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Counseling Theory: The Bondage Breaker
In The Bondage Breaker, Neil T. Anderson presents a very religious and somewhat controversial approach to therapy; he believes that some problems may be the result of demonic possession and his therapeutic approach incorporates traditional Christian methods for dealing with demonic possession. It is important to realize that Anderson does not believe all psychological problems are the result of demonic possession or even that they represent the struggle with sin. Instead, he believes that demonic possession and the concept of sin should be examined after ruling out organic and traditional psychological causes for problems. He points out that the belief that there can be metaphysical causes for real-world problems may go against modern scientific notions, but is supported, not just by Christian theology, but by the modern Western interest in what he refers to as the "two tiers" of reality: an upper transcendent world and…
Anderson, N. (2006). The Bondage Breaker: Overcoming Negative Thoughts, Irrational
Feelings, Habitual Sins. Eugene: Harvest House Publishers.
Counseling Theory: Boundaries and Marriage
In Boundaries and Marriage, Henry Cloud and John Townsend introduce the concept of boundaries as it relates to marriage. In order to understand their theory of boundaries, it is important to realize that this book is one in a series of books that the authors have written about boundaries, and includes an exploration of how boundaries impact interpersonal relationships. Their theory is that relationship problems are rarely solved by looking at how the other people in the relationships are relating or failing to relate, but are more often solved by establishing appropriate interpersonal boundaries.
They include ten laws of boundaries to be incorporated into relationship therapy. These include: the law of sowing and reaping; the law of responsibility; the law of power; the law of respect; the law of motivation; the law of evaluation; the law of proactivity; the law of envy; the law of…
Cloud, H., & Townsend, J. (1999). Boundaries in Marriage. Grand Rapids: Zondervan
New Counseling Paradigm Focusing on Scripture and Family
New Directions for Christian Counseling:
A Focus on Scripture and Family
This paper will focus on presenting a new counseling paradigm which synthesizes the power of the Bible by combining a variety of elements from assorted counseling theories with the inherent goal of maximizing client outcomes. This framework is useful as it mixes the intrinsic nature and needs of man along with the defining psychological elements which contribute to forming his mental health function or dysfunction. Once this model has been discussed, the work then discusses the details of effective counseling intervention. In short, this paper puts forward a counseling paradigm which focuses on the vital role of the client and their motivations in producing their own mental health. The Christian counselor can help clients arrive at the best psychological outcome through utilizing various established counseling models with Scripture, allowing a desire…
Curtis, R., & Davis, K.M. (1999). Spirituality and Multimodal Therapy: A Practical Approach to Incorporating Spirituality in Counseling. Counseling & Values, 43(3), 199. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Johanson, G.J. (2010). Response to: "Existential Theory and our Search for Spirituality" by Eliason, Samide, Williams and Lepore. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 12(2), 112-117. doi:10.1080/19349631003730100
Jones, S.L. & Butman, R.E. (1991). Modern Psychotherapies. InterVarsity Press: Downers Grove, IL 60515
Murdock, N.L. (2009). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Pearson Education Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Integration of Counseling Theory From a Christian Perspective
Current Integration of Counseling Theory from a Christian Perspective
The biblical approach to counseling brings with it so much in the field of counseling. Unlike many other logical approaches to counseling, Christian view of personality and counseling takes a spiritual angle to behavior and behavior change. Effectively, the worldview of a Christian ion as far as counseling is concerned will be very different from that of a non-believer. I have developed a Christian-based personal theory of counseling from various readings covered in class. In this respect, I have come to appreciate the role of God and his power in shaping human behavior and bringing humanity into himself. By acknowledging that human beings do acknowledge the existence of the Supreme Being, God as a factor cannot be ignored if the counseling process has to be effective. Whereas human action may be motivated by…
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to help people change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House
Anderson, N.T. (2006). The bondage breaker (New and Expanded Edition). Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling yourself the truth (20th Ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers
Cloud, H., & Townsend, J. (1999), Boundaries in marriage, Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
Similar to Gestalt therapy, I also did not incorporate existentialist thinking into my theory.
However, similar to Jungian analytical psychology and Gestalt therapy, I view this type of therapy as very philosophical in its' nature and application. Therapy methods that are very philosophical in their application do not appeal to me because they do not seem to adequately address the "real-life" problems, and instead seek vague answers that can be subject to many different kinds of interpretation. Existential therapists seek to find whether the major questions of our existence can be answered. As a result of my disagreeance with this type of therapy, I have not modeled by theory after existential therapy.
Another reason why I have not modeled my theory on existentialism is because most often such theorists will claim a spiritual or religious basis for their optimism.
Hoffman (2004) states that the spiritual existential approach is not necessarily…
Ablon, J.S. & Jones, E. (2002). Validity of Controlled Clinical Trials of Psychotherapy:
Findings from the NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program.
American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.159: 775-783.
Bickford, J. (2004). Prototypical Psychoanalytic vs. Social-Cognitive Approaches to Understanding Personality: A Comparative Assessment. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/1150/psych5html.
Theoretical Approach to Counseling
Personal Counseling Theory Paper
A solution-focused approach would be beneficial to the patient. Cognitive Behavioral therapy offers an approach that allows for a solution based approach to counseling Butler, Chapman, Forman, & Beck, 2006.
Emotional difficulties arise from cognitive distortions, which manifest themselves in the patient's automatic thoughts. The thoughts are triggered by situational events that occur in the life of the patient. This approach compares to the client-centered theory. This theory provides a growth-promoting climate. This environment gives the client freedom and the ability to grow, as they want and need. The therapist will be an active listener, providing empathy, accepting the client, and genuinely been concerned of the client's problems. Understanding the client's emotional difficulties and listening to them will allow the client to open up and be more comfortable with the therapist, which will provide the perfect environment for finding a solution. Challenging…
Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Clinical psychology review, 26(1), 17-31.
Hayes, A.M., & Feldman, G. (2004). Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 255-262.
Multicultural Counseling Approaches Used in the Application of the Family Systems Theory
The purpose of this discussion is to explain the multicultural counseling approaches used in the application of the family systems theory.
First we will define the Family Systems theory. Then the discussion will review three counseling approaches that utilize the theory in a multicultural context. These approaches will include family therapy, family literacy and cross cultural marriage workshops.
Family Systems Theory
Family systems theory asserts that people can change behaviors if they are aware of the impact current and historical family behavior has on the definition of his or her choices. In the context of the family systems theory the word "Family" may be composed of the immediate family that the person presides with, the extended family of relatives and friends, and the community in general. (Bowens Family Systems Theory 2002, ¶1)
The family systems theory was pioneered…
Bowens Family Systems Theory. (2002) (Online)
Family Systems Theory. (2001). http://web.pdx.edu/~cbcm/CFS410U/FamilySystemsTheory.pdf
Coco, E. Lane. (1998) "A Family Systems Approach For Preventing Adolescent Runaway B." Adolescence. (Online)
Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.
Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…
Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484
Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.
Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.
Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.
& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.
Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…
Altman. N. (2007). Renewing psychoanalysis for the 21st century. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy. Heldref Publications. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam
Bacal, H.A. (2007). Discussion of Judy Pickles's case presentation from the perspective of psychoanalytic specificity theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. The Analytic Press, Inc.
Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Counseling Theory: Postmodern Approaches
Counseling orientation has experienced paradigm shifts over the decades from traditional pioneering theories such as cognitive theory, psychoanalysis, and humanism to the postmodernist theory. The rationale for the progression to postmodernism has been the evolving notion of a multiplicity of reality, a shift from modernist empiricism to constructivism (Shurts, 2015). The traditional counseling theorist considered counseling as a true mapping of the psychic phenomena depicting an accurate depiction of human psychological processes (Hansen, 2015). Contrasting with the modernistic approach that assumes a knowable reality, postmodernism assumes that observers create realities. Hansen (2015) notes postmodernism is grounded on the premise of anti-essentialism where observers always infuse phenomena with meaning as opposed to the true knowledge of phenomena being revealed by through objective observation. Postmodern therapy is anchored on the principle of collaborative and consultative stance between the patient and therapist as opposed to the unidirectional and authoritative…
Counseling Alternatives in Modern Times
There are certainly several benefits to counseling theories that consist of contemporary, multicultural, and Biopsychosocial counseling and its integration. However, since each of these respective types of counseling theories focus on a particular aspect of psychology and counseling, there are also drawbacks to them as well. Perhaps the true strength in each of these theories lies in their integration -- both with one another and with other theories in general.
The most salient positive associated with multicultural counseling theories and integration is the emphasis they place on one's cultural identity. As such, clinicians are supposed to help cultivate a client's cultural identity -- which greatly pertains to his or her ethnicity, socio-economic status, religion, and other eminent cultural factors. Another boon associated with this approach is that it considers the client as a unique individual, one whose identity "is embedded in multiple levels of experience…
Banks, J.A., Banks, C.A., McGee, E. (1995). Sue, D.S. Toward a theory of multicultural counseling and therapy. In Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education. New York: MacMillan Publishing.
Borrell-Carrio, F., Suchman, A.L., Epstein, R.M. (2004). The Biopsychosocial model 25 years later: Principles, practice and scientific inquiry. www.annfammed.org / Retrieved from http://www.annfammed.org/content/2/6/576.full
Christian Counseling Theories
Christian authors present the very unique set of principles and strategies aiming at helping empower individuals going through counseling. Examining Christian literature and theory illustrates clear assumptions that different authors share, yet also pulled out some clear differences as well. For example, Backus and Chapain (2000) present fluidity, while Adams (1986) suggests Scripture. Still, these authors do all show that the word of God is a crucial element to the spiritual healing needed in modern counseling.
Backus and Chapain (2000) present a very simple, that individuals are plagued with discomfort and unhappiness because they think incorrectly. Essentially, when one does not think the proper manner, negative results come from it. Thus, ill-natured thoughts lead to anxiety, unhappiness, and depression, all of which are the main causes for people seeking counseling in a modern context. In order to combat these ill thoughts, Backus and Chapain present when is…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
Concise Summary of Theory
Christian counseling is usually rooted in both Biblical truths and in psychological research. In Telling Yourself the Truth and How to Help People Change, the authors discuss how to counsel from within a Christian theoretical perspective. Although these two books have different areas of focus, their core messages are the same: change is to be instigated by God and sustained in the light of Christ.
The authors view traditional psychological theories such as psychoanalysis as being helpful as starting points, but no longer relevant from either a scientific or a spiritual perspective. Therefore, Backus & Chapain (2000) and Adams (1986) infuse psychology with Christian concepts. Christian concepts, drawn directly from the Bible and its parables, can help the individual see his or her life in a new and more accurate light.
Specifically, How to Help People Change defines change within a Christian context, whereas Telling…
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Backus, W. & Chapain, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth. Minneapolis: Bethany House.
graduate students in counseling programs to learn theories? Graduate students in counseling programs are required to learn counseling theories because of their significance in the profession. It's important for graduate students in such programs to learn counseling theories for a variety of reasons. First, theory is the essential framework and building block for counselors in training (Lofrisco, 2013). Without having a solid foundation and understanding of theory, students in counseling programs cannot succeed as effective counselors. Secondly, theory helps inexperienced counselors get understanding of the concepts they need to put into action by serving as a road map for the career. When a counselor sets goals for a client, he/she needs to have a justification for setting those goals. Third, counseling theories not only help novice counselors to become knowledgeable but also make professional counselors look impressive while carrying out their work.
2) What do you know about counseling and…
LoFrisco, B. (2013, January 17). Six Reasons Counseling Theory is Important. Retrieved September 21, 2016, from https://www.mastersincounseling.org/six-reasons-counseling-theory-is-important.html
Dr. Short, Ellen (2016). Counseling Theories and Application - Lecture 1. Powerpoint Slides.
It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). ithout empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical withdrawal symptoms, and surrendering to the addiction may not address the need to seek out new, positive social relationships and to actively construct an environment that does not facilitate the addiction.
Even addicts with jobs who are minimally socially functional may have social structures revolving around their addiction. In the case of many women in particular, the life pattern of being involved with an abusive partner, which may have driven the women to abuse drugs in the first place, becomes a…
Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006, July 25). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs.
The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/25/health/25drin.html
Buddy, T. (2009, March 7). Are you a functional alcoholic?
About.com. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://alcoholism.about.com/od/problem/a/functional.htm
Some other factors may also be addressed such as the client's perception of his or her role in homosexuality, if he comes from a culture where it is normal or acceptable for men to be sexually active with other men, so long as he is not sexually passive -- this may affect his sense of his sexual identity as well.
It must be stressed, above all, at the first session, that the counselor cannot provide the client with an all-encompassing answer to his or her dilemmas regarding family and identity. The counselor cannot be the person who gives permission to 'leave,' or the person who orders the individual to 'stay.' Rather, the counselor is there as a sounding board. At this early juncture, once the client's readiness to leave or not leave his current marital session is assessed, it may be helpful to have another counselor deal with the problems…
Gladding, Samuel. (2005) Counseling Theories: Essential Concepts and Applications. New York: Prentice Hall
Defense mechanisms, the unconscious, coping mechanisms, self-actualization and archetypes are other examples. The ultimate and most useless example is the "little person," that resides in everyone and explains his behavior. These include ideas like soul, mind, ego, will, self and personality. Skinner, instead, suggests that psychologists should put their energies on what is observable, such as the environment and human behavior occurring in the environment (oeree).
