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Crimes against public disorder
In order to be convicted of disorderly conduct, according to the State of Massachusetts the defendant must have committed three specific things: 1) involved themselves in fighting, threatening, or violent behavior, or create a situation that is hazardous or physically offensive, 2) the defendants actions were most likely to affect the public, and 3) the defendant must have intended to cause public inconvenience, annoyance or alarm, or create the risk of such. ("Disorderly Conduct") Because of its intent to and effect of creating public disorder, disorderly conduct is considered a crime against the public. Disorderly conduct is often associated with political demonstrations, such as the Occupy Wall Street or Tea Party movements. In such situations, those guilty of disorderly conduct must have the intent, or mens rea, (Latin for "guilty mind), to either create, or risk creating, public disorder. (Singer, 2010, p.56) But…
"Arson: Legal Aspects-Model Penal Code." Law.jrank.org. Retrieved from http://law.jrank.org/pages/537/Arson-Legal-Aspects-Model-arson-statutes.html
"Disorderly Conduct." Mass.gov. Retrieved from http://www.mass.gov/courts/courtsandjudges/courts/districtcourt/jury-instructions/criminal/pdf/7160-disorderly-conduct.PDF
"Homicide" Lexis Nexis. Retrieved from http://www.lexisnexis.com/lawschool/study/outlines/html/crim/crim24.htm
"Model Penal Code." American Law Institute. Retrieved from http://heinonline.org/HeinDocs/ali2.pdf
Crime Causation Diversion: Comparison of Juvenile Diversion, Intervention, And Prevention Programs Operating in California
The objective of this study is to compare juvenile diversion, intervention, and prevention programs operating California. This study will examine how programs work to reduce juvenile crime and then conduct an analysis of the relationship between program premise and goals and one of more major causes of juvenile delinquent behavior.
One of the provisions to juvenile offenders is known as SMAT. SMAT is comprised by a broad series of programs including intervention programs, investigations, school violence prevention, and juvenile diversion. It also includes outreach and community forum programs like Is Your Teen at isk? that informs parents about issues they need to be knowledgeable about." (Orange County Sheriff's Department, 2013) SMAT stands for 'School Mobile Assessment and esource Team', which is reported to be used in "situations and incidents related to violence, threats, possession and use…
Community Based Intervention For Youth (2012) Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. Retrieved from: http://file.lacounty.gov/lasd/cms1_149976.pdf
Enrichment and Prevention Programs for Youth (2013) The Los Angeles Police Department. Retrieved from: http://www.lapdonline.org/juvenile_division/content_basic_view/6297
Greenwood, P. (nd) Prevention and Intervention Programs for Juvenile Offenders. Future of Children. Retrieved from: http://futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/docs/18_02_09.pdf
Juvenile Services/SMART (2013) Orange County Sheriff's Department, CA. Retrieved from: http://ocsd.org/divisions/fieldops/south/smart
Crime and Intelligence Analysis
The oles of Crime Analysis and Intelligence Analysis in the Future of Policing and Homeland Security
The state of this country after the September 11 attacks was of utter shock and disbelief at what had taken place in New York City. One of the most important questions on everybody's mind was whether the United States was safe from another such attack. This question of safety is one that is asked by individuals all around this country still, and not only with regard to homeland security, but also with regard to security close to one's home. In other words, all individuals want to be safe, and want to find the best way for the police force at a local level, or the FBI at nationwide level, to keep all persons safe at a reasonable cost. For this exact reason, for the fact that taxpayers hold the burden…
Boba, Rachel. "Guidelines to Implement and Evaluate Crime Analysis and Mapping in Law Enforcement Agencies." Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). 2000. Web. 22 Dec. 2011. .
"Chapter One: Definitions." Central Intelligence Agency. 16 Mar. 2007. Web. 22 Dec. 2011. .
Filler, Josh. "The Future of Intelligence at the Department of Homeland Security." Emergency Management. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. .
"Intelligence Analysis Careers at the FBI." Federal Bureau of Investigation. Web. 22 Dec. 2011. .
Attorney General has the job of collecting, analyzing, and reporting statistical data, which will be able to give valid evaluations of crime and the criminal justice procedure to government and the people of the various states. Crime in Birmingham, Corpus Christi and Anchorage are three places that are unique and have different crime rates. The communicating Criminal Justice Profiles generate web-based exhibitions of data on all three cities. All of these feature are done to gives users more flexibility to tailor data tables to their exact inquiry. Moreover, datasets with the past 10 years of arrest and crime data are now downloadable to do the essential research of these cities. With that said, this paper will give a detailed analysis of crime data in three different states using Birmingham, Alabama, Anchorage, Alaska and Corpus Christi, Texas.
esearch shows that the FBI's 2012 official Crime eport Comparison…
Beck, J.A. (2010). Victims' rights and public safety? unmasking racial politics in crime discourses surrounding parole revocation for "lifers" in Alaska, Alabama and Texas. Western Criminology Review,, 23(12), 20-36.
Crime Data. (2012, May 5). Retrieved September 30, 2013
Crime Statistics. (2013, September 30). Retrieved from The Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov /stats-services/crimestats
Lee, E. (2013). A historical approach to regulatory compliance research: Case study of Birmingham and Corpus Christi. International Review of Public Administration,, 18(1), 145.
Crime ates and Abandoned Buildings
The research question will help to focus the study and determine the long-term effects of crime rates and abandoned buildings. It includes:
Is there a direct relationship between crime rates and abandoned properties inside a community?
This allows actuaries to concentrate on how these trends are developing and the long-term effects on different regions.
The hypothesis will show that there is a direct correlation between various crime rates and the large number of abandoned buildings inside specific areas. The theory that will be tested includes:
There is a connection between large numbers of abandoned buildings and increases in crime rates. This is having an adverse effect on the quality of life inside neighborhoods and the ability of cities to adjust with critical challenges. These problems are occurring from a declining revenue base and increased demand for more services. (Shane, 2012) (Gau & Pratt, 2010)
2001 Building Survey. (2001). City of Boston. Retrieved from: http://www.cityofboston.gov/Images_Documents/2001_Abandon_Property_Report_tcm3-12894.pdf
Area Five Abandoned Buildings. (2011). Pop Center.org. Retrieved from: http://www.popcenter.org/library/awards/goldstein/2001/01-11.pdf
Understanding Descriptive Statistics. (2012). National Atlas. Retrieved from: http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_statistics.html#two
Bratton, W. (2009). Turn Around. New York, NY: Random House.
Crime -- Abstracts and Introduction
Dependent variable: Crime
Independent Variable: halting rising crime rate
Control variable: government spending on law enforcement
Tentative hypothesis: If government spending on law enforcement increases, then the overall rising crime rates could be halted.
asinski (1989) studied the relationship between the effects of question wording/phrasing on public support for government spending. He points out that analysis of question phrasing studies around the General Social Survey expenses objects demonstrated constant phrasing effects for a number of problems throughout 3 years. An evaluation of kinds of phrasing change suggests that even minimal modifications can impact reactions. Nevertheless, an evaluation of communication with participant individual variations demonstrated no dependable structure (asinski, 1989). With regards to crime, the surveys reported that Americans favored halting of crime over and above higher spending on law enforcement. This study does not support our hypothesis.
