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Approaches to Understand Criminal Behavior
Chemical Methods of Control
Imagine yourself having a walk in the premises of your house and a stone come flying through the boundary wall and hits you. As a layman, one might face difficulty in defining this incident. It can be termed as an assault, an act of violence or a criminal offence. This is a layman's term to define this act but in reality it has a way deeper meaning. Before going in the details of criminal behavior, few points must be pondered like why individuals offend, who are the ones who offend and who are the probable victims. Relationship between psychology and the criminal justice system is of great significance in developing an understanding about reasons that could lead to violence which is the consequence of criminal behavior. Many other facts are of importance…
Sociological theories of criminal behavior do not discount individual-level learning but focus more on the surrounding culture and environment. To explain criminal behavior, sociologists usually center on conflict theories, strain theories, labeling theories, and social control theories. Conflict theories have their roots in Marxist philosophy. They reveal how class conflict can create impetus for deviance and also lead to general anomie. Strain theory similarly suggests that criminal behavior can result from a gap between socially sanctioned goals and an individual's ability to achieve those goals in normative ways. These theories generally explain the greater prevalence of crime among socially disadvantaged groups. Social disorganization theory also takes into account the tendency for criminal behavior to arise in communities that lack structure and cohesion due to anomie. Social control theorists postulate that an individual's acceptance of and commitment to prevailing social institutions will diminish criminal behavior; the desire to conform overrides any…
DeMelo, D. (2006). "Criminology Theory." Retrieved Mar 22, 2007 at http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/crimetheory.html
DeMelo, D. (2006) "Sutherland's Differential Association." Retrieved Mar 2, 2007 at http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/differ.html
" These authors purport that although mood and behaviour may constitute a vital part in disorderly outcomes of drinking scenarios, other social factors can equally contribute influences. These factors, according to these authors, can be categorized by the following factors:
the attitude and motivations that young binge drinkers bring to drinking, the social and peer group norms under which they operate, and features relating to the drinking environment.
In the journal article, Misinformation, Misrepresentation, and Misuse of Human ehavioral Genetics Research, Kaplan (2006) notes: "Researchers interested in understanding either the causes of variation in human behaviors or how human behaviors develop are at a disadvantage compared to researchers interested in answering similar questions associated with nonhuman organisms."
Ethical restrictions on human experimentation make a number of experiments, standard in other model organisms, impossible to perform on humans.
Human development constitutes a slower process than that of…
Beecher-Monas, Erica, and Edgar Garcia-Rill. "Genetic Predictions of Future Dangerousness: Is There a Blueprint for Violence?." Law and Contemporary Problems 69, no. 1-2 (2006): 301+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017425010.Internet . Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006642298
Bitsas, Constantine. "Food for Thoughout: The Role of Nutrients in Reducing Aggression, Violence and Criminal Behavior." Corrections Today, April 2004, 110+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006642298.Internet . Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104853723
Braun, Lundy. "8 Commentary," in Nature and Nurture: The Complex Interplay of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Behavior and Development. Edited by Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Elaine L. Bearer, and Richard M. Lerner, 139-143. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104853886.Internet . Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019164964
Bullock, Bernadette Marie, Kirby Deater-Deckard, and Leslie D. Leve. "Deviant Peer Affiliation and Problem Behavior: A Test of Genetic and Environmental Influences." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 34, no. 1 (2006): 29+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019164964.Internet . Accessed 16 February 2008. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022133183
On the other hand, his wife said that they dated for about nine months and then were engaged for about a year before they got married. There was some discrepancy in the Personal and Progress notes of Mr. W pertaining to the involvement of Mr. W in women during his time in high school, however, which does not have much role to play in this case. Mr. W claimed that the reason why he and his wife got divorced was because she was a very dominating woman and she had all the control in their relationship. He also said that she would spend luxuriously and would pressurize him to make more money. Later, he also made a claim that he thinks that he was under a lot of pressure to make a lot of money and that is one of the reasons why he had to indulge in criminal activities.…
American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. (1995). Ethical guidelines for the practice of forensic psychiatry. Greenfield, CT: Author.
American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct.American Psychologist, 47.
Anastasi, a. (1988). Psychological testing (6th ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Marshall, W.L., Jones, R., Ward, T., Johnston, P. & Bambaree, H.E. (1991). Treatment of sex offenders.Clinical Psychology Review.
Leaders in society understand the need to resist putting unfair labels on people; this has been a positive trend over the recent past.
Feminist Theory: Feminist theories suggest, "…criminal justice decisions reflect male dominance and functioning to support patriarchy"; in short, the system is bias against women (Akers, 1999). This has changed society because women's liberation, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, have made it illegal to discriminate based on race, gender, religious affiliation or age.
Biosocial Theories: The risk entailed in criminal behavior is caused by a combination of environmental and biological dynamics (Vito, et al., 2006). Another aspect of this approach to criminology is to believe that personality traits, which are the result of biological forces inside the individual, can cause crime. Society puts criminals in prisons, but sociologists and psychologists strive to understand how biological and environmental factors factor in when people commit crimes. The change…
Akers, Ronald. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Burfeind, James, Burfeind, James W., and Bartusch, Dawn Jeglum. (2010). Juvenile
Delinquency: An integrated Approach. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Florida State University. (2007). Durkheim's Anomie. Retrieved August 22, 2011, from http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/week8.htm .
Likewise, full-body tattoos are considered deviant behavior and people who are completely tattooed are ostracized from some elements of society, but that behavior has never been considered illegal. In contrast, most people do not consider jaywalking or speeding to be extremely deviant behavior. On the contrary, most people have probably engaged in these criminal behaviors and may even be habitual offenders, but one would be unlikely to label them as criminals.
Therefore, it becomes clear that deciding what constitutes a crime is about more than deviance; it also requires the consideration of whether the behavior is harmful to anyone other than the actors and if society values those whom the behavior is harming. Looking at the example of homosexuality and tattoos; even if one considers that behavior self-destructive, it is difficult to imagine how the behavior harms anyone other than those involved in the lifestyle. In contrast, speeding and jaywalking,…
Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, A.M. (2012). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (Laureate
Education, Inc., custom ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Burkhead, M.D. (2006). The Search for the Causes of Crime: A History of Theory in Criminology. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Uniform Crime Reports. Retrieved March 5, 2013 from FBI
05 under Resolving Ethical Issues in corporate situations is apt.
