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Criminal Profiling as an Aid for Apprehending Serial Killers
Popular media loves to emphasize the role of the criminal profiler in apprehending serial killers. It has been a central them in books, television shows, and movies for the past two decades, and the concept of the feisty criminal profiler interviewing wily and brilliant convicted serial killers in an effort to gain insight into active serial killers has become so iconic that while it was once cutting edge, it is almost cliche at this point in time. However, many people would suggest that this image is a highly romanticized one and that serial killers are not generally captured through criminal profiling, but through more traditional forms of crime scene investigation and routine police procedure. In fact, some of these critics of profiling would actually suggest that the process can be harmful because of the possible misidentification of suspects.
This paper seeks…
Bartol, C. (1996). Police psychology: Then, now, and beyond. Criminal Justice and Behavior,
Douglas, J. (2008). John Douglas: Legendary head of the FBI's Investigative Support Unit.
Retrieved February 27, 2012 from John Douglas Mind Hunter website: http://www.johndouglasmindhunter.com/bio.php
If human behavior can be loosely predicted, then so too can criminal behavior.
4. Criminal profiling is not one hundred percent accurate or valid. It is an inexact science. Results of profiling are close to chance, which is one reason why the process is criticized and used cautiously. Officers of the law may be misled by an inaccurate or hasty profile, and in some cases might even apprehend innocent persons because they meet the characteristics listed in the profile. Generalizations, stereotypes, and false conclusions can be drawn during the process of criminal profiling. Biases and assumptions can cloud the profiling process, too. For example, the author's own assumptions about human behavior and demographic traits can cloud judgment during an investigation. Criminal profiling can in some cases derail an investigation by diverting attention away from the actual perpetrator to focus on a false lead. Therefore, criminal profiling should be used cautiously.…
3. Hormant & Kennedy (1998) provide a theoretical basis for profiling. The authors note that behavioral psychology provides a large part of the theoretical foundation for profiling. If human behavior can be loosely predicted, then so too can criminal behavior.
4. Criminal profiling is not one hundred percent accurate or valid. It is an inexact science. Results of profiling are close to chance, which is one reason why the process is criticized and used cautiously. Officers of the law may be misled by an inaccurate or hasty profile, and in some cases might even apprehend innocent persons because they meet the characteristics listed in the profile. Generalizations, stereotypes, and false conclusions can be drawn during the process of criminal profiling. Biases and assumptions can cloud the profiling process, too. For example, the author's own assumptions about human behavior and demographic traits can cloud judgment during an investigation. Criminal profiling can in some cases derail an investigation by diverting attention away from the actual perpetrator to focus on a false lead. Therefore, criminal profiling should be used cautiously.
5. Criminal profiling can be improved by incorporating psychological theories and principles. For example, behavioral psychology examines the patterns of human behavior that can be scientifically tested. The most basic of all behavioral psychological patterns is based o Pavlov's experiments, in which a stimulus evokes a predictable response in the subject. Even at more complex levels of psychology, behaviorism can be used to create criminal profiles. Traits about both victim and offender can be listed and then categorized to help investigators get a better idea of what took place before, during, and immediately after the crime. Cognitive psychology also has a role to play in criminal profiling. The ways that the perpetrator behaved offer clues to the way the perpetrator thought before, during, and after the criminal act.
(Holmes and Holmes 4)"
Like any other processes, systems, and/or methodologies, there are several ones involved also in criminal profiling. The two basic ones are criminal investigative analysis and behavioral evidence analysis. The former "employs the psychological typologies to organize information and construct a profile. The premise holds that elements of the crime scene represent the offender's personality and approach aims to provide the most likely characteristics, both personality and demographic, possessed by the unknown offender for the police investigation. (Young 15)." On the other hand, "behavioral evidence analysis also follows the belief that crime scene characteristics provide information about the offender, and uses a deductive, rather than inductive, approach (Young 17)." There are often conflicts as to which approach is better; however, the answer to this is usually dependent on the situation of crime on hand. Consequently, like any good criminal profiler, the type of analysis use should not…
Holmes, Ronald M. And Stephen T. Holmes. Profiling Violent Crimes: An investigative Tool. 3rd. ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2002. Print.
Muller, Damon A. "Criminal Profiling: Real Science or Just Wishful Thinking?" Homicide Studies 4.3 (2000): 234-264. Web. 12 Sep. 2011. .
Young, Theresa M., "Profiling Pros and Cons: An Evaluation of Contemporary Criminal Profiling Methods.." Honors Junior/Senior Projects: Paper 40. 28 Apr. 2006. Web. 12 Sep. 2011. .
One significant drawback of criminal profiling is the wide variation of results among profilers. Factors that affect this variation includes the difference in investigative background among profilers, which necessarily influences the profiling being done. The prove inconsistency among profiler results demonstrates a basic lack of validity (Young, 2006, p. 22).
Godwin (2002, p. 8) also notes that profiling serial murders generally lack a rigorous examination of existing data and contributing factors beyond case reports. In other words, the type and amount of data are insufficient to truly create an accurate profile of a serial murderer in any more than accidental terms.
Despite these drawbacks, there are also significant advantages to the criminal profiling process, one of which is the identification of signature behavior (Young, 2006). Such a typology can help investigators link apparently unrelated crimes by increasing the depth of the investigation. In turn, this will also result in greater…
Godwin, M. (2002). Reliability, Validity, and Utility of Criminal Profiling Typologies. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, Vol. 17, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://www.drmauricegodwin.com/Dr.%20Godwin%20Profiling%20Article.pdf
LaMance, K. (2011). Criminal Profiling Lawyers. LegalMatch. Retrieved from: http://www.legalmatch.com/law-library/article/criminal-profiling-lawyers.html
Young, T.M. (2006, Apr. 28). Profiling pros and cons: an evaluation of contemporary criminal profiling methods. IRis. Retrieved from: http://iris.lib.neu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1039&context=honors_projects
But 50% the sample were recreational weightlifters who only used the drugs casually.