This therapy states three core conditions under which growth may occur (Mulhauser,
2011). These core conditions proceed from the assumption that a person naturally possesses the inner resources for growth. He is the best authority on his own experience. He also believes in his capability to realize his own potential for growth. The therapy, however, recognizes that the realization depends on favorable conditions. Under adverse conditions, a person is often denied unconditional acceptance and positive regard. He then fails to apprehend the…
Boeree, C.G. (2006). BF Skinner. Personality Theories C.G. Boeree. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html
Dodd, G. (2011). Counseling techniques and skills -- an introduction. Ezine Articles:
EzineArticles.com. Retrieved on February 8, 2011 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Conseling-Techniqes-and-Skills -- an-Introduction&id-2748802
Grant, S. (2011). Person-centered therapy. California State University Northridge.
This is accomplished by using a number of different tactics in conjunction with each other to include: examining their lifestyle, developing client insights, establishing a strong relationship with the patient and creating a change in behavior. When interacting with children, these views are used to comprehend how: their connections with friends and family members are influencing their desire to be accepted. ("Theories of Counseling," 2010) (, Tice, personal communication, October 25, 2012)
The Freudian approach is looking at how the child is developing base upon their relationship with others and the way they are dealing with the different stages in their lives. These include: studying the unconscious mind, analyzing dreams, examining the effects on the id / ego / superego and psychosexual development. The combination of these factors are designed to provide the therapist with a complete picture of what events are impacting the social, mental and emotional development of…
School Counseling. (2012). All About Counseling. Retrieved from: http://www.allaboutcounseling.com/library/school-counseling/
School Counselors. (2012). Kids Health. Retrieved from: http://kidshealth.org/teen/school_jobs/school/school_counselors.html
Theories of Counseling. (2010). UNLV. Retrieved from: http://blogs.education.unlv.edu/csi/files/2010/02/nce-study-guide-theories-and-helping-relationships.pdf
Efford, B. (2012). Assessment for Counselors. Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole.
theory counseling exist, giving a background fit views personality. My views: Life experiences play a vital role's life. These experiences negatively positively effect future. Our life choice, decide destiny.
In today's mental health services, almost anyone either with a university degree or by paying some fees upon following specific courses, can call himself a therapist or a counselor. That professional training is not required when practicing psychotherapy is either something to be worrying us a lot or something we should be thankful for. In the first case, people may be misleading themselves into thinking they can treat patients with mental health issues simply because they've been accredited by nonaccredited training programs. When information is poor and experience is less, we must consider that patients' situation can either not improve or even worsen. On the other hand, there may be a lot of individuals out there with prolific abilities into treating…
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
May, R. (1950). The meaning of anxiety. New York, N.Y.: The Ronald Press Company.
Stewart, I. (1992). Eric Berne. London, California, New Delhi: SAGE Publications Inc.
Transtheoretical Model of Change
"Process your thoughts about the stages of change and the processes associated with each stage. How might this information impact your work with clients? How might this information assist you with treatment planning? Do you think it is usual with all clients or only particular populations? "
One thing that immediately stood out in the article, was the assumption that all major counseling theories may be viewed as having two basic similarities; they draw attention to their respective processes of change and their respective interventions (Petroceli, 2002). hen people enter into any kind of counseling program they are intending to change some behavior that has become problematic for one reason or another. There are a variety of different methods that a practitioner could use to attempt to modify behaviors and it is reasonable to assume that in different circumstances, some types of interventions may work…
Petroceli, J. (2002). Processes and stages of change: Counseling with the transtheoretical model of change. Journal of Couseling and Development, 22-31.
Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach
There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).
Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…
Caldwell, K., & Claxton, C. (2010). Teaching Family Systems Theory: A Developmental-
Constructivist Perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32(1), 3-21.
Gruber, K.J., & Taylor, M.F. (2006). A Family Perspective for Substance Abuse: Implications
from the Literature. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6(1), 1 -- 29.
Develop your theoretical orientation to the counseling process and identify how this approach compares to Cognitive Behavioral theory
Since its inception nearly fifty years ago, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has become recognized as perhaps the most effective therapeutic approach. Indeed, CBT has myriad uses, and is applied in a number of situations, including depression, personality disorders, and wellness and rehabilitation. However, there also exist limitations to cognitive behavioral therapy, mainly surrounding treatment with patients from diverse cultures. This paper develops appropriate therapeutic orientations, discussing different therapeutic concerns and approaches. First, attention is paid to the nature of people; next, the role of the individual in families and other systems is addressed. Then, multicultural considerations, wellness and prevention, and the nature of problems are discussed. Finally, the paper addresses the process of change and how the orientations enacted are successful in practice.
The nature of people
People are diverse, not…
Beck, J., & Tompkins, M. (2007). Cognitive therapy. In Handbook of Homework Assignments in Psychotherapy. (pp. 51-63). New York: Springer Science.
Brown, J. (1999). Bowen family systems therapy and practice: Illustration and critique. A.N.J.Z. Family Therapy, 20(2), 94-103.
Lay, K.R., & King, L.J. (2007) Counseling strategies. In Drug Courts: A New Approach to Treatment and Rehabilitation. (pp. 166-182). New York: Springer Science.
Shedler, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 65(2), 98-109.
Counselling Certificate in Florida
In the following article, the certification rules or a school counsellor in Florida have been discussed in detail.