Gascon and Foglesong (2010) paper is really one…
Gascon, G. And Foglesong, T. (2010). New Perspectives in Policing - Making Policing More Affordable: Managing Costs and Measuring Value in Policing. National Institute of Justice. Accessed on September 21, 2013: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/231096.pdf
GSS Survey (2010). Accessed on September 21, 2013: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/documents//OTHR/GSS2010_Ballot1_AREA_English.pdf
GSS results. Accessed on September 21, 2013: http://www3.norc.org/GSS+Website/Browse+GSS+Variables/Subject+Index/
IBM. (2011). Cashing the Public Safety Dividend: Re-Calibrating Spending on Police Services in an Era of Declining Crime Rates. IBM Global Business Services, White Paper. Accessed on September 21, 2013: ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/common/ssi/ecm/en/gbw03143usen/GBW03143USEN.PDF
After Bartos's (2012) PBS Frontline story ran, exposing illegitimate online forensic credentialing programs, law enforcement agencies and private crime laboratories became aware of the need for improved human resources departments and more robust candidate screening programs. Given the proliferation of bogus online accreditation systems, human resources managers must remain cognizant of which institutions are credible. Background checks must include attention paid to the quality of the candidate's school and credentialing system used. However, the most important aspect of staffing a new crime laboratory is screening the individual candidates in person. Candidates may have misrepresented themselves on their resumes. Moreover, candidates might be unaware of the roles and duties expected of them, believing their background to be commensurate with the needs of the laboratory. Human resources department staff has a grave responsibility to staff their laboratories with qualified personnel, because the results of testing have direct impacts on the…
American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (2010). Program overview. Retrieved online: http://www.ascld-lab.org/documents/AL-PD-3041.pdf
Bartos, L. (2012). No forensic background? No problem. Pro-Publica. Retrieved online: http://www.propublica.org/article/no-forensic-background-no-problem
Mihalovich, J. & Matheson, G. (2009). Certification of criminalists. Retrieved online: http://ag.ca.gov/meetings/tf/pdf/criminalists_cert.pdf
Crimes and Civil Action
Court cases may occur in their criminal or civil nature attracting different kinds of penalties for the offenders. In the criminal justice practice, civil action often comes in the form of a lawsuit that has been advanced to enforce, protect, or redress the rights of the plaintiffs and defendants. The focus of a civil action undertaken against a party is to protect the civil rights of the parties involved in a lawsuit. The courts have the jurisdiction to listen to the litigants and the witness, conduct forensic study of the events that took place, and combine all these to establish a ruling in favor of either party involved in a case. This is done systematically within the laws and structures governing the criminal justice system where justice is delivered to the party found guilty.
eview of the Scenario
From the scenario provided, at least four alleged…
Dzur, A. (2012). Criminal Justice, Criminal Law, and Philosoph, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 115 -- 129.
Marenin, O. & Worrall, J. (1998). Criminal justice, Journal of Criminal Justice, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp. 465 -- 480.
Sarre, R. (2000). Crime and the Criminal Justice System, American Journal of Criminology, Volume 33, Issue 3, p. 365.
Where on one hand, it can accurately be concluded that the challenges that are faced by cities have substantially increased due to the recession, it would be inaccurate to suggest that it has caused them. Long-term commitments and service levels have been offered in the past by Governments when it was well-known it would be incredibly hard to deliver on such promises. These include healthcare coverage schemes after retirement and employee pensions. Furthermore, cities have been lacking behind in updating their current infrastructure regularly as well as not making significant improvements to keep in pace with the targeted rates of growth (BM, 2011). Another important factor that determines any city's success is the crime. Less funding in policing has an adverse effect on the overall living standards of city.
Cities are now increasingly in the search for more viable cost effective opportunities as they are simultaneously facing the challenges…
It has been stated by Rasinski (1989) that despite the existence of a number of connections among the words and their underlying features, no connection was constant in the period of last three years whereas the sole connection which was constant for one problem was only over the period of two years. Therefore, these connections would not be discussed in this report any more but can be accessed from some other place. The evaluation on the query related to the wording experimentation conducted on the General Social Survey spending objects indicates constant impact of the wording on numerous problems over the period of three years. It has been found through investigation on the kinds of wording that even trivial variations can influence the answers. Conversely, there was no constant pattern exhibited upon the analysis of connections with the individual dissimilarities prevailing in the respondents.
Article 3: What is known about the Effectiveness of Police Practices?
As illustrated by Telep (2011), researches have focused mainly on possibly the most significant queries present in their analysis. Investigation has been carried out on the kind of policies considered useful and the manner in which such strategies are executed. Numerous fruitful plans and the policies are illustrated which demonstrate robust facts regarding the usefulness of dealing with issues like criminality and anarchy. It has been found that literature available for investigation indicates that previously the emphasis was given to queries such as whether the plan works or not. However, several attempts have been made to provide appropriate details about the manner in which these various strategies should be executed in reality by the police organizations. For instance, monitoring the hot spots is useful for decreasing the degree of criminality and chaos; however it is imperative for the police organizations to be aware of their responsibilities of the officers in order to deal with the criminal hot spots. Due to this they will deliberate upon what works in reality along with the ways of implementation to be adopted by the
Crime and Punishment
Space and Place in Crime and Punishment
Petersburg had been the capital of Russia for more than a century and a half when Fyodor Dostoevsky wrote Crime and Punishment. The capital had been established in the early part of the 18th century by Tsar Peter the Great, who, like his descendents (Catherine the Great especially), was influenced by trends in European style and philosophical thought. With the liberation of the serfs in 1861, St. Petersburg went from cultural hub to the type of over-populated city full of all manner and class of people described by Dostoevsky in Crime and Punishment. The influx of people not only reflected the social and moral atmosphere of Russia as a whole, it also reflected the deteriorating condition of the spiritual and psychological state of Dostoevsky's hero/anti-hero Raskolnikov -- a man whose name is literally inspired by the Russian term for "split"…
Using the FBI's crime database, Miami Beach had 9585 property crimes, 370 robberies, 473 aggravated assaults. These rates equate to 10,773 property crimes per 100,000 people; 416 robberies and 532 aggravated assaults (FBI, 2013). These rates are quite high. The high level of property crime, which would appear to see one out of every 10 people a victim of property crime every year, are probably explained by the high numbers of tourists that visit Miami Beach every year. ith the tourists and all of the tourist infrastructure like hotels and restaurants, the amount of people at any given time in Miami Beach exceeds the number of people living there by tens of thousands. The property crimes are in particular evident because tourists are often the target of crime. There is considerable opportunity for criminals, such as tourists leaving their bags on the beach to go swimming, or the…
FBI.gov. (2013). Offenses known to law enforcement. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 20, 2013 from http://www.fbi.gov /about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-u.s.-2011/tables/table8statecuts/table_8_offenses_known_to_law_enforcement_florida_by_city_2011.xls' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
This is a difficult task because at some level because every crime, or action for that matter is driven by both self-interest and environmental factors.
Perhaps a new viewpoint is needed that includes both the individual and community responsibility to help fight and prevent criminal behavior. Each human being is blessed to have both types of skills that help map and order our world and daydream and create new solutions. These two sides of the human psyche must be addressed together in order to fully understand and ultimately fix the problems of crime and punishment.
Routine Activity Theory is a helpful model of understanding the criminal mind. This theory does not discount the mysterious nature of the human mind but incorporates it with the strange and often coincidental nature of the universe.
Three premises underlie this theory. The first mandates that there is a criminal with the intent to commit…
Similarly, Green (2000) cites the reclassification of rape as a crime against the person as a good example of changing social views about acceptable behaviors and the consequences of unacceptable behaviors that involve violence. According to Green:
For example, the fact that rape is now generally classified as a crime against the person rather than as a morals offense (as was once common) is indicative of the evolution in society's views of that crime. Similarly, the classification of robbery as a crime against property rather than a crime against the person tells us something significant (and perhaps surprising) about how our criminal justice system views the act of theft by force or violence. (2000, p. 1087)
Therefore, the definition of crime against the person has significant contextual aspects that must be considered at a given point in time in determining the criminality of an act. With respect to this type…
Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Carrington, P.J. (1999). Has violent youth crime increased? Canadian Journal of Criminology,
Cragg, W. (1992). The practice of punishment: Towards a theory of restorative justice. New York: Routledge.