Purpose of use thus affected the frequency of use, and different kinds of illicit drugs were also associated with the different abuser profiles. From a criminal profiler's perspective, this suggests that, when examining who uses a particular performance-enhancing drug, a specific 'type' of athlete or non-athlete might be more likely to be associated with the drug, depending on his or her goals and sports. However, the difficulty of profiling substance abusers was admitted by the researchers, given that the model was too limited to have predictive validity, in terms of who would be more likely to abuse the drugs, based upon demographic and psychological characteristics. The study suggests that profiling substance abusers can be useful after the fact, but such studies often lack strong predictive abilities.
Hildebrandt, Thomas, James . Langenbucher, Sasha J. Carr, &…
Hildebrandt, Thomas, James W. Langenbucher, Sasha J. Carr, & Pilar Sanjuan. (2007, Nov).
Modeling population heterogeneity in appearance -- and performance-enhancing drug
(APED) use: Applications of mixture modeling in 400 regular APED users. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 116. 4: p. 717
Does Criminal Profiling Work or is it Unjustified The Case of Tim Masters
Criminal profiling allows law enforcement to develop their understanding of particular types of crime, criminals, criminal behaviors, and crime-ridden areas. The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program is one data set tool used in criminal profiling (FBI, 2019). However, criminal profiling is not an exact science but rather more of an art and there is a high degree of subjectivity that goes into creating a criminal profile. Thus, when it comes to the criminal profiling of serial killers, there are many factors that must be considered—biological, sociological, environmental, criminological, and psychological inputs. This paper will describe what is involved in the criminal profiling of serial killers, how the process works, who conducts it, what traits of serial killers profiles tend to focus on, and how effective the process is at helping law enforcement agents catch killers.…
The fact that it is neither arbitrary nor motivated by atavistic animosity in a vacuum distinguishes this type of infringement from those that are absolutely impermissible in principle.
In a wider perspective, the issue of police profiling is merely one type of constitutionally impermissible tactics that may require re-evaluation under the exigent circumstances posed by the prospect of continued domestic terrorism. More than one renowned legal authority (Dershowitz 2002) has suggested that extensive domestic terrorism justifies at least temporary suspension of other constitutional principles, such as torture.
However, unlike medieval authorities who implemented torture as punishment, the idea is that authorities may someday find themselves faced with the dilemma of an imminent large-scale terrorist attack of tremendous magnitude whose means of prevention beforehand is known to an individual in custody who refuses to divulge the information necessary to prevent the attack. Where casualties of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons…
Caldero, M., Crank, J. (2004) Police Ethics the Corruption of the Noble Cause 2nd ed. Anderson Publishing.
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Friedman, L. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000) Law & Ethics in the Business Environment 3rd ed.
Cincinnati, OH: West Legal Studies
Types of Criminal Profiling
According to Bartol & Bartol (2017), there are five broad categories of criminal profiling, but they are not mutually exclusive and are frequently used in tandem with one another to aid investigations. The first type of criminal profiling covered in the text is commonly referred to as psychological profiling: the profiling of known individuals like suspects. The goal of psychological profiling is risk or threat assessment: to determine how serious a person may be if they have threatened violence. Similarly, psychological profiling can be used on persons who have been flagged for violating social norms or who have acted out. As helpful as psychological profiling can be to investigators, it is important to note that the process can be misleading and even harmful to investigations (Sample, 2010). Psychological profiling methods are not necessarily grounded in research, and can lead to spurious results and prejudicial data.
Gang Involvement and Marginalization
Controversial statement: Individuals who gravitate towards gang involvement are often marginalized from acquiring the status in general in society via legitimate means, and their only option is to acquire status through illegitimate means
The issue of crime remains one of the most sensitive yet urgent issues that need to be addressed in the U.S. Many people have lost their lives or property in the hands of violent crime. The recording of crime has often been carried out by profiling the racial and economic background of suspected and convicted criminals. According to Hannon and DeFina, (2005) high criminal incidents are normally recorded among disproportionate ethnic groups such as Hispanics and African-Americans. They further add that high crime rates are common in areas with high levels of socio-economic disadvantage. This essay is a reaction to the controversial statement that "individuals involved in gangs are marginalized hence forcing them…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2004). "Crime in the United States 1993 -- 2012 uniform crime reports."Retrieved from www.fbi.gov
Hannon, L. & DeFina, R. (2005). "Violent Crime in African-American and White Neighborhoods: Is Poverty's Detrimental Effect Race-Specific?" Journal of Poverty 9(3): 49-67.
Ulmer, J.T., Harris, C.T. & Steffensmeier, D. (2012). "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Structural Disadvantage and Crime: White, Black and Hispanic Comparison," Social Science Quarterly, Volume 93, Southwestern Social Science Association
Criminal Profile Detroit
The population of young professionals in Downtown Detroit is increasing by the day and so is the retail of the region. There are many luxury buildings that have been built now. The development schemes towards the side of east river are now covering many luxury condominium progresses. This has resulted in attracting many young citizens to the Downtown of the city along with the renewed New Center and Midtown areas. According to a study that was conducted in the year 2007, it was found out that the residents of new downtown of Detroit were most young professionals. This meant that 57% of these people were aged between 25 to 34, 45% of them were graduates and 34% of them had obtained a master's level degree in their profession. There has been an ever increasing desire to live close to the urban areas and therefore has resulted in…
"Detroit crime rates and statistics." (2010) Neighborhood Scout.