A Look at the Certification Process
According to the School Counselling Program, there are certain courses and experiences that a student requires to be eligible for Florida State Certification, and if these requirements are not already met, the courses are included in the student's planned program. Students must at least do one internship in a public or private school in the field of School Counselling to complete six credit hours. Moreover, they should sit in the Florida State Certification Examination for School Counsellors and get passing scores. Uncertified teachers must also pass the CLAST Basic Proficiency Exam, the Florida Teacher Certification Professional Skills Exam and the General Knowledge Test (only if CLAST exam was given after July 1, 2002). Florida is one among few states that…
(n.d.). Florida Department of Education. Specialization Requirements for Certification in Guidance and Counselling (Grades PK-12) --Specialty Class Beginning July 1, 1990. Retrieved May 25, 2016, from http://www.fldoe.org/teaching/certification/certificate-subjects/administrative-rules/6a-4-0181.stml
(n.d.). USF College of Education -- University of South Florida. School Counselling Program. Retrieved May 25, 2016, from http://www.coedu.usf.edu/main/departments/psf/CE/AcadProgSheets/SchoolCouns2
Integrative Approach to Counseling
The theories that the author will compare and contrast within this document include gestalt theory, choice theory and its practical application, reality therapy, and psychoanalytic therapy. There are definite points of similarity and variance between these theories. The natural starting point for comparison and contrasting lies with an analysis of gestalt theory and choice theory/reality therapy. Gestalt theory was largely founded by Frederick Perls (Wagner-Moore, 2004, p. 180) and Miriam and Erwing Polster (Jacobs, 2010, p. 25), whereas Glasser is widely credited with launching the notion of reality theory (Bradley, 2014, p. 6). A critical point of similarity between these theories is that they are unequivocally focused on the present, or the proverbial 'here and now' of the patient and his or her cognitive, emotional, and physical states. Interestingly enough, these theories take different perspectives for addressing those present needs of the individuals counseled. The primary…
Bornstein, R.F. (2010). Psychoanalytic theory as a unifying framework for 21st century personality assessment. Psychoanalytic psychology. 27(2), 133-152.
Bradley, E.L. (2014). Choice theory and reality theory: An overview. International Journal of Choice Theory and Reality Theory. 34(1), 6-13.
European Association for Gestalt Therapy. (2006). Code of ethics and professional practice. http://www.eagt.org / Retrieved from
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Life can be shattering. Deception, lies, and tremendous heartache can derail the most prodigious, honest, and sincere individual. Devastation can acquiescent a beautiful and wonderful spirit into a horrendous downward spiral to where there appears to be no hope. When our 'bubble' of a world is popped, we often become disoriented, unable to ascertain the fact from fiction, and can then start having negative and harmful thoughts.
Given the circumstances to which I have had to overcome, a tremendous amount of resolve was required, which enabled me to persevere through my darkest moments. Betrayal and heartache can ruin one's perception of what life is about. Indeed, there are many who never enjoy the love or reach a pinnacle of happiness that I've enjoyed. To these individuals, I feel my empathy given my triumphs and set backs will undoubtedly enable a clear perspective, rich with insight to…
For mental health professionals, working with patients can be challenging. This is because they will have issues that could be directly associated with their condition. In the movie One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, it is discussing these problems. To fully understand how this relates to crisis theory and intervention requires comparing different scenes from the film that are relevant. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the precipitating event, identifying the type of crisis, examining the material / personal / social resources available, studying the different perspectives, looking at how it was handled by the protagonist, suggesting coping skills, discussing referral sources that are available and biblical perspectives. Together, these elements will provide specific insights as to the way it is illustrating crisis theory and intervention challenges.
Identify precipitating events
The main event is when andal Patrick McMurphy is sent to a mental hospital from the state prison.…
Holly Bible New International Version. (1985). Oak Ridge, TN: Gideon's International.
How Do I Find a Local Support Group. (2012). NMHA. Retrieved from: http://www.nmha.org/go/find_support_group
Douglas, M. (Producer), & Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. USA: United Artists.
Wright, N. (2011). The Complete Guide to Crisis and Trauma Counseling. Ventura, CA: Regal.
Frankel (2008) argues that formal on-to-one supervision facilitates positive staff development. . Effective supervision practice promotes professional growth and development. An individual staff needs to interact always with a supervisor to enhance knowledge development. With the shortcoming identified in the supervision practice in various professions and my work place, the paper provides recommendations to enhance supervisory practice.
ecommendations to enhance Supervisory Practice.
Ideal supervisory practice requires good communication. Within a work environment, an organization should make it mandatory for a supervisor to implement effective communication with the supervisees to enhance the professional development.
Moreover, an organization should provide enough time for a supervisor to implement an effective supervisory role. For example, in my place of work, my supervisor always complains of lack of time. This means that my supervisor has been given more jobs that she can cope with, and this has affected her supervisory role. To avoid this issue,…
ACCEL (2011). Productive Workplaces People, Job and Environment. Theory and Practice. ACCEL Handbook.
Australian Institute of Professional Counselors, (2011). The Importance of Counseling Supervision. AIPC Article Library.
Beekum, S. (2008). Supervision from shame to curiosity. Supervision Association of Australia and New Zealand.
Claveirole, A. & Carroll, M. (2007).One More Time. What is Supervision? Psychotherapy in Australia. 13(3): 34-40.
Counseling is described by Kobeisy as the professional form of guidance that is aimed at addressing concerns as well as aid individuals in improving their attitude, coping skills as well as behavior (Kobeisy 1).Counseling can help people, families as well as groups in achieving optimal growth and development for the stages of life in which they go through. Counseling as a profession has many specialties like marriage, grief, and pastoral as well as career. It is worth noting that apart from pastoral counseling, the field of counseling is meant to be a free.This is to imply that the counselor should be open minded while approaching their clients with an attitude that is non-judgmental. They are also not allowed to impose or even direct their clients. The counseling process should therefore help the clients to clearly see their choices, appropriately set their objectives while making the necessary changes in order to…
Caldwell, Benjamin E, Woolley, Scott R, Caldwell, Casey J. Preliminary estimates of costeffectiveness for marital therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33:392 -- 405, 2007
Carr, Alan. Family Therapy: Concepts Process and Practice (2nd edn). Chichester:
Cohl, D'Vera "At Long Last, Divorce." Pew Research Center < http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1617/long-duration-marriage-end-divorce-gore
Counseling Skills and Their Use in Social ork
Counseling skills can encompass many different aspects of life, and they are of great use to those in social work. Unfortunately, many social workers do not realize just how important these kinds of skills are and therefore do not get the training in them that they really need. Since social workers are not counselors and do not usually see what they do as 'therapy' of any kind, they do not look to counseling as having a place in their work and the families that they often are called upon to help. However, much of what a social worker does for those that need help is actually counseling of a sort, and by learning more about counseling skills those that spend their time in the social work field can utilize what they already know, along with the counseling skills, to help many more…
Barak, A. (1999). Psychological applications on the Internet: A discipline on the threshold of a new millennium. Applied and Preventative Psychology, 8, 231-246.
Glancy, G., Regehr, C., & Bryant, A. (1998) Confidentiality in crisis: Part I: The duty to Inform. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 43(12), 1001-1005.
Hepworth, D., Rooney, IL, & Larsen, A. (1994). Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Marshall, M., & Von Tigerstorm, B. (1999). Confidentiality and disclosure of health Information. In J. Downie & T. Caulfield (Eds.), Canadian Health Law and Policy (pp. 143-177), Toronto: Butterworths.