While Los Angeles and Chicago show a decrease in violent crime, there is an increase in the number of murders in Charlotte and Tulsa (an Uptick in Murders).
Other noticeable trend is the increase in white collar crime. This is also linked to the growth of communications technology and the "information revolution." This factor is also linked to the increase in drug trafficking, which is a crime that is often closely linked to violence and murder ( McDonald and Finn, 2000).
2. Is the Increase in Violent Crime a Cause for Alarm?
The answer to the above question is a resounding 'yes'. Violent crime in itself creates a wide array of social and personal problems that affect society in many negative ways. Besides the obvious fact that people often die, there is also the traumatic effect of this type of crime on relatives and loved one to consider: which in…
In rare cases, white collar crime does lead to death. For example, a company that covers up flaws in its research design and hurries a pharmaceutical product to market knowingly endangers lives. Automobile and toy manufacturers, food producers, biochemists, and farmers are all potentially guilty of white collar crimes that can actually hurt people. With the tremendous amount of political power backing up major corporations, governmental regulations are relatively lax. White collar crimes are aided by a government that is corrupted by lobbying groups, financed by the perpetrators of white collar crimes. In this sense, white collar crime can be viewed as a larger, more sinister version of organized crime syndicates. Organized crime syndicates often hide behind a cloak of legitimate business. Thus, the line between the two is sometimes blurry. White collar crime can deprive millions of people of honest livelihood, and many of the victims will never be…
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010). White collar crime. United States Department of Justice. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://www.fbi.gov /whitecollarcrime.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The Prohibition made these mobsters however more daring and they begun to become involved in criminal operations that affected the American communities as well. Aside the Prohibition, it has to be stated that at that time, the United States was also facing severe economic problems. This was as such the moment organized crime was born. There were numerous nations conducting illicit operations during Prohibition, including the Irish, the Jews, the Poles, the Germans or even native-born Americans, but due to their superiority and the large portion owned in the underworld, the Italians are the most notable ones.
In 1920, just at the legislation for forbidding manufacturing, commercialization and consumption of alcohol was enforced, Johnny Torrio commenced rum-running and bootlegging operations (both concepts refer to illegal traffic of alcohol, with the difference that rum-running involves transportation by water and bootlegging involves transportation by land). Torrio was recognized for his entrepreneurial skills…
Binder, John J., Chicago, American Mafia, 2001, on the Internet at http://www.americanmafia.com/Cities/chicago.html last accessed on April 8, 2009
Guglielmo, Thomas, a., White on Arrival: Italians, Race, Color and Power in Chicago, 1890-1945, Oxford University Press U.S., 2004
Hagedorn, John, M., Race Not Space: A Revisionist History of Gangs in Chicago, the Journal of African-American History, Vol. 91, 2006
Kelly, Robert, J., Chin, Ko-Iin, and Schatzberg, Handbook of Organized Crime in the United States, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994
However, it would be inappropriate to conclude that the absence of available statistics means that the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office does not engage in analysis or crime mapping; they simply have not chosen to make that information available online.
The Charlotte-Mecklenburg website is not as flashy or welcoming as the previous sites. However, it is extremely user friendly and offers a wide variety of services on the homepage. Like Denver and Tucson, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department allows victims to report crimes online. They also provide easy online access to a wide array of services, inkling: crime mapping, traffic accident locations and crash reporting, crime reports, 911 reports, significant events, victim resources, and homeland security. (Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department). In addition, the police department provides information on crime statistics on its homepage, reporting the changes in the rates of violent crimes, property crimes, and all arrests. (Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department). Interestingly, the…
Austin Police Department. "Austin Police Department: Together We Can Make a Difference."
Austin City Connection. 2007. Austin, Texas. 17 Oct. 2007 http://www.ci.austin.tx.us/police/
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department. "Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department."
CharMeck.org. 2007. Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina. 17 Oct. 2007 http://www.charmeck.org/Departments/CMPD/home.htm?header=www%2ecmpd%2eorg .
" (usiness Wire, 2007) Ms. Osborne states: "The potential of IxReveal is clear to me," Osborne stated, as "it will transform the capacity of law enforcement and homeland security agencies to more effectively analyze data and promote collaboration with fewer security risks." IxReveal "will be the mining tool that turns data into gold," she added, "by generating relevant insights and collaboration, rather than simply creating more work." (usiness Wire, 2007) IxReveal is stated to be: "...a leading text analytics software company that transcends current search and business intelligence technologies. The company's solution-based products are unique in their capacity to transform large volumes of unstructured and structured data into actionable intelligence. IxReveal's award-winning product lines, uReveal (TM) and uReka (TM) (www.ureka.info),also allow researchers to collaboratively share concepts and findings. Clients include leading multinational corporations, financial institutions, law-enforcement agencies, universities, health organizations, and major federal agencies with data-intensive mandates in areas such…
Ratcliffe, Jerry H. (2007) Integrated Intelligence and Crime Analysis: Enhanced Information Management for Law. Community Oriented Policing Services. U.S. Department of Justice August 2007. Online available at http://www.policefoundation.org/pdf/integratedanalysis.pdf
Crime and Intelligence Analyst Deborah Osborne Joins IxReveal Board of Advisors (2007) Business Wire - Press Release. 10/05/2007. Online available at http://www.forbes.com/businesswire/feeds/businesswire/2007/10/05/businesswire20071005005080r1.html
Johnston, Rob (2005)Analytic Culture of the U.S. Intelligence Community: An Ethnographic Study. The Center for the Study of Intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, DC. Online available at http://webzoom.freewebs.com/swnmia/Analytic%20Culture%20in%20the%20U.S.%20Intelligence%20Community.pdf
GIS for Law Enforcement (2007) ESRI Online available at http://www.esri.com/industries/lawenforce/index.html
This population already had issues such as crime, poverty and unemployment in the city from which they came. When evacuees relocated to Houston these problems were simply brought with them and they were magnified because of the circumstances surrounding the relocation.
The purpose of this discussion was to examine the impact of citizen displacement on cities such as Houston and San Antonio, Texas. In particular we focused on the rising violent crime rate in Houston and the theory that may explain why there has been such a significant increase in the amount of crime in the area. We found that the theory of social disorganization provides a clear explanation for the increase in crime that has occurred in Houston following Hurricane Katrina and the relocation of thousands of people to the city of Houston. As it relates to social disorganization theory this influx of new people many of them…
Bursik, R.J., Jr., and Grasmick, H.G. 1993. Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. New York, NY: Lexington Books.
Houston Cops Link Crime To Katrina. August 16, 2006. CBS News. Retrieved December 5, 2006 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/08/15/national/main1895797.shtml
Moreno S., 2006. Monday, February 6, 2006 After Welcoming Evacuees, Houston Handles Spike in Crime. Washington Post. Page A03
Warner, B.D., and Pierce, G.L. 1993. Reexamining social disorganization theory using calls to the police as a measure of crime. Criminology 31(4):493-517.
Burglary- 7.00% of 1000 people in USA experience this. The corollary is 2,159,878 individuals
5. Theft- 20.04 of 1000 people in Memphis experience this. The corollary is 6,185,867indivdiuals
Motor vehicle theft -- 2.39% of 1000 people in Memphis experience this. The corollary is 737,142 individuals (eighborhood Scout Crime rates for Memphis, T).