"Detroit Area Employment." (2012) United States Department of Labor.
Tyrell "Tank" Williams; South Bronx, New York City
When asked why people call him Tank, Tyrell Benjamin Williams responded, "because I'm huge and you can't stop me." This attitude is clearly represented in Mr. Williams' lifestyle of street crime and drug dealing. Tyrell was born in the Stuyvesant district of Brooklyn, New York on a cold morning in January of 1984. He spent his very early years in a traditional family in this relatively pleasant neighborhood. Though on the eve of Williams' entry into kindergarten, his father informed his mother than he had found another woman and he was moving out. Tyrell recalls this as one of the most traumatic experiences of his young life. He remembers looking up to his father and wanting to make him proud. When asked about his feelings directly regarding this experience Mr. Williams said he was "heartbroken."
After the separation of his…
rown, in her biographic article for World of Forensic Science, states,
She views investigative criminal profiling as a dynamic process that does not conclude until a suspect is arrested and convicted. She deems it a support process for the criminal investigative team, made up of a combination of four skills: investigation, forensic analysis, psychological assessment, and the application of cultural anthropology. rown considers this type of profiling to be a real-time, speculative process requiring ongoing checking to avoid missing any significant data, and should never be done in isolation, but rather as one piece of the entire criminal investigative process (rown, ¶4).
rown works 'pro bono' on several cold case file crimes, trying to be closure for the family.
The profilers use a variety of known characteristics to start the profile. The years of research done by early profilers such as Douglas has enabled the profilers to obtain clearer pictures…
Brown, Pat. World of Forensic Science. Thomson Gale. 2005. HighBeam Research. 22 Jun.
Cooper, Greg. The Violent Criminal Apprehension Program. The Forensic Examiner.
American College of Forensic Examiners. 2007. HighBeam Research. 22 Jun. 2010
e. height, weight, age, race, etc.), in connection with the investigation of specific criminal activity, that information allows authorities to narrow the search for individuals who match those identifying characteristics. The process is perfectly logical and obviously makes infinitely more sense than continuing to search for individuals who bear no resemblance to the descriptions provided by reliable sources.
However, the same legitimate techniques with respect to specific evidence of crimes also has a history of impermissible application in ways that deprive subjects of police investigation of their fundamental constitutional rights. For example, in the late 20th century, the U.S. Customs Service and the Drug Enforcement Administration both made extensive use of what they called "criminal indicators" in connection with their efforts to apprehend criminal drug traffickers as they attempted to enter the U.S. At the borders (Schmalleger, 2007).
Among other criteria, those sets of indicators including Hispanic origin and language,…
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Peak, K. (2002) Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges (Third Edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
U.S. Institute of Justice and Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (1999) Police-Public Contact Survey; Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences; Mar 2004
Officers simply enter information on these cases and the program attempts to make possible connections to other entered data. (FI).
Clearly this program increases understanding of criminal typologies because it allows a law enforcement agency to find patterns in behavior across numerous jurisdictions. More so, it is an easy and efficient method of tracking criminals, including sex offenders, especially in cases that have gone unsolved for numerous years.
Modus Operandi Database
Modus Operandi, which means, "mode of operation" is used to describe a criminal's characteristic patterns and style of going about their criminal acts. It is often used in offender profiling as tracking the modus operandi often leads to clues involving the offender's psychology. A modus operandi database merely collects and organizes information on modus operandi, allowing law enforcement agencies to make connections to other agency information.
Such database programs clearly allows law enforcement agencies to increase their understanding of…
FBI. Investigative Programs. www.fbi.gov.
Turvey, B.E. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. San Diego: Academic, 1999.
The perpetrator may even have a documented prior criminal history involving physical or sexual assaults of victims with some of the same characteristics as the current series of victims. More likely than not, the perpetrator is a product of a home in which children witnessed physical abuse of their mother and/or experienced physical abuse themselves.
The fact that all but one victim shows evidence that the force used in the murder far exceeded that necessary to achieve death by strangulation suggests that the perpetrator possesses a significant amount of anger, even rage, at someone represented by his victims. The fact that all but one of the victims suffered a broken neck suggests that the perpetrator is more likely under the age of 50 than older, and more likely either a large or physically robust individual or both. uggested Investigatory Focus:
Based on preliminary analysis of the behavioral evidence, it is…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas.
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
Criminals -- Born or Made
Since the construction of the first civil society, behavioral rules distinguishing what is acceptable and what is criminal have existed. Even though individuals typically have a concept of conventional moral behavior, criminal conduct is represented in every society and culture. Criminal deviance is not a novel construct, and has long been the intrigue of researchers, philosophers, and theorists to determine criminal motivation and link the relationship between individuals and the execution of criminal acts. One central argument that has evolved in the realm of criminality is the nature vs. nurture debate, which questions if criminals are born or made. Biological, psychological, and sociological disciplines each offer theories into the origin of criminality to explain if criminal behavior is a consequence of genetics or a matter of the environment in which they are raised (Jones). The biologist introduces genetic evidence and explains the effects of varying…
Akers, R, and C. Sellers. Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Applications.
4th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Co., 2004. xx-xx. Print.
Anderson, C, L Berkowitz, E Donnerstein, and R. Huesmann. "The Influence of Media violence on Youth." American Psychological Society. 4.3 (2003): 81-110. Print.
Eysenck, H.J.. "Personality and Crime." Psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Violent
Criminal Justice & Criminology
Has the Miranda vs. Arizona ruling decreased the percentage of arresting official violations of defendant Fifth Amendment rights?