One Research Standard in the "Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research"
The one research standard that stands out as among the most important standards is "accuracy," which, along with "honesty, efficiency and objective" make up the four most fundamental standards from the Office of Research Integrity. In the peer-reviewed journal Criminology, professor John Laub writes that "…facts must come first" when reviewing various approaches to criminology. The point of Laub's essay -- which basically takes Edwin Sutherland to task for Sutherland's analysis of criminology and crime research -- is that Sutherland "…rejected key facts about crime that were contrary to his sociological paradigm" (Laub, 2006, p. 239). In other words, Sutherland took a sociological view of crime and ignored those facts that were not convenient to his theory. That is as troubling as a detective ignoring facts in a…
American Psychological Association. (2011). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct / Including 2010 Amendments. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from http://www.apa.org.
Laub, J.H. (2006). Edwin H. Sutherland and the Michael-Adler Report: Searching for the Soul of Criminology Seventy Years later. Criminology, 44(2), 235-252. .
Mihajlov, T.P., and Miller, W.A. (2012) Fraud at Buca de Beppo: A Villa in Tuscany?
Strategic Finance, 94(1), 40-46.
Whereas terrorists, are focused on achieving idealistic goals that are concentrating on creating destruction, severely weakening their adversaries and making the general public fearful about conducting routine activities. (Kane, 2005) ("Terrorist Links to Other Crimes," 2007)
The rationale behind white collar crimes is based upon self-interest and greed. While terrorists, are more ideological and want to create some kind of lasting change through a campaign of violence. As a result, while collar criminals want to maintain the status quo in order to continue to reap these benefits. However, the terrorists want to create radical changes to the system or the policies of various governmental entities. (Kane, 2005) ("Terrorist Links to Other Crimes," 2007)
Describe possible conclusions which can be drawn based upon this comparison.
Possible conclusions which can be drawn are that both kinds of activities will utilize the same kinds of tools and tactics. This is a part of…
Terrorist Links to Other Crimes. (2007). NIJ. Retrieved from: http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/terrorism/other-crimes.htm
Kane, J. (2005). Identify the Links Between White Collar Crime and Terrorism. NCJRS. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/209520.pdf
Video Game Violence
Criminal behavior literature review: Video game violence
One of the most controversial contentions in the recent debate over the causes of violence in American society is that violent video games give rise to violent behavior. After the recent shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, the Arizona Sun reported that local organizers in the community of Southington, Arizona held a violent video game buy-back, much in the same way that other communities had buy-backs of firearms. "Although the organizers are careful to note there's no evidence violent games contributed to the Sandy Hook shooting, the implication is nonetheless clear. So too, the organizers claim that research links video games with other aggressive acts and desensitization" (Ferguson 2013). The head of the National ifle Association (NA) likewise made a link between criminality and video game violence -- but not the presence of guns in American society --…
Anderson Craig. (2003). Violent video games: Myths, facts, and unanswered questions. APA.
Ferguson, Christopher J., Adolfo Garza, Jessica Jerabeck, Raul Ramos & Mariza Galindo.
(2012). Not worth the fuss after all? Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Retrieved:
This requires identification of the barriers to the readiness of the offender to change as well as the strengths of the offender that will enable their making those changes. Latessa relates that the failure of researchers and scholars to "bridge the gap among theory, research and practice" is striking and that suggestions for how promotion of change by academics and researchers include those of:
(1) leave the office -- be willing to attend and present at nonacademic conferences, conduct workshops for local professionals, testify at legislative hearings, and in general be willing to led the expertise and knowledge they posses;
(2) Make research understandable
(3) Include measures of program integrity and quality in research.
(4) Do a better job of preparing students:
(a) teach them the knowledge base;
(b) provide them better skills and competencies; and (c) expose them to other relevant disciplines. (Latessa, 2004)
Latessa (2004) states that he…
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminology today. (5th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall
Ward, T. And Stewart, C. (in press-a) Criminogenic Needs and Human Needs: A Theoretical Model. Psychology. Crime and Law.
Ward, T. And Stewart, C. (in press-b) Good lives and the rehabilitation of sexual offenders, in T. Ward, S. Hudson, and R. Laws (Eds) Sexual deviance: Issues and Controversies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Birgden, Astrid (2002) Therapeutic Jurisprudence and 'Good Lives': A Rehabilitation Framework for Corrections. Australia Psychologist. 2002 Nov. Vol. 37, No.3. Online available at: http://law.anu.edu.au/UnitUploads/LAWS8164-2581-Birgden%20 (2002)%20Aust%20Psych.pdf
Criminology is not an abstract discipline. It is designed to have real world, real-life implications and thus must be undertaken with care. However, human beings' behavior cannot be perfectly controlled, and no experiment conducted in the field can be isolated from variables that may potentially affect the results, even with the inclusion of a control group. A faulty experiment could have far-reaching effects.
Beyond the ethics of studying crime, there are also methodological questions. What branch of the social sciences does criminology encompass? Psychology? The natural sciences? Sociology? History? This question influences the assumptions, patterns, and standards of evidence to which research is held. It has been said that the "paradigm for criminology should not be tied to any particular discipline" because of its multidisciplinary nature (Laub 2006: 240). However, this means that creating a universally agreed-upon body of ethical standards can be extremely difficult. The standards of falsifiability and…
Laub, J. (2006). Edwin H. Sutherland and the Michael-Adler report: Searching for the soul of criminology. Criminology, 44(2), 235 -- 257. Retrieved from http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/faculty/userfiles/27/laub2006.pdf
Background and Biographical Data
The case of Jesse Norman Imeson reveals the possible connections between childhood upbringing, childhood trauma, and psychological characteristics on criminal behavior. While childhood experiences can never be used to condone violence or criminality, understanding the correlation between these factors may help identify early warning signs or risk factors that can then be used in crime prevention strategies. The story of Jesse Imeson gripped Canada because it involved the heinous killing of three individuals in the summer of 2007. Imeson was apprehended at age 22, pled guilty to all three counts of second-degree murder in 2008, and was sentenced to life in prison.
Jesse was the oldest of three children in the Imeson family. Until the first known traumatic event that occurred in Imeson’s early life, he was described by babysitters and friends as being “likeable,” “adventurous,” “happy,” and “wide-eyed...always smiling” boy who just wanted “to have…
Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior
Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior
Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).
There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…
Holmes, S.E., Slaughter, J.R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 183-193.
Merton, Robert K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime: Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
What seems clear is that while not all criminality is stable, those people who begin offending at relatively young ages are generally those who are lifelong offenders. In this way, it can be said that some criminality is stable over time.
The stability of criminal behavior can have a significant impact on criminal justice policy. When rehabilitation efforts proved largely unsuccessful, there was a conservative swing back towards incarceration to drive down crime rates. While incarceration does not have the blanket effect of reducing crime rates, it does reduce crime rates when high-rate offenders are incarcerated. "Moreover, the incarceration of high-rate offend-ers is cost-effective, meaning that the financial cost of keeping them locked up off-sets the costs of the crimes they would commit if free. The same cannot be said of locking up low-rate offenders" (Wright et al., 2008). There is the idea that understanding the stability of criminal behavior…
Wright, J.P., Tibbetts, S.G., & Daigle, L.E. (2008). Criminals in the making. Thousand Oaks:
Sage Publications Inc.