When compared to the nation as a whole, Memphis seems to have an unusually high environment of burglary and other crimes related to theft. For some reason, Memphis' climate fosters an environment where an inordinate amount of people become victims of robbery and the state seems to experience some of the highest rates of larceny in the nation.
Memphis: general safety assessment
These indications of Memphis's tendency towards crime is reinforced by a contrast between the amount of crimes per square mile that occur in Tennessee, and between the amount of crimes per square mile that occur in…
Neighborhood Scout Crime rates for Memphis, TN
America's safest and most dangerous cities http://www.morganquitno.com/cit05pop.htm
A good example of this can be seen with: murders down 29% and auto thefts down 54%. What this confirms, is the divergence that is occurring in the various crime statistics that are being reported. ("Annual Report," 2009)
What Crimes are Most Significant
The crimes that are most significant are: burglary, robbery and assault. This is problematic, because of the increases in the number of victims and the overall nature of these crimes, which can cause some people to feel less secure. Where, you will have the police citing one set of statistics, while the citizens feel as if the underlying levels of crime are eating away at their quality of life. A good example of this can be seen with comments from Lt. Tom Monahan of Las Vegas Metro Homicide. With him saying, "When you compare the homicide rates with one another, they have remained largely the same over…
Annual Report. (2009) Las Vegas Police. Retrieved from: http://www.lvmpd.com/pdf/09annualreport.pdf
APA Format http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/11/
A misdemeanor is punishable up to a year in a country jail (Cooley).
In the case of ill and Joe, ill's action fulfills all the four elements required to prove a criminal threat. If ill became successful with his threat, he could have killed or severely injured Joe with the bat. His words conveyed his intent to kill Joe. The intent was clear and complete from his utterance. The threat was fatal. Second, ill's utterance expressed a specific intent to kill Joe and that he meant Joe to receive it as such. ill may or may not have been able to carry his threat out, but his intent was clear and complete from his very statement. Third, the context and circumstances in which ill made the threatening statement also convey the same fatal intent. ill had been giving Joe a hard time about the latter's tardiness for several days. ill…
1. Coleman, J. (2003). Theories of Tort Law. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato_Stanford_edu/entires/tort-theories
2. Cooley, S. (2001). Stalking and Criminal Threats. California Penal Code 422. Los Angeles County District Attorney's Office. http://da.co.la.ca.us/pdf/stalking.pdf
3. Collins, K.M. (2002). Negligent Homicide/Involuntary Manslaughter. International Encyclopedia of Justice Studies. http://www.iejp.com/Law/Criminal_Law/Negligent_Homicide-Manslaughter.htm
Crimes in the Bay Area
One of the most violent and consistent crimes in the San Francisco Bay Area results from gangs; gang violence is generally not visited on the general public, but rather, gangs in the Bay Area aim their violent assaults on each other. Recently the City of San Francisco has beefed up its "Community Response Network" and has allocated $30,000 in an effort for city officials and police to "reach out to youths to calm tensions and steer kids away from gang life" (Sabatini, 2012). This paper discusses the crime problems in the Bay Area due to gang violence and gang activity, and poses possible solutions for gang crime.
Three Body Paragraphs Describe the Problem
In the Mission District of San Francisco, the "…temperature is hot right now between the Hispanic gangs," according to the Chief of Police in San Francisco, Greg Suhr. The police chief is…
Adachi, Jeff. "What San Francisco Can Do About Gangs." Beyond Chron. Retrieved April 19,
2013, from http://www.beyondchron.org . 2008.
Derbeken, Jaxon Van, and Huet, Ellen. "Chief: SF gangs tearing themselves apart." San
Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 19, 2013, from http://www.sfgate.com . 2012.
A major concern regarding crime today that exists within prisons as well as on the streets is the formation of gangs. "Prison gangs are flourishing across the country. Organized, stealthy and deadly, they are reaching out from their cells to organize and control crime in America's streets.... prison disturbances soared by about 400% in the early nineties, which authorities say indicated that gangs were becoming more active... As much as 60% of the prison population belong to gangs." (Danitz 1998) Authorities say that many of the prison gang members were used to being gang members on the outside, but in other cases even authorities admit that many inmates are joining gangs for "survival" and "protection." hich returns to the previously mentioned dilemma. hat are inmates needing protection from? Is time behind bars not supposed to be one that allows for contemplation about past mistakes in an atmosphere that allows for…
While prisoners are often fighting for rights or survival, crimes against prisoners continue to stifle their potential to rehabilitate. "An alarming 4,160 combined incidents of assault and battery on inmates by fellow prisoners and guards in 1999, and an additional 12 incidents of inmates being killed by corrections officers in the line of duty. Left out of the report... are figures of incidents of abuse and assault of inmates specifically by prison guards." (Foley 2000) Most prisoner abuse does not get reported, so the actual numbers are likely quite a bit higher than any studies have shown. Prisoners are discouraged from making reports because they may be punished for speaking up, their reports are often not taken seriously, and reporting abuse may affect a prisoner's ability to get parole.
In addition to direct physical abuse, neglect of prisoners is also a serious crime that is underreported. One hard-on-crime, harder-on-criminals writer suggested that parole be complete abolished for repeat offenders, even if the offenses are minor non-violent crimes. "Will life in prison without parole fill prisons with geriatrics? Hardly. Criminals usually die young.." (Haag 1994)
This statement implies that the system is being seriously neglectful or abusive of its wards; there is no reason for all prisoners to be dying young! "The number of persons in prison in the United States now exceeds 2 million, and the isolation and degradation in which they live is staggering." (Drinan 2000) Prisoners may be dying young because of incidents like the Cook County Jail incident in 1999, when 40 guards terrorized hundreds of inmates for over 40 minutes with beatings, attack dogs, sexual humiliation, and finally denial of medical treatment for the wounds and injuries inflicted. Yet few of the guards involved in the terrorizing were charged with a crime, and those who were received ridiculously lenient charges. (Possley & Mills 2003) Further torture of prisoners is inflicted with the assistance of devices such as the stun belt, which gives an eight-second stun of 50,000 volts, and is remotely activated. "The painful blast, which Stun Tech representatives advertise as 'devastating,' knocks most of its victims to the floor, where they may shake uncontrollably and remain incapacitated for as long as fifteen minutes. Two metal prongs, positioned just above the left kidney, leave welts that can take up to six months to heal." (Cusac, 1996) Similar devices have been found to cause heart attacks, ventricular fibrillation, arrhythmia, and epileptic seizures, and this stun belt is a popular prison control tool. Further atrocities performed by guards include setting up "gladiator-style" fights between inmates at Corcoran State Prison for their own amusement, leading to the deaths of several inmates. "All told, guards at Corcoran - which crowds 6,286 inmates into a high-security prison that can hold just 2,916 - killed seven prisoners and wounded 43 others between January 1989 and mid-1994. While several officers at Corcoran have been found guilty of abusing inmates, no top administrators have been charged with wrongdoing." (Foley
The safety of children is the most important function adults can perform and "the key to their safety is awareness, education, and prevention." ("hat You Can Do") Children must be taught self-esteem and self-preservation, that they can talk to adults about problems, where are the safe places to play, and to be aware of their surroundings and those in it. It is paramount that parents know the people in their neighborhood, the friendlier one is with their neighbors the safer they will be. In this way the neighbors will always be on the lookout for trouble and everyone can watch over everyone else. But most importantly adults, especially parents, must recognize that they are responsible for their own actions and should retain a measure of level-headedness and self-control at all times. Finally, parents need to take personal responsibility for their children's care, providing both physical and emotional nurturing.
Bulwer, Perry. Religion and Child Abuse News. Web. 29 Oct. 2011.
