Criminal Behavior Essays (Examples)

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Criminal Behaviour Chapter I Introduction

Words: 6507 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18472521

" These authors purport that although mood and behaviour may constitute a vital part in disorderly outcomes of drinking scenarios, other social factors can equally contribute influences. These factors, according to these authors, can be categorized by the following factors:

the attitude and motivations that young binge drinkers bring to drinking, the social and peer group norms under which they operate, and features relating to the drinking environment.

Reasonable Investigations

In the journal article, Misinformation, Misrepresentation, and Misuse of Human ehavioral Genetics Research, Kaplan (2006) notes: "Researchers interested in understanding either the causes of variation in human behaviors or how human behaviors develop are at a disadvantage compared to researchers interested in answering similar questions associated with nonhuman organisms."

Reasons include:

Ethical restrictions on human experimentation make a number of experiments, standard in other model organisms, impossible to perform on humans.

Human development constitutes a slower process than that of…… [Read More]

Bibliography www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017425010

Beecher-Monas, Erica, and Edgar Garcia-Rill. "Genetic Predictions of Future Dangerousness: Is There a Blueprint for Violence?." Law and Contemporary Problems 69, no. 1-2 (2006): 301+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017425010.Internet. Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006642298

Bitsas, Constantine. "Food for Thoughout: The Role of Nutrients in Reducing Aggression, Violence and Criminal Behavior." Corrections Today, April 2004, 110+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006642298.Internet. Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104853723

Braun, Lundy. "8 Commentary," in Nature and Nurture: The Complex Interplay of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Behavior and Development. Edited by Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Elaine L. Bearer, and Richard M. Lerner, 139-143. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104853886.Internet. Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019164964

Bullock, Bernadette Marie, Kirby Deater-Deckard, and Leslie D. Leve. "Deviant Peer Affiliation and Problem Behavior: A Test of Genetic and Environmental Influences." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 34, no. 1 (2006): 29+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019164964.Internet. Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022133183
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Criminal Justice Issues in School

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51257422

Murder and rape are both legal terms that are used in contemporary society to describe the social construct of crime. Murder is a homicidal act resulting in death that is not permitted by the laws within society. Therefore, shooting a man to death as a lawful soldier engaged in a warranted military conflict with another country's group of soldiers is not considered murder. The same action between country members when there is no martial conflict, however, is considered murder. ape consists of unpermitted sexual acts that have not been condoned by one of the parties. In most instances men rape women and other men, although women have been known to rape men as well.

Evolutionary theory accounts for murder by positing it as a conflict of interests between two parties that is resolved violently (Dal and Wilson, 1997, p. 53). Moreover, this theory considers the fact that most crimes are…… [Read More]

References

Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1997). Crime and conflict: Homicide in evolutionary psychological perspective. Crime & Justice, 22, 51 -- 100. Retrieved from http://psych.mcmaster.ca/dalywilson/Crime&Conflict.pdf

Wood, M.E. (No date). "Criminality is a product of genes and environment." www.personalityresearch.org. Retrieved from       http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/jones.html
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Criminal Propensity There Is a

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66130055

In the meantime, new brain cells are constantly being developed, even into old age, but such alterations in the brain are largely contingent on what the individual has experienced in his or her environment" (Wright et al., 2008). Therefore, one of the factors that can impact adult propensity to commit violence is whether the brain had the opportunity to develop normally in very early childhood. Of course, both social and biological factors can impact early brain development.

In many ways, criminals are not thought to respond to external stimuli in the same manner as non-criminals, and it is believed that there may be an underlying biological basis for these differences. The auto-nomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the nervous system beyond the conscious control of the individual and is split into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for…… [Read More]

References

Wright, J.P., Tibbetts, S.G., & Daigle, L.E. (2008). Criminals in the Making . Thousand Oaks:

Sage Publications Inc. .
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Criminal Justice - Gender Crime

Words: 403 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82213513

2. According to Merton's strain theory, who should commit more crime males or females? What is true in reality?

According to Merton's original strain theory, the primary source of strain in modern society relates to financial success and social status (Agnew & rezina 1997).

As the theory goes, males are more likely to succumb to the negative influences of strains simply because financial success and social status are more commonly considered to be within the realm of social expectations of males. Later theorists have suggested that Merton's strain theory focused too narrowly on socioeconomic factors because strain consists of many more elements, including those that pertain more to females. Generally, males do commit more crime than females (Ogle, et al. 1995), but this is less a function of strain theory, necessarily, than the fact that myriad other influences that lie wholly outside the realm of principles related to strain theory…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Agnew, R., Brezina, T. (1997). Relational Problems with Peers, Gender, and Delinquency; Youth & Society, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 84-111. Ogle, R., Maier-Katkin, D., Bernard, T. (1995). A Theory of Homicidal Behavior Among Women; Criminology, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 173-193.
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Criminal Justice Is About the Laws Which

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64645174

Criminal justice is about the laws which are related to criminal behaviour. Criminal justice includes the area where judiciary is involved for e.g., police and lawyers. Lawyers are directly associated with the crime because they can defend or prosecute the criminals. As a professional field of study criminal justice involves studying the behaviour. The aim of the study is to gain knowledge and awareness of rules, laws and rights of victims and suspect both.

In Criminal Justice ethics, diversity and conflict plays a major role. As a student of Criminal Justice I have learned that ethics is important in making moral judgments which demonstrates clearly that what is right and what is wrong. An ethical framework of justice is required to make fair decisions. When we talk about ethics in criminal justice here, we are suppose to forget about the emotions, personal values and instincts that can create or raise…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

SagePub, (2011), The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf

Hazen, A., (2009), Cultural Diversity in Criminal Justice Paper, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/16052470/Cultural-Diversity-in-Criminal-Justice-Paper-CJA423-WK4

Skolnock .J., (2004), Conflict Model, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://neohumanism.org/c/co/conflict_model__criminal_justice_.html

Forbes. H., (2005), Crash, Catholic News service, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.catholicnews.com/data/movies/05mv542.htm
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Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

Words: 2584 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20694471

The reduction occurs through allowing the counties to acquire other methods of jailing apart from the prisons. This includes out-of custody rehabilitative treatments, which could serve in reducing the number of the criminals taken to the prisons. However, the AB109 criminals must be individuals whose crime are not violent and not that serious as provided by the law. This means that that jailing of the A109 criminals in other alternative would involve selection from the other criminals. However the unstated implication is that it would be much difficult to rate a crime as either more serious or not serious. Consequently, the rationale provides higher chances of biasness of selecting some non-serious cases while leaving others.