CJ327W esearch Methods in Criminal Justice
The Miranda vs. Arizona ruling has attracted notable attention to the treatment of the accused in the hands of the law. Specifically, the ruling affirmed the rights to the accused under the law and to the legal rights of the accused. The research was to reveal the degree of law enforcement lack of enforcing the Miranda rights to the accused. A questionnaire presented to four group types that have a stakeholder interest in the law enforcement and legal rights aspect of the case was distributed to determine the activity relevant to Miranda enforcement process. The findings are expected to reveal abuse within the system and a notable increase in the Miranda violations for the accused.
Purpose & Audience
The Miranda vs.…
Allen, H. (1967). Miranda v. arizona: Is it being applied? Criminal Law Bulletin, 3(3), 135-1441. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/55778946?accountid=13044
A, M.N. (1971). The court and local law enforcement: The impact of miranda Sage, Beverly Hills, Calif. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/55776023?accountid=13044
Brazier, Alex. "The people on the bus get searched and seized: why police conduct in suspicionless bus sweeps should be circumscribed." George Washington Law Review 78.4 (2010): 908-941. Criminal Justice Collection. Web. 22 Feb. 2011.
H, A.S. (1971). Police authority and the rights of the individual Arc Books. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/55779413?accountid=13044
profiling an effective tool for law enforcement to use in policing society?
Racial profiling is the practice of law enforcement officers in stopping an individual of a certain race or ethnicity and investigating them based on their ethnicity. uch practices may occur in traffic routines or in matters connected with security. Racial profiling is forbidden in most states and in fact, as the article "RACIAL PROFILING LAW TRENGTHENED" (2012) by Keating, Christopher shows the enate recently strengthened the state's racial profiling law.
On the one hand, as stated in Harcourt (2004), many of the people involved in traffic incidents do seem to be of a similar race. We have the same occurrence with security matters where, over and again, it seems to be most frequently people of Islamic extraction who perpetrate terrorist activities against the West. More so, Fundamentalist Islam has come out overtly against the West threatening the West…
Harcourt, BE (2004) Rethinking racial profiling…. Univ. Chicago Law Review, 71, 4
Keating, C (2012) RACIAL PROFILING LAW STRENGTHENED Hartford Courant
Criminal and acial Profiling
Criminal profiling is the act of using a profile of crime in order to locate and identify suspects: it is, in the words of Grafton (2008), "where you look at a specific crime and you try to determine -- does it occur in a specific way and is it caused by a specific type of person." acial profiling, on the other hand, is the act of using race to locate and identify suspects -- "to target people" (Dutta, 2010). Criminal profiling is part of a process that law enforcement agents employ in order to get a better understanding of and hold on crime and crime-ridden areas. acial profiling, which can often be confused with criminal profiling because criminal profiles often produce a theme of "ethnic group in control for a specific type of crime," is part of a process of harassing individuals based primarily on their…
Dutta, S. (2010). Criminal profiling vs. racial profiling. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2010/nov/22/opinion/la-oe-dutta-racial-profiling-20101122
Grafton, L. (2008). Law enforcement expert discusses differences between criminal and racial profiling. Shreveport Times. Retrieved from http://archive.shreveporttimes.com/article/99999999/NEWS01/801200303/Law-enforcement-expert-discusses-differences-between-criminal-racial-profiling
Koffler, J. (2015). University of Cincinnati Cop Indicted in Killing of Unarmed Black
Man. Time. Retrieved from http://time.com/3976976/samuel-dubose-footage/
The reduction occurs through allowing the counties to acquire other methods of jailing apart from the prisons. This includes out-of custody rehabilitative treatments, which could serve in reducing the number of the criminals taken to the prisons. However, the AB109 criminals must be individuals whose crime are not violent and not that serious as provided by the law. This means that that jailing of the A109 criminals in other alternative would involve selection from the other criminals. However the unstated implication is that it would be much difficult to rate a crime as either more serious or not serious. Consequently, the rationale provides higher chances of biasness of selecting some non-serious cases while leaving others.
Implication of the policy
The criminal justice implication of the policy will mainly affect the non-violent arrestees. The decision of keeping them in custody, would affect their ability to avoid recividism future. The social implications…
Kraska, P., & Brent, J. (2011).Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations (2nd
Edition). Long Grove
Hancock, B., & Sharp, P. (2004).Criminal Justice in America (3rd Edition).Upper Saddle River,
NY: Prentice Hall
It appears to have become popular in the early 1990's by advocates and not police officers. Prior to those in charge telling the police what they are doing incorrect, they must outline it for themselves first. Criminologists are still trying to figure out how much profiling really goes on. It is very hard to measure since there is no set definition been determined. It has been suggested that the police are more probable to look for minorities because they commit an uneven amount of crimes. According to statistics in 2001, blacks were twelve percent of the nation's population but accounted for twenty seven percent of all sexual-assault convictions, sixty six percent of all robbery convictions and thirty eight percent of all fraud and embezzlement convictions.
If one sets aside the numbers and goes back to Cincinnati. In 2001, riots exploded following a white officer shooting and killing a black man…
Cloud, John. (2001). What's Race Got to Do With it? Retrieved November 10, 2010, from Time
Web site: http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010730/
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
The future technologies will assure authentication along with evidence. Another advancement that will assist to recognize the criminal is the "Face Software" that will help to create the image of the suspected criminal and it will be a great help for the police department. DNA profiling and fingerprinting is also under process for the purpose of identification of the criminals. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the fluid present inside the human cell. DNA is the content of the human body that remains unchanged throughout the life, and every human has the different composition of the DNA form another human. Even the two identical twins with same physical features have different DNAs. Therefore, any person can be identified through his/her DNA profile. DNA is a powerful investigation tool for the Criminal justice system and the FBI to stop the anti-human activities in the world. The scientific progress will also help to manufacture…
Pattavina, a. (2005). Information Technology and the Criminal Justice System. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, cop.