Web. 29 Oct. 2011. http://helpguide.org/mental/child_abuse_physical_emotional_sexual_neglect.htm%20//%20types
Crimes and Misdemeanors
In Woody Allen's Crimes and Misdemeanors, most characters are consumed by questions of love and morality and the places where the two meet.
Judah's conflict clearly involves both love and morality, but more importantly, his problems deal with his essential psychological dichotomy: the disconnect between the outer self he has cultivated over the years and the inner self who threatens the sanctity and comfort of his outer life.
As Judah faces the potential revelation of his affair with Delores, he is mainly concerned with the destruction of the image he presents to most of the world - Judah the prominent ophthalmologist, the devoted husband, the loving father, the pillar of the Jewish community is about to be revealed as a common philanderer.
The Judah who has sneaked around with Delores for two years is incompatible with his public self, and yet, he must face that this too…
However, the case studies ignore the discrimination of the incidence of the problem by race or socio economic classification. (Showers, 1992)
Generally, the brain and the blood vessels of the babies are considered to be highly vulnerable to the whiplash injuries as a result of their anatomic structures. Besides the head of the baby constitutes about 10% of the weight of the body which is only 2% among the adults. At infancy the muscles at neck are very weak in comparison to that of any other stages in the life. The weak neck muscles along with the weak head control fails to resist the force exerted by the whiplash. Moreover the tender cranial joints and open fontanelles of the babies are conducive to worsen the slitting and trimming effects of the forces exerted. As a result of this a slight whiplash movement stretches the brain and the blood vessels instantly.…
Blumenthal, Ivan. (2002) "Shaken Baby Syndrome" Postgraduate Medical Journal. Volume: 78; No: 1; pp: 732-735. Retrieved at http://pmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/78/926/732Accessed on 6 November, 2004
Burke, Sheila. (3 April, 2004) "Father found guilty in shaken baby syndrome case" Retrieved at http://tennessean.com/local/archives/04/04/49367567.shtml-Element_ID=49367567Accessed on 6 November, 2004
Folmer, Tiffany S; McCabe, Paul C. (September 2003) "Shaken Baby Syndrome: Implications for School Psychologists" NASP Communique. Volume: 32, No: 1
Retrieved at http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq321shakenbaby.html . Accessed on 6 November, 2004
Second, the international organizations can work close with the local and national authorities in the identification of those who are guilty of such crimes. Third, the NGOs can be more closely involved in the process of appeasing the potential conflicts that usually lead to such crimes.
1. Des Forges, Alison. Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. March 1999. Human Rights Watch. On the Internet at http://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/1999/rwanda/index.htm#TopOfPage.Last retrieved on January 3, 2009
2. Mestrovic, Stjepan G. Genocide After Emotion: The postemotional alkan War. London and New York: Routledge. 1996.
3. Gagnon, Valere Philip. The Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia and Croatia in the 1990s. Cornell University Press. 2004.
4. Pilouras, S.: International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and Milosevic's trial, New York Law School Journal of Human Rights, 2002, pp. 515-525.
5. Roberts, K.: The law of persecution before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former…
1. Des Forges, Alison. Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. March 1999. Human Rights Watch. On the Internet at http://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/1999/rwanda/index.htm#TopOfPage.Last retrieved on January 3, 2009
2. Mestrovic, Stjepan G. Genocide After Emotion: The postemotional Balkan War. London and New York: Routledge. 1996.
3. Gagnon, Valere Philip. The Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia and Croatia in the 1990s. Cornell University Press. 2004.
4. Pilouras, S.: International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and Milosevic's trial, New York Law School Journal of Human Rights, 2002, pp. 515-525.
The question of ethics and morality, what is the right thing to do vs. The wrong thing in a given situation, can be an extremely difficult one to answer. There are occasions where right and wrong are clear, black and white distinctions. In such scenarios, the right thing to do is easy discernible, though it may not be the easiest things to do. However, this is the rarest of occasions. Far more often than not trying to determine what is the right and wrong choice in a given situation is extremely difficult, if not wholly impossible. Usually the world is not divided into simple terms like good and bad, right or wrong, black or white. Sometimes in life a person will be encountered with the opportunity to make a choice. In most scenarios, it is the decision of the public majority that decides which action is right and…
California Constitution. Article VI, Section 18.
A crime involving moral turpitude! What in the world is that?. (2013). Gudeon & McFadden:
Impolite society: who is to blame for Britain's bad manners? (2007). The Independent.
On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…
Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.
Domes, 19(1), 68-81.
Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.
Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
What Do You Think?
Crime eporting: UC and NCVS
The Uniform Crime eport is a compilation of offensives collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from all police stations in the United States. Data collected is divided into two groups, Part I and Part II. Part I data includes violent and property crimes such as aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery, arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Part II offenses include simple assault, curfew offenses and loitering, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug offenses, fraud, gambling, liquor offenses, offenses against the family, prostitution, public drunkenness, runaways, sex offenses, stolen property, vandalism, vagrancy, and weapons offenses ("Uniform Crime eports.," 2012).
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is conducted by telephone and collects information on nonfatal crimes reported and not reported to the police against persons age twelve and older from a nationally…
"Crime rates are down." (2012, June 11). Crime in the United States 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov /news/stories/2012/june/crimes_061112/crimes_061112' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.
According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…
Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract
Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf
Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf
Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
This gap suggests that men commit the majority of crimes. While the gap exists for all crimes, it is the largest for violent crime, such as homicide, rape, and robberies, and the smallest for property crime. Unlike self-report data, official statistics and victimization reports generally describe the gender-gap as most apparent, as these types of crime reporting suggest large gaps in the number of crimes committed by men and women. Official statistics and victimization reports probably show the largest gender gaps both because they deal more with violent crimes, whose perpetrators tend to be men and because self-report data allows researchers to choose samples that have equal amounts of men and women to study similarities and differences across gender. In other words, self-report data generally has a lower sex-gap because researchers can have a great deal influence in manipulating the data set.
Many crimes are not reported to the police…
Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.
ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…
Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/
Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.
Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.
Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
Crime ates and Abandoned Buildings
Is there a relationship between crime rates and abandoned buildings?
A vast portion of research on crime and its relation with location is centered at either validating or refuting 'broken window theory'. The theory states that disorders such as graffiti, litter, and broken windows may encourage or cause increase in other disorders and petty crime. The theory by virtue of its title, research objectives, and conclusions does not merit our research question regarding relationship of abandoned building and crime rate. Most policing and preventive efforts for curtailing crime in the U.S. And elsewhere have also been based on broken window theory. Disorder does not imply that any serious crime will take place at a place and serious crimes are neither taking place at littered or disordered places. Policing activities are focused on securing the abandoned buildings and how far is that helped by…
Braga, A.A., & Bond, B.J. (2008). Policing crime and disorder hot spots: A randomized controlled trial. Criminology, 46(3), 577-607.
Harcourt, B.E., & Ludwig, J. (2006). Broken windows: New evidence from New York City and a five-city social experiment. The University of Chicago Law Review, 271-320.
Immergluck, D., & Smith, G. (2006). The impact of single-family mortgage foreclosures on neighborhood crime. Housing Studies, 21(6), 851-866.
S. Why or why not? Be specific in your response.
Not necessarily. The NIBS is not designed to provide national coverage (Hirschel, 2009; USDOJ, 2005). In practice, the NIBS does provide a reliable method for estimating the incidence of those types of crimes that are defined similarly in the NIBS and in other data collection methods and in reporting jurisdictions covered by the NIBS. Conversely, the NIBS is a less reliable method to the extent specific crimes are defined differently and to the extent the data collection omits jurisdictions not covered by the NIBS. Typical examples would include the underreporting of robberies and car thefts in the NIBS by virtue of the absence of large urban areas from NIBS reporting jurisdictions (Schmalleger, 2009).
