Jean Claude Duvalier. The same can be found in the Philippines (against Marcos) and in Peru (against Fujimori).
Bolivia. 50 an " os de Radio Pi ' o XII o el Indio-Radio, SIGNIS Media, (2), 24 -- 25 (Brussels, 2007). Costa Rica. Treinta an " os de radio cultural por los campesinos, SIGNIS Media, (2) (Brussels, 2007), 24.
Convents, G. And Beeck, T.V. 2009. FORUM DOCUMENTING CATHOLIC MEDIA ACTIVITIES ALL OVER THE WORLD: THE SIGNIS, OCIC AND UNDA ARCHIVES. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television Vol. 29, No. 1, March, pp. 113 -- 121
Economics of New Ideas and Innovations
This research paper discusses the economics of a new idea. Without new ideas and inventions, the economy might very well become stagnant or decline, as predicted by many early economists, who did not understand that impact that ideas and innovative technology had on global markets.
Technology is endogenous in the new growth theory, which holds that technology is a function of the capital and labor used to develop technology, the technology used in that process, and the economic environment. For the purpose of this paper, technology refers to the methods and tools that are used to generate with new ideas and more efficient ways of producing goods and services.
Ideas and technical innovations are crucial to the economy. If a country wants to grow, it must create an environment that encourages entrepreneurs and innovators to generate new ideas. Creating an economic environment that promotes…
Boneuve, K. (2001). Driving Innovation Through Software. The Software & Information Industry Association.
Clement, Douglas. (September, 2002). Creation Myths. The Region.
Farrell, Christopher. (1994). Economists for an Expanding Universe. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
Juma, C. 1989. The Gene Hunters: Biotechnology and the Scramble for Seeds. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
We shall, for the purposes of this paper, accept the proposition that we are moving from a culture that can be categorized as "you get what I give" to one where the customer is always right. In the real world, there are companies that do either, depending on their business model. But for the sake of argument we will assume the position of a company that is seeking to shift from the former to a more customer-centric vision of customer service. There are two elements to such a shift -- operational and cultural. Operations can be laid out in such a way that barriers to customer service that may have existed in the past are now removed, for example. Yet, because service is inherently customer-oriented, based on interactions, it is critical that the organization shifts to a customer-service-based culture. This is a massive cultural shift from an organizational…
Brady, M. & Cronin, J. (2001). Customer orientation: Effects on customer service perceptions and outcome behaviors. Journal of Service Research. Vol. 3 (3) 241-251.
Homburg, C., Muller, M. & Klarmann, M. (2011). When does salespeople's customer orientation lead to customer loyalty? The differential aspects of relational and functional customer orientation. Journal of the Acad. Mark. Sci. Vol. 39 (2011) 795-812.
Leggett, K. (2014). Forrester's top trends for customer service in 2014. Forrester. Retrieved March 22, 2014 from http://blogs.forrester.com/kate_leggett/14-01-13-forresters_top_trends_for_customer_service_in_2014
Linnenluecke, M. & Griffiths, A. (2010). Corporate sustainability and organizational culture. Journal of World Business. Vol. 45 (2010) 357-366.
Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the country with lenient regulatory policies because of increased revenues generated and the employment opportunities these services provide (Edwards 1999). Furthermore, banks seeking to conduct multinational business are attracted to countries where incorporation laws and the regulatory framework offer less regulatory oversight (Edwards 1999). The quid pro quo nature of offshore financial services is clearly indicated by Edwards's observation that, "Multinational banks provide the offshore financial centre with increased tax revenue and employment for its citizens. Because the benefits outweigh the costs, offshore financial centres have a powerful incentive to maintain lenient regulatory policies. As a result, multinational banks incorporated in an offshore financial center successfully avoid supervision by an effective home country regulator" (1999, p. 1267). Given the scope of the…
Black's Law Dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Boise, C.M. & Morriss, a.P. (2009). 'Change, Dependency, and Regime Plasticity in Offshore Financial
Intermediation: the Saga of the Netherlands Antilles.' Texas International Law Journal, vol. 45,
no. 2, pp. 377-379.