Foundation and Focus The foundation for the Classical Theory to crime focused less on the criminal and targeted more on securing a rational, fair system for controlling and putting punishments in order. Little concern was given to causes of criminal behaviors. Significant words/definitions related to this theory include:
Classicism - The Enlightenment view of crime that stresses free will and rationality and the corresponding rationality of the justice system....
Free will - According to the classical school, people possess reason. This means that they can calculate the course of action that is in their self-interest. This in turn gives them a degree of freedom....
Just deserts - A justification for punishment which insists that offenders should be punished only as severely as they deserve. It was a reaction against the unfair excesses of rehabilitation and the 'get tough' drive from conservatives during the 1970s." (Carrabine, Iganski, Lee, Plummer &…
Carrabine, E., Iganski, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K., & South, N. (2004). Criminology: Sociological Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Crime and punishment. (2006). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 14, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service:
Cybercrime - High Tech crime." (2006). JISC Legal Information Service. Retrieved 15 July 2006 at http://www.jisclegal.ac.uk/cybercrime/cybercrime.htm.
particular behaviors tend to cross into the realm of crime when they become obsessive and are actually acted upon. Apparently, many individuals within a society may actually think about committing crimes, but never take the actual physical steps to commit it in the flesh. Those who take precautionary measures and anticipate actions that represent the actual physical acting out of their thoughts is when behavior biases can become actual crime. One of the most appropriate schools of thought in criminology to explain this phenomenon is the theory of differential association. Originally described by Edwin Sutherland, differential association aims to explain deviance and how people go from thinking about criminal acts to actually committing criminal acts. Essentially, this theory believes that criminal acts and thoughts are learned through experience with crime. Criminal acts thus become a repercussion of intense motives, drives, and attitudes that have been learned by the individual through…
Psychosocial background of these rapists is inclusive of physical as well as verbal abuse which can be from both or one of the parents. Abuse-based background is seen in more than 56% of the rapists in this category. More than 80% of the rapists belong to divorced households; most of these are adopted or have spent their childhood in foster care. elationships of these rapists with women in the past have failed or did not work based on which hostile feelings have developed against the opposite sex.
Background profiling on rapists has shown that these normally are raised in single parent households with increased issues. Additionally they grow up being physically as well as verbally abused facing sexual deviances. The children facing these conditions are the ones that clearly show tendencies towards sexual promiscuity. In the case of adults, it has been seen that they are married later in…
Girod, J.R. (2004). Profiling the Criminal Mind: Behavioral Science and Criminal Investigative Analysis. Iuniverse Inc.
Holmes, M.R., and Holmes, S. (2002). Profiling violent crimes: an investigative tool. Edition 3. Sage.
Innes, B. (2003). Profile of a criminal mind: how psychological profiling helps solve true crimes. Reader's Digest.
Jacobs, D. (2011). Analyzing Criminal Minds: Forensic Investigative Science for the 21st Century: Brain, behavior, and evolution. ABC-CLIO.
As explained by Gelles and Strauss in their works, "With the exception of the police and the military, the family is perhaps the most violent social group, and the home the most violent social setting, in our society. A person is more likely to be hit or killed in his or her home by another family member than anywhere else or by anyone else." (Gelles & Straus, 1985, p. 88). Therefore it is evident from this theory that the social connections and settings can impact upon a person's conduct and emotions and could force them to act violently, proving this theory to be true in explaining the biological connection with criminal behavior.
Another biological theory mentions that the gender differences, especially in cases of men, generate strings of violent reactions to the opposite gender. This theory argues that the natural superiority instincts in men push their brain functions to act…
Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The Adapted Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, a.M. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (8th Edition). Prentice Hall.
Dawkins, R. (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. Harlow, UK: Longman.
Gelles, R.J., & Straus, M.A. (1985). In Crime and the Family. Springfield, U.S.: Thomas.
Understanding why crime occurs requires an appreciation for the complexity of human behavior. Behavior is not determined by one factor, but rather influenced by a host of interrelated factors. Modern biological theories in criminology differ from previous theories in that they examine the entire range of biological characteristics, including those that result from genetic defects (those that are inherited) and those that are environmentally induced. In addition, theories developed since the 1980s do not suggest that biological characteristics directly cause crime. Instead, researchers argue that certain biological conditions increase the likelihood that an individual will engage in some antisocial behavior that can be defined as criminal (Fishbein, 1990). Modern theories increasingly focus on the interaction between biological characteristics and the social environment, rather than looking solely at the effects of biology.
his paper explores the research regarding genetic causes or pre-dispositions to criminal behavior and examines the evidence which…
Thornberry (1987) incorporates social learning theory, social bonding, cognitive theory, and social structure theories of criminal behavior to explain delinquency. Thornberry sees delinquency activities as changing over time. As youths enter adolescence, their bonds to their parents and social institutions are said to weaken. Peer groups become more important to them.
If these young people reside in socially disorganized environments, they are at high risk to have weak social bonds and peers who engage in deviance. Adolescents who are from more stable environments may engage in deviancy (they are, after all, adolescents), but their actions are better controlled by stronger social bonds and associations with peers who engage in more conventional behaviors.
Thornberry sees delinquent behaviors as influenced by age. As young people enter their late teens, the influence of peers gives way to perceptions of their roles in society. Thornberry
Causes of Criminal Behavior
Although crimes have been committed since times immemorial, a systematic study of the causes of criminal behavior (or why crimes are committed) is a relatively recent phenomenon. Various theories have been put forward and numerous research studies have been conducted to better understand the criminal mind in order to prevent or reduce crime. It is, perhaps, a tribute to the complexity of the human brain that most of these theories remain just "theories" with little evidence to support definite and irrefutable patterns of criminal behavior. This is not to suggest that all theories of "criminology" are worthless -- most of them do provide useful insight into the criminal mind and at least partially explain the reasons why crimes are committed by certain individuals. In this paper we shall explore some of the theories of criminal behavior that have attempted to throw light on the causes of…
Bardsley, Marilyn. "David Berkowitz"-Son of Sam. Crime Library. 2003.
Courtroom Television Network Website. November 28, 2003 http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/berkowitz/berkowitz_6.html
Bell, Rachel. "Ted Bundy -- A Time of Change" Crime Library. 2003
Courtroom Television Network Website. Courtroom Television Network Website. 2003
Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.
ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…
Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/
Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.
Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.
Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. ather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).