5. Identify the obstacles to law enforcement agencies to full implementation of NIBS data collection protocol.
According to a comprehensive review conducted jointly by the U.S. Department…
Hirschel, D. "Expanding Police Ability to Report Crime" The National Incident-Based
Reporting System." U.S. Department of Justice -- Office of Justice Programs -- National Institute of Justice Doc # NCJ 225459 (July 2009).
Safir, H. (2003). Security: An Inside Look at the Tactics of the NYPD. New York: St.
Crime and Corrections
Historically crime has been a concern for the public, and by extension policy makers because of the ways in which it can change and shape society. Criminal activity has the potential to influence social and economic environments within a society thus it is critical to identify measures that reduce outcomes of crime and support the reintegration of offenders into society. Consequently, crime and corrections have become big business in the United States (Smith). The money from the public purse that is expended to deal with crime is increasing in all of the states. More money is being moved from other areas of the budget to address the challenge of crime and criminal behavior. This increase in expenditure occurs in multiple areas of the criminal justice system and in spite of cost control measures. Additionally, there are fewer prisoners in within the system. This reduction in prisoners has…
Calvo-Armengoi Antoni and Zenou Yves Social Networks and Crime Decisions: The Role of Social Structure in Facilitating Delinquent Behavior International Economic Review
Vol. 45, No. 3 (2004):939-958.
Minton Todd D. Jail Inmates at Midyear 2010 - Statistical Tables U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011) Web.
As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…
Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.
Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
hen considering the effectiveness and logic of this, I do not think that similar methods should be used to punish those who have been judged guilty of crimes in our era.
The first reason I disagree with Dante's methods is that there seems to be no point to the punishments given. I believe that punishing people in a way that is fitting to the crime will only work to reinforce the kind of behavior that led to the crime. One clear example is with people who have committed wrath, with all these people placed together so they will be violent against each other. In considering these people, there is little chance that they will become better people because of the punishment. Instead, they will have little choice but to become increasingly violent. In this way, the crime fitting the punishment has no positive outcome, but has a negative one. It…
Dante, A. "Inferno." The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Eds. Sarah Lawall and Maynard Mack. New York W.W. Norton & Company, 1999: 1293-1409.
Crime eduction and Prevention Proposal for Detroit
Crime Prevention Proposal for Detroit, Michigan
In the midst of a very instable economic environment around the nation, it is crucial for all cities to bump up their strategies at preventing crime in order to be able to avoid future costs associated with fighting crime and imprisoning criminals. Crime prevention is one of the most cost effective strategies in criminal justice, and it can help save property and lives. This is especially crucial for the city of Detroit, which faces its own set of unique challenges in a severely volatile economy that has the potential to lead to increase in a wide variety of crimes, making prevention methods and strategies a crucial tool for local law enforcement.
First and foremost, the city of Detroit needs to bolster its community policing programs through increased community involvement with its law enforcement agencies. Unfortunately, the number…
Gray, Steven. (2009). In Detroit, improvement on crime? Time Magazine. Web. http://detroit.blogs.time.com/2009/10/26/in-detroit-improvement-on-crime/
Kerlikowske, Gil & Davis, Robert. (2008). Twelve Tenets to Prevent Crime and Terrorism: Major Cities Chiefs Association. Homeland Security Committee. Web. https://www.majorcitieschiefs.com/pdf/MCC_12TenetFinal52108.pdf
Crime Detection and Prevention
It is an unfortunate fact of modern society that crime and criminal activity are part of our world today. This is particularly the case in situations that make an easy target for criminals. ape and robbery, for example, tend to be encouraged in environments that appear to be easy targets. All-night convenience stores, for example, may appear to be easy targets because they have low security features and often have only one employee per shift. The specific crime under discussion in this case is therefore the night-time robbery of all-night convenience stores.
When considering the factors in the Problem Analysis Chart offered by Clarke and Eck (p. 29), the environment provides a significant incentive for criminal activity. A convenience store at a remote location, for example, might appear to be an "easy" target for robbery. The problem analysis triangle, or crime trianble, may therefore offer valuable…
Center for Problem Oriented Policing. (n.d.). Twenty Five Techniques of Situational Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.popcenter.org/library/25%20techniques%20grid.pdf
Clarke, R.V. And Eck, J.E. (n.d.) Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. Center for Problem Oriented Policing. Retrieved from: http://www.popcenter.org/library/reading/PDFs/60steps.pdf
Crime in America.net (2011, Feb 22). Top 10 Factors Contributing to Violent Crime. Retrieved from: http://www.crimeinamerica.net/2011/02/22/top-10-factors-contributing-to-violent-crime/
Crime maps offer a visual component to crime data and statistics. It allows criminologists, law enforcement analysts, and sociologists to understand the connections between demographic data and criminal incidents. However, sociologists and criminologists must be careful to refrain from drawing illogical conclusions or inferring a false causal relationship. In some cases, crime maps are more useful in terms of helping law enforcement officials allocate resources than they are in making assumptions about demographic components in crime. Crime maps can also be used to help public policy officials create more effective programs for a target demographic. In the case of iverside, there is no clear relationship between race and crime. Criminal incidents are scattered throughout the county. However, there are a few core regions of concern and both contain high numbers of non-blacks. This information suggests that African-American neighborhoods in iverside have lower rates of crime than non-black neighborhoods. Law enforcement…
Maps of Riverside
Riverside Police Department (2014). Crime statistics. Retrieved online: https://www.riversideca.gov/rpd/crstats/
The changing nature of crime should make criminology, in terms of criminal laws, flexible and up-to-date. The law must have a regular review to ensure that the society is governed by proper and accurate directives to guarantee peace and equality among the people. Moreover, flexibility is important to ensure that right punishment is rendered to every crime. Another impact that criminology holds because of the changing nature of crime is the goal and objective of assessing their tools and technology that fight against crime.
Unlike some decades ago, guns and written laws are not the only tools these days that can prevent crimes and put the criminals in bars. Because of the diverse high technology that emerges, it is important that criminology has the right and advance instruments that can enhance their purpose of serving and ensuring peace to society.
Crime Punishment Philosophy
Since the beginning of the 70s, the number of people inducted in jails and state facilities has increased to an astonishing level. In the present, more than two million individuals are serving jail time in either jails or state prisons. The growth of crime rate and imprisonment can be greatly attributed to the African-American and Hispanic communities residing in the U.S., who still categorize as the poor communities in the urban areas of the country. Even though, the increasing number of arrests and incarceration should in theory have reduced the crime rate, considering that the incarcerated offenders are no longer free to rob, mug or assault (Ezorsky, 1972).
Historical Context of Crime elated Policies and Punishment
However, no large scale crime reduction was recorded till the 1990's, that's when an actual decrease in crime was observed throughout the country. The most important point to be noted here…
Ezorsky, G. (1972). Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage.
Garland, D. (1993). Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Hart, H.L.A. (1968). Punishment and Responsibility: Essays in the Philosophy of Law. New York: Oxford University Press.
First, the old pawnbroker may be viewed an evil person who is actually harming society by her vile and cynical grasp on the poor citizens who come to her for pawning. According to Hegel, any harmful segment of society should be removed. Therefore, Raskolnikov reasoned that by murdering the old pawnbroker, he would be removing a harmful thing from society.
Next, Hegel believed that the ends justified the means, i.e., if the ends are noble, then the means may be justified. Using this rationale, the old pawnbroker has a lot of money which will be wasted upon useless masses and requiem services after her death. With this money, Raskolnikov would be able to complete his education without being cramped and the may devote himself to the service of humanity.