The global ecological crisis is the largest challenge which humanity has ever had to face (Gare, 2017). Besides, abusing the natural resources, our present method of consumption and production of goods, all modeled on economic production and not based on bio-capability, is jeopardizing the living conditions of humans, yet simultaneously changing the social foundations of human beings. International threats and dangers evolved when the social fabric of the ecological and social system exceeds and supersedes its environmental counterpart. Global environmental or ecological threats and dangers are not just social-psycho constructs created for promoting a new method of social regulation on the people. They are the result of an economic development model wherein environmental deficiencies are being shared by everyone, while the financial benefits would be helpful to some and it shall change our planet for a considerable period. The most probable global cataclysmic threats and dangers seem to emerge from human actions,…
4. Social and Political Life
There is a general paucity of information about the actual societal and political structure of the Olmec. While there is not much evidence to build a comprehensive picture of the daily and social life of these people, there is enough available data from certain archeological sites to provide some reasonable speculations.
One of the assumptions that is derived from the excavation of sites at San Lorenzo and then at La Venta is that the society was very centralized. This in turn has led to the view that the society was highly structured, with a hierarchical basis of order and class stratification. This also implies the existence of a ruling elite and a system of power and control, which was possibly based on religious beliefs. This view of the structure of the society is summarized as follows: "Olmec society was & #8230;highly centralized, with a…
Griffin Gillett G., the Olmec World: Ritual and Rulership,
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/olmec / (accessed 8 November, 2010).
Jones, David M. Mythology of the Aztecs and Maya, New York: Lorenz, 2007.
Lemonick M.D., Mystery of the Olmec,( Time Magazine, July 1, 1996, Volume 148, No.
The 2007 BCB survey averaged out to 7.5 out of a possible 10 "with regard to the perception of the services it offers." In the section dedicated to Barcelona's "worldwide image" the 2007 survey reached 8 out of ten from those visitors participating in the survey.
Spain isn't the only attractive meetings tourism destination by any means. There are countries all over the world seeking to attract business travelers that are part of conventions, conferences, seminars and other business-related gatherings. China is also an appealing destination for meetings tourism. The Jiangsu Tourism Company spells out some "useful tips for Meeting Planning in China" (http://tastejiangsu.com).
The old Japanese saying, "The protruding nail gets hammered down" is linked by the travel service to the possibility that some business travelers that are part of a meetings tourism group may commit a "major faux pas" during the business sessions. Hence, the ebsite explains, one…
About.com. "What is Adventure Travel." Retrieved Nov. 16, 2010, from http://www.adventuretravel.about.com . (2010).
Bawaba, Al. "Malaysia Still Has Room to Grow in Health Tourism, Says Liow." Malaysian
Government News. Retrieved Nov. 16, 2010, from GaleGroup.
Berger, Karen. "Types of Adventure Travel Tours: Challenges, Features of Soft, Medium, and Hard-Core Adventure Trips." Suite101.com. Retrieved Nov. 16, 2010, from http://www.suite101.com (2009).
The definition for "subversives" is a bit vague, but Fagen explains that in Argentina and elsewhere in Latin American dictatorships the victims of violent repression tended to be union leaders, liberal political leaders, artistic people in cultural circles, student protest leaders and media personalities (p. 41). The whole point of these horrendous repressive policies was to inspire fear, confusion and "distrust" among the general population. For those who believe the United States' military always stands on the side of democratic movements it may come as something of a shock that the U.S. funded and trained many military outfits during the time of dictators in Latin America.
"An entire generation of Latin American military officers and police were armed, trained, and 'professionalized'" by American police and military leaders (Fagen, 1992, p. 43). Fagen says the repression in Argentina was, in part, designed to "Purge ideological infection"; Argentine present General Jorge Rafael…
Fagen, Patricia Weiss. "Repression and State Security." Fear at the Edge: State Terror and Resistance in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
Hunter, Wendy. "Continuity or Change? Civil-Military Relations in Democratic Argentina,
Chile, and Peru." Political Science Quarterly 112.3 (1997): 453-475.