First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Three Perspectives on Crime
For decades sociologists have debated the causes of crime and criminal behavior and have created three sociological perspectives involving the cause of crime. Schmalleger identifies these three perspectives as Individual esponsibility Perspective, Social Problems Perspective, and Integrated Perspective. A discussion of current criminal activity can easily identify cases in which each of these perspectives can be applied.
The Individual esponsibility Perspective defines criminal behavior as the result of individual personal choices. According to Schmalleger, this perspective states that individuals are ultimately responsible for their own behavior and that some individuals choose to engage in criminal activity as opposed to following the law. HSBC is Europe's third largest bank and in 2013 it agreed to pay a $1.9 Billion fine "to resolve charges it enabled Latin American drug cartels to launder billions of dollars…." (Smythe, 2013) HSBC CEO Stuart Gulliver and Chairman Douglas Flint were accused…
Christie Smythe. (2013, July 3). HSBC Judge Approves $1.9B Drug-Money Laundering
Accord. Bloomberg.com. Retrieved from http://www.globalexchange.org/corporateHRviolators#HSBC
Miller v. Alabama, 2011. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law.
Retrieved from http://www.oyez.org/cases/2010-2019/2011/2011_10_9646
Mental Illness and Crime
Virginia Tech is a prestigious private university on the east coast of America that might forever be associated with the skewed actions of one man. Seung-Hui Cho was a fourth year student at Virginia Tech and was responsible for the deadliest rampage this university has ever seen. Born in South Korea in 1984, it was eight years later that Cho received permanent residency in the United States. In the wake of such extreme violence and tragedy, people can't help but ask themselves if something could have been done instead to prevent this act of violence or if these actions could have been predicted in some manner. This is particularly true given the fact that Cho was ordered by a judge to receive mental health care in 2005. This paper will take a look at the relationship between mental illness and serious crimes.
• How often are…
Apa.org, (2014, April 21) "Mental Illness Not Usually Linked to Crime, Research Finds."
Retrieved from: apa.org, http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2014/04/mental-illness-crime.aspx
Sociobiology Theory and Criminology
Criminology field has varying psychological and biological theories that explain the criminality and factors that predispose individuals to engaging in criminal behaviors. Biological theories consider criminal behavior as a product of biological abnormality or defect. The criminal cannot change their behaviors because of the variation of their biological traits, thereby, forcing them to act in a specific manner. However, biological theory is considered odd with the presence of psychological theories that try to explain the factors and reasons behind criminality. Unlike the earlier, psychological theories, consider criminality as a product of offenders due to defects of the mental functioning, adjustment to the environmental forces, and individual development (Baumeister & Vohs, 2007). Therefore, this essay analyzes the sociobiological theory that tries to explain the relationship between personality and criminality. The essay also analyzes the key elements that underpin the sociobiological theory and its philosophical basis.
Baumeister, R.F., & Vohs, K.D. (2007). Encyclopedia of social psychology. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Turner, J.H. (2001). Handbook of sociological theory. New York: Springer.
Wainwright, M. (2012). Toward a sociobiological hermeneutic: Darwinian essays on literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan
Psychopathology of Criminal Behavior -- Part II
Psychopathology of Criminal Behavior
Each question must be 300 words long.
Look carefully and honestly at some of your own age, gender, ethnic, cultural beliefs, and/or attitudes and discuss how such factors may impact your functioning in the work of responding to psychopathy.
I feel fortunate to have taken classes in college that have allowed me to meet and mix with people who are quite different from me in terms of age, ethnicity, cultural beliefs, and mindset. In addition, I participate in community activities that bring me in contact with people who come from different socio-economic and religious groups. My own family has experienced quite a few change-ups from what my parents' and my grandparents' generation experienced. Academically, I have studied about variables that contribute to the development of psychopathy in vulnerable people, and I believe I have a robust understanding of mental…
Genetic makeup also shapes the talents and interests of individuals (eaver, Chapter 3: Gene-Environment Interplay Explained, 2009). Genes help to determine what talents and interests an individual develops. At the same time, individuals tend to befriend others with the same talents and interests as a way to relate. Just the same as a football player will befriend other football players, a delinquent will befriend other delinquents as a way to relate to others. All research shows that genetic effects are more powerful in high-risk environments as opposed to low-risk environments (eaver, Chapter 3: Gene-Environment Interplay Explained, 2009). The effects of the delinquents will be more powerful in scope than the example of football players. High-risk environments, such as abuse and violence, drugs and alcohol, and poverty can enhance the effects of the genetic makeup.
iological factors combined with environmental factors play huge roles in the way individuals behave. Where the…
Beaver, K. (2009). Chapter 2: The Stability of Criminal and Anologous Behaviors. In K. Beaver, Biosocial criminology: A primer (pp. 16-34). Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co.
Beaver, K. (2009). Chapter 3: Gene-Environment Interplay Explained. In K. Beaver, Biosocial criminology: A primer (pp. 91-108). Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co.
Wright, J.T. (2008). Chapter 4: Genetics and Crime. In J.T. Wright, Criminals in the making: Criminality across the life course (pp. 55-70). Los Angelos: Sage.
Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…
Andrews, D.A. & Hoge, R.D. (1999). The psychology of criminal conduct and principles of effective prevention and rehabilitation. Forum on Corrections Research. Special Edition. 12 -- 14. Retrieved on April 1, 2013 from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/forum/special/espe_b-eng.shtml
Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime:Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Skinner, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1204 -- 1213.
In the meantime, new brain cells are constantly being developed, even into old age, but such alterations in the brain are largely contingent on what the individual has experienced in his or her environment" (Wright et al., 2008). Therefore, one of the factors that can impact adult propensity to commit violence is whether the brain had the opportunity to develop normally in very early childhood. Of course, both social and biological factors can impact early brain development.
In many ways, criminals are not thought to respond to external stimuli in the same manner as non-criminals, and it is believed that there may be an underlying biological basis for these differences. The auto-nomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the nervous system beyond the conscious control of the individual and is split into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for…
Wright, J.P., Tibbetts, S.G., & Daigle, L.E. (2008). Criminals in the Making . Thousand Oaks:
Sage Publications Inc. .
2. According to Merton's strain theory, who should commit more crime males or females? What is true in reality?
According to Merton's original strain theory, the primary source of strain in modern society relates to financial success and social status (Agnew & rezina 1997).
As the theory goes, males are more likely to succumb to the negative influences of strains simply because financial success and social status are more commonly considered to be within the realm of social expectations of males. Later theorists have suggested that Merton's strain theory focused too narrowly on socioeconomic factors because strain consists of many more elements, including those that pertain more to females. Generally, males do commit more crime than females (Ogle, et al. 1995), but this is less a function of strain theory, necessarily, than the fact that myriad other influences that lie wholly outside the realm of principles related to strain theory…
Agnew, R., Brezina, T. (1997). Relational Problems with Peers, Gender, and Delinquency; Youth & Society, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 84-111. Ogle, R., Maier-Katkin, D., Bernard, T. (1995). A Theory of Homicidal Behavior Among Women; Criminology, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 173-193.