Implication of the policy

The criminal justice implication of the policy will mainly affect the non-violent arrestees. The decision of keeping them in custody, would affect their ability to avoid recividism future. The social implications…… [Read More]

Reference

Kraska, P., & Brent, J. (2011).Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations (2nd

Edition). Long Grove

Hancock, B., & Sharp, P. (2004).Criminal Justice in America (3rd Edition).Upper Saddle River,

NY: Prentice Hall
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Criminal Justice Response Cesare Beccaria

Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95459108

These methods of informal deterrence would help to prevent Bobby's criminal behavior.

Since he already committed the crime, Bobby would certainly need to be punished. However, Beccaria strongly argued that punishment must not be cruel, and must fit the crime. Clearly, Bobby never intended to hurt the homeowner; he broke into the home when he knew she would not be there.

Depending on the amount of property stolen, Bobby would have to pay the consequences. If this is his first offense, Bobby could be sentenced to a public form of community service, such as picking up trash by the roadside. He would also have to regularly report to a counselor. Parents could impose a strict curfew. This mixture of informal and formal methods of deterrence would help to stop Bobby from engaging in more criminal behavior.

orks Cited

Beccaria, Cesare. 1963. On Crimes and Punishment.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beccaria, Cesare. 1963. On Crimes and Punishment. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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Criminal Justice Victimization Whether One Is a

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8642155

Criminal Justice

Victimization

Whether one is a survivor of violent crime or dealing with financial crime victimization, it is vital to recognize that all victims experience some type of loss. While there are different kinds of losses, each can be intense, depending upon the viewpoint of victims and survivors (Victims of Crime Overview, 2012). There appear to be two different views on how victims should deal with being a victim of a crime. One view says that victims of crime should rely on the criminal justice system in order to deal with their victimization while the other view says that victims of crime should rely upon private support and insurance payments to deal with their victimization.

Those who believe that the criminal justice system should contribute to helping victims believe that helping the victim to cope is the responsibility of all of society. Law enforcement agencies, courts, and correctional and…… [Read More]

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Criminal Psychopathology Is the Science

Words: 2213 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72277983

He suggested the ritish model of profiling instead, based on the "bottom up" type of processing, which analyzes existing evidence of specific similarities between offense and offender characteristics. The CSA uses the reverse, the "top down" processing, which relies on subjective conclusions derived from investigative experience of crimes and criminal interviews by the police and investigators (Hayden).

Motive is the reason behind the commission of a crime (Zandt 2006). It is not an element of a crime, which needs to be proven in court. ut some utterly heinous or unnatural crime may require it for the jury to understand and appreciate why it is committed. An example is the killing of one's own spouse or child. Prosecutors must clearly establish the motive, which is the offender's reason for committing what is considered unreasonable, heinous or unnatural. The prosecution must prove and convince the jury, explain and show how anyone can…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Court TV. (2006). The Art of Forensic Psychology. Criminal Profiling: Courtroom Television Network LLC. http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/forensic_psychology/10.html

2. Hayden, T. (2000). Offender Profiling. Murder in the UK: MurderUK.com, 2006. http://www.murderuk.com/Profiling/offender_profiling_htm

3. Muller, D.A. (2000). Criminal Profiling. Homicide Studies, Vol 4 (3), Sage Publications, Inc. pp 234-264

4. Strano, M. (2004). A Neural Network Applied to Criminal Psychological Profiling: an Italian Perspective. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology: Sage Publications. http://ijo.sagepub.com/cgi/reprit/48/4/495.pdf
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Criminal Justice - Policing Criminal

Words: 1074 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52654718

To the extent that crime is a function of larger social issues, it is unrealistic to expect those underlying social problems to be rectified by law enforcement efforts. Even with respect to specific incidence of criminal behavior, law enforcement authorities must address two competing interests that fall within the purview and responsibility of law enforcement.

Specifically, poverty, unwanted pregnancy, lack of educational and vocational opportunities, and perceived social "disenfranchisement" within communities contribute heavily to crime in those areas but none of those social factors are capable of being redressed directly by law enforcement authorities. Likewise, even within the realm of law enforcement responsibilities, emphasis on quality-of-life-oriented policing and crime prevention-oriented policing conflict with the goal of preventing crime in light of empirical evidence and anecdotal experience demonstrating that efforts directed at the former do not necessarily achieve the goals of the latter appreciably.

In that regard, directed police patrols and…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice - Gender and

Words: 3438 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98457029

In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.

Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.

Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35

Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon
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Criminal Justice Forensics Undercover Is a

Words: 11198 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97252031

However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).

y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.

Definition of Terms

Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.

Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html

Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.

Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.

Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
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Criminal Justice Theories Drift Theory Suggests That

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82978264

Criminal Justice Theories

Drift theory suggests that people drift from one extreme to another during the course of their lifetimes. When applied in the context of criminal justice, it reflects the idea that people drift between conventional and criminal behaviors. After a crime is committed, the individual may balance that criminality by drifting back towards conventional behavior. In this way, criminality is partly chosen, but also partly determined, because the willingness to commit a crime comes with preparation and desperation. Preparation does not imply that the person has actively prepared to engage in criminal behavior but that the person has placed himself in a position where it is possible to commit a crime. Fatalism contributes to drift, with people being more likely to commit crimes when they feel as if their options have been limited and that they lack control. Furthermore, with drift comes an underlying sense of injustice, so…… [Read More]

References

Patchin, J. (2011). Criminological theory summaries. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from University of Wisconsin Eau Claire website:

http://www.uwec.edu/patchinj/crmj301/theorysummaries.pdf

See, E. (2004). Student study guide for Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers'

Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and applications, 4th Edition. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Roxbury Publishing Company website: http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf
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Criminal Justice Theory

Words: 2525 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51732386

Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department

Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.

That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology. about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fthunder1.cudenver.edu%2F%2Fsociology%2Fintrosoc%2Ftopics%2FUnitNotes%2Fweek05.html

Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from http://www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/q16.html

Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v4n1/brunet. html

Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/publicat / primer/prim1.html
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Criminal Decision Making The Elements of the

Words: 3113 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10127680

Criminal Decision Making: The Elements of the Culture of the Street and Party Life and Their elation to Criminal Decision-Making

Understanding offenders' lifestyles and the process by which they choose to commit criminal acts is critical particularly because it has important implications for crime control. Very often, certain elements of the street and party life influence the offender's assessment of the risks and rewards of crime. According to Shover and Honaker (1992), commitment to drugs and partying, as well as street culture, leads to alienation of offenders from mainstream society and pushes them away from a conventional life. Over time, they adopt a socially bounded rationality and become accustomed to a criminal lifestyle to a point where they break the law as a result of addiction, rather that free will. It is, therefore, imperative to understand the role played by these lifestyles in shaping the motivation for crime because it…… [Read More]

References

Brookman, S. F (2001). Accounting for Homicide and Sublerthal Violence. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 175-191). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.