Remmer, Karen L. Military Rule in Latin America. University of Texas: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
For a country such as Uganda to possess sufficient health care is tremendously important to the people of the republic of Uganda. Even triumphant medical treatment for malaria can involve pain through injections of drugs and in the entire period of recuperating after the administration of the drugs. Furthermore, nervousness may crop up, threat and unavoidably a lot of money. The final thing a parent of a sick child suffering from malaria in a hospital needs to believe about is how he or she is actually going to pay out for all the costs encountered or the billing. In an ideal world, as a substitute of distressing about money, a patient or a mother or a father of a kid who is suffering from malaria should be focused on getting well or consoling the sick child respectively. Nonetheless, the entire subject of health cover can be puzzling (Trisha, 2007, p.…
Akhtar, R (ed.) 1991, Planning and Implementing Community Participation in health Programs,
in Healthcare Patterns and Planning in Developing Countries, Greenwood Press,
New York, pp. 6.
Baum, F & Sanders, D 1995, 'Can Health Promotion and Primary Health Care Achieve Health
This institution has not been anti-gays traditionally. The country has been trying to frame LGBT laws in the context of human rights as presented in the constitution. The leaders and politicians are also aware of the homophobia persisting in the country and understand that they are not as much because of the laws as they are due to macho mentality of the society. Gays and lesbians are allowed to speak at gatherings and participate in gay march and rallies but they are expected to keep everything low-key. (Stewart, p.16)
US on the other hand is more tolerant even if the state doesn't recognize allow marital status to gay couples on federal level. However some states do offer marriage licenses to gay couples however these are not recognized on national basis and can easily be rejected by other states thus denying a couple benefits that come with being legally married in…
"Belize Human Trafficking" Retrieved online 6th April 2011 < http://huntinghumantraffickers.wordpress.com/2010/10/25/belize-human-trafficking-hiv-capital-tourism-in-danger/ >
Stewart, Chuck. (2010) the Greenwood encyclopedia of LGBT issues worldwide, Volume 1 ABC-CLIO.
"CIVIL UNIONS." HRC campaign. http://www.hrc.org/issues/marriage/civil_unions.asp
Ottoson, David. State sponsored Homophobia, ILGA report May (2009). Accessed online from
It closely links human rights violations with national and international insecurities. And the concept enhances development thinking by expanding real freedoms already enjoyed by people. Protecting security, therefore, urgently requires a new consensus among all countries, whether developed or developing. It must aim at reviewing current foreign policies and aiming at creating real opportunities for people's safety and dignity.
Rethinking the Concept
Human security focuses more on generalized poverty than average well-being.
General poverty means being below a threshold of well-being. A policy on human security concerns itself mainly with persons in situations of deep want. Human development pertains to average levels of human well-being. Many believe that human security must be a priority in human development. A "prioritarian" view is for the improvement of everyone but emphasis on that of those at the bottom. An egalitarian view wants well-being to be distributed across all persons. An egalitarian person will…
Compass. Human Security. Manual on Human Rights Education with Young People:
Council of Europe, 2000. Available from http://www.eycb.coe.int/compass/en/pdf.5_10.pdf; internet: accessed 29 Oct 2009
Fuentes, Claudia F. And Aravena, Francisco Rojas. Promoting Human Security: Ethical,
Normative and Educational Frameworks in Latin America and the Caribbean.
S. domestic carriers are at period in the industry's history when these factors are already beleaguered by downturns in the global economy, increasing competition from international carriers, and the aforementioned high costs of energy.