Counseling Therapy Theories
Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT)
The solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a type of therapy that is used much in counseling and a lot of time referred to as talking therapy that is based on the social constructionist philosophy. This therapy focuses on the aim or goal of the customer rather than the problem that drove him to seek help. It does not focus on the past events but primarily pays attention to the future.
The SFBT at times referred to as solution-focused or solution-building therapy was initiated and developed by Steve Shazer (1940-2005) in collaboration with Insoo Kim Berg (1934-2007) and their colleagues from the late 1970's in Wisconsin. This therapy is future focused, focuses on the goals and the solutions rather than on the problem (Institute for Solution-Focused Therapy, 2011).
Here, it is the duty of the counselor to invite the client to try…
Alan Car, (1998). Michael White's Narrative Theory, Contemporary Family Therapy. Human Sciences Press Inc. http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=j42386l16060v3q0&size=largest
Cynthia Good Mojab, (2006). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy. Retrieved September 6, 2011
Freedman, J. & Combs, G. (1996). Shifting paradigms: From systems to stories. In Freedman, J. & Combs, G., Narrative therapy: The social construction of preferred realities, chapter 1. New York: Norton.
Harry James Potter was born in 1980, the son of James and Lily Potter. Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant. The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: his lightening bolt-shaped scar is one of his most distinguishing physical features. The orphaned Harry was forced to live with a distant family relative. The relatives are Muggles, and culturally distinct from Harry, who is part wizard.
Harry Potter studies at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry is aware that the Dark Lord Voldemort wants to kill him. However, Harry is about to face a serious crisis that will call into question his psychological resilience. The Ministry of Magic has undertaken a massive and coordinated attempt to undermine Harry's credibility. The Ministry's goal is sabotage of Harry's reputation, and his entire career as a wizard. Underlying the motivation of the Ministry…
Cherry, Kendra. "Trait Theory of Personality." About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/trait-theory.htm
"Resilience: An Integrative Mini-Chapter," Chapter 13 in Marianne Miserandino's Personality Psychology: Foundations and Findings (Boston: Pearson, 2012, pp. 373-392).
"Social Cognitive Theory." Retrieved online: http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20Clusters/Health%20Communication/Social_cognitive_theory.doc/
Issue in Counseling:
Helping clients deal with anxiety
Many individuals experience anxiety today. ith the help of therapeutic counselors, clients learn how to cope with their anxiety-related issues, in turn allowing them to live a healthy and manageable life. Many counselors choose to use the existential method in counseling clients with anxiety. The existential approach to counseling is an approach to helping clients of all cultures find meaning and harmony in their lives. Counselor's who use this approach focus on the eternal issues of love, loneliness, suffering and death that each of us face daily. It seeks to cultivate our philosophical mindedness in relating to ourselves, others, nature, and our faith. Existential counseling has no planned endpoint but is the beginning of a search for hope, love, and meaning in life. It is applicable to all problems in living, but it is especially appropriate when…
Carlson, L.A., (2003). Existential theory: Helping school counselors attend to youth at risk for violence. Professional School Counseling, 6 (5), 310.
Epp, L., (1998). The courage to be an existential counselor: an interview of Clemmont E.
Vontress. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20 (1), 1.
Krueger, M.J. & Hanna, F.J., (1997). Why adoptees search: an existential treatment perspective. Journal of Counseling and Development, 75 (3), 195.
Counseling and Coaching
Coaching: Case Study
Key Differences Between Coaching and Counseling
In considering the case of Antti Kytolandd it is critical to differentiate his possible mental health needs from those that are strictly work performance issues. As we consider the differences between formal psychological counseling and employment coaching models it is obvious that there are key differences in the approaches and the most useful and correct approach can often be determined by the client's specific needs (Egan, 1998). To that end it's critical to first consider Antti's overall mental health and stability prior to making key decisions regarding how to counsel or coach him.
The main differences between counseling and coaching lie in the fact that coaching clients are primarily well functioning individuals seeking ways in which to actively participate in the improvement of personal or employment issues. In a psychological counseling model clients may have an underlying mental…
Egan, G. (1998) The Skilled Helper: A problem Management and Opportunity Development Approach. Thomson Learning.
Glassman, W., Hadad, M. (2009) Approaches To Psychology. Open University Press
Kidd, J.M. (1996). The Career Counseling Interview. In A.G. Watts, B. Law, J. Killeen, J.M. Kidd & R. Hawthorn, Rethinking Careers Education and Guidance: Theory, Policy and Practice. London:
McLeod, J. (2003). An Introduction to Counselling. Open University Press.
" In the process, one learns to see oneself as strong and resilient, courageous, and empowered. Whether the individual can get up and go on and have a happy life after the loss depends on how the person views self
Is he or she a victim or a survivor? A strong person making spiritual progress or weak and debilitated? Whiting & Bradley (2007) argue that there must be an outcome for every loss. Whether the outcome is "reconciliation" or "vulnerability" or "victimization" depends on successful and positive identity reconstruction.
It used to be believed that the grieving individual had to achieve detachment from the person who had died. This was Freud's theory, that "grieving people need to break free from the deceased, let go of the past and reassert their individualism by charting a new course for life.
A healthy grief experience, according to Freud [was] one in which the…
Anderson, R.A. (2006). Immunity and grief. Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, 276, 128.
Briggs, C.A. And Pehrsson, D. (2008). Use of bibliotherapy in the treatment of grief and loss: A guide to current counseling practices. Adultspan Journal, 7 (1), 32-43.
Bush, H.K. (2007). Grief work: After a child dies. The Christian Century, 124 (25), 36-40.
Care of the elderly - bereavement: An essential guide (2006). The Practitioner (June 29), 22-29.
In that regard, the counselor would want to explore any possible connection between the social turmoil that might have been responsible for generating his subsequent social disillusionment. To the extent the counselor determines that the subject's social disenfranchisement is attributable to his involvement or response to those social conflicts he would assist the subject evaluate the objective conclusions and expectations that have shaped his outlook as an older adult in substantially different social circumstances and living in a very different society than the one responsible for his feelings about government representatives and authority figures in general (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
B. Preliminary Hypotheses of Main Apparent Problems
Hypothesis # 1 -- Multiple Causes of Intimacy Issues
First, it is likely that there are multiple concurrent causes of the subject's apparent difficulty establishing and maintaining close intimate relationships and effective communications within his marriage. The psychodynamic perspective teaches that it is…
Adler, a. (1927) Understanding Human Nature. Center City: Hazelden
Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Volume 76,
No. 1; (2010): 13-21.