Lastly, Hegel argued that one small crime may be wiped out by thousands of good deeds. Raskolnikov could use the money…
Some of the entries are closely related, but the search function appears to pull up every entry that has any of the words for which a person searches. That can be very frustrating, because it produces a large number of entries that are not related in any way to the original search. Encyclopedia Britannica also requires a person to sign up for a free trial period in order to read any of the entries (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011). After that trial period is over, one must pay for the service. ikipedia requires no sign-up, and there is no cost for searching or reading on the site (ikipedia, 2011).
Overall, ikipedia excels over Encyclopedia Britannica when searching for crime and punishment in the 18th century or anything else. hile neither site has a page specifically dedicated to that issue and it is necessary to perform several searches on each site in order…
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011. Britannica - the Online Encyclopedia. Web. 30 September 2011.
Wikipedia. 2011. Wikipedia. Web. 30 September 2011.
"They picked up their fists instead of guns" was how a reporter noted the outbreak of a gang fight in the city of ichmond, California, on Friday afternoon, October 14, 2011. What was unique about this crime story was that the fist fight broke out inside the City Hall complex within the Office of Neighborhood Safety. The seven people involved in the incident were in that office to collect some incentive payments as part of a privately funded initiative called Operation Peacemakers, the purpose of which is, curiously enough, to engage young people in mental health, anger management and other productive efforts to keep them out of trouble. On the day of the altercation, members of rival gangs showed up at about the same time and the confrontation occurred, spreading blood about the office, breaking furniture, and causing concern for many. The police received numerous 911 calls. When…
ABCNews7 (2011), Gang fight erupts at Richmond City Hall. Viewable at http://abclocal.go.com/kgo/story?section=news/local/east_bay&id=8396462.
Lee, H. And Kane, W. (2011), Witnesses mum on gang brawl at Richmond City Hall. Viewable at http://articles.sfgate.com/2011-10-23/bay-area/30322974_1_gang-brawl-power-drill-gang-members .
He is serving a twenty-five-year sentence for his conviction.
The reason Ebbers was found guilty of criminal fraud, despite being in a business, is because his actions met the above referenced elements of fraud. For example, his filing of false statement was an intentional act that contained an untrue representation of an important fact: WorldCom's accounting. Further, this untrue statement was believed by the company's investors, or in this case, the victims. Further, the investors relied upon Ebbers' statement as being true and thus acted on it in terms of their investment decisions. Finally, as a result of the investor's reliance and action upon Ebbers' false statements, they lost a significant amount of money. Thus, because Ebbers' actions satisfy the elements for criminal fraud, it does not matter whether or not he was acting within a business capacity.
Associated Press (2005): "Former WorldCom Chief Signs Agreement Over Fraud Charges."…
Associated Press (2005): "Former WorldCom Chief Signs Agreement Over Fraud Charges."
Floyd, Nell Luter. (2006): "Ebbers Receives Prison Order." The Clarion-Ledger.
Moritz, Scott. (2003): "Judgment Day Coming Sooner for Ebbers." The Street. 27 Aug. 2003.
Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.
Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example,…
Beaudoin, Jack. "Does the U.S.Abuse Human Rights," Scholastic Update. 8 Dec. 1997.
Bohm, Robert. "Crime, Criminals, and Crime Control Policy Myths," Justice Quarterly,
Chavez, Linda. "One of the Keys to Reducing Crime is Ridding our Prisons of the Crimes Committed There," Enterprise/Salt Lake City, May 15, Vol 29, Iss. 46,
Green, Bonnie L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Daroowalla, Anahita; and Juned Siddique. "Trauma
Pictorial description of the criminal
Responses on the criminal description obtained show that a criminal is an individual who is.
1. Dirty and crazy
2. Dirty sloppy - messy
4. Dirty, twisted
5. My rapist, his face is exactly what I see when I see any crime, brawn hair, gross.
6. Kids who did not have a good upbringing, living with parents addicted to drugs.
7. Mentally unstable and dirty
8. Shady looking individual
9. Dirty living in poor properties in underdeveloped cities
10. Sociopathic, strong, and dirty
Among the responses above, it is observed that a criminal individual is likely to be untidy with an unstable mine. This is observable from the respondents saying the likely image they have is that of a person who is dirty and crazy. Since the most observed crimes are those that go against moral teachings in the society, it is likely…
In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.
When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…
Alberta Health Services -- Addiction and Mental Health. (2009). Challenging assumptions: The association between substance use and criminal behaviour. Edmonton, AB: Author.
Gottfredson, D.C., Kearley, B.W. And Bushway, S.D. (2008). Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/08/02 601-630.
GSS Codebook. (2010). General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined. Accessed from: http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/GSS10PAN_CB.asp
Idaho State Police. (2010). The Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho: Estimating the Need for Treatment Alternatives. Idaho State Police, Statistical Analysis Center.
Just from looking at the way these crime statistics compare to those of other similar-sized cities, it would be reasonable to assume that eaverton is slightly more affluent than average. The rate and type of crime is skewed more towards the profit-driven types of crime and less to those that are generally associated with "fits of passion," gang behavior, and drug use (especially murder and robbery).
The fact that eaverton keeps it crime rates so low with only one hundred and twenty officers (and twenty-nine civilians) is also a testament to the area's probable affluence. A comparison of this number to the number of officers in other cities makes it clear why crime is kept so low -- they have one of the highest number of officers per capita of any city in Oregon. For this reason, it seems reasonable to surmise that an adequate number of law enforcement officers…
Beaverton compares well in other areas of violent and irreversible crime, too. The eighteen forcible rapes and thirty robberies that occurred in 2006 show that, though not perfect, Beaverton's a relatively safe city in which to live, especially when compared wit other cities of comparable size. The town of Bend for instance, with a population almost twenty thousand people smaller than that of Beaverton, has higher rates in all of the violent crimes discussed so far: murder, rape, and robbery. Beaverton seems poised and able to effectively combat such violent crimes in a way that leaves other cities far behind.
Their record is less stellar in the area of non-violent crimes, however. It appears to be about average when it comes to instances of property crime and arson, and has higher rates of burglary and larceny and theft, too. Just from looking at the way these crime statistics compare to those of other similar-sized cities, it would be reasonable to assume that Beaverton is slightly more affluent than average. The rate and type of crime is skewed more towards the profit-driven types of crime and less to those that are generally associated with "fits of passion," gang behavior, and drug use (especially murder and robbery).
The fact that Beaverton keeps it crime rates so low with only one hundred and twenty officers (and twenty-nine civilians) is also a testament to the area's probable affluence. A comparison of this number to the number of officers in other cities makes it clear why crime is kept so low -- they have one of the highest number of officers per capita of any city in Oregon. For this reason, it seems reasonable to surmise that an adequate number of law enforcement officers exists in Beaverton. Though more could be added to the patrol in an attempt to curb the burglaries and thefts that seem so prevalent in the area, the added effectiveness would probably be very little, and would almost certainly not be worth the added cost to the city. Crime is an unfortunate by-product of a society; it will always exist to one degree or another. Extra law enforcement officers are not necessary and might actually be a burden in the community of Beaverton, Oregon.
Crime, Punishment & Justice in Great Expectations
Crime, Punishment and Justice in Great Expectations
In his novel Great Expectations Charles Dickens' characters often seem to be operating outside or just outside the law in gray areas where what is legally correct clash with what is morally the right thing to do. The theme of crime in Dickens' novels is used as a focal point to explore his deep concern for the pervasive array of social problems that permeated England in the nineteenth century (Ford 82-83).