Chapter 2: The Impact of Open Skies Agreements on Domestic and International Carriers
Under an open skies agreement, both signatories to the agreement enjoy open access to international airline routes between the two countries as well as eliminating virtually all domestic restrictions on international carriers (Lick, 1998). In an effort to develop more closely integrated pricing and route schedules, signatories to these agreements typically also seek to gain immunity from national antitrust laws (Commercial aviation: Legacy airlines must further reduce costs to restore profitability, 2004). The U.S. Department of Transportation reviews these types of airline alliances from an antitrust perspective and refuses to approval an alliance without a reciprocal open skies agreement with the foreign airline's…
Baker, C. (2004, March 1). Air France-KLM approved; competition regulators in Brussels have approved Air France's takeover of KLM, deciding the consumer comes out of the deal as a net winner. Washington also says it will not oppose the deal. Airline Business, 9.
Bilotkach, V. (2002). Asymmetric regulation and airport dominance in international aviation:
Evidence from the London-New York market. Southern Economic Journal, 74(2), 505-
Doganis, R. (2002). Flying off course: The economics of international airlines. London:
Phyllis Jay briefly touches on the subject of primates swimming in the book Behavior of Nonhuman Primates; in discussing the habitat of African monkeys, Jay writes (Jay, 1965, p. 535) that the "…distribution of arboreal monkeys is restricted by open, relatively treeless areas" and "rivers are barriers to arboreal monkeys but not to terrestrial forms, many of which swim" (Jay, p. 535).
"Long-tailed macaques are excellent swimmers, and this may be a predator avoidance technique," writes the University of isconsin's Kristina Cawthon Lang in Primate Factsheet. If the long-tailed macaque is threatened by a feral dog, raptor, python, monitor lizard or large cat, the macaque simply drops into the water and swims to safety (Lang, 2006).
In its "Science & Nature: Animals" section, the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) published a story on the Long-tailed Macaque: "Long-tailed macaques swim well and jump into the water from nearby trees" (BBC).
Ankel-Simons, Friderun. (2007). Primate Anatomy: An Introduction. St. Louis:
British Broadcasting Company. (2007). Long-tailed macaque, crab-eating monkey, Java
Monkey, cynomolgus monkey. Retrieved June 5, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/210.shtml.
S. It is at a stage where it would be considered a cash cow. Yum is feeling out international expansion opportunities for Taco Bell, but there is little possibility that Taco Bell will supplant KFC and Pizza Hut as the key driver of economic growth. Those two firms have stronger product offerings for international markets. The role that Taco Bell plays, providing cash that can fuel global expansion of other brands, is the ideal role for the company within the context of Yum Brands.
There are a couple of companies that could make a good fit for Yum. They are Starbucks and Dunkin Donuts. These firms operate in complementary segments to Yum's existing portfolio and have core product offerings that can be taken overseas, thus the industry is attractive. The stock price for the former is particularly depressed in light of their recent struggles although the latter is perhaps a…
MacNealy, Jeremy. (2007). Fool on Call: Yum! Brands Wall of China. Motley Fool. Retrieved May 8, 2009 from http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2007/10/11/fool-on-call-yum-brands-wall-of-china.aspx
CNBC Video Report. (2008). CNBC Special Report on China Features Yum! Brands. CNBC. Retrieved May 8, 2009 from http://www.yum.com/news/pressreleases/081908.asp
Yum.com website: Multiple pages. (2009). Retrieved May 8, 2009 from www.yum.com
Taco Bell website: Multiple pages. (2009). Retrieved May 8, 2009 from http://www.tacobell.com/
Hence, the model of preparation applies to Guevara's situation and choices perfectly because all of the prior knowledge and experience he had through his medical visits across Latin America motivated him to be absolutely prepared for a long battle, hence he not only stayed in the area where he could learn the most, he associated with people who had been pursuing the same goal longer then him and knew more about the things that he wanted to be aware of .
Domain knowledge that Guevara gained by staying in Guatemala and preparing was also of significant importance to sharpen the technical skills he needed to possess to succeed. Two of the most important aspects that Guevara aimed to gain through the domain knowledge were:
To familiarize himself with the rules with which a revolution or change within different societies operates in differing environments and the practical wisdom to compete in…
Anthony DePalma. The Man Who Invented Fidel: Castro, Cuba, and Herbert L. Matthews of the New York Times. New York: Public Affairs, 2006.