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life.. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Integrated Counseling Orientation
Key Concepts of the Integrated Approach
My theoretical orientation as a counselor will be based on an integration between the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive-behavior therapy approach and the reality therapy approach. These approaches complement one another and serve to address issues of concern in a multicultural society. The key concepts in the psychoanalytical approach are the conflict between the id, ego and superego. This conflict is created as an individual tries to balance needs with social norms and expectations, pleasure and reality. These conflicts are generally present in the unconscious but psychoanalysis helps to bring these issues into the conscious of the client so that their ego strength is increased and they can take better control of their behavior.
In cognitive-behavior therapy, the key concepts are learning and skill acquisition. A number of interventions are formulated, administered and evaluated to enable the client to acquire…
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Hofmann, S.G. (2012). An introduction to modern CBT: Psychological solutions to mental health problems. John Wiley & Sons
Wubbolding, R.E. (2010). Reality therapy. American Psychological Association
Why do you think the preventative therapy approaches have not reduced the divorce rate?
There are several reasons for the overall ineffective nature of preventative therapies when attempting to decrease the divorce rate. Primarily there are the inherent biases that exist in a therapy session, such as hypothesis conformation bias where the interviewer may seek to elicit responses that confirm his or her hypothesis. There are also self-fulfilling prophecies that cause the client to alter thoughts or actions to align with the expectations of the interviewer. Many clients are also not as motivated as others and this may lead them to provide inaccurate or false responses. All of these issues may contribute to the therapy being less effective than it could be.
2.Describe one of the approaches to marriage/couple therapy discussed in chapter 8?
Integrative behavioral couple therapy consists of two separate phases: the evaluation/feedback stage and the active…
Ronan must feel welcome and accepted in this setting in order for constructive growth to occur. For this reason, the therapist goes to great lengths to establish a positive rapport with him. This encompasses mutual planning and goal setting. Both determine that behavior shaping is the most feasible and compatible technique to implement. This requires social support, and Ronan finds both his girlfriend and parents equally eager to assist him in his therapy. What's more, his covert receptiveness to treatment enhances therapeutic attempts.
Since success is largely contingent upon the support of family and friends, the therapist encourages Ronan to enlist the aid of his girlfriend and parents. This means engaging their help with specific techniques. All parties are asked to chart the undesired behavior so as to create a more accurate description of the predicament. Then, positive reinforcement should immediately follow the performance of the targeted behavior, in this…
Morgan's Case Study
Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…
Counseling Staff. (2015, June 1). Five Counseling Theories and Approaches. Retrieved from The Family Institute at Northwestern University website: https://counseling.northwestern.edu/five-counseling-theories-and-approaches/
Han, H.S., West-Olatunji, C. & Thomas, M.S. (2011). Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators. SRATE Journal, 20(1), 1-11.
Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M. J., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A multicultural perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: an integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
Gushue, Clarke, Pantzer, et al., (2006) examine the application of social cognitive theories to career counseling, reporting that self-efficacy is a pertinent issue in this process. In particular, these authors report that:
Career decision making self-efficacy refers to the degree to which individuals feel confident in their ability to successfully engage in tasks associated with making a career choice and with commitment to a career. It has also been observed that career-related self-efficacy in general may prove to be an important element in formulating a model of career development...(p. 308).
Gushue and coworkers go on to argue that when career self-efficacy is high, individuals are more assertive in the career counseling process. Thus, by developing career self-efficacy, career counselors can effectively improve interactions with clients and facilitate a greater understanding of client needs with respect to career decision making.
Applying this to the larger context of social learning theory, it…
Arbona, C. (2000). Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "1999. Career Development Quarterly, 49(2), 98-134.
Flores, L.Y., Scott, a.B., Wang, Y.W., et al., (2003). Annual review: Practice and research in career counseling and development -- "2002. Career Development Quarterly, 52, 98-131.
Germeijs, V., Verschueren, K., Soenens, B. (2006). Indecisiveness and high school students' career decision making process: Longitudinal associations and the mediational role of anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(4), 397-410.
Giannantonio, G.M., & Hurley-Hanson, a.E. (2006). Applying image norms across Super's career development stages. Career Development Quarterly, 54(4), 318-330.
Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it Like
COSS CULTUAL THEOIES BASED ON BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM
Cross cultural theories based on bend it like Beckham
Movies are one way in which different issues such as social and cultural backgrounds of different societies are filmed to educate or enlighten the community at large on different life styles as well as cultural diversity. Different films do have different numbers of characters, who act as family members, friends, and business personnel's in order to portray to the different issues to their viewers. With the help of a team comprising of the writer, producer and the directors, the characters are able to follow instructions so as to produce a film with the required themes. Bend it like Beckham, is a comedy-drama film in which the title is derived from a famous England football player David Beckham and his ability to score from…
Bates, D.G., & Plog, F. (1976). Cultural Anthropology, 3rd Ed., New York: McGraw-Hil
Baruth, L.G., & Manning, M.L. (2003). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan perspective (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., and M.W. Feldman (1981), Cultural Transmission and Evolution.
Princeton: Princeton University Press
But did she mean well sometimes? Or is she always so rude towards you?
Analysis: This example illustrates a long process in a short amount of space, but it helps to point out some aspects of oger's theory. According to ogers, such dialogue can be observed with nearly every client as generalizations are broken down to acute experiences (ogers, 1951). Such breakthroughs in the origins of the problem rely on a patient's freedom to fully express the self while the therapist provides guidance and acceptance (ogers, 1951). The therapist guides the client as the client comes to understand the reasons for his or her thoughts.
Client: I feel like I can't talk to you, that you have judged me guilty. This feeling sticks with me, I don't know what to do, but I don't like you.
Therapist: So you think I have put you up for trial and…
Bozarth, Jared D., & Brodley, Barbara Temaner. (1991). Actualization: A Functional Concept in Client-Centered Therapy. Handbook of Self-Actualization, Vol. 6, 45-60.
Bugental, J.F.T. (1964). The Third Force in Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 19-25.
Pollack, N. (1993). Client Centered Assessment. Pub Med, 47, 298-301.
Rogers, Carl R. (1951). Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Chistian counseling has become an impotant teatment modality fo a gowing numbe of health cae pactitiones and patients acoss the county in ecent yeas. Intoduced duing the ealy 1980s, Chistian counseling advocates integating eligious pactices and beliefs founded on eligious taditions with psychotheapeutic techniques to povide an optimal appoach to helping people cope with a wide ange of pesonal poblems and family issues. The pupose of this study is to povide a citical and systematic eview of the elevant liteatue in geneal and Gay R. Collins's book, Chistian Counseling: A Compehensive Guide (2007) in paticula, concening the oigins and tends in Chistian counseling and how this appoach can be used to povide the timely and essential inteventions that can help people bette cope with pesonal and family poblems. A summay of the eseach and impotant findings concening these issues ae pesented in the study's conclusion.