Ritter, N.M. (2006). Preparing for the Future: Criminal Justice. National Institute of Justice, 45.
Sorensen, J.R. (2009). An assessment of the relative impact of criminal justice and criminology. Journal of criminal justice, 505-511.
"Approximately 27.5% of college women reported experiences that met the legal criteria for rape," even though some of them were not necessarily aware that the actions to which they were subjected satisfied such a definition (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ).
According to the FBI, which defines violent crimes as "murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault," an "estimated 1,246,248 violent crimes occurred nationwide" in 2010 (ape and sexual violence, 2013, NIJ). There is obviously a great deal of overlap between the characteristics of populations that commit sexual assault and violent criminals, due to this definition. It should also be noted that although persons who commit violent crimes are disproportionately male and young (the example of stereotypes being validated by statistics); whites commit more such crimes -- 54% vs. 45% versus African-Americans. Also, "numbers also vary widely depending on the crime, with blacks responsible for more murders…
Bartol, C. & Bartol, a. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach. Prentice Hall.
Family violence statistics. (2002). BJS. Retrieved:
Hodgins, S. & Muller-Isberner, R. (Eds.). (2000). Violence, crime, and mentally disordered offenders: Concepts and methods for effective treatment and prevention. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Other specific risks to patrol officers, including those operating in pairs, include standard procedures suggested by past studies of the circumstances in which attacks on officers have occurred. For example, interviews with prisoners who assaulted officers during their arrests disclosed that many such attacks were initiated by the subject upon realization that their arrest was imminent. In many cases, it was the radio transmission alerting the officers of the subject's wanted status that was overheard by the subject.
Effective risk management in this regard led to the use of police codes, both for the officer to alert dispatch that the subject was in hearing range, and also for police dispatchers to advise officers as to the subject's status without alerting the offender simultaneously (Sweeney, 2005).
Likewise, other specific risks associated with the policing and correctional environment are effectively reduced by the application of risk management principles, including the prohibition of…
Buerger, M., Levin, B. (2005) the Future of Officer Safety in an Age of Terrorism. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74 No. 9, (pp. 2-8).
Larsen, R. (2007) Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.
Sweeney, E. (2005) the Patrol Officer. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 74 No. 9, (pp. 14-21).
There should be a manual override system in place in regards to the cell doors. This would allow those in charge to manually lock down all cells to help make sure that no other ones opened on their own.
Providing training to all staff ahead of time so that they are enabled to handle any such situation that might arise is critical. Every staff member should know what they are supposed to do and when they are supposed to do it, if an emergency situation should arise. Training and practice drills should be conducted ahead of time so that everyone is one the same page. Because human lives are at stake every effort should be made to make sure that the best possible plan is developed and available.
The security threat plan should be reviewed an updated on a regular basis. This will help to ensure that any changes that…
MCI - Cedar Junction. (2009). Retrieved September 29, 2009, from Mass.gov Web site:
Ranalli, Ralph. (2005). Havoc created in jail cells. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Boston.com
Horizontal communication is the proverbial 'grapevine' of information, such as gossip between partners. The exchange of information through horizontal channels can impact morale, but not always department policy, at least not as swiftly as in downward or even upward modes of communication. Also, although the power relationships between officers of the same rank may theoretically be clear-cut, this is not always the case -- popularity and reputation can influence the degree to which information is given credence through these horizontal channels. A popular officer who frowns upon racial profiling, for example, will have more influence than an officer who is widely disliked.
Frustrations about not being heard through the channels available in the upward communication process, or miscommunication of message or emotional intention in the downward communication process are common and frequently create interpersonal obstacles that hamper positive change and efficient operations. Confusion may also be rife if there are…
McKinney, C. (2008). Communication within a criminal justice system.
Retrieved September 7, 2009 at http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/646603/communication_within_a_criminal_justice_pg2_pg2.html?cat=17
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…
American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?
Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013
Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
Gaetz, S. (July 2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice.
This journal article reports the researcher's survey findings regarding the prevalence of victimization among street youths compared to domiciled youths. Gaetz defines the street youth operatively as "people up to the age of 24 who are 'absolutely periodically, or temporarily without shelter, as well as those who are at substantial risk of being in the street in the immediate future" (433). Survey findings show that just as expected, victimization mostly occur among the street than domiciled youth. Moreover, street youth reporting of criminal victimization is not common among both males and females. 41.7% of the respondents who have been victimized "told a friend" about the incident of victimization, 33.1% "did not tell anyone," and a far 17.2% reported the victimization to their partner (boyfriend or girlfriend)…
Felson, R. et. al. (August 2002). Reasons for reporting and not reporting domestic violence to the police. Criminology, Vol. 40, Issue 3.
Felson et. al.'s research utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey as its primary instrument in determining, assessing, and measuring the factors that lead to reporting (or not reporting) incidences of domestic violence. Survey findings show that there are three primary factors that are significantly relevant in inhibiting victims to reporting domestic violence to the police: "the desire for privacy, the desire to protect the offender ... And fear of reprisal."
The NCVS survey findings illustrate how the prevalence and continuous occurrence of abuse and domestic violence, especially among females, is still a social problem that needs unwavering attention by the government and civil society. New findings such as hesitance of male victims to report on their victimization reflect the changing nature of domestic violence in American society. In the same way that females need protection through the dissemination of proper and useful information about domestic violence, males are also in need of protection as well. Another important implication of the study is the changing nature of the respondents' (victims) concept of domestic violence, which varies significantly across gender.
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.
4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?