Barron, F. And Harrington, D.M. "Creativity, intelligence, and personality," Annual Review of Psychology, 1981, 32: 439-476.
Che Guevara. "Colonialism is Doomed" speech to the 19th General Assembly of the United Nations in New York City, 1964.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1996.
These refer to the characteristics of the political and regulatory environment (P), the economic environment (E), the socio-cultural environment and finally, the technological environment. The analysis of the climate in which an organization activates is also known as the PEST analysis.
Starbucks offers a wide selection of coffee-based beverages, with both caffeine and without caffeine. Aside their coffee beverages, they also offer whole-bean coffees, food items and coffee-related products and hardware equipment. "Starbucks stores offered a choice of regular or decaffeinated coffee beverages, a special "coffee of the day," and a broad selection of Italian-style espresso drinks. In addition, customers could choose from a wide selection of fresh-roasted whole-bean coffees (which could be ground on the premises and carried home in distinctive packages), a selection of fresh pastries and other food items, sodas, juices, teas, and coffee-related hardware and equipment."
About 61% of the sold items…
2008, Starbucks Corporation, Hoovers, http://www.hoovers.com/starbucks/--ID__15745 -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtmllast accessed on September 12, 2008
Moon, Y., Quelch, J., July 10, 2006, Starbucks: Delivering Customer Service, Harvard Business School
2008, Analysis of Starbucks, KNOL Beta - a Unit of Knowledge, http://knol.google.com/k/-/analysis-of-starbucks/ow5jbvr76bz9/8#last accessed on September 11, 2008
" In addition, Manz reports that, "It took more than a decade after the worst of the violence, but eventually the Catholic Church, the United Nations, and the president of the United States rendered a verdict about the horrors suffered by villagers in Santa Mar'a Tzeja and the rest of Guatemala." In fact, the verdict charged Guatemalan authorities with outright genocide, and the author emphasizes that, "No other country in the hemisphere has been charged with genocide."
To their credit, the people of Guatemala have managed to overcome this violent legacy and stand poised to become part of the international community in substantive ways, due in large part to the findings of this report. As Manz points out, "This judgment was of great moral importance to the people of Santa Mar'a Tzeja and so many others like them who had suffered grievously at the hands of the military. No longer…
Bolivia. (2008). U.S. government: CIA World Factbook available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Through which he concluded that each execution prevents around seven or eight people from committing murder (Worsnop 402). In 1985, an economist from the University of North Carolina by the name of Stephen K. Layson published a report that showed that every execution of a murderer deterred eighteen would be murderers (Guernsey 68). While the numbers from these studies seem quite low as compared to the large number of murders committed every day in the United States, the numbers become quite large when discussed in the terms of every year executions. (Guernsey 65)
The opponents of capital punishment here give different points which are also quite true. According to the critics of capital punishment many of the people who commit acts of murder are either retarded or are immature. Capital punishment doesn't have an effect on the youth and immature people. As Richard L. Worsnop writes in his article entitled…
Worsnop, Richard L. Death Penalty Debate Centers on Retribution. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1990.
Guernsey, JoAnn Bren. Should We Have Capital Punishment? Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co, 1993.
Van den Haag, Ernest, and John Phillips Conrad. The Death Penalty a Debate. New York: Plenum Press, 1983.
Maestro, Marcello T. A Pioneer for the Abolition of Capital Punishment Cesare Beccaria. [New York]: Journal of the History of Ideas, 1973.