Table of Contents
references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4), 328-340.
West, W.S. (2004). Spiritual issues in therapy -- Relating experience to practice. Basingstoke:
Wood, G.D. & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-262.
The primary objectives of the training seminar are as follows:
To assist the trainee in developing a content knowledge base of counseling theory, research and practice from a multicultural point-of-view.
To assist the trainee in defining their professional identity and knowlegde and adherence to ehtical practice.
For the trainee to receive monitoring of their strengths and weaknesses as a counselor.
To acquire new skills in counseling.
To be able to identify personal issues involved with being a counselor.
To learn to develop and write case studies in a professional manner.
To be able to have a comfortable and supportive environment wherein sharing information, reactions and concerns can take place.
Knowing that individual, group, and seminar situations are important in providing a student optimal training it is also important to be able to recommend new situations wherein counselor training can be brought about. To this end, an area that has been…
Graf, Noreen M. And Stebnicki, Mark a. (2002). Using e-mail for clinical supervision in practicum: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Rehabilitation. July-Sept.
Herbert, J.T., Ward, T.J., & Hemlick, L.M. (1995). Confirmatory factor analysis of the supervisory style inventory and the Revised Supervision Questionnaire [Special Issue].
Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 36(4), 334-349.
Hillerband, E. (1989). Cognitive differences between experts and novices: Implications for group supervision. Journal of Counseling and Development, 67, 293-296.
It took them a while to get used to it but eventually, they were able to communicate with softer words and softer tone.
According to systems theory (Titelman, 1998), it was my duty to work on both Dave and his family so that their communication problem is uprooted from its origins. When his parents began to realize the impact of their meaningless arguments on Dave, they set quite a few rules for themselves. These rules included no harsh words or arguments in front of Dave and increased participation in his social & academic life. They realized the importance of their emotional support and gravity of the condition of Dave.
It was important to make Dave feel that he was needed and appreciated for being wonderful just the way he was. His parents also felt the need for a stable atmosphere at home where Dave could share his thoughts, fears and…
Bailey K.D. (1994) Sociology and the new systems theory: toward a theoretical synthesis. USA. Sunny Press.
Beck A.T. (1979) Cognitive Therapy Of Depression. NEWYORK .USA. Guilford press
Clark. D.A., Beck A.T. & Alford B.A. (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. USA. John Wiley and Sons.
Einstein D. (2007) Innovations and Advances in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Australia. Australian Academic Press
Role of Counseling
Counseling entails giving professional support to a client who is experiencing a personal challenge, with the aim of promoting their well-being and personal growth. For counseling to be effective, a trusting relationship between the counselor and his/her client has to be built and sustained. The competency-based approach provides effective avenues for the breeding of this kind of relationship. This approach requires a guidance counselor to demonstrate competence in three core areas; i) knowledge; ii) counseling skills; and iii) ethical and professional attitudes and practice, each of which is subdivided into specific components. However, the three competencies above do not work independently; rather, they qualify each other to give every counselor a unique integration.
A practitioner ought to have knowledge of;
factors that influence distress and well-being systemic and contextual social, biological, and family factors affecting human conditioning
The nature of cultural and human diversity, particularly in…
Effective Biblical Counseling
The primary goal of counseling should not be to “make the client happier” but rather to get one to a point where the client wants instead to do God’s will. This is the Christian approach to counseling that often goes missed and it is a goal that many people seeking counseling often forget they should be trying for, even though they are Christian. They imagine that if they do everything right they should be rewarded with peace and happiness—and yet the Christian’s life is only peaceful and happy when it is lived in accordance with God’s will, and that is the point that Crabb (1977) makes here. The goal of counseling should be to get the patient to see how he or she could be more in line with God’s will because that is where peace is to be found.
Development of Problems and…
Personal Theory Paper
Since mid-1970s, a serious matter for integration between Christianity and psychology developed among Christian counsellors. The integration movement developed as a result of reaction to psychology being accepted in the sector dealing with pastoral counseling where it did not face any criticism from the Christians’ point of view. The efforts for integrating psychology with Christianity developed more energy in the last twenty years since the time when Jay Adams refused to have psychology included in the pastoral care sector (Kim, 2004). Attempting to create an integration in psychology with Christian faith is a tedious experience as a result of the different approaches of the two academic disciplines.
According to Alan C. Tjeltveit (2012), the daunting questions that come as a result of taking psychology as well as Christian faith in a serious manner have to be dealt with. The queries that come from the sectors in…
The purpose of David Powlison’s Biblical Counseling Movement is to provide readers with a history of the approach and then to provide readers with Powlison’s own perspective on what works and why. The aim of the book is to provide context about the nature of Biblical counseling, how it has been used throughout history, and then to make rational, common sense assessments about how it can be applied in one’s own life and career. Thus, the primary goal of the book is to give the reader context and the ability to implement the acquired knowledge in practice.
Development of Problems and Personal Need
The issues came about when Jay Adams reasoned that modern psychology was really just “bad theology” as Powlison puts it. There was a personal need among patients and providers who knew better to provide a Biblical counseling approach that could truly address the needs…
Crabb's Biblical Model Of Counseling Comparison And Discussion
Goal of Christian Counseling
The goal of Christian Counseling differs from private practice counseling in many regards. For example, a Christian community offers a counselor a unique set of resources, often comprised of loving and caring individuals for are members of the local congregation. In private practice the resources that a counselor may have to work with can be comparatively limited by contrast. Furthermore, each Christian is called to help others based on their faith. A private practice counselor can be motivated by a plethora of reasons -- some of them are surly genuine and altruistic however others may be for monetary gain or similar ambitions. Thus, the resources that are available and the motivations behind entering counseling represent two initial and fundamental differences.
Another difference is that the fundamentals of the counseling practices might be starkly different. Many Christian counselors believe…
Crabb, L., & Crabb, L. (1977). Effective Biblical Counseling. Zondervan.
Johnson, W., Ridley, C., & Nielsen, S. (2000). Religiously Sensitive Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Elegant Solutions and Ethical Risks. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14-20.
Mann, N. (2008). An introduction to cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. Professional Skills, 24-27.