The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…
One cannot be viewed with suspicion simply because one belongs to a particular race or holds to a certain set of religious beliefs. The more that violations of basic human and civil rights are excused in the name of public safety, the less safe and secure our society becomes. A society that loses its liberty is a police state. Modern day America is moving closer each day to that terrible point. Intrusive technologies and ever present police and private security forces represent the presence of controlling forces in aspects of life that should be under individual command. Individual rights and choices are being sacrificed to the perceived exigencies of the collective. We are not a colony of insects. We are human beings. Public safety must be balanced with civil rights.
Brown, M.K., Carnoy, M., Currie, E., Duster, T., Oppenheimer, D.B., Shultz, M.M., et al. (2003). Whitewashing ace: The…
Brown, M.K., Carnoy, M., Currie, E., Duster, T., Oppenheimer, D.B., Shultz, M.M., et al. (2003). Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Theodore, N., Martin, N., & Hollon, R. (2006). Securing the City: Emerging Markets in the Private Provision of Security Services in Chicago. Social Justice, 33(3), 85+.
S. (Bluhm & Heineman 2006: 124). As a result of surveillance activities carried out under the U.S. Patriot Act, they were apprehended, although other than a vague email there was no evidence of any planned attack (Bluhm & Heineman 2006: 124). They were originally accused of knowing about the 9/11 terror plot (Temple-aston 2007:2).
According to Temple-aston, "many people ask me why the United States hasn't been hit again. The FBI would tell you that its vigilance has prevented additional attacks; the Department of Homeland Security would add that our borders are better protected and that terrorists are better tracked. To some extent, that's true. But it's also important to note that the relationship between U.S. law enforcement and the American Muslim community has improved significantly. They increasingly share information, which lets law enforcement get leads on homegrown terrorism suspects early on and stop plots before they get beyond the…
Bluhm, William & Robert Heineman. (2006). Ethics and public policy. Prentice Hall.
Temple-Raston, Dina. (2007, September 7). Enemy within? Not quite. The Washington Post.
Retrieved October 22, 2010 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/07/AR2007090702049.html
At the time that yrd was tried in 1985 DNA technology was not capable of forensic analysis of biological evidence however; in 1997 a comparison was conducted of yrd's DNA with the bodily fluid in the rape kit that had been collected at the time of the incident resulting in yrd's exoneration for this crime. The importance of proper preservation of biological evidence is highlighted in this case and not only for the purpose of obtaining a conviction but also for the purpose of ensuring that the wrong individual is not charged, found guilty and sentenced to prison for a crime that they did not commit.
VI. Most Common Applications of lood Evidence
The work of George Schiro entitled: "Collection and Preservation of lood Evidence from Crime Scenes" states that prior to the documentation and collection of blood evidence the value of the evidence must be recognized by the crime…
Catalin, Marian; Andrei, Anghel, and Mitrasca, Oana (nd) Modern Methods of Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for Human Identification by DNA Analysis. Biochemistry Department, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy from Timisoara. Online available at: http://www.oglethorpe.edu/faculty/~k_aufderheide/Forensic_Science/Web_Documents/Catalin_Andrei_Mitrasca.pdf
Jones, Cynthia E. (2005) Evidence Destroyed, Innocence Lost: The Preservation of Biological Evidence Under Innocence Protection Statues. The American Criminal Law Review. 1 Oct 2005. Online available at: http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/laws/1047368-1.html
Ladd, HC and Ladd, C. (2001) Preservation and Collection of Biological Evidence. Croat Med J. 2001 Jun;42(3):225-8. Online available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11387627
Schiro, George (nd) Collection and Preservation of Blood Evidence From Crime Scenes. Louisiana State Police Crime Laboratory. Online available at: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/blood.html
(Torchia, 2007) However, there has been suggested that there are now more serious controls at the Iraqi border for the convoys of food that cross everyday in Northern Iraq to the Kurd population in the region. This initiative however can also be seen as a social measure against the population who is left without food resources and in precarious conditions. The fact that the level of development is dramatically lower than in the Turkish parts of the country is already common knowledge; therefore imposing economic limitations would only reduce the possibilities of the Kurdish population and not necessarily the financial strength of the PKK.
In is rather hard to have a clear view on the best means to react to the actions taken by terrorist groups, and especially nationalistic terrorism. This type of terrorism, although it has a rather long history, employs new methods of applying violent pressure on the…
Cerrah, Ibrahim. "The stance of a democratic society against terrorism: Turkey's approach." The Journal of Turkish Weekly. 2006. 11 November 2007. http://www.turkishweekly.net/comments.php?id=2061
China News. Turkey steps up measures to fight against PKK. 2007. 11 November 2007. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-10/10/content_6859265.htm
Federation of American Scientists. The Kurds in Turkey. 2007. 11 November 2007. http://www.fas.org/asmp/profiles/turkey_background_kurds.htm
Torchia, Christopher. "Turkey Threats Lift Rebel Kurds' Profile." 2007. Find Law website. 11 November 2007. http://news.lp.findlaw.com/ap/i/629/10-30-2007/cee3004ffc4e69c9.html
But there more to the personal side for Duke Cunningham, for doling out contracts was more than a matter of choosing the most qualified and lowest priced as mandated by federal rules. It was also a matter of choosing the contractor that could provide the most for him. The white collar criminal always looks to personal advantage. Lobbyists, like the now-convicted Mitchell Wade, helped steer paying clients to Cunningham. In exchange for a $21 million dollar contract from the Department of Homeland Security, a limousine company also furnished personal services to the Congressman, including the transport of "escorts" for Cunningham's personal pleasure. (ozen, 2006)
Cunningham also pleaded guilty to accepting $2.4 million dollars in bribes from actual defense contractors. The congressman actively sought out contacts in the defense world, boasting that, "I feel fortunate to represent the nation's top technological talent in the 'black' world.... [and] appreciated the opportunity to…
Grigg, W.N. (2006, February 6). Power Brokers: Jack Abramoff Brought Together Corrupt Politicians, the Criminal Underworld, and the Global Power Elite. The New American, 22, 21+.