Hochstetler, A. (2001). Opportunities and decisions: Interactional Dynamics in Robbery and Burglary Groups. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 70-91). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.

Mullins, W.C., & Charbonneau, G.M. (2010). Establishing Connections: Gender, Motor Vehicle Theft and Disposal Networks . In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 87-112). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.

Shover, N., & Honaker, D.(1992). The Socially Bounded Decision Making of Persistent Property Offenders. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds.), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 35-51). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.
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Criminal Justice References in the

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35964776

hile this is the amendment that allows prison work camps and work programs, as well as the requirement that criminals participate in the maintaining of their prisons, it serves a much larger purpose, mainly expressing that a right contained in the constitution may be taken away if citizens do not behave lawfully.

The implications of these amendments and the others so similarly worded are indicative of the Classical School of Criminology. Offered as an incentive, the rights encourage rational, but criminally inclined humans to make the rational choice towards the non-criminal action. Because it would be in the humans' self-interest to keep their rights, they are encouraged to choose non-criminal action. Thus, the drafting of the constitution this way suggests that the founders were relying on the Classical School of Criminology when considering human behavior, rational choice, and the desire to keep a lawful society.

Further relying on the Classical…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Classical School." 1998. Crime Theory. 4 July, 2008. http://www.crimetheory.com/Theories/Classical.htm.
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Criminal Justice Substantive vs Procedural

Words: 1473 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99639515



Patterns Juvenile Delinquency Throughout the World/How Determine Who Juvenile?

Patterns in juvenile delinquency also vary throughout the world, as do the way countries define "delinquency" among juveniles. The Japanese according to Platt (2005) have taken on a much more philosophical approach to juvenile delinquency, supporting a Confucian style structure of education and support, one that works toward educating children to become part of the larger social collective (p. 965). In this environment, children are encouraged to become more socially aware and to self-regulate, often given the opportunity to reform before they are punished for wrongdoings.

This conflicts sharply with juvenile delinquency programs and structures elsewhere in the world. In Australia, juvenile delinquency is often associated with being a member of a juvenile gang, which is defined as "youth hanging out on the streets with gang activity" or street activity that has the potential to lead to mischievous behaviors (Duffy &…… [Read More]

References

Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S. (2004). Teen gangs: A global view. Westport: Greenwood Press.

ICMBA. (2007). American Legal System. Internet Center for Management and Business

Administration, Inc. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved 22, May, 2007:

 http://www.quickmba.com/law/sys/
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Criminal Statistics and Behavior Some

Words: 822 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38209197

"Approximately 27.5% of college women reported experiences that met the legal criteria for rape," even though some of them were not necessarily aware that the actions to which they were subjected satisfied such a definition (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ).

According to the FBI, which defines violent crimes as "murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault," an "estimated 1,246,248 violent crimes occurred nationwide" in 2010 (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ). There is obviously a great deal of overlap between the characteristics of populations that commit sexual assault and violent criminals, due to this definition. It should also be noted that although persons who commit violent crimes are disproportionately male and young (the example of stereotypes being validated by statistics); whites commit more such crimes -- 54% vs. 45% versus African-Americans. Also, "numbers also vary widely depending on the crime, with blacks responsible for more murders…… [Read More]

References

Bartol, C. & Bartol, a. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach. Prentice Hall.

Family violence statistics. (2002). BJS. Retrieved:

 http://bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/fvs02.pdf 

Hodgins, S. & Muller-Isberner, R. (Eds.). (2000). Violence, crime, and mentally disordered offenders: Concepts and methods for effective treatment and prevention. New York: John Wiley & Sons
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Criminal Justice Grade Course to Be Honest

Words: 2099 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32028021

Criminal Justice

Grade Course

To be honest I tend to think that crime has been trending in the late night news since the early 90s to an extent that it has become some sort of entertainment. It is mostly featured in the prime time news as a mass magnet for news corporations which are business entities and would therefore; capitalize on the expectant audience it has attracted. A large proportion of the crime reported is usually projected as individual subversions rather than socially motivated misdemeanors. It is from this perspective that criminals are feared beyond their capability without proper dissemination of the causes leaving an audience that is always pregnant with political, or sexual related crimes as a form of entertainment than a source of crime prevention issues that would go a long way in making their neighborhoods safer.

This paper will delve into the three main parts; the study…… [Read More]

References

Catalano, S.M. (2006). The Measurement of Crime: Victim Reporting and Police Recording.

New York: LFB Scholarly.

Conklin, J. (2010). Criminology. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

Kornhauser, R. (1978). Social Causes of Delinquency. Chicago: University of Chacago Press.
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Criminals -- Born or Made Since the

Words: 2372 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42815491

Criminals -- Born or Made

Since the construction of the first civil society, behavioral rules distinguishing what is acceptable and what is criminal have existed. Even though individuals typically have a concept of conventional moral behavior, criminal conduct is represented in every society and culture. Criminal deviance is not a novel construct, and has long been the intrigue of researchers, philosophers, and theorists to determine criminal motivation and link the relationship between individuals and the execution of criminal acts. One central argument that has evolved in the realm of criminality is the nature vs. nurture debate, which questions if criminals are born or made. Biological, psychological, and sociological disciplines each offer theories into the origin of criminality to explain if criminal behavior is a consequence of genetics or a matter of the environment in which they are raised (Jones). The biologist introduces genetic evidence and explains the effects of varying…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akers, R, and C. Sellers. Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Applications.

4th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Co., 2004. xx-xx. Print.

Anderson, C, L Berkowitz, E Donnerstein, and R. Huesmann. "The Influence of Media violence on Youth." American Psychological Society. 4.3 (2003): 81-110. Print.

Eysenck, H.J.. "Personality and Crime." Psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Violent
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Criminal Justice the Perfect Criminal

Words: 1493 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70952970

Use of technology would promote public knowledge about the spread of confirmed criminal activity or patterns of behavior that might place people at risk, whether that risk involved theft, credit card scams or other behaviors (Farber, 2006).

Participation in shared networking technological programs would be required of private businesses, community agencies and policing authorities to ensure a true community policing structure is established. Communities would work to create neighborhood watch groups in response to "non-sensitive" security data that would help them better protect their community and collaborate with law enforcement agencies (Farber, 2006, p. 110).