Criminal justice is about the laws which are related to criminal behaviour. Criminal justice includes the area where judiciary is involved for e.g., police and lawyers. Lawyers are directly associated with the crime because they can defend or prosecute the criminals. As a professional field of study criminal justice involves studying the behaviour. The aim of the study is to gain knowledge and awareness of rules, laws and rights of victims and suspect both.
In Criminal Justice ethics, diversity and conflict plays a major role. As a student of Criminal Justice I have learned that ethics is important in making moral judgments which demonstrates clearly that what is right and what is wrong. An ethical framework of justice is required to make fair decisions. When we talk about ethics in criminal justice here, we are suppose to forget about the emotions, personal values and instincts that can create or raise…
SagePub, (2011), The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf
Hazen, A., (2009), Cultural Diversity in Criminal Justice Paper, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/16052470/Cultural-Diversity-in-Criminal-Justice-Paper-CJA423-WK4
Skolnock .J., (2004), Conflict Model, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://neohumanism.org/c/co/conflict_model__criminal_justice_.html
Forbes. H., (2005), Crash, Catholic News service, accessed on June 23, 2011, from: http://www.catholicnews.com/data/movies/05mv542.htm
The reduction occurs through allowing the counties to acquire other methods of jailing apart from the prisons. This includes out-of custody rehabilitative treatments, which could serve in reducing the number of the criminals taken to the prisons. However, the AB109 criminals must be individuals whose crime are not violent and not that serious as provided by the law. This means that that jailing of the A109 criminals in other alternative would involve selection from the other criminals. However the unstated implication is that it would be much difficult to rate a crime as either more serious or not serious. Consequently, the rationale provides higher chances of biasness of selecting some non-serious cases while leaving others.
Implication of the policy
The criminal justice implication of the policy will mainly affect the non-violent arrestees. The decision of keeping them in custody, would affect their ability to avoid recividism future. The social implications…
Kraska, P., & Brent, J. (2011).Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations (2nd
Edition). Long Grove
Hancock, B., & Sharp, P. (2004).Criminal Justice in America (3rd Edition).Upper Saddle River,
NY: Prentice Hall
These methods of informal deterrence would help to prevent Bobby's criminal behavior.
Since he already committed the crime, Bobby would certainly need to be punished. However, Beccaria strongly argued that punishment must not be cruel, and must fit the crime. Clearly, Bobby never intended to hurt the homeowner; he broke into the home when he knew she would not be there.
Depending on the amount of property stolen, Bobby would have to pay the consequences. If this is his first offense, Bobby could be sentenced to a public form of community service, such as picking up trash by the roadside. He would also have to regularly report to a counselor. Parents could impose a strict curfew. This mixture of informal and formal methods of deterrence would help to stop Bobby from engaging in more criminal behavior.
Beccaria, Cesare. 1963. On Crimes and Punishment.…
Beccaria, Cesare. 1963. On Crimes and Punishment. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Whether one is a survivor of violent crime or dealing with financial crime victimization, it is vital to recognize that all victims experience some type of loss. While there are different kinds of losses, each can be intense, depending upon the viewpoint of victims and survivors (Victims of Crime Overview, 2012). There appear to be two different views on how victims should deal with being a victim of a crime. One view says that victims of crime should rely on the criminal justice system in order to deal with their victimization while the other view says that victims of crime should rely upon private support and insurance payments to deal with their victimization.
Those who believe that the criminal justice system should contribute to helping victims believe that helping the victim to cope is the responsibility of all of society. Law enforcement agencies, courts, and correctional and…
To the extent that crime is a function of larger social issues, it is unrealistic to expect those underlying social problems to be rectified by law enforcement efforts. Even with respect to specific incidence of criminal behavior, law enforcement authorities must address two competing interests that fall within the purview and responsibility of law enforcement.
Specifically, poverty, unwanted pregnancy, lack of educational and vocational opportunities, and perceived social "disenfranchisement" within communities contribute heavily to crime in those areas but none of those social factors are capable of being redressed directly by law enforcement authorities. Likewise, even within the realm of law enforcement responsibilities, emphasis on quality-of-life-oriented policing and crime prevention-oriented policing conflict with the goal of preventing crime in light of empirical evidence and anecdotal experience demonstrating that efforts directed at the former do not necessarily achieve the goals of the latter appreciably.
In that regard, directed police patrols and…
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.
Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…
Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.
Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35
Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department
Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.
That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…
Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology. about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fthunder1.cudenver.edu%2F%2Fsociology%2Fintrosoc%2Ftopics%2FUnitNotes%2Fweek05.html
Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from http://www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/q16.html
Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v4n1/brunet. html
Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/publicat / primer/prim1.html
Criminal Justice Theories
Drift theory suggests that people drift from one extreme to another during the course of their lifetimes. When applied in the context of criminal justice, it reflects the idea that people drift between conventional and criminal behaviors. After a crime is committed, the individual may balance that criminality by drifting back towards conventional behavior. In this way, criminality is partly chosen, but also partly determined, because the willingness to commit a crime comes with preparation and desperation. Preparation does not imply that the person has actively prepared to engage in criminal behavior but that the person has placed himself in a position where it is possible to commit a crime. Fatalism contributes to drift, with people being more likely to commit crimes when they feel as if their options have been limited and that they lack control. Furthermore, with drift comes an underlying sense of injustice, so…
Patchin, J. (2011). Criminological theory summaries. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from University of Wisconsin Eau Claire website:
See, E. (2004). Student study guide for Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers'
Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and applications, 4th Edition. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Roxbury Publishing Company website: http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf
Criminal Decision Making: The Elements of the Culture of the Street and Party Life and Their elation to Criminal Decision-Making
Understanding offenders' lifestyles and the process by which they choose to commit criminal acts is critical particularly because it has important implications for crime control. Very often, certain elements of the street and party life influence the offender's assessment of the risks and rewards of crime. According to Shover and Honaker (1992), commitment to drugs and partying, as well as street culture, leads to alienation of offenders from mainstream society and pushes them away from a conventional life. Over time, they adopt a socially bounded rationality and become accustomed to a criminal lifestyle to a point where they break the law as a result of addiction, rather that free will. It is, therefore, imperative to understand the role played by these lifestyles in shaping the motivation for crime because it…
Brookman, S. F (2001). Accounting for Homicide and Sublerthal Violence. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 175-191). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.
Hochstetler, A. (2001). Opportunities and decisions: Interactional Dynamics in Robbery and Burglary Groups. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 70-91). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.