Lanier, M.M., & Henry, S. (1998). Essential Criminology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
While the subject's rationale for blaming his most recent victim for dressing provocatively may reflect "normal" (Macionis 2002) social conditioning (particularly among adolescent males), his complete lack of empathy (as distinct from responsibility or fault) is more consistent with pathological indifference and lack of empathy often observed in serial rapists and other sociopaths who display a clinical indifference to their victims (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Subsequent analysis will distinguish whether the subject's relative immature statements about the connection between video game violence and the real world are the result of low intelligence and delayed cognitive skills in the area of logical reasoning and responsibility or functions of repressed rage directed at all females.
viable intervention strategy must emphasize intensive psychological counseling to address the subject's past sexual victimization, the rage associated with it, and the direction of his anger at all females. Behavioral psychotherapy will be necessary to…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Packer, Herbert, L. (1968) the Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Stanford University Press.
The major participants in the Cuban Missile Crisis were in many ways driven by intelligence information to make the decisions upon which the crisis centered. The Soviet Union and its puppet nation Cuba relied on the heavy detail they received from their own agencies and believed that as a result of the failure and humiliation of the U.S. during the infamous Bay of Pigs incident that America would be blind at worst to its nuclear build up in Cuba and impotent at best. "At the time of the crisis, the United States possessed many more weapons than the Soviet Union, and thus had a military advantage. Khrushchev had formulated the plan...when he was searching for a place to install nuclear warheads that could not be detected by the U.S. early warning system..." ("Cuban Missile Crisis," 2002, p. 18) Simultaneously, the Americans both feared the Soviets and resented the clear violation…
Cuban Missile Crisis. (2002). Cuban Missile Crisis. Politics & World Affairs: Cold War, 18.
In Defense of Civil Liberties (2004, September 20). The New York Times, p. A24.
Kaplan, Morton A. (2002). Intelligence Failures. World & I, 17, 12.
U.S. Has "No Objections" to China's Nuclear Buildup (2001). The New American, 17, 13.
Several months later, in September, due to delays, Santobellow had still not been sentenced; he hired a new attorney, who moved to change the "guilty" plea back to "not guilty." hat happened is that Santobellow's attorney claimed that "crucial evidence" against Santobellow had been obtained illegally and filed several motions that caused additional delays. The upshot of this confusion is that when Santobellow appeared before a new judge (the judge that first dealt with the case had retired) there was also a new prosecutor who recommended a one-year sentence in prison for Santobellow. But wait, the original prosecutor had accepted a plea bargain and agreed that there would be no sentence recommendation, and now there was to be a sentence recommendation, which was unfair to the defendant.
And so, after careful and judicial consideration of all the facts in Santobello vs. New York (404 U.S. 247-1971), the Supreme Court of…
US Supreme Court Cases & Opinions. (1971). Santobello V. New York (404 U.S. 257
1971). Retrieved March 5, 2009, at http://supreme.justia.com/us/404/257/case.html .
Behavioral scientists and investigate often rely on criminal profiling to narrow down the list of possible suspects in a crime scene or in a potentially threatening situation. This is primarily done by matching personal traits and behavioral patterns of criminals to the way in which the crime was committed and that can help in shrinking the large pool of suspects to a few which makes it relatively easier to solve the crime. (Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M., 1986). Profiling has often been a target of intense debate by people who feel victimized by the process, however, it must be understood that profiling can never lead to one specific person. It can only help in providing leads to possible suspects and that too by means of their personality traits and behavioral past. In other words, a person who has not committed crimes and doesn't have suspicious behavior or personality traits…
Douglas, Ressler, Burgess and Hartman: Criminal profiling from crime scene analysis, in: Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 4 (1986), p. 401 -- 426.
Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M.: The Anatomy of Motive, Scribner, New York, 1999.
(Harris, 2002, p. 8)
Terrorist acts are both crimes and forms of warfare, and in both respects are unlike what we are used to." 2 Understanding the larger possibilities, such as warfare, law enforcement will be able to make informed decisions on matters concerning data collection. When gathering information it is important to document and standardize every step of the process. This will alleviate any complications when categorizing behaviors or activities and will ensure that all participants in the process are on the same playing field. (onczkowski, 2004, p. 72)
Following the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. which is an example of foreign terrorism, though domestic terrorism has been present in the U.S. For decades, many individuals accepted new standards of security that might infringe upon their rights as citizens to freely travel, assemble and speak, yet more recent protests have been leveled against law enforcement and security measures as…
Califano, J.A. (1998, October). A New Prescription: Investing in Substance-Abuse Treatment Would Take a Big Bite out of Crime. Washington Monthly, 30, 9.
Evans, D.J., Fyfe, N.R., & Herbert, D.T. (Eds.). (1992). Crime, Policing, and Place: Essays in Environmental Criminology. New York: Routledge.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st Century Police Officer: Redefining Police Professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Groth, a.N. (1979). Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press.
Psychosocial background of these rapists is inclusive of physical as well as verbal abuse which can be from both or one of the parents. Abuse-based background is seen in more than 56% of the rapists in this category. More than 80% of the rapists belong to divorced households; most of these are adopted or have spent their childhood in foster care. elationships of these rapists with women in the past have failed or did not work based on which hostile feelings have developed against the opposite sex.