Before a hearing is set, a judiciary authority should be appointed along with a trained criminal justice psychologist to determine what factors contributed to the criminal activity, the severity of criminal activity and whether prosecution is warranted, or whether rehabilitative measures would prove more helpful in the long-term. A meeting should be established where the…… [Read More]

References

American Law and Legal Information. (n.d.). Criminal justice system, structural and theoretical components of criminal justice systems, the systems of operation, the importance of viewing criminal justice as a system. American Law and Legal Information. Crime and Justice Volume 1. Accessed 22, May, 2007:

 http://law.jrank.org/pages/858/Criminal-Justice-System.html 

Bouza, a.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge: Perseus Books.

Farber, O. (2006, Jun). Positive SPIN on liaisons: Find out how the security police information network (SPIN) promotes public-private information sharing. Security Management, 50(6): 110.
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Criminal Justice Purposes of Criminal

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25294111

Another form of punishment is by restraint or incarceration. By keeping the person under state control, then the state can avert the person from committing another crime. On the other hand, many times incarceration is only a temporary answer. ehabilitation is an alternative when it is possible. The person who violates criminal laws gets punishment but also learns how to alter their bad behavior and work toward becoming a productive citizen. The last reason of punishment is retribution, or to make the person suffer for the pain caused to the victim and the victim's family. Many times, this reason is most relevant to the victim or the victim's family when a violent crime is committed (the Purpose of Criminal Laws, 2012).

Deterrence

In very broad terms punishment may be anticipated to affect deterrence in one of two ways. First, by escalating the certainty of punishment, potential offenders may be deterred…… [Read More]

References

Bundy, D. (2011). Philosophy of Criminal Law Protection. Retrieved from http://suite101.com/article/philosophy-of-criminal-law-protection

The Purposes of Criminal Law. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.federationpress.com.au/pdf/Lanham%20Ch1B.pdf 

The Purpose of Criminal Laws. (2012). Retreived from http://www.superpages.com/supertips/criminal-laws.html

Wright, V. (2010). Deterrence in Criminal Justice. Retrieved from  http://www.asca.net/system/assets/attachments/1463/Deterrence_Briefing_.pdf?12901
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Criminal Theory - Operational Implementation

Words: 1089 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38364082



In terms of correctional program implementation, operant conditioning principles provide the basis for motivating cooperation and other desirable behaviors (including reduction of undesirable behaviors) in a quid pro quo arrangement. Typical examples of operational implementation of operant conditioning would include so-called "token economies" and other bilateral agreements, arrangements, or understandings that certain desired behaviors provide specific rewards (Van Voorhis 2007). Operant conditioning principles are particularly useful in parenting, such as between teenagers rewarded with late weekend curfews for good grades; it is also a proven method of increasing inmate compliance within correctional institutions where good behavior is rewarded with increased privileges and undesirable behaviors are punished through privilege reduction (Spiegler & Guevremont 1993). Generally, the most important fundamental element of successful implementation of operant conditioning principles in behavior modification is the gradual phasing out of the reward-based motivation for compliance (Van Voorhis 2007). The goal of any such operational conditioning-based…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, P.G. (2005) Psychology and Life. New York: Pearson

Goldstein, Glick, and Gibbs. (1986) Aggression Replacement Training, pp 1-68

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercus
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Criminal Justice Gaetz S July 2004 Safe

Words: 2782 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26021148

Criminal Justice

Gaetz, S. (July 2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice.

This journal article reports the researcher's survey findings regarding the prevalence of victimization among street youths compared to domiciled youths. Gaetz defines the street youth operatively as "people up to the age of 24 who are 'absolutely periodically, or temporarily without shelter, as well as those who are at substantial risk of being in the street in the immediate future" (433). Survey findings show that just as expected, victimization mostly occur among the street than domiciled youth. Moreover, street youth reporting of criminal victimization is not common among both males and females. 41.7% of the respondents who have been victimized "told a friend" about the incident of victimization, 33.1% "did not tell anyone," and a far 17.2% reported the victimization to their partner (boyfriend or girlfriend)…… [Read More]

Felson, R. et. al. (August 2002). Reasons for reporting and not reporting domestic violence to the police. Criminology, Vol. 40, Issue 3.

Felson et. al.'s research utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey as its primary instrument in determining, assessing, and measuring the factors that lead to reporting (or not reporting) incidences of domestic violence. Survey findings show that there are three primary factors that are significantly relevant in inhibiting victims to reporting domestic violence to the police: "the desire for privacy, the desire to protect the offender ... And fear of reprisal."

The NCVS survey findings illustrate how the prevalence and continuous occurrence of abuse and domestic violence, especially among females, is still a social problem that needs unwavering attention by the government and civil society. New findings such as hesitance of male victims to report on their victimization reflect the changing nature of domestic violence in American society. In the same way that females need protection through the dissemination of proper and useful information about domestic violence, males are also in need of protection as well. Another important implication of the study is the changing nature of the respondents' (victims) concept of domestic violence, which varies significantly across gender.
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Criminal Justice Corrections Officers and

Words: 1818 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1796391

The swing back and forth between rehabilitation and "lock them up and throw away the key" makes corrections officers' jobs more difficult than they might otherwise be. Police and corrections personnel must bend to winds of change that bring little regard for their own personal and familial welfare. Much has been said about the prisoners, and the effects of those prisoners on the larger society, but little account has been taken of the effects of constantly changing policies and objectives on those who must work in the nation's prisons. Certainly, their needs and quality of life bears on the future rehabilitation or punishment of wrongdoers. The needs of corrections personnel and police are directly related to the overall problem of how we deal with crime in America.

eferences

Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 estoring ationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford…… [Read More]

References

Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 Restoring Rationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bunzel, S.M. (1995). The Probation Officer and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Strange Philosophical Bedfellows. Yale Law Journal, 104(4), 933-966.

Cochrane, J., Melville, G., & Marsh, I. (2004). Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge.

Diiulio, J.J. (1991). No Escape: The Future of American Corrections. New York: Basic Books.
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Criminal Justice Bootcamp Programs for

Words: 5841 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21697054

The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).

Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…… [Read More]

References

Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.

Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.

Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
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Criminal Justice Drawing the Line

Words: 1511 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14548662

One cannot be viewed with suspicion simply because one belongs to a particular race or holds to a certain set of religious beliefs. The more that violations of basic human and civil rights are excused in the name of public safety, the less safe and secure our society becomes. A society that loses its liberty is a police state. Modern day America is moving closer each day to that terrible point. Intrusive technologies and ever present police and private security forces represent the presence of controlling forces in aspects of life that should be under individual command. Individual rights and choices are being sacrificed to the perceived exigencies of the collective. We are not a colony of insects. We are human beings. Public safety must be balanced with civil rights.

eferences

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105701878

Brown, M.K., Carnoy, M., Currie, E., Duster, T., Oppenheimer, D.B., Shultz, M.M., et al. (2003). Whitewashing ace: The…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105701878

Brown, M.K., Carnoy, M., Currie, E., Duster, T., Oppenheimer, D.B., Shultz, M.M., et al. (2003). Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020039970

Theodore, N., Martin, N., & Hollon, R. (2006). Securing the City: Emerging Markets in the Private Provision of Security Services in Chicago. Social Justice, 33(3), 85+.
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Criminal Justice as an Individual

Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96135868

This essentially would send John to a treatment facility where he will undergo constant monitoring, education, and counseling. (Sims 2005; p. 106; Lewis, 2002; p. 77).

After successfully completing his inpatient treatment program, John still cannot be released to his own initiative. More likely than not John comes from an environment that would make alcohol and other triggers readily available. Further, John has a history of not following through with outpatient treatment. For this reason, the court should order that John be placed in a controlled environment, such as a halfway house.

While serving his time in a halfway house or other residential facility, John will be continually monitored and be able to live in a dry environment. Here John will be able to attend group therapy, individual counseling, and other similar programs. (urnet, 2004; p. 303).

The benefits of this special probation program is that John will retain enough…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abadinsky, Howard (2005). Probation and Parole: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.

Burnet, Ros (2004). What Works in Probation and Youth Justice:

Developing Evidence-Based Practice. New York: Willam Publishing.

Culler, Francis (1982). Reaffirming Rehabilitation. New York:
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Criminal Offending in the Past Any Form

Words: 2294 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36633122

Criminal Offending

In the past, any form of criminal activity was associated with low self-esteem that is why criminal activity was minimal. Paying for crime in the past involved ruthless means, including tying a criminal on a stone and throwing them into the river. Comparing the past with the modern world, a great contrast occurs. Criminal offenders in the modern world appear to be of very high self-esteem. The self-esteem arises from prior criminal activities, personal traits and participation in prison. It is so unfortunate because criminals do not fear the law, security officials and subsequently no regard for positive punishment.

Criminologists and psychologists have a task of establishing whether crime is in either way related to the human mind, behavior and psychology. Criminal activity is increasing by day, and the securities do not know what to attribute for especially, when correctional facilities are full of criminals. It is likely…… [Read More]

References

Broidy, L.M., (2001). A test of general strain theory. A Journal of Criminology, 39, 9-36.

Cesar, J.R., Nicole, L.P., Alex, R.P., & Stephen, G.T., (2010). Anticipated shaming and criminal offending. Journal of Criminal justice, 38, 988-997.

Inga, D.S., Alfgeir, L.K., & Robert, A. (2012). A comparative analysis of general strain theory.

Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 117-127.
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Criminal Justice Associates Program When

Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23144061



I think that my knowledge of procedure is probably my strongest. I feel very comfortable with the level of knowledge I have about proper police procedure. I feel confident that I not only understand basic procedural rules, but also the justification or reasoning behind those rules. Furthermore, I feel as if my understanding of the basis for these various procedural rules will help me easily grasp any additional procedural rules that I will encounter on the job.

While I do feel as if I have had a strong educational background, there are two areas where I feel as I could benefit from more education: psychology and human services. The more I study the psychology of criminals and victims, the more I realize I do not know about why perpetrators do things. I understand that people who align with certain profiles may be more likely to commit crimes, but I am…… [Read More]

References

City of Houston. (2013). Victim services unit. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from Houston Police

Department website:   http://www.houstontx.gov/police/vsu/  

Stevens, M. (2003, June 18). Victimology theory. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from North

Carolina Wesleyan College website:
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Criminal Justice and Criminology the

Words: 5114 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18724377

Latinos participations are low in CAPS, and most of their members are unaware of the strategies of CAPS. Their levels of awareness have been on a declining state since the year 1990. Their involvement in these meetings was driving by the levels of crime, moral decay on the community and at the level of social disorder. The problem with the Latino population is that they do not turn up in numbers to these meetings. The community's representation is low in these meetings.

However, research further shows that the community lacks representation in the district advisory committees that meet on a regular basis with the police department. Compared to the African-Americans and the Whites Latinos have young families are they are more likely to be working and having families at home. Their involvement with the police department is variedly mixed. There is evidence that their community avoids police contacts, including not…… [Read More]

References

Lyons, T., Lurigio, Rodriguez, P.L., & a.J., Roque, (2013). Racial disparity in the criminal justice system for drug offenses a state legislative response to the problem. Race and justice, 3(1), 83-101.

Lombardo, R.M. (2013). Fighting Organized Crime a History of Law Enforcement Efforts in Chicago. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(2), 296-316.

Portnoy, J., Chen, F.R., & Raine, a. (2013). Biological protective factors for antisocial and criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.

Lee, M. (2013). Inventing Fear of Crime. Willan.
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Criminal Law A Comprehensive Research Primary and

Words: 1491 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94955506

criminal law. A comprehensive research, primary and secondary, was conducted in order to gather relevant information about crime, criminal law and crimes against a person. This study can help understanding the mechanism that deals with the criminal law.

Crime is an integral part of the everyday life and is a salient fact in today's world. In the opinion of public as well as the scholars, crime is usually linked with violence and harm to societies and individuals, destroying the property and degrading the respect of individuals, societies and institutions. It is quite obvious that we are facing problems in describing the nature of crimes and are unable to understand the works of many scholars on this subject. The basic question is "What is crime?" there are a number of answers to that, some are supporting each other while some are contradictory to each other. There is a strong need to…… [Read More]

References:

Richard Quinney, Criminology as Peacemaking, Indiana University Press, 1991.

Walker, Samuel (1992). "Origins of the Contemporary Criminal Justice Paradigm: The American Bar Foundation Survey, 1953-1969." Justice Quarterly

Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). "Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (Northwestern University)

Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power. London: Pluto Press.
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Criminal Theory

Words: 2293 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96623247

Criminology

The case of former colonel ussell Williams offers insight into the psychology of criminal behavior. Williams's confession interview was released to the public and aired on The Fifth Estate, offering criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, and law enforcement officials unique access to the mind of a criminal. Analysts interviewed for The Fifth Estate documentary note that Williams presents a conundrum for psychologists and criminologists, as his reactions to the police interview did not fit any previously known profile, such as that of a psychopath. Williams exhibits traits that resemble psychopathic behavior, in accordance with individual trait theory. For instance, he meticulously recorded his crimes and kept the photographic and video imagery as souvenir mementos.

Yet Williams also denies his right to an attorney, permits a foot imprint of his incriminating boots, and also states in the interview that he "was hoping" that he would not have raped or killed again had…… [Read More]

References

"Dr. John Bradford won't work Magnotta case because of PTSD," (2014). CBC. Mar 13, 2014. Retrieved online:   http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/dr-john-bradford-won-t-work-magnotta-case-because-of-ptsd-1.2571463  

Fifth Estate (2010). The Confession. [Video documentary].

Friscolanti, M. (2014). Russell Williams's wife knew he was a predator: victim. Maclean's. Retrieved online:   http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/russell-williamss-wife-knew-he-was-a-predator-victim/  

La Salle, L. (2013). Colonel Russell Williams where have you been? I've been to London to fly the queen and back to collect artifacts. All Things Crime. Dec 11, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.allthingscrimeblog.com/2013/12/11/colonel-russell-williams-where-have-you-been-ive-been-to-london-to-fly-the-queen-and-back-to-collect-artifacts/
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Criminal Pathology Extreme Pathologically Antisocial

Words: 783 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35973881



The Argument for Environmental Influence

The modern fields of criminology and sociology have also established significant direct connections between the external environment and the behavior that develops in the individual (Schmalleger, 2008). egardless of the effects of physiology and biological processes, there is undoubtedly a tremendous influence in the experiences, formative relationships, and role models to which the individual is exposed (Schmalleger, 2008). Many forms of modern crime are largely products of the influence of social circumstances and the norms that prevail in local communities (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). With respect to criminally deviant individuals such as serial killers, there are specific types and patterns of formative experiences and psychological trauma that are known to be associated with those types of criminal deviance (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; Innes, 2007),

The Argument for the ational Choice Theory

The modern approach to understanding criminal deviance also recognizes the importance of elements…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R. And Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Innes, B. (2007). Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London:

Quercus

Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., and Miller, C. (2007). "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
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Criminal Justice Https Secure-research-payment com Beta Writer Writer_order_detail Index A2024221 a Hypothesis

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55843851

In other words, if the study is inordinately time-consuming for the purpose of doing something non-academic or otherwise beneficial, is it responsible research to ask young people to participate?

G.

External validity concerns "whether results from experiments in one setting (time and place) will be obtained in other settings" (Maxfield and Babbie 122). One external concern is the use of a middle-class suburban neighborhood. If this study was done in an upper-class neighborhood, a rural neighborhood, an urban neighborhood, or a low-income neighborhood, the results might vary greatly. In terms of internal validity, the causality of aggressive video games for aggressive behavior might be difficult to prove given all the other stimuli that can potentially cause aggression in children (including violence in other media like music, television, and film, violent or aggressive living circumstances which may not be disclosed to the researcher, etc.).

H.

If boys are found to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Maxfield, Michael G., and Earl R. Babbie. Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2009.
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Criminal Event

Words: 1689 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63160507

Social Control and the Life-Course Perspective

Social control theories attempt to understand crime by looking at the formal or informal social controls which lead most people to forego criminal behavior but simultaneously fail to hinder others. Of the various individual theories which fall under the umbrella of social control, perhaps one of the most disruptive and innovative for the sociological study of crime is Robert Sampson and John Laub's life-course theory, which posits that not only does childhood and adolescent behavior predict later criminal behavior, as suggested by numerous other theories, but that certain events throughout one's life may also serve to alter a person's trajectory towards or away from criminal behavior, such that one attempting to understand the social factors precipitating crime must necessarily examine an individual's life-course, rather than just his or her childhood behavior and development. To understand just how much Sampson and Laub's theory differs from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sacco, V. F, & Kennedy, L.W. (2008). The criminal event. Florence, KY: Wadsworth.

Sampson, R. J, & Laub, J.H. (1992). Crime and deviance in the life course. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 63-84.

Unit 5 Study Guide.
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Criminal Justice Policies in America

Words: 796 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45495703

positives and negatives of the criminal justice policy of surveillance in the age of homeland security is that it provides protection for citizens, but it also raises questions about privacy rights and causes citizens to be fearful that the government is spying on them. Thus there are both positives and negatives to the policy. This affects courts, corrections and juvenile justice in the sense that each has to be aware of rights of persons. The president's stance on this issue is that it is necessary to help combat the enemy. These policing concepts fit in with the concept of social justice because they promote safety and they help stakeholders to feel more secure (Friedman, Miles, 2002). This is imperative for promoting a society that rests on justice and tries to incorporate a framework for safety that protects citizens but also discourages criminal behavior by showing a strong framework for monitoring…… [Read More]

References

Macleod, S. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html
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Criminal Justce System and Social Order

Words: 1610 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70823743

Crime and Justice DQ

Comparison and Contrast

Governments around the globe have adopted different approaches to combating crime and delivery of justice to their citizens. The issue of liberal and conservative approaches to crime and justice are more vivid in Canada. The Canadian government had earlier favored liberal approach before 2006 when the approach changed back to conservative due to the Conservative government taking over (Phillips 2012).

The two approaches differ due to their contrasting views of human nature, moral values nature and the cause of criminal activity. They also contrast on the treatment of the criminals due to their differences. Liberals are based on the belief that man is naturally good. Evidently, there is no absolute standard of morality to be taught or adhered to by the citizens. They claim that crime is a product of deprivation due to poverty, and the society is responsible for criminal behavior as…… [Read More]

References

Lakoff G. (2010). Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think, Second Edition. New York: University of Chicago Press

Neubauer, D. W. & Fradella, H. F. (2015). America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System. New York: Cengage Learning

Phillips S.A. (2012). Operation Fly Trap: L. A. Gangs, Drugs, and the Law. New York: University of Chicago Press

Tyler, T. R. (2006). Psychological Perspectives on Legitimacy and Legitimation. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 375-400.
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Most Significant Problem Facing the Criminal Justice System

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31146808

Criminal Justice System Today

Most Significant Problem Facing the Criminal Justice System

What is the most significant problem facing the criminal justice system today?

The urgency needed in addressing crime issues is a factor that is widely acceptable, the public view crime and fear of crime as among the most vital issues. A number of communities have been converted into war zones with a ring of gunshots being the order of the day and night. The society struggle everyday to bring order but, this is challenged by criminal behaviors that do not adhere to traditional standards. On the other hand are the policy makers and administrators in the criminal justice systems trying to unravel the complex nature of crime. There have been significant changes in how policing, adjudication, sentencing, imprisonment, and community corrections are approached. The existence of pressure from the public and ever changing policies creates the need understand…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Green, B. (2011). "Criminal Justice - What's Ahead? Roadblocks and New Directions."