Mullins, W.C., & Charbonneau, G.M. (2010). Establishing Connections: Gender, Motor Vehicle Theft and Disposal Networks . In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 87-112). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.
Shover, N., & Honaker, D.(1992). The Socially Bounded Decision Making of Persistent Property Offenders. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds.), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 35-51). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.
hile this is the amendment that allows prison work camps and work programs, as well as the requirement that criminals participate in the maintaining of their prisons, it serves a much larger purpose, mainly expressing that a right contained in the constitution may be taken away if citizens do not behave lawfully.
The implications of these amendments and the others so similarly worded are indicative of the Classical School of Criminology. Offered as an incentive, the rights encourage rational, but criminally inclined humans to make the rational choice towards the non-criminal action. Because it would be in the humans' self-interest to keep their rights, they are encouraged to choose non-criminal action. Thus, the drafting of the constitution this way suggests that the founders were relying on the Classical School of Criminology when considering human behavior, rational choice, and the desire to keep a lawful society.
Further relying on the Classical…
The Classical School." 1998. Crime Theory. 4 July, 2008. http://www.crimetheory.com/Theories/Classical.htm.
"Approximately 27.5% of college women reported experiences that met the legal criteria for rape," even though some of them were not necessarily aware that the actions to which they were subjected satisfied such a definition (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ).
According to the FBI, which defines violent crimes as "murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault," an "estimated 1,246,248 violent crimes occurred nationwide" in 2010 (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ). There is obviously a great deal of overlap between the characteristics of populations that commit sexual assault and violent criminals, due to this definition. It should also be noted that although persons who commit violent crimes are disproportionately male and young (the example of stereotypes being validated by statistics); whites commit more such crimes -- 54% vs. 45% versus African-Americans. Also, "numbers also vary widely depending on the crime, with blacks responsible for more murders…
Bartol, C. & Bartol, a. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach. Prentice Hall.
Family violence statistics. (2002). BJS. Retrieved:
Hodgins, S. & Muller-Isberner, R. (Eds.). (2000). Violence, crime, and mentally disordered offenders: Concepts and methods for effective treatment and prevention. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Patterns Juvenile Delinquency Throughout the World/How Determine Who Juvenile?
Patterns in juvenile delinquency also vary throughout the world, as do the way countries define "delinquency" among juveniles. The Japanese according to Platt (2005) have taken on a much more philosophical approach to juvenile delinquency, supporting a Confucian style structure of education and support, one that works toward educating children to become part of the larger social collective (p. 965). In this environment, children are encouraged to become more socially aware and to self-regulate, often given the opportunity to reform before they are punished for wrongdoings.
This conflicts sharply with juvenile delinquency programs and structures elsewhere in the world. In Australia, juvenile delinquency is often associated with being a member of a juvenile gang, which is defined as "youth hanging out on the streets with gang activity" or street activity that has the potential to lead to mischievous behaviors (Duffy &…
Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S. (2004). Teen gangs: A global view. Westport: Greenwood Press.
ICMBA. (2007). American Legal System. Internet Center for Management and Business
Administration, Inc. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved 22, May, 2007:
To be honest I tend to think that crime has been trending in the late night news since the early 90s to an extent that it has become some sort of entertainment. It is mostly featured in the prime time news as a mass magnet for news corporations which are business entities and would therefore; capitalize on the expectant audience it has attracted. A large proportion of the crime reported is usually projected as individual subversions rather than socially motivated misdemeanors. It is from this perspective that criminals are feared beyond their capability without proper dissemination of the causes leaving an audience that is always pregnant with political, or sexual related crimes as a form of entertainment than a source of crime prevention issues that would go a long way in making their neighborhoods safer.
This paper will delve into the three main parts; the study…
Catalano, S.M. (2006). The Measurement of Crime: Victim Reporting and Police Recording.
New York: LFB Scholarly.
Conklin, J. (2010). Criminology. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
Kornhauser, R. (1978). Social Causes of Delinquency. Chicago: University of Chacago Press.
Criminals -- Born or Made
Since the construction of the first civil society, behavioral rules distinguishing what is acceptable and what is criminal have existed. Even though individuals typically have a concept of conventional moral behavior, criminal conduct is represented in every society and culture. Criminal deviance is not a novel construct, and has long been the intrigue of researchers, philosophers, and theorists to determine criminal motivation and link the relationship between individuals and the execution of criminal acts. One central argument that has evolved in the realm of criminality is the nature vs. nurture debate, which questions if criminals are born or made. Biological, psychological, and sociological disciplines each offer theories into the origin of criminality to explain if criminal behavior is a consequence of genetics or a matter of the environment in which they are raised (Jones). The biologist introduces genetic evidence and explains the effects of varying…
Akers, R, and C. Sellers. Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Applications.
4th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Co., 2004. xx-xx. Print.
Anderson, C, L Berkowitz, E Donnerstein, and R. Huesmann. "The Influence of Media violence on Youth." American Psychological Society. 4.3 (2003): 81-110. Print.
Eysenck, H.J.. "Personality and Crime." Psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Violent
Use of technology would promote public knowledge about the spread of confirmed criminal activity or patterns of behavior that might place people at risk, whether that risk involved theft, credit card scams or other behaviors (Farber, 2006).
Participation in shared networking technological programs would be required of private businesses, community agencies and policing authorities to ensure a true community policing structure is established. Communities would work to create neighborhood watch groups in response to "non-sensitive" security data that would help them better protect their community and collaborate with law enforcement agencies (Farber, 2006, p. 110).
Before a hearing is set, a judiciary authority should be appointed along with a trained criminal justice psychologist to determine what factors contributed to the criminal activity, the severity of criminal activity and whether prosecution is warranted, or whether rehabilitative measures would prove more helpful in the long-term. A meeting should be established where the…
American Law and Legal Information. (n.d.). Criminal justice system, structural and theoretical components of criminal justice systems, the systems of operation, the importance of viewing criminal justice as a system. American Law and Legal Information. Crime and Justice Volume 1. Accessed 22, May, 2007:
Bouza, a.V. (1990). The police mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime, and the criminal justice system. Cambridge: Perseus Books.
Farber, O. (2006, Jun). Positive SPIN on liaisons: Find out how the security police information network (SPIN) promotes public-private information sharing. Security Management, 50(6): 110.
Another form of punishment is by restraint or incarceration. By keeping the person under state control, then the state can avert the person from committing another crime. On the other hand, many times incarceration is only a temporary answer. ehabilitation is an alternative when it is possible. The person who violates criminal laws gets punishment but also learns how to alter their bad behavior and work toward becoming a productive citizen. The last reason of punishment is retribution, or to make the person suffer for the pain caused to the victim and the victim's family. Many times, this reason is most relevant to the victim or the victim's family when a violent crime is committed (the Purpose of Criminal Laws, 2012).