Rogers . (2006). Carl Rogers Info. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://www.carlrogers.info/
Egan's 3 Stage Model
Various counseling practices allow individuals to identify, cope with, and manage areas of self-improvement and to address physical, mental, and emotional needs. The reasons why individuals seek counseling range from romantic relationship issues, adjustments to chronic illness, spiritual concerns, grief, to career choices, stress, addiction, and adjusting to the effects of trauma. In the counselor-client relationship, the counselor aims to listen to and question the client to establish how the client understands, to clarify thoughts, provide new perspective to the situation, and generate approaches to the problem (owland, 1993, p. 18-19). One effective model that structures the counseling theory within the counselor-client relationship is Egan's 3-Stage Skilled Helper model. Egan's model offers a framework to help individuals discover solutions to their problems and develop new opportunities. Egan's Skilled Helper model is comprised of three stages, in which each stage involves three sub-stages. Clients and guided through…
Crago, H. (2000). Counselling and psychotheraphy: is there a difference? Does it matter?.
Australlian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 21(2), 73-80.
Forrest, D. (n.d.). Egan's skilled helper model. Informally published manuscript, Continuing
Professional Development Unit, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Retrieved from http://www.gestaltuk.com/Resources/Egan_skilled_helper_model.pdf
Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).
Shortfalls of the attachment theory
The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence…
Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lee.html
Klaus, M.H., Kennell, J.H., & Klaus, P.H. (1995). Bonding. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Pickover, S. (2002). Breaking the cycle: A clinical example of disrupting an insecure attachment system. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 358-367.
Theory of Group Development
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.
Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…
Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.
Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.
Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:
Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
My reasons for seeking a counseling degree are that I grew up with a desire to help others. I have myself been counseled, as a child, by therapists whom, I noted, attempted to streamline me according to particularistic beliefs. Wondering whether it were possible for psychotherapy to be objective, I read a lot on the subject and observed people who were therapists. At the time I naively thought counselors to be wonderful, and considered them almost as though they were God's second-in-command. I was later to read that psychotherapists do project that image, which is partially what renders the profession of psychotherapy to be somewhat controversial (e.g., Dawes,1994).
Gradually it dawned on me that these people were playing with people's lives: That I and presumably many other individuals are either compelled to 'visit' these deities of fate, or they 'visit' them out of their own volition. It was…
American Psychological Association (APA) (2010) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
American Counseling Association (ACA) (2005) ACA Code of Ethics.
Chater, N., & Oaksford, M. (2001). Human rationality and the psychology of reasoning: Where do we go from here? British Journal of Psychology, 92, 193-216.
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
Procedures. All patients, regardless of whether they were participating in the study or not, received treatment as usual (TAU) for the first six months of the study. Measurement for this initial six-month period followed this sequence: A standard suite of measurements was administered at session one, session 6 and session 12; OS and SS assessments occurred at every treatment session for identified patients (IP) only. During this initial six-month period, counselors only received training in the use of the OS and SS as instruments to be added to the standard suite of outcome measures.
In the second six-month period, training in the client-directed outcome-informed approach to therapy was provided to all the counselors. The training components included the following: (1) 16 hours of formal introduction to theory of change according to the Duncan and Miller framework; (2) in-depth training on the use of OS and SS for obtaining client feedback…
Ardelt, M. And Eccles, J.S. (2001, November). Effects of mothers' parental efficacy beliefs and promotive parenting strategies on inner-city youth. Journal of Family Issues, 22(8), 944-972.
Boeree, C.G. (2006) Carl Rogers: 1902-1987. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html
Brann, P., Coleman, G., & Luk, E. (2001). Routine outcome in a child and adolescent mental health service: an evaluation of HoNOSCA. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 370-376.
Cooper, M., Watson, J.C., & Hoeldampf, D. (2010). Person-centered and experiential therapies work: A review of the research on counseling, psychotherapy and related practices. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.
Although supervisors have an obligation to foster an atmosphere in which supervisees feel capable of being forthcoming with important information, we must also be concerned with the possibility that trainees may have predispositions toward nondisclosure, as well as the risk of liability associated with certain types of nondisclosure.
Ellis & Douce (1994) believe that there are eight supervisory themes and issues tend to recur in-group supervisor supervision (i.e., supervisor anxiety, intervention choices, group cohesion, responsibility, parallel process, power struggles, individual differences, and sexual attraction). Given the importance of supervisory issues in counselor supervision (Ellis, 1991), it is reasonable to expect that the eight issues may be important for effective supervisor supervision. In fact, our experience suggests that assessing and confronting these supervisory issues successfully is an integral part of supervisor supervision. Therefore, in the next section we discuss the eight issues and suggest intervention strategies to address them.
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. (1999). AAMFT supervisor designation: Standards and responsibilities handbook. Washington, DC: Author.
American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611.
American Psychological Association. (2001). Draft of ethics code [Online] Available:
Millon Test Summary
Counseling Test eview
What follows in this report is a summary of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III, often referred to as the MCMI-III. One of the sources (but certainly not the only one) is the creator of the test, Mr. Million himself. Four other sources covering the Millon test are covered as well. There are a number of sections to this report and they are, in order, general information about the test, a description of the test, a technical evaluation of the test, a practical evaluation of the test and a summary evaluation of the test. A conclusion will wrap up the report.
General Test Information
As noted in the introduction, the title of the test involved here is the Millon Clinical Multi-Axial Inventory III. There is a "sister" test that is very similar and is known as the Millon College Counseling Inventory, with the main…
Grove, W.M., & Vrieze, S.I. (2009). An exploration of the base rate scores of the Millon
Clinical Multiaxial Inventory -- III. Psychological Assessment, 21(1), 57-67.
Millon, T. (1994, January 1). Product - Millon® Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Welcome to Pearson Assessments & Information / Clinical Assessments. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from http://psychcorp.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=PAg505
Counseling supervision entails that persons in a therapeutic role are supervised by a peer for the purpose of professional and personal development. The supervisor makes recommendations according to his or her observations, and helps the counselor to perform better or to make modifications for the benefit of the patients. Supervision could also occur in a group setting, where several therapists are involved in the supervisory role (Holloway 1995: 21).
In the United Kingdom, all counselors are required to undergo supervision, regardless of elements such as experience or perceived performance. The reason for this is that it is often seen by both professional supervising bodies and therapists themselves as ethically imperative. In the United States, however, many counselors work without supervision.
This is the result of the evolution of counseling and its associated practice in the United States and in the United Kingdom. In the former, supervision is required…
Carroll, Michael. 1996. Counseling Supervision: Theory, Skills and Practice. London: Cassel.
Hawkins, P., & Shohet, R. (1989). Supervision in the helping professions. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Holloway, E. 1992. Supervision: A way of teaching and learning. In S.D. Brown & R.W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (pp. 177-214). New York: Wiley.
Holloway, Elizabeth L. 1995. Clinical Supervision: A Systems Approach. London: Sage.