Dickens frames this novel as an individual's struggle to rise above the social and political conditions of that time. Criminality, punishment, and a perverse sense of justice are some of the themes Dickens surfaces to explore this world. At several points throughout the novel convicts come into the story, Pip encounters Magwitch on the marshes in the first chapter (Dickens 2), Magwitch and Compeysen are…
Davie, Neil. "History Artfully Dodged? Crime, Prisons and the Legacy of 'Dickens's England'." Dickens Quarterly, Vol. 28, Issue 28, December 2011: 261-272. EBSOC Web. 6 December 2012.
Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. Janice Carlisle (Ed.) New York: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1996. Print.
Ford, George H. Dickens & His Readers. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 1965. Print.
Lucas, John. The Melancholy Man: A Study of Dickens's Novels. London, UK: Methuen & Co. LTD., 1970. Print.
Crime Trends in Indiana, 1981-2011
With an economy founded on agriculture and industry, and few blighted urban centers, Indiana's crime rates in all indexed categories have historically been lower than the national average. However, data collected between 1995 and 2005 shows a disturbing trend: the crime rate for many categories is declining in the rest of the country faster than in the state of Indiana. This data is shown in Figure 1, below.
Indiana Crime Index ate per 100,000 esidents Compared to National. From Indiana Criminal Justice Institute.
Currently, Indiana's cities are suffering from the loss of jobs in the state and the region, especially the northern cities like Gary and Hammond. Trends in urban crime are different from trends in rural crime, and it is also helpful for business owners and community leaders to understand the answer to the question "who commits crimes?" Community members and prospective Indiana homebuyers…
Agnew, R. & White, H. (1992). "An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory." Criminology 30(4): 475-99.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011). Labor Force Overview. Retrieved from http://www.stats.indiana.edu August 15, 2011.
Checkpoint (2010). The Global Retail Theft Barometer, 2010 Edition. White paper retrieved from http://globalretailtheftbarometer.com August 15, 2011.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010). Uniform Crime Report. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov August 19, 2011.
Crime in urban cities is at least 1.5 times higher than suburban or rural areas. Many factors account for this difference including higher poverty, more densely populated centers, presence of poor minorities, low education, limited resources etc. The paper studies crime in urban cities from the perspective of causes and impact so explain why higher urbanization translates into higher crime rate.
Crime in urban cities
Crime in urban cities of the United States continues to be a major problem for the society. The effect of violent crime against persons and property on general welfare is unmistakable since it takes a serious toll on mental, physical and emotional health of people while it places a huge burden on society's resources and finances. It is important to mention that while crime has a profound impact on welfare of people; it also costs the country almost 0.7% of GDP in variety of ways…
GLEASER, EDWARD L. And SACERDOTE, BRUCE. (1996) Why is there more crime in cities? NBER Working Paper # 5430, January.
MASIH, ABUL M.M. And MAS-H RUMI. (1996) Temporal causality and the dynamics of different categories of crime and their socioeconomic determinants: evidence from Australia, Applied Economics, 28, 1093-1104.
Winters, Clyde A. "Learning Disabilities, Crime Delinquency, and Special Education Placement." Adolescence 32.126 (1997): 451.
"Greater freedom has increased female participation in the public sphere," which would expose greater numbers of women to criminal behaviors and the opportunities to commit crimes (Steffensmeier & Allan1996, p. 469). Combined with social control theory, opportunity theory offers a plausible explanation for the gender gap in criminal behavior. Social control theory and opportunity theory share in common the basic assumption that deviance is a natural human instinct; that left to their own devices both men and women are predisposed to crime. Criminal behavior is always an option, according to social control theory and opportunity theory. The two sociological theories suggest that deterrents to committing crime, such as a lack of opportunity or strong social bonds, determine patterns of criminal behavior. Moreover, social control theory and opportunity theory emphasize sociological variables at the expense of psychological or personality-based ones.
The opportunity theories such as theories of routine activities present deviance…
Chapple, C.L., McQuillan, J.A., & Berdahl, T.A. (2004). Gender, social bonds, and delinquency: a comparison of boys' and girls' models. Social Science Research 34(2005): 357-383.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2005). Crime in the United States: Ten-Year Arrest Trends. Table 33. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://www.fbi.gov /ucr/05cius/data/table_33.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Crime vs. Sin
A criminal justice agency, specifically the police department relies very heavily on its organization to fulfill its duties to society, which is to protect from crime and to serve justice (Kenney & McNamara, 1999). The justice which is to be served depends on the severity of the offense or crime. Crime is quite a complex subject which can be divided into two different categories: natural crime and legal crime. Only legal crime can be processed/punished by the Criminal Justice System. These are acts which are the direct violation of the law which varies from state to state and country to country (Finnis, 2007). This is known as Mala prohibita, or something which is known as a legal crime which is punishable by the law (Vila & Morris, 1999). Natural crime is something which is not written; it is determined by the society you live in and most…
Bronsteen, J., Buccafusco, C., & Masur, J.. (2010). Retribution and the Experience of Punishment. California Law Review, 98(5), 1463. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from Criminal Justice Periodicals.
Conlon, B., Harris, S., Nagel, J., Hillman, M., & Hanson, R. (2008). Education: Don't Leave Prison Without It. Corrections Today, 70 (1); 48-49, 51-52.
Davis, M.S. (2006). Crimes Mala in Se: An Equity-Based Definition: Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17 (3) 270-289. Sage Publications, 2006.
Finnis, J. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Natural Law Theories. Retrieved February 4, 2010, form web site: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/natural-law-theories/
Crime a Socially Constructed
One's conduct or deeds turn into a crime or an offence via a progression of societal or communal conditioning. The same deed can be regarded as wrong in one community and act of valor in another or in the same community at a different point in time. The lawful status of a deed-whether it is an offense-does not depend on its substance, but on the communal reaction to that deed or to the individual who does it (osenfeld, 2009). Shifts in the lawful status of a particular deed can be due to communal changes or may be part of serious communal differences. The latest debates and confrontations over assisted suicide and abortion policy are two fine examples in the U.S. Lastly, the communal reaction to crime, social science theories on illegal behavior included, is founded on the significance of the deed and also the communal and…
Rosenfeld, R. (2009). The Social Construction of Crime . Available: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0050.xml . Last accessed 9 Mar, 2015.
Henry. (2009). Social Construction of Crime. Available: http://www.sagepub.com/haganintrocrim8e/study/chapter/handbooks/42347_1.2.pdf . Last accessed 9 Mar 2015.
females. For example, joining a gang would be a powerful turning point but one that might result in greater male vs. female criminality. Males may also be more pressured by peers to join gangs and commit gang-related crime in order to sustain the deviant social network. Males and females might also experience different trajectories due to their differential parental and peer social bonding.
Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a greater number of opportunities to commit crime. One potential reason why boys are exposed to a greater number of opportunities to commit crime is their different methods of social bonding. Family ties and nurturing behaviors are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant behaviors are encouraged as being expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for crime. Another reason why boys may be exposed to more opportunities to commit crime is related…
The second reason punishment is handed out following a conviction is to appease the victim or the victim's family and let them know that justice was served. If someone is the victim of a crime they often feel violated and angry that someone could do this to them. Idea of revenge may enter their mind or they may find themselves dwelling on the event. The punishment lets them know that the criminal did not get away with the commission of the crime and that society does in fact recognize that they committed it.
Both of these are foundations for the court system handing out punishment following the conviction of a criminal.
A side note to the entire process is political. Politicians often use the punishment system as a platform for election reminding voters that they supported this punishment tier system or that one. They do so in the effort to…
Chemerinsky, Erwin (2004) the Constitution and punishment.(how Supreme Court
Stanford Law Review