Background profiling on rapists has shown that these normally are raised in single parent households with increased issues. Additionally they grow up being physically as well as verbally abused facing sexual deviances. The children facing these conditions are the ones that clearly show tendencies towards sexual promiscuity. In the case of adults, it has been seen that they are married later in…
Girod, J.R. (2004). Profiling the Criminal Mind: Behavioral Science and Criminal Investigative Analysis. Iuniverse Inc.
Holmes, M.R., and Holmes, S. (2002). Profiling violent crimes: an investigative tool. Edition 3. Sage.
Innes, B. (2003). Profile of a criminal mind: how psychological profiling helps solve true crimes. Reader's Digest.
Jacobs, D. (2011). Analyzing Criminal Minds: Forensic Investigative Science for the 21st Century: Brain, behavior, and evolution. ABC-CLIO.
53). The technique has roots in various psychological concepts that examine how individuals make choices about behavior and the ways in which motivations are formed and molded. It also draws on a set of investigatory techniques broadly called environmental criminology. Environmental criminology looks at how physical space influences people to commit crimes, how what particular types of crimes are committed are related to the physical space in which they occur (for example, farming communities tend to be the site of different types of crimes than is the case in housing projects or suburban cul de sacs) and how the type of person who is likely to be victimized is also related to physical space (MacKay, 1999).
Geographic profiling has moved a long way from the old tape-a-map-to-the-wall-and-stick-pushpins in it. Geographic profilers use highly specialized software systems that produce what are called "jeopardy surfaces" or "geoprofile," high detailed three-dimensional models of…
Brantingham, P.J., & Brantingham, P.L. (1984). Patterns in crime. New York: Macmillan.
Canter, D. (2003). Mapping Murder: The Secrets of Geographic Profiling. London: Virgin Publishing.
MacKay, R.E. (1999, December). Geographic profiling: A new tool for law enforcement. The Police Chief, pp. 51-59.
Rossmo, D.K. (2000). Geographic profiling. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Four types of profiles are 1) the offender profile, 2) the victim profile, 3) the DNA profile, and 4) the geographic profile. Offender profiling involves obtaining information from law enforcement regarding the types of people who commit crimes (Douglass & Burgess, 1986). From the data compiled about crimes and individuals who commit crimes, an offender profile is developed to identify the type of person who might commit crime. These types are categorized according to crime, with a specific profile developed for a specific crime. For example, the profile of an individual who might be an arsonist would differ from the profile of an individual who might be a drug dealer.
Victim profiling involves creating a database of information on victims of crimes obtained from law enforcement. Specific crimes are linked to specific types of victims and a profile is created of individuals who are likely to be victims of a…
I have done research for school projects, using academic databases and online searches. In middle school and high school, we learned how to conduct research. Teachers taught us various tools and techniques they preferred, which helped me to develop my own style. The methods I use for research vary depending on the type of assignment. For a shorter paper, I might do the research on the fly. Longer and more investigative assignments might require more extensive research at the outset. When I need to learn about the topic first by compiling background information, I collect the information and prepare a bibliography.
Because I have done research and prepared annotated bibliographies before, I am not daunted by this assignment. One aspect that does concern me is the time it might take to do the research plus narrowing down the topic. Another concern I have is whether I will come up with…
I think that my knowledge of procedure is probably my strongest. I feel very comfortable with the level of knowledge I have about proper police procedure. I feel confident that I not only understand basic procedural rules, but also the justification or reasoning behind those rules. Furthermore, I feel as if my understanding of the basis for these various procedural rules will help me easily grasp any additional procedural rules that I will encounter on the job.
While I do feel as if I have had a strong educational background, there are two areas where I feel as I could benefit from more education: psychology and human services. The more I study the psychology of criminals and victims, the more I realize I do not know about why perpetrators do things. I understand that people who align with certain profiles may be more likely to commit crimes, but I am…
City of Houston. (2013). Victim services unit. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from Houston Police
Department website: http://www.houstontx.gov/police/vsu/
Stevens, M. (2003, June 18). Victimology theory. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from North
Carolina Wesleyan College website:
criminal justice and American culture. Specifically it will discuss jail time served by Blacks, Hispanics and whites, and the lawyers who prosecute them. The statistics indicate that African-American men, especially between the ages of 25 to 29, are incarcerated at a higher rate than either Hispanics or whites. There are several factors that are associated with these statistics, including where these young men grow up, their income, and their education, among others. There is also the issue of racial profiling. This paper will look at these statistics and attempt to answer the question of why these young men serve more jail time than other American men do.
In most areas of violent and non-violent crime, African-American men are more represented in American prisons than any other race. Some people may feel African-Americans are more prone to crime and violence, but many studies point to several other factors in criminal activity.…
Editors. (2009). Demographic characteristics of persons convicted of felonies in State courts, by offense, 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/html/scscf04/tables/scs04201tab.htm .
Editors. (2009). Homicide trends in the United States. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/homicide/race.htm .
Editors. (2009). Mean length of felony sentences imposed in State courts, by offense and race of felons, 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/html/scscf04/tables/scs04207tab.htm .
Goldman, D.S. (2004). The modern-day literacy test?: Felon disenfranchisement and race discrimination. Stanford Law Review, 57(2), 611+.
The case of former colonel ussell Williams offers insight into the psychology of criminal behavior. Williams's confession interview was released to the public and aired on The Fifth Estate, offering criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, and law enforcement officials unique access to the mind of a criminal. Analysts interviewed for The Fifth Estate documentary note that Williams presents a conundrum for psychologists and criminologists, as his reactions to the police interview did not fit any previously known profile, such as that of a psychopath. Williams exhibits traits that resemble psychopathic behavior, in accordance with individual trait theory. For instance, he meticulously recorded his crimes and kept the photographic and video imagery as souvenir mementos.
Yet