Criminal Justice, Volume 25, Number 4.

Leipold, A.D. (1995). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused, 80 Cornell.

Rev. 260
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Juvenile Behavior

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37124384

Criminal behavior and recidivism has been a very contentious issue over the last decade. esearch continues to garner massive support related to methods to better help offenders matriculate into society. Juvenile behavior is one of the more pressing issues within society. Juvenile behavior is particularly important as habits formed in early years are directly correlated to behavior in later years. esearch has also indicated that children or juveniles influenced by criminal activities at an early age, are more likely to commit crimes in their adolescent stage. Although a litany of methods have been devised to combat juvenile criminal behavior, results have been mixed. ecent incidents with school shootings, robberies, and vandalism indicate that juvenile criminal behavior is still profound. One interesting aspect regarding juvenile behavior is that violent acts committed by juveniles have actually decreased over the past decade. However, many juveniles are often sent to court and prosecuted as…… [Read More]

References:

1) Bazemore, G., & Feder, L. (1997a). Rehabilitation in the new juvenile court: Do judges support the treatment ethic? American Journal of Criminal Justice, 21, 181-212.

2) Sickmund, M. (2004). Juveniles in corrections. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

3) Snyder, H. (2005). Juvenile arrests 2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
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Search for the Criminal Man Revisited

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99437899

Criminal Justice -- the Search for the "Criminal Man" Revisited

Numerous theories have been devised in an attempt to understand criminal behavior. iosocial theories focus on the interaction between biological factors with other factors in such a way that certain behaviors result. Ellis, Walsh, Cullen and Mednick are among the theorists supporting biosocial theories of criminology. Mednick focused on criminals' apparent inability to learn from their mistakes and settled on the impaired Autonomic Nervous Systems (ANS) interacting with external cues. Other biosocial theorists have studied biochemical factors such as nutritional deficiencies, hormonal influences, allergies and environmental contaminants. In contrast to biosocial theorists, biological theories focus on "the criminal man," a born criminal who exhibits psychological, physical and social traits. Cesare Lombroso, often called "the Father of Modern Criminology," formed the theory of "the criminal man" in the late 19th Century and listed revealing physical characteristics of this instinctive criminal who…… [Read More]

Biosocial theories of criminality study the ways in which biological characteristics interact with other factors to "shape" a person's behavior. Biosocial theories are supported by a number of theorists, including Lee Ellis, Anthony Walsh and Francis T. Cullen (Lilly, 2010, p. 352). The authors of our textbook stress the biosocial theory of Sarnoff A. Mednick, who argues that criminals do not seem to learn from their mistakes because they have impaired Autonomic Nervous Systems (ANS). According to Mednick, the normal ANS responds to environmental cues so the individual learns from them; however, a person with an impaired ANS will be slower to pick up on those cues and slower to mature or learn from them. A person with a normal ANS who engages in an antisocial behavior will pick up environmental cues, will feel the positive reinforcement of less fear when the antisocial behavior is suppressed and will learn to inhibit that antisocial behavior because of that positive reinforcement; however, a person with an abnormal ANS will not pick up or will be far slower to pick up on those cues, will not feel the positive reinforcement of less fear from suppressing the antisocial behavior and therefore will not learn or will be slower to learn to inhibit antisocial behavior (Lilly, 2010, pp. 358-9).

Though Mednick's theory is mentioned prominently in our textbook, biosocial theories also consider numerous other factors that may interact with biological characteristics to form criminal behavior. Some biosocial theorists believe that criminal behavior can be caused by biochemical factors such as: nutritional deficiencies, including lack of vitamins and minerals required for normal functioning; hormonal influences by male hormones, including testosterone; allergies, usually to foods such as milk, corn, wheat, chocolate, eggs and nuts; environmental contaminants, including food dyes, copper, artificial coloring, mercury and chlorine (Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services, 2010). In any event, a key to understanding biosocial theories is that they study the ways in which some factor interacts with biological characteristics and forms or shapes behavior.

b. Contrast Biosocial And Biological
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Organizational Theories in Criminal Justice

Words: 819 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53447980

Criminal Justice

The author of this report has been asked to speak to a number of questions involving criminal justice. The first is the overall trends and merits when it comes to the different manifestations of completing criminal justice tasks including privatization, e-corporations and militarization. The second question would be the historical and traditional organizational behavior theories and the corresponding effect of societal and organizational diversity when it comes to criminal justice organizations. Finally, there will be a discussion of equity theory and reinforcement theory and how both of those affect criminal justice organizations. While criminal justice may not seem all that complicated to the untrained eye, the intricacies and complexities come early and often.

Analysis

There are differing minds when it comes to the question of whether criminal justice tasks and such should be contracted out to private businesses. While the police function of policing has typically always been…… [Read More]

References

De Mesquita, B. B., & Cohen, L. E. (1995). SELF-INTEREST, EQUITY, AND CRIME

CONTROL: A GAME-THEORETIC ANALYSIS OF CRIMINAL DECISION

MAKING. Criminology, 33(4), 483-518.

Glushko, A. (2016). DOING WELL AND DOING GOOD: THE CASE FOR PRIVATISING
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Criminal Justice as Portrayed in

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12872871

The criminal association principle suggests that being socialized to regard crime as acceptable or to admire criminals plays a role in the choices made in that regard. The fact that Pistone and Napolitano were actually raised in very similar circumstances where each had the same type of exposure to organized crime families illustrates that rational choice is more important than criminal association because Pistone made the conscious choice to become a federal agent rather than one of the criminals who controlled his childhood neighborhood (Macionis, 2003; chmalleger, 2008).

The segment of the criminal justice system portrayed by Episode 71 is criminal investigations and the operations of the criminal justice system. Fisher was allowed to plea bargain the charges of attempted murder despite the fact that she deliberately shot the wife of her lover in the head in the attempt to murder her. The episode suggests that her age was a…… [Read More]

Sources Cited

Macionis J. (2003). Sociology. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.

Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st

Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Criminal Gang Enhancements in Sentencing

Words: 3593 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19512086

S. Senator Dianne Feinstein. The legislation makes the provision of over $ billion in funding "for gang prevention, intervention and law enforcement programs over five years and establishes new crimes and tougher penalties to deter and punish members of illegal street gangs." (Feinstein, 2007) the legislation proposed by Feinstein would make illegal participation in a criminal street gang a federal crime. The legislation criminalizes violent crimes in furtherance or in aid of criminal street gangs and creates a new criminal offense for murder and other violent crimes committed in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime. Under the present law, "a felon's criminal street gang involvement can be treated at most as a sentencing enhancement, adding no more than 10 years to a sentence. This bill establishes far higher penalties for violent gang crimes, including the possibility of life imprisonment without parole for murder, kidnapping, aggravated sexual abuse, or maiming. If…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Matthews, D. And Ruzicka, K. (2000) Proposition 21: Juvenile Crime. Capital Center for Government and Law Policy - California Initiative Review. March 2000 initiatives - Proposition 21. Pacific McGeorge School of Law. Online available at http://www.mcgeorge.edu/government_law_and_policy/california_initiative_review/march_2000/ccglp_cir_march2000_prop_21.htm.

McKim, J.B. And Rhor, Monica (2007) Justice by Geography (Orange County Register) 3 June 2007. Online available at http://dist08.casen.govoffice.com/index.asp?Type=B_PR&SEC=%7BE917F382-8B46-4C4E-976E-64261965F209%7D&DE=%7BCA01ACE7-2B51-4E14-8DE4-3C7CC3E4DDFB%7D

Governor Scwarzenegger Endorsees Senator Feinstein's Comprehensive Gang Legislation. (2007) United States Senator Dianne Feinstein California. 20 March 2007. Online available at http://feinstein.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=NewsRoom.PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=7189577e-cc9b-d379-16f3-c9194d249b56&Region_id=&Issue_id=

Velasquez, N. (2007) L.A. City Attorney Delgadillo Establishes New Policy Regarding Gang Injunction Violations: New Policy Enables Check of Convicted Gang Injunction Violators' Residency Status. 5 April 2007. Online available at http://www.lacity.org/atty/index/attyindex56044369_04052007.pdf.
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Criminal Justice Administration What Should

Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51018131

There should also be refresher courses given every year so that officers do not forget about their ethical responsibilities. t is important in the police arena that ethical behavior is top priority and that everyone is as ethical as they can be.

Web Field Trip

Tonry, M. (1997). ntermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/165043.pdf

The article ntermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines is a very comprehensive guide to what intermediate sanctions are and how they can be incorporated into sentencing guidelines. This article defines what intermediate sanctions are and how they can be used in sentencing guidelines in order to help those offenders who may not otherwise benefit from traditional sentencing practices. The guide also discusses the problems that can occur when implementing these types of sanctions and what can be done to try and avoid the issues that can occur. The overall gist of the article is to…… [Read More]

Intermediate Sanctions for Non-Violent Offenders Could Produce Savings. (2010). Retrieved

from  http://www.oppaga.state.fl.us/MonitorDocs/Reports/pdf/1027rpt.pdf 

The article Intermediate Sanctions for Non-Violent Offenders Could Produce Savings is a good discussion of how the use of intermediate sanctions used for certain offenders can lead to cost savings. In today's economy money for correctional institutions is at a low just like it is for everything else. Because of this it is becoming more and more important for corrections in general to cut costs. This article is a very good discussion on how intermediate sanctions can be used to help cut expenses in the criminal justice system. The article discusses how these types of sanctions can be used for certain offenders in order to benefit them the most while reducing the amount of money that it takes to lock every offender up for a specific period of time. This article also discusses the drawbacks that come along with implementing intermediate sanctions and how these issues can be addressed ahead of time in order to mitigate their effects.
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Criminal Justice Administration Corrections Officers

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44740907

Richard Allen, the state's prisons commissioner, said ednesday the change is meant to reduce overtime, and should save the state $3 million to $4 million a year. 'e don't have any choice about it,' Allen said. 'e've got to save money. e've got to do some things that are out of the box, and this is one of them'" (Diel 2008). Corrections officers have naturally protested this measure, citing the dangers of the job and the impact upon the quality of their health and financial lives.

Alabama is not alone. In Florida budget cutbacks were blamed recently when "A Florida correctional officer was killed on the job last week" (Ray 2008). Even though corrections officer positions have not been eliminated in the state of Florida, an expanding prison population coupled with a refusal to add more positions have lead to understaffed prisons and overworked, tired officers. In other states, cutbacks…… [Read More]

Works cited

Corrections officers. (2008). 2008 Occupational Outlook. Department of Labor Statistics 2008-

2009 Edition. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos156.htm

Diel, Stan. (2008, September 25) Corrections officers at seven Alabama prisons to work 12-hour shifts. Birmingham News. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.

http://www.al.com/news/birminghamnews/statebriefs.ssf?/base/news/1222330508324710.xml&coll=2
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Criminal Justice Process a Felony

Words: 2551 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52581112

A plea-bargain is frequently attained at this time in order to circumvent a trial. In the event that a plea-bargain is reached, the case does not move forward to a trial but failure to offer enough evidence to establish a plea bargain will mean that the case goes on to trial (Criminal Justice System Handbook, 2009).

The trail

Trials consist of a sequence of proceedings where the prosecutor presents evidence which will be used to prove the defendant guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. In felony cases, the defendant is given chances to admit their innocence but there are also times where they are presented that they may dispute the validity of evidence that has been presented by the prosecutor. Felony cases normally entail the services of a jury who listen to the case proceedings together with the judge and then after careful assessment of the evidence that is presented; they…… [Read More]

References

Criminal Justice. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/publiced/practical/books/famil y_legal_guide/chapter_14.authcheckdam.pdf

Criminal Justice System Handbook. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.nycourts.gov/litigants/crimjusticesyshandbk.shtml

Criminal Justice Process. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.courtwatchflorida.org/uploads/Training_-_Criminal_Justice_Process.pdf

Steps in the Criminal Justice Process. (n.d.). Retreived from http://sao.co.sarasota.fl.us/legal.htm
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Criminal Profiler 'The Role of

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24986573

rown, in her biographic article for World of Forensic Science, states,

She views investigative criminal profiling as a dynamic process that does not conclude until a suspect is arrested and convicted. She deems it a support process for the criminal investigative team, made up of a combination of four skills: investigation, forensic analysis, psychological assessment, and the application of cultural anthropology. rown considers this type of profiling to be a real-time, speculative process requiring ongoing checking to avoid missing any significant data, and should never be done in isolation, but rather as one piece of the entire criminal investigative process (rown, ¶4).

rown works 'pro bono' on several cold case file crimes, trying to be closure for the family.

The profilers use a variety of known characteristics to start the profile. The years of research done by early profilers such as Douglas has enabled the profilers to obtain clearer pictures…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Pat. World of Forensic Science. Thomson Gale. 2005. HighBeam Research. 22 Jun.

2010 .

Cooper, Greg. The Violent Criminal Apprehension Program. The Forensic Examiner.

American College of Forensic Examiners. 2007. HighBeam Research. 22 Jun. 2010