In very broad terms punishment may be anticipated to affect deterrence in one of two ways. First, by escalating the certainty of punishment, potential offenders may be deterred…
Bundy, D. (2011). Philosophy of Criminal Law Protection. Retrieved from http://suite101.com/article/philosophy-of-criminal-law-protection
The Purposes of Criminal Law. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.federationpress.com.au/pdf/Lanham%20Ch1B.pdf
The Purpose of Criminal Laws. (2012). Retreived from http://www.superpages.com/supertips/criminal-laws.html
Wright, V. (2010). Deterrence in Criminal Justice. Retrieved from http://www.asca.net/system/assets/attachments/1463/Deterrence_Briefing_.pdf?12901
In terms of correctional program implementation, operant conditioning principles provide the basis for motivating cooperation and other desirable behaviors (including reduction of undesirable behaviors) in a quid pro quo arrangement. Typical examples of operational implementation of operant conditioning would include so-called "token economies" and other bilateral agreements, arrangements, or understandings that certain desired behaviors provide specific rewards (Van Voorhis 2007). Operant conditioning principles are particularly useful in parenting, such as between teenagers rewarded with late weekend curfews for good grades; it is also a proven method of increasing inmate compliance within correctional institutions where good behavior is rewarded with increased privileges and undesirable behaviors are punished through privilege reduction (Spiegler & Guevremont 1993). Generally, the most important fundamental element of successful implementation of operant conditioning principles in behavior modification is the gradual phasing out of the reward-based motivation for compliance (Van Voorhis 2007). The goal of any such operational conditioning-based…
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, P.G. (2005) Psychology and Life. New York: Pearson
Goldstein, Glick, and Gibbs. (1986) Aggression Replacement Training, pp 1-68
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercus
Gaetz, S. (July 2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice.
This journal article reports the researcher's survey findings regarding the prevalence of victimization among street youths compared to domiciled youths. Gaetz defines the street youth operatively as "people up to the age of 24 who are 'absolutely periodically, or temporarily without shelter, as well as those who are at substantial risk of being in the street in the immediate future" (433). Survey findings show that just as expected, victimization mostly occur among the street than domiciled youth. Moreover, street youth reporting of criminal victimization is not common among both males and females. 41.7% of the respondents who have been victimized "told a friend" about the incident of victimization, 33.1% "did not tell anyone," and a far 17.2% reported the victimization to their partner (boyfriend or girlfriend)…
Felson, R. et. al. (August 2002). Reasons for reporting and not reporting domestic violence to the police. Criminology, Vol. 40, Issue 3.
Felson et. al.'s research utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey as its primary instrument in determining, assessing, and measuring the factors that lead to reporting (or not reporting) incidences of domestic violence. Survey findings show that there are three primary factors that are significantly relevant in inhibiting victims to reporting domestic violence to the police: "the desire for privacy, the desire to protect the offender ... And fear of reprisal."
The NCVS survey findings illustrate how the prevalence and continuous occurrence of abuse and domestic violence, especially among females, is still a social problem that needs unwavering attention by the government and civil society. New findings such as hesitance of male victims to report on their victimization reflect the changing nature of domestic violence in American society. In the same way that females need protection through the dissemination of proper and useful information about domestic violence, males are also in need of protection as well. Another important implication of the study is the changing nature of the respondents' (victims) concept of domestic violence, which varies significantly across gender.
The swing back and forth between rehabilitation and "lock them up and throw away the key" makes corrections officers' jobs more difficult than they might otherwise be. Police and corrections personnel must bend to winds of change that bring little regard for their own personal and familial welfare. Much has been said about the prisoners, and the effects of those prisoners on the larger society, but little account has been taken of the effects of constantly changing policies and objectives on those who must work in the nation's prisons. Certainly, their needs and quality of life bears on the future rehabilitation or punishment of wrongdoers. The needs of corrections personnel and police are directly related to the overall problem of how we deal with crime in America.
Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 estoring ationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford…
Blumstein, a. (2004). 3 Restoring Rationality in Punishment Policy. In the Future of Imprisonment, Tonry, M. (Ed.) (pp. 61-78). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bunzel, S.M. (1995). The Probation Officer and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Strange Philosophical Bedfellows. Yale Law Journal, 104(4), 933-966.
Cochrane, J., Melville, G., & Marsh, I. (2004). Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge.
Diiulio, J.J. (1991). No Escape: The Future of American Corrections. New York: Basic Books.
The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).
Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…
Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.
Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.
Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
One cannot be viewed with suspicion simply because one belongs to a particular race or holds to a certain set of religious beliefs. The more that violations of basic human and civil rights are excused in the name of public safety, the less safe and secure our society becomes. A society that loses its liberty is a police state. Modern day America is moving closer each day to that terrible point. Intrusive technologies and ever present police and private security forces represent the presence of controlling forces in aspects of life that should be under individual command. Individual rights and choices are being sacrificed to the perceived exigencies of the collective. We are not a colony of insects. We are human beings. Public safety must be balanced with civil rights.
Brown, M.K., Carnoy, M., Currie, E., Duster, T., Oppenheimer, D.B., Shultz, M.M., et al. (2003). Whitewashing ace: The…
Brown, M.K., Carnoy, M., Currie, E., Duster, T., Oppenheimer, D.B., Shultz, M.M., et al. (2003). Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Theodore, N., Martin, N., & Hollon, R. (2006). Securing the City: Emerging Markets in the Private Provision of Security Services in Chicago. Social Justice, 33(3), 85+.
This essentially would send John to a treatment facility where he will undergo constant monitoring, education, and counseling. (Sims 2005; p. 106; Lewis, 2002; p. 77).
After successfully completing his inpatient treatment program, John still cannot be released to his own initiative. More likely than not John comes from an environment that would make alcohol and other triggers readily available. Further, John has a history of not following through with outpatient treatment. For this reason, the court should order that John be placed in a controlled environment, such as a halfway house.
While serving his time in a halfway house or other residential facility, John will be continually monitored and be able to live in a dry environment. Here John will be able to attend group therapy, individual counseling, and other similar programs. (urnet, 2004; p. 303).
The benefits of this special probation program is that John will retain enough…
Abadinsky, Howard (2005). Probation and Parole: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.
Burnet, Ros (2004). What Works in Probation and Youth Justice:
Developing Evidence-Based Practice. New York: Willam Publishing.
