Criminal Behavior Essays (Examples)

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Criminal Behaviour Chapter I Introduction

Words: 6507 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18472521

" These authors purport that although mood and behaviour may constitute a vital part in disorderly outcomes of drinking scenarios, other social factors can equally contribute influences. These factors, according to these authors, can be categorized by the following factors:

the attitude and motivations that young binge drinkers bring to drinking, the social and peer group norms under which they operate, and features relating to the drinking environment.

Reasonable Investigations

In the journal article, Misinformation, Misrepresentation, and Misuse of Human ehavioral Genetics Research, Kaplan (2006) notes: "Researchers interested in understanding either the causes of variation in human behaviors or how human behaviors develop are at a disadvantage compared to researchers interested in answering similar questions associated with nonhuman organisms."

Reasons include:

Ethical restrictions on human experimentation make a number of experiments, standard in other model organisms, impossible to perform on humans.

Human development constitutes a slower process than that of…… [Read More]

Bibliography www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017425010

Beecher-Monas, Erica, and Edgar Garcia-Rill. "Genetic Predictions of Future Dangerousness: Is There a Blueprint for Violence?." Law and Contemporary Problems 69, no. 1-2 (2006): 301+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017425010.Internet. Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006642298

Bitsas, Constantine. "Food for Thoughout: The Role of Nutrients in Reducing Aggression, Violence and Criminal Behavior." Corrections Today, April 2004, 110+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006642298.Internet. Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104853723

Braun, Lundy. "8 Commentary," in Nature and Nurture: The Complex Interplay of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Behavior and Development. Edited by Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Elaine L. Bearer, and Richard M. Lerner, 139-143. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104853886.Internet. Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019164964

Bullock, Bernadette Marie, Kirby Deater-Deckard, and Leslie D. Leve. "Deviant Peer Affiliation and Problem Behavior: A Test of Genetic and Environmental Influences." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 34, no. 1 (2006): 29+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019164964.Internet. Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022133183
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Criminal Justice Issues in School

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51257422

Murder and rape are both legal terms that are used in contemporary society to describe the social construct of crime. Murder is a homicidal act resulting in death that is not permitted by the laws within society. Therefore, shooting a man to death as a lawful soldier engaged in a warranted military conflict with another country's group of soldiers is not considered murder. The same action between country members when there is no martial conflict, however, is considered murder. ape consists of unpermitted sexual acts that have not been condoned by one of the parties. In most instances men rape women and other men, although women have been known to rape men as well.

Evolutionary theory accounts for murder by positing it as a conflict of interests between two parties that is resolved violently (Dal and Wilson, 1997, p. 53). Moreover, this theory considers the fact that most crimes are…… [Read More]

References

Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1997). Crime and conflict: Homicide in evolutionary psychological perspective. Crime & Justice, 22, 51 -- 100. Retrieved from http://psych.mcmaster.ca/dalywilson/Crime&Conflict.pdf

Wood, M.E. (No date). "Criminality is a product of genes and environment." www.personalityresearch.org. Retrieved from  http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/jones.html
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Criminal Propensity There Is a

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66130055

In the meantime, new brain cells are constantly being developed, even into old age, but such alterations in the brain are largely contingent on what the individual has experienced in his or her environment" (Wright et al., 2008). Therefore, one of the factors that can impact adult propensity to commit violence is whether the brain had the opportunity to develop normally in very early childhood. Of course, both social and biological factors can impact early brain development.

In many ways, criminals are not thought to respond to external stimuli in the same manner as non-criminals, and it is believed that there may be an underlying biological basis for these differences. The auto-nomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the nervous system beyond the conscious control of the individual and is split into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for…… [Read More]

References

Wright, J.P., Tibbetts, S.G., & Daigle, L.E. (2008). Criminals in the Making . Thousand Oaks:

Sage Publications Inc. .
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Criminal Justice - Gender Crime

Words: 403 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82213513

2. According to Merton's strain theory, who should commit more crime males or females? What is true in reality?

According to Merton's original strain theory, the primary source of strain in modern society relates to financial success and social status (Agnew & rezina 1997).

As the theory goes, males are more likely to succumb to the negative influences of strains simply because financial success and social status are more commonly considered to be within the realm of social expectations of males. Later theorists have suggested that Merton's strain theory focused too narrowly on socioeconomic factors because strain consists of many more elements, including those that pertain more to females. Generally, males do commit more crime than females (Ogle, et al. 1995), but this is less a function of strain theory, necessarily, than the fact that myriad other influences that lie wholly outside the realm of principles related to strain theory…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Agnew, R., Brezina, T. (1997). Relational Problems with Peers, Gender, and Delinquency; Youth & Society, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 84-111. Ogle, R., Maier-Katkin, D., Bernard, T. (1995). A Theory of Homicidal Behavior Among Women; Criminology, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 173-193.
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Criminal Justice Is About the Laws Which

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64645174

Criminal justice is about the laws which are related to criminal behaviour. Criminal justice includes the area where judiciary is involved for e.g., police and lawyers. Lawyers are directly associated with the crime because they can defend or prosecute the criminals. As a professional field of study criminal justice involves studying the behaviour. The aim of the study is to gain knowledge and awareness of rules, laws and rights of victims and suspect both.

In Criminal Justice ethics, diversity and conflict plays a major role. As a student of Criminal Justice I have learned that ethics is important in making moral judgments which demonstrates clearly that what is right and what is wrong. An ethical framework of justice is required to make fair decisions. When we talk about ethics in criminal justice here, we are suppose to forget about the emotions, personal values and instincts that can create or raise…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

SagePub, (2011), The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf

Hazen, A., (2009), Cultural Diversity in Criminal Justice Paper, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/16052470/Cultural-Diversity-in-Criminal-Justice-Paper-CJA423-WK4

Skolnock .J., (2004), Conflict Model, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://neohumanism.org/c/co/conflict_model__criminal_justice_.html

Forbes. H., (2005), Crash, Catholic News service, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.catholicnews.com/data/movies/05mv542.htm
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Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

Words: 2584 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20694471

The reduction occurs through allowing the counties to acquire other methods of jailing apart from the prisons. This includes out-of custody rehabilitative treatments, which could serve in reducing the number of the criminals taken to the prisons. However, the AB109 criminals must be individuals whose crime are not violent and not that serious as provided by the law. This means that that jailing of the A109 criminals in other alternative would involve selection from the other criminals. However the unstated implication is that it would be much difficult to rate a crime as either more serious or not serious. Consequently, the rationale provides higher chances of biasness of selecting some non-serious cases while leaving others.

Implication of the policy

The criminal justice implication of the policy will mainly affect the non-violent arrestees. The decision of keeping them in custody, would affect their ability to avoid recividism future. The social implications…… [Read More]

Reference

Kraska, P., & Brent, J. (2011).Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations (2nd

Edition). Long Grove

Hancock, B., & Sharp, P. (2004).Criminal Justice in America (3rd Edition).Upper Saddle River,

NY: Prentice Hall
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Criminal Justice Response Cesare Beccaria

Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95459108

These methods of informal deterrence would help to prevent Bobby's criminal behavior.

Since he already committed the crime, Bobby would certainly need to be punished. However, Beccaria strongly argued that punishment must not be cruel, and must fit the crime. Clearly, Bobby never intended to hurt the homeowner; he broke into the home when he knew she would not be there.

Depending on the amount of property stolen, Bobby would have to pay the consequences. If this is his first offense, Bobby could be sentenced to a public form of community service, such as picking up trash by the roadside. He would also have to regularly report to a counselor. Parents could impose a strict curfew. This mixture of informal and formal methods of deterrence would help to stop Bobby from engaging in more criminal behavior.

orks Cited

Beccaria, Cesare. 1963. On Crimes and Punishment.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beccaria, Cesare. 1963. On Crimes and Punishment. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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Criminal Justice Victimization Whether One Is a

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8642155

Criminal Justice

Victimization

Whether one is a survivor of violent crime or dealing with financial crime victimization, it is vital to recognize that all victims experience some type of loss. While there are different kinds of losses, each can be intense, depending upon the viewpoint of victims and survivors (Victims of Crime Overview, 2012). There appear to be two different views on how victims should deal with being a victim of a crime. One view says that victims of crime should rely on the criminal justice system in order to deal with their victimization while the other view says that victims of crime should rely upon private support and insurance payments to deal with their victimization.

Those who believe that the criminal justice system should contribute to helping victims believe that helping the victim to cope is the responsibility of all of society. Law enforcement agencies, courts, and correctional and…… [Read More]

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Criminal Psychopathology Is the Science

Words: 2213 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72277983

He suggested the ritish model of profiling instead, based on the "bottom up" type of processing, which analyzes existing evidence of specific similarities between offense and offender characteristics. The CSA uses the reverse, the "top down" processing, which relies on subjective conclusions derived from investigative experience of crimes and criminal interviews by the police and investigators (Hayden).

Motive is the reason behind the commission of a crime (Zandt 2006). It is not an element of a crime, which needs to be proven in court. ut some utterly heinous or unnatural crime may require it for the jury to understand and appreciate why it is committed. An example is the killing of one's own spouse or child. Prosecutors must clearly establish the motive, which is the offender's reason for committing what is considered unreasonable, heinous or unnatural. The prosecution must prove and convince the jury, explain and show how anyone can…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Court TV. (2006). The Art of Forensic Psychology. Criminal Profiling: Courtroom Television Network LLC. http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/forensic_psychology/10.html

2. Hayden, T. (2000). Offender Profiling. Murder in the UK: MurderUK.com, 2006. http://www.murderuk.com/Profiling/offender_profiling_htm

3. Muller, D.A. (2000). Criminal Profiling. Homicide Studies, Vol 4 (3), Sage Publications, Inc. pp 234-264

4. Strano, M. (2004). A Neural Network Applied to Criminal Psychological Profiling: an Italian Perspective. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology: Sage Publications. http://ijo.sagepub.com/cgi/reprit/48/4/495.pdf
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Criminal Justice - Policing Criminal

Words: 1074 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52654718

To the extent that crime is a function of larger social issues, it is unrealistic to expect those underlying social problems to be rectified by law enforcement efforts. Even with respect to specific incidence of criminal behavior, law enforcement authorities must address two competing interests that fall within the purview and responsibility of law enforcement.

Specifically, poverty, unwanted pregnancy, lack of educational and vocational opportunities, and perceived social "disenfranchisement" within communities contribute heavily to crime in those areas but none of those social factors are capable of being redressed directly by law enforcement authorities. Likewise, even within the realm of law enforcement responsibilities, emphasis on quality-of-life-oriented policing and crime prevention-oriented policing conflict with the goal of preventing crime in light of empirical evidence and anecdotal experience demonstrating that efforts directed at the former do not necessarily achieve the goals of the latter appreciably.

In that regard, directed police patrols and…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Forensics Undercover Is a

Words: 11198 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97252031

However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).

y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.

Definition of Terms

Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.

Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html

Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.

Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.

Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
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Criminal Justice - Gender and

Words: 3438 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98457029

In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.

Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.

Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35

Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon
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Criminal Justice Theories Drift Theory Suggests That

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82978264

Criminal Justice Theories

Drift theory suggests that people drift from one extreme to another during the course of their lifetimes. When applied in the context of criminal justice, it reflects the idea that people drift between conventional and criminal behaviors. After a crime is committed, the individual may balance that criminality by drifting back towards conventional behavior. In this way, criminality is partly chosen, but also partly determined, because the willingness to commit a crime comes with preparation and desperation. Preparation does not imply that the person has actively prepared to engage in criminal behavior but that the person has placed himself in a position where it is possible to commit a crime. Fatalism contributes to drift, with people being more likely to commit crimes when they feel as if their options have been limited and that they lack control. Furthermore, with drift comes an underlying sense of injustice, so…… [Read More]

References

Patchin, J. (2011). Criminological theory summaries. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from University of Wisconsin Eau Claire website:

http://www.uwec.edu/patchinj/crmj301/theorysummaries.pdf

See, E. (2004). Student study guide for Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers'

Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and applications, 4th Edition. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Roxbury Publishing Company website: http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf
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Criminal Justice Theory

Words: 2525 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51732386

Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department

Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.

That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology. about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fthunder1.cudenver.edu%2F%2Fsociology%2Fintrosoc%2Ftopics%2FUnitNotes%2Fweek05.html

Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from http://www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/q16.html

Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v4n1/brunet. html

Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/publicat / primer/prim1.html
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Criminal Decision Making The Elements of the

Words: 3113 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10127680

Criminal Decision Making: The Elements of the Culture of the Street and Party Life and Their elation to Criminal Decision-Making

Understanding offenders' lifestyles and the process by which they choose to commit criminal acts is critical particularly because it has important implications for crime control. Very often, certain elements of the street and party life influence the offender's assessment of the risks and rewards of crime. According to Shover and Honaker (1992), commitment to drugs and partying, as well as street culture, leads to alienation of offenders from mainstream society and pushes them away from a conventional life. Over time, they adopt a socially bounded rationality and become accustomed to a criminal lifestyle to a point where they break the law as a result of addiction, rather that free will. It is, therefore, imperative to understand the role played by these lifestyles in shaping the motivation for crime because it…… [Read More]

References

Brookman, S. F (2001). Accounting for Homicide and Sublerthal Violence. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 175-191). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.

Hochstetler, A. (2001). Opportunities and decisions: Interactional Dynamics in Robbery and Burglary Groups. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 70-91). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.

Mullins, W.C., & Charbonneau, G.M. (2010). Establishing Connections: Gender, Motor Vehicle Theft and Disposal Networks . In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 87-112). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.

Shover, N., & Honaker, D.(1992). The Socially Bounded Decision Making of Persistent Property Offenders. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds.), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 35-51). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.
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Criminal Justice References in the

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35964776

hile this is the amendment that allows prison work camps and work programs, as well as the requirement that criminals participate in the maintaining of their prisons, it serves a much larger purpose, mainly expressing that a right contained in the constitution may be taken away if citizens do not behave lawfully.

The implications of these amendments and the others so similarly worded are indicative of the Classical School of Criminology. Offered as an incentive, the rights encourage rational, but criminally inclined humans to make the rational choice towards the non-criminal action. Because it would be in the humans' self-interest to keep their rights, they are encouraged to choose non-criminal action. Thus, the drafting of the constitution this way suggests that the founders were relying on the Classical School of Criminology when considering human behavior, rational choice, and the desire to keep a lawful society.

Further relying on the Classical…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Classical School." 1998. Crime Theory. 4 July, 2008. http://www.crimetheory.com/Theories/Classical.htm.
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Criminal Statistics and Behavior Some

Words: 822 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38209197

"Approximately 27.5% of college women reported experiences that met the legal criteria for rape," even though some of them were not necessarily aware that the actions to which they were subjected satisfied such a definition (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ).

According to the FBI, which defines violent crimes as "murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault," an "estimated 1,246,248 violent crimes occurred nationwide" in 2010 (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ). There is obviously a great deal of overlap between the characteristics of populations that commit sexual assault and violent criminals, due to this definition. It should also be noted that although persons who commit violent crimes are disproportionately male and young (the example of stereotypes being validated by statistics); whites commit more such crimes -- 54% vs. 45% versus African-Americans. Also, "numbers also vary widely depending on the crime, with blacks responsible for more murders…… [Read More]

References

Bartol, C. & Bartol, a. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach. Prentice Hall.

Family violence statistics. (2002). BJS. Retrieved:

 http://bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/fvs02.pdf 

Hodgins, S. & Muller-Isberner, R. (Eds.). (2000). Violence, crime, and mentally disordered offenders: Concepts and methods for effective treatment and prevention. New York: John Wiley & Sons
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Criminal Justice Substantive vs Procedural

Words: 1473 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99639515



Patterns Juvenile Delinquency Throughout the World/How Determine Who Juvenile?

Patterns in juvenile delinquency also vary throughout the world, as do the way countries define "delinquency" among juveniles. The Japanese according to Platt (2005) have taken on a much more philosophical approach to juvenile delinquency, supporting a Confucian style structure of education and support, one that works toward educating children to become part of the larger social collective (p. 965). In this environment, children are encouraged to become more socially aware and to self-regulate, often given the opportunity to reform before they are punished for wrongdoings.

This conflicts sharply with juvenile delinquency programs and structures elsewhere in the world. In Australia, juvenile delinquency is often associated with being a member of a juvenile gang, which is defined as "youth hanging out on the streets with gang activity" or street activity that has the potential to lead to mischievous behaviors (Duffy &…… [Read More]

References

Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S. (2004). Teen gangs: A global view. Westport: Greenwood Press.

ICMBA. (2007). American Legal System. Internet Center for Management and Business

Administration, Inc. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved 22, May, 2007:

 http://www.quickmba.com/law/sys/
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Criminal Justice Grade Course to Be Honest

Words: 2099 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32028021

Criminal Justice

Grade Course

To be honest I tend to think that crime has been trending in the late night news since the early 90s to an extent that it has become some sort of entertainment. It is mostly featured in the prime time news as a mass magnet for news corporations which are business entities and would therefore; capitalize on the expectant audience it has attracted. A large proportion of the crime reported is usually projected as individual subversions rather than socially motivated misdemeanors. It is from this perspective that criminals are feared beyond their capability without proper dissemination of the causes leaving an audience that is always pregnant with political, or sexual related crimes as a form of entertainment than a source of crime prevention issues that would go a long way in making their neighborhoods safer.

This paper will delve into the three main parts; the study…… [Read More]

References

Catalano, S.M. (2006). The Measurement of Crime: Victim Reporting and Police Recording.

New York: LFB Scholarly.

Conklin, J. (2010). Criminology. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

Kornhauser, R. (1978). Social Causes of Delinquency. Chicago: University of Chacago Press.
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Criminals -- Born or Made Since the

Words: 2372 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42815491

Criminals -- Born or Made

Since the construction of the first civil society, behavioral rules distinguishing what is acceptable and what is criminal have existed. Even though individuals typically have a concept of conventional moral behavior, criminal conduct is represented in every society and culture. Criminal deviance is not a novel construct, and has long been the intrigue of researchers, philosophers, and theorists to determine criminal motivation and link the relationship between individuals and the execution of criminal acts. One central argument that has evolved in the realm of criminality is the nature vs. nurture debate, which questions if criminals are born or made. Biological, psychological, and sociological disciplines each offer theories into the origin of criminality to explain if criminal behavior is a consequence of genetics or a matter of the environment in which they are raised (Jones). The biologist introduces genetic evidence and explains the effects of varying…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akers, R, and C. Sellers. Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Applications.

4th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Co., 2004. xx-xx. Print.

Anderson, C, L Berkowitz, E Donnerstein, and R. Huesmann. "The Influence of Media violence on Youth." American Psychological Society. 4.3 (2003): 81-110. Print.

Eysenck, H.J.. "Personality and Crime." Psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Violent
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Criminal Justice Purposes of Criminal

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25294111

Another form of punishment is by restraint or incarceration. By keeping the person under state control, then the state can avert the person from committing another crime. On the other hand, many times incarceration is only a temporary answer. ehabilitation is an alternative when it is possible. The person who violates criminal laws gets punishment but also learns how to alter their bad behavior and work toward becoming a productive citizen. The last reason of punishment is retribution, or to make the person suffer for the pain caused to the victim and the victim's family. Many times, this reason is most relevant to the victim or the victim's family when a violent crime is committed (the Purpose of Criminal Laws, 2012).

Deterrence

In very broad terms punishment may be anticipated to affect deterrence in one of two ways. First, by escalating the certainty of punishment, potential offenders may be deterred…… [Read More]

References

Bundy, D. (2011). Philosophy of Criminal Law Protection. Retrieved from http://suite101.com/article/philosophy-of-criminal-law-protection

The Purposes of Criminal Law. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.federationpress.com.au/pdf/Lanham%20Ch1B.pdf 

The Purpose of Criminal Laws. (2012). Retreived from http://www.superpages.com/supertips/criminal-laws.html

Wright, V. (2010). Deterrence in Criminal Justice. Retrieved from  http://www.asca.net/system/assets/attachments/1463/Deterrence_Briefing_.pdf?12901
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Criminal Justice the Perfect Criminal

Words: 1493 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70952970

Use of technology would promote public knowledge about the spread of confirmed criminal activity or patterns of behavior that might place people at risk, whether that risk involved theft, credit card scams or other behaviors (Farber, 2006).

Participation in shared networking technological programs would be required of private businesses, community agencies and policing authorities to ensure a true community policing structure is established. Communities would work to create neighborhood watch groups in response to "non-sensitive" security data that would help them better protect their community and collaborate with law enforcement agencies (Farber, 2006, p. 110).

Before a hearing is set, a judiciary authority should be appointed along with a trained criminal justice psychologist to determine what factors contributed to the criminal activity, the severity of criminal activity and whether prosecution is warranted, or whether rehabilitative measures would prove more helpful in the long-term. A meeting should be established where the…… [Read More]

References

American Law and Legal Information. (n.d.). Criminal justice system, structural and theoretical components of criminal justice systems, the systems of operation, the importance of viewing criminal justice as a system. American Law and Legal Information. Crime and Justice Volume 1. Accessed 22, May, 2007:

 http://law.jrank.org/pages/858/Criminal-Justice-System.html 

Bouza, a.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge: Perseus Books.

Farber, O. (2006, Jun). Positive SPIN on liaisons: Find out how the security police information network (SPIN) promotes public-private information sharing. Security Management, 50(6): 110.
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Criminal Theory - Operational Implementation

Words: 1089 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38364082



In terms of correctional program implementation, operant conditioning principles provide the basis for motivating cooperation and other desirable behaviors (including reduction of undesirable behaviors) in a quid pro quo arrangement. Typical examples of operational implementation of operant conditioning would include so-called "token economies" and other bilateral agreements, arrangements, or understandings that certain desired behaviors provide specific rewards (Van Voorhis 2007). Operant conditioning principles are particularly useful in parenting, such as between teenagers rewarded with late weekend curfews for good grades; it is also a proven method of increasing inmate compliance within correctional institutions where good behavior is rewarded with increased privileges and undesirable behaviors are punished through privilege reduction (Spiegler & Guevremont 1993). Generally, the most important fundamental element of successful implementation of operant conditioning principles in behavior modification is the gradual phasing out of the reward-based motivation for compliance (Van Voorhis 2007). The goal of any such operational conditioning-based…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, P.G. (2005) Psychology and Life. New York: Pearson

Goldstein, Glick, and Gibbs. (1986) Aggression Replacement Training, pp 1-68

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercus
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Criminal Justice Gaetz S July 2004 Safe

Words: 2782 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26021148

Criminal Justice

Gaetz, S. (July 2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice.

This journal article reports the researcher's survey findings regarding the prevalence of victimization among street youths compared to domiciled youths. Gaetz defines the street youth operatively as "people up to the age of 24 who are 'absolutely periodically, or temporarily without shelter, as well as those who are at substantial risk of being in the street in the immediate future" (433). Survey findings show that just as expected, victimization mostly occur among the street than domiciled youth. Moreover, street youth reporting of criminal victimization is not common among both males and females. 41.7% of the respondents who have been victimized "told a friend" about the incident of victimization, 33.1% "did not tell anyone," and a far 17.2% reported the victimization to their partner (boyfriend or girlfriend)…… [Read More]

Felson, R. et. al. (August 2002). Reasons for reporting and not reporting domestic violence to the police. Criminology, Vol. 40, Issue 3.

Felson et. al.'s research utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey as its primary instrument in determining, assessing, and measuring the factors that lead to reporting (or not reporting) incidences of domestic violence. Survey findings show that there are three primary factors that are significantly relevant in inhibiting victims to reporting domestic violence to the police: "the desire for privacy, the desire to protect the offender ... And fear of reprisal."

The NCVS survey findings illustrate how the prevalence and continuous occurrence of abuse and domestic violence, especially among females, is still a social problem that needs unwavering attention by the government and civil society. New findings such as hesitance of male victims to report on their victimization reflect the changing nature of domestic violence in American society. In the same way that females need protection through the dissemination of proper and useful information about domestic violence, males are also in need of protection as well. Another important implication of the study is the changing nature of the respondents' (victims) concept of domestic violence, which varies significantly across gender.
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Criminal Justice Corrections Officers and

Words: 1818 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1796391

The swing back and forth between rehabilitation and "lock them up and throw away the key" makes corrections officers' jobs more difficult than they might otherwise be. Police and corrections personnel must bend to winds of change that bring little regard for their own personal and familial welfare. Much has been said about the prisoners, and the effects of those prisoners on the larger society, but little account has been taken of the effects of constantly changing policies and objectives on those who must work in the nation's prisons. Certainly, their needs and quality of life bears on the future rehabilitation or punishment of wrongdoers. The needs of corrections personnel and police are directly related to the overall problem of how we deal with crime in America.

eferences

Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 estoring ationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford…… [Read More]

References

Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 Restoring Rationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bunzel, S.M. (1995). The Probation Officer and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Strange Philosophical Bedfellows. Yale Law Journal, 104(4), 933-966.

Cochrane, J., Melville, G., & Marsh, I. (2004). Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge.

Diiulio, J.J. (1991). No Escape: The Future of American Corrections. New York: Basic Books.
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Criminal Justice Bootcamp Programs for

Words: 5841 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21697054

The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).

Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…… [Read More]

References

Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.

Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.

Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
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Criminal Justice Drawing the Line

Words: 1511 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14548662

One cannot be viewed with suspicion simply because one belongs to a particular race or holds to a certain set of religious beliefs. The more that violations of basic human and civil rights are excused in the name of public safety, the less safe and secure our society becomes. A society that loses its liberty is a police state. Modern day America is moving closer each day to that terrible point. Intrusive technologies and ever present police and private security forces represent the presence of controlling forces in aspects of life that should be under individual command. Individual rights and choices are being sacrificed to the perceived exigencies of the collective. We are not a colony of insects. We are human beings. Public safety must be balanced with civil rights.

eferences

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105701878

Brown, M.K., Carnoy, M., Currie, E., Duster, T., Oppenheimer, D.B., Shultz, M.M., et al. (2003). Whitewashing ace: The…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105701878

Brown, M.K., Carnoy, M., Currie, E., Duster, T., Oppenheimer, D.B., Shultz, M.M., et al. (2003). Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020039970

Theodore, N., Martin, N., & Hollon, R. (2006). Securing the City: Emerging Markets in the Private Provision of Security Services in Chicago. Social Justice, 33(3), 85+.
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Criminal Justice as an Individual

Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96135868

This essentially would send John to a treatment facility where he will undergo constant monitoring, education, and counseling. (Sims 2005; p. 106; Lewis, 2002; p. 77).

After successfully completing his inpatient treatment program, John still cannot be released to his own initiative. More likely than not John comes from an environment that would make alcohol and other triggers readily available. Further, John has a history of not following through with outpatient treatment. For this reason, the court should order that John be placed in a controlled environment, such as a halfway house.

While serving his time in a halfway house or other residential facility, John will be continually monitored and be able to live in a dry environment. Here John will be able to attend group therapy, individual counseling, and other similar programs. (urnet, 2004; p. 303).

The benefits of this special probation program is that John will retain enough…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abadinsky, Howard (2005). Probation and Parole: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.

Burnet, Ros (2004). What Works in Probation and Youth Justice:

Developing Evidence-Based Practice. New York: Willam Publishing.

Culler, Francis (1982). Reaffirming Rehabilitation. New York:
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Criminal Offending in the Past Any Form

Words: 2294 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36633122

Criminal Offending

In the past, any form of criminal activity was associated with low self-esteem that is why criminal activity was minimal. Paying for crime in the past involved ruthless means, including tying a criminal on a stone and throwing them into the river. Comparing the past with the modern world, a great contrast occurs. Criminal offenders in the modern world appear to be of very high self-esteem. The self-esteem arises from prior criminal activities, personal traits and participation in prison. It is so unfortunate because criminals do not fear the law, security officials and subsequently no regard for positive punishment.

Criminologists and psychologists have a task of establishing whether crime is in either way related to the human mind, behavior and psychology. Criminal activity is increasing by day, and the securities do not know what to attribute for especially, when correctional facilities are full of criminals. It is likely…… [Read More]

References

Broidy, L.M., (2001). A test of general strain theory. A Journal of Criminology, 39, 9-36.

Cesar, J.R., Nicole, L.P., Alex, R.P., & Stephen, G.T., (2010). Anticipated shaming and criminal offending. Journal of Criminal justice, 38, 988-997.

Inga, D.S., Alfgeir, L.K., & Robert, A. (2012). A comparative analysis of general strain theory.

Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 117-127.
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Criminal Justice Associates Program When

Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23144061



I think that my knowledge of procedure is probably my strongest. I feel very comfortable with the level of knowledge I have about proper police procedure. I feel confident that I not only understand basic procedural rules, but also the justification or reasoning behind those rules. Furthermore, I feel as if my understanding of the basis for these various procedural rules will help me easily grasp any additional procedural rules that I will encounter on the job.

While I do feel as if I have had a strong educational background, there are two areas where I feel as I could benefit from more education: psychology and human services. The more I study the psychology of criminals and victims, the more I realize I do not know about why perpetrators do things. I understand that people who align with certain profiles may be more likely to commit crimes, but I am…… [Read More]

References

City of Houston. (2013). Victim services unit. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from Houston Police

Department website:  http://www.houstontx.gov/police/vsu/ 

Stevens, M. (2003, June 18). Victimology theory. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from North

Carolina Wesleyan College website:
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Criminal Justice Bias

Words: 2131 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28408054

The killing of the two black American young men Amadou Diallo and Louima were separated by about two years but Amadou's killing happened just before the trial of Louima's case. Amadou's killing drew a lot of public interest that was focused on the conduct of the New York Police. It was the only such heated debate since the Knapp commission of the 70s which disclosed corruption in the police department. Amadou was from a middle class family that migrated from Guinea. They were engaged in simple trade activities including selling items on the streets. Amadou was shot 41 times in his apartment house in Bronx. His life was brought to an end by a special crimes unit of a group of four policemen operating under cover. It is a New York born strategy for combating aggressive crime (Harring & Ray, 1999). There is no doubt that a crime was indeed…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice and Criminology the

Words: 5114 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18724377

Latinos participations are low in CAPS, and most of their members are unaware of the strategies of CAPS. Their levels of awareness have been on a declining state since the year 1990. Their involvement in these meetings was driving by the levels of crime, moral decay on the community and at the level of social disorder. The problem with the Latino population is that they do not turn up in numbers to these meetings. The community's representation is low in these meetings.

However, research further shows that the community lacks representation in the district advisory committees that meet on a regular basis with the police department. Compared to the African-Americans and the Whites Latinos have young families are they are more likely to be working and having families at home. Their involvement with the police department is variedly mixed. There is evidence that their community avoids police contacts, including not…… [Read More]

References

Lyons, T., Lurigio, Rodriguez, P.L., & a.J., Roque, (2013). Racial disparity in the criminal justice system for drug offenses a state legislative response to the problem. Race and justice, 3(1), 83-101.

Lombardo, R.M. (2013). Fighting Organized Crime a History of Law Enforcement Efforts in Chicago. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(2), 296-316.

Portnoy, J., Chen, F.R., & Raine, a. (2013). Biological protective factors for antisocial and criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.

Lee, M. (2013). Inventing Fear of Crime. Willan.
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Criminal Law A Comprehensive Research Primary and

Words: 1491 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94955506

criminal law. A comprehensive research, primary and secondary, was conducted in order to gather relevant information about crime, criminal law and crimes against a person. This study can help understanding the mechanism that deals with the criminal law.

Crime is an integral part of the everyday life and is a salient fact in today's world. In the opinion of public as well as the scholars, crime is usually linked with violence and harm to societies and individuals, destroying the property and degrading the respect of individuals, societies and institutions. It is quite obvious that we are facing problems in describing the nature of crimes and are unable to understand the works of many scholars on this subject. The basic question is "What is crime?" there are a number of answers to that, some are supporting each other while some are contradictory to each other. There is a strong need to…… [Read More]

References:

Richard Quinney, Criminology as Peacemaking, Indiana University Press, 1991.

Walker, Samuel (1992). "Origins of the Contemporary Criminal Justice Paradigm: The American Bar Foundation Survey, 1953-1969." Justice Quarterly

Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). "Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (Northwestern University)

Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power. London: Pluto Press.