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was started on January 1989 by Australian Prime Minister ob Hawke when he called for better economic cooperation within the Asia Pacific Region. Currently, the organization has 21 members including, Australia, Japan, Singapore, and United States. At the ogor summit, APEC started discussions regarding the "ogor Goals" which aims to reduce tariffs between zero and five percent in industrialized countries by 2010 and developing countries by 2020 (Wikipedia contributors, 2007). APEC had a combined GDP of $6 trillion in 1998 and 42% of global trade. The main advantages of this organization are deregulation, sharing of technology, and policy certainty ("What is APEC?" n.d.). Some disadvantages include selective policy-making to push the agenda of a specific country using intimidation strategies, increased inequality and poverty, anti-democratism, and high costs with respect to human rights violations and environmental damages (Kelsey, n.d.).
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)…
Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN" (n.d.) Retrieved 20 April 2007 at http://www.itcilo.it/english/actrav/telearn/global/ilo/blokit/asean.htm
European Union" (n.d.) Retrieved 20 April 2007 at http://experts.about.com/e/e/eu/European_Union.htm
International Organisations - the European Union" (n.d) Retrieved 20 April 2007 at http://oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/milkingit/information/international_orgs/international_orgs_eu.htm
Ahmad, Pengiran Mashor Pengiran (2003). "East Asia Economic Community: Prospects and Implications" Retrieved 20 April 2007 at http://www.aseansec.org/15655.htm
Aaron, H.J. 1994. Thinking About Medical Costs. Health Affairs, 13, 5 (winter): 8-13 in Hong, G-S and Kim, S.Y. (2000). Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditure Patterns and Financial Burden across the Life Cycle Stages. Journal of Consumer Affairs. 34. 2.
Acs, G. And John S. 1995. Trends in Out-of-Pocket Spending on Health Care, 1980-1992. Monthly Labor eview, 35-45 in Hong, G-S and Kim, S.Y. (2000). Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditure Patterns and Financial Burden across the Life Cycle Stages. Journal of Consumer Affairs. 34. 2.
Cote, J. And Latham, C. (2003). Exchanges between Healthcare Providers and Insurers: A Case Study. Journal of Managerial Issues. 15, 2.
Health, United States. (2003). Chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. HHS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Center for Health Statistics in Lesnik, J. (2006). Community Health Centers: Health Care as it Could Be. Journal of Law and Health. 19, 1..…
Aaron, H.J. 1994. Thinking About Medical Costs. Health Affairs, 13, 5 (winter): 8-13 in Hong, G-S and Kim, S.Y. (2000). Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditure Patterns and Financial Burden across the Life Cycle Stages. Journal of Consumer Affairs. 34. 2.
Acs, G. And John S. 1995. Trends in Out-of-Pocket Spending on Health Care, 1980-1992. Monthly Labor Review, 35-45 in Hong, G-S and Kim, S.Y. (2000). Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditure Patterns and Financial Burden across the Life Cycle Stages. Journal of Consumer Affairs. 34. 2.
Cote, J. And Latham, C. (2003). Exchanges between Healthcare Providers and Insurers: A Case Study. Journal of Managerial Issues. 15, 2.
Health, United States. (2003). Chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. HHS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Center for Health Statistics in Lesnik, J. (2006). Community Health Centers: Health Care as it Could Be. Journal of Law and Health. 19, 1..
In a controlled market, the monopoly company will be capable of running the business without paying any attention to the affected parties (customers, employees, suppliers). Americans themselves have initiated a movement against the colossal power of Wal-Mart, suggesting that it should change its business conduct. "The truth is that Wal-Mart has let America down by lowering wages, forcing good paying American jobs overseas, and cutting costs with total disregard for the values that have made this nation great. Wal-Mart has needlessly exploited illegal immigrants, faces the largest gender discrimination lawsuit in history, forced workers to work in an unsafe environment, and -- incredibly -- broken child labor laws. America's largest employer must reflect America's values. ut, Wal-Mart will never change on its own. Lee Scott, Wal-Mart's CEO, mistakenly thinks he only answers to a few wealthy shareholders who own Wal-Mart stock. Lee Scott is wrong. Wal-Mart and Lee Scott must…
International Operations," Wal-Mart website, 14th Nov 2006, http://walmartstores.com/GlobalWMStoresWeb/navigate.do?catg=369
Mander, Kai and Boston, Alex. "Wal-Mart Worldwide, The Making of a Global Retailer," The Ecologist vol.25, no.6, Nov/Dec 1995
Fishman, Charles. "The Wal-Mart You Don't Know," Fast Company website, Dec 2003, 14th Nov 2006, http://www.fastcompany.com/online/77/walmart.html
Why Wal-Mart Must Change," Wake-Up Wal-Mart website, http://www.wakeupwalmart.com/change/
American Corporations and the Media, 1890-1940
American corporations have never been reticent to use available media to reach their goals, and in the years between 1890 and 1940, there are impressive examples of how U.S. corporate interests have utilized various media to realize additional profit and power -- sometimes employing unorthodox and unethical methods. This paper delves into instances of corporate use of media, and points to the dynamics that allowed those associations to flourish.
"Today's critics of media conglomerates fail to grasp the reality that corporate power, in league with the state, [has] made a mockery of prospects for a democratic global media system… [and it's vital to recognize that] the U.S. radio industry subsequently followed a similar pattern of monopolization in the 1920s…" (Peterson, 2004, p. 86).
Author James Schwoch points to the fact that the American radio industry had a profound impact on Latin American activities between…
Belrose, John S. (1994). Fessenden and the Early History of Radio Science. The Radioscientist,
Forrest, Wilbur. (1925). Political Notes: Ford Speaks. Time Magazine. Retrieved June 17,
2011, from http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,720534,00.html .
Google Suggest, AdSense for Content, and Orkut are among the many products of this perk" (Engineer's Life, 2011, Google). Google also emphasizes its use of small teams which facilitates the speed at which the company works -- the teams are nonhierarchical, and the best ideas, rather than the most powerful leaders determine which idea ultimately 'wins out.' "At Google, we know that every employee has something important to say and that every employee is integral to our success" (Life at Google, 2011, Google). The CEO sits side-by-side ordinary workers at the (free) cafeteria. As a knowledge-based, information-sharing company, Google takes a non-discriminatory attitude towards the input of others.
Information will increasingly become the currency of modern commerce, and soliciting new ideas is essential from a wide range of organizational participants. This stands against some of the more individualistic concepts of leadership as articulated by Warren Bennis, who stresses the need…
Bennis, Warren. (2003). On becoming a leader. Perseus Books.
Engineer's life. (2011). Google. Retrieved October 8, 2011
Herrera, Jaime. (2001). Participatory management, teamwork, and leadership. San Jose, Costa
Access, Cost, and Quality of the Massachusetts State Health Program: A Model for the Nation?
Few issues are as controversial or as pressing in terms of national policy than healthcare, which was and continues to be a prominent election issue and matter of public debate and scrutiny. Technological and pharmaceutical advancements and innovation have created a wealth of opportunities for improved quality of life and quality of care for many nations and individuals, but paying for this care -- and determining how much care should be paid for -- remains a complex and divisive issue throughout the developed world. Innovation is not cheap and neither is the use of many newer medical technologies, and aging populations that require greater levels and longer periods of care are also placing a strain on many healthcare systems.
The United States is one of the only developed nations that lacks an implemented…
Chen, C., Scheffler, G. & Chandra, A. (2011). Massachusetts' Health Care Reform and Emergency Department Utilization. New England Journal of Medicine 365: e25.
Gabel, J., Whitmore, H. & Pickreign, J. (2008). Report From Massachusetts: Employers Largely Support Health Care Reform, And Few Signs Of Crowd-Out Appear. Health Affairs 27(1): 13-23.
Heslop. K. (2010). How does U.S. healthcare compare to the rest of the world? Guardian. Accessed 15 October 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/mar/22/us-healthcare-bill-rest-of-world-obama
Maxwell, J., Cortes, D., Schneider, K., Graves, A. & Rosman, B. (2011). Massachusetts' Health Care Reform Increased Access To Care For Hispanics, But Disparities Remain. Health Affairs 30(8): 1451-60.