Culler, Francis (1982). Reaffirming Rehabilitation. New York:
Criminal Law and Psychopathy
Various studies have in the past indicated that there is a high correlation between violence/criminal behavior and psychopathy. This would largely be expected given that psychological studies into the character and disposition of psychopaths has demonstrated that the need for control (or power) as well as egocentrism, which also happen to be the dominant character traits of psychopaths, are predictors for deviant or antisocial behavior. The debate on whether or not psychopaths should be held criminally responsible for their acts, and thus be subjected to criminal punishment, has been raging for a long time. On one side of the debate are legal scholars, lawmakers, and judges who are of the opinion that psychopaths have an existing predisposition to commit crimes as a result of their lack of concern or compassion of any kind for those they hurt. Psychopathy is on this front regarded as…
In the past, any form of criminal activity was associated with low self-esteem that is why criminal activity was minimal. Paying for crime in the past involved ruthless means, including tying a criminal on a stone and throwing them into the river. Comparing the past with the modern world, a great contrast occurs. Criminal offenders in the modern world appear to be of very high self-esteem. The self-esteem arises from prior criminal activities, personal traits and participation in prison. It is so unfortunate because criminals do not fear the law, security officials and subsequently no regard for positive punishment.
Criminologists and psychologists have a task of establishing whether crime is in either way related to the human mind, behavior and psychology. Criminal activity is increasing by day, and the securities do not know what to attribute for especially, when correctional facilities are full of criminals. It is likely…
Broidy, L.M., (2001). A test of general strain theory. A Journal of Criminology, 39, 9-36.
Cesar, J.R., Nicole, L.P., Alex, R.P., & Stephen, G.T., (2010). Anticipated shaming and criminal offending. Journal of Criminal justice, 38, 988-997.
Inga, D.S., Alfgeir, L.K., & Robert, A. (2012). A comparative analysis of general strain theory.
Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 117-127.
I think that my knowledge of procedure is probably my strongest. I feel very comfortable with the level of knowledge I have about proper police procedure. I feel confident that I not only understand basic procedural rules, but also the justification or reasoning behind those rules. Furthermore, I feel as if my understanding of the basis for these various procedural rules will help me easily grasp any additional procedural rules that I will encounter on the job.
While I do feel as if I have had a strong educational background, there are two areas where I feel as I could benefit from more education: psychology and human services. The more I study the psychology of criminals and victims, the more I realize I do not know about why perpetrators do things. I understand that people who align with certain profiles may be more likely to commit crimes, but I am…
City of Houston. (2013). Victim services unit. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from Houston Police
Department website: http://www.houstontx.gov/police/vsu/
Stevens, M. (2003, June 18). Victimology theory. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from North
Carolina Wesleyan College website:
The killing of the two black American young men Amadou Diallo and Louima were separated by about two years but Amadou's killing happened just before the trial of Louima's case. Amadou's killing drew a lot of public interest that was focused on the conduct of the New York Police. It was the only such heated debate since the Knapp commission of the 70s which disclosed corruption in the police department. Amadou was from a middle class family that migrated from Guinea. They were engaged in simple trade activities including selling items on the streets. Amadou was shot 41 times in his apartment house in Bronx. His life was brought to an end by a special crimes unit of a group of four policemen operating under cover. It is a New York born strategy for combating aggressive crime (Harring & Ray, 1999). There is no doubt that a crime was indeed…
Latinos participations are low in CAPS, and most of their members are unaware of the strategies of CAPS. Their levels of awareness have been on a declining state since the year 1990. Their involvement in these meetings was driving by the levels of crime, moral decay on the community and at the level of social disorder. The problem with the Latino population is that they do not turn up in numbers to these meetings. The community's representation is low in these meetings.
However, research further shows that the community lacks representation in the district advisory committees that meet on a regular basis with the police department. Compared to the African-Americans and the Whites Latinos have young families are they are more likely to be working and having families at home. Their involvement with the police department is variedly mixed. There is evidence that their community avoids police contacts, including not…
Lyons, T., Lurigio, Rodriguez, P.L., & a.J., Roque, (2013). Racial disparity in the criminal justice system for drug offenses a state legislative response to the problem. Race and justice, 3(1), 83-101.
Lombardo, R.M. (2013). Fighting Organized Crime a History of Law Enforcement Efforts in Chicago. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(2), 296-316.
Portnoy, J., Chen, F.R., & Raine, a. (2013). Biological protective factors for antisocial and criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.
Lee, M. (2013). Inventing Fear of Crime. Willan.
criminal law. A comprehensive research, primary and secondary, was conducted in order to gather relevant information about crime, criminal law and crimes against a person. This study can help understanding the mechanism that deals with the criminal law.
Crime is an integral part of the everyday life and is a salient fact in today's world. In the opinion of public as well as the scholars, crime is usually linked with violence and harm to societies and individuals, destroying the property and degrading the respect of individuals, societies and institutions. It is quite obvious that we are facing problems in describing the nature of crimes and are unable to understand the works of many scholars on this subject. The basic question is "What is crime?" there are a number of answers to that, some are supporting each other while some are contradictory to each other. There is a strong need to…
Richard Quinney, Criminology as Peacemaking, Indiana University Press, 1991.
Walker, Samuel (1992). "Origins of the Contemporary Criminal Justice Paradigm: The American Bar Foundation Survey, 1953-1969." Justice Quarterly
Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). "Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (Northwestern University)
Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power. London: Pluto Press.
The case of former colonel ussell Williams offers insight into the psychology of criminal behavior. Williams's confession interview was released to the public and aired on The Fifth Estate, offering criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, and law enforcement officials unique access to the mind of a criminal. Analysts interviewed for The Fifth Estate documentary note that Williams presents a conundrum for psychologists and criminologists, as his reactions to the police interview did not fit any previously known profile, such as that of a psychopath. Williams exhibits traits that resemble psychopathic behavior, in accordance with individual trait theory. For instance, he meticulously recorded his crimes and kept the photographic and video imagery as souvenir mementos.
Yet Williams also denies his right to an attorney, permits a foot imprint of his incriminating boots, and also states in the interview that he "was hoping" that he would not have raped or killed again had…
"Dr. John Bradford won't work Magnotta case because of PTSD," (2014). CBC. Mar 13, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/dr-john-bradford-won-t-work-magnotta-case-because-of-ptsd-1.2571463
Fifth Estate (2010). The Confession. [Video documentary].
Friscolanti, M. (2014). Russell Williams's wife knew he was a predator: victim. Maclean's. Retrieved online: http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/russell-williamss-wife-knew-he-was-a-predator-victim/
La Salle, L. (2013). Colonel Russell Williams where have you been? I've been to London to fly the queen and back to collect artifacts. All Things Crime. Dec 11, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.allthingscrimeblog.com/2013/12/11/colonel-russell-williams-where-have-you-been-ive-been-to-london-to-fly-the-queen-and-back-to-collect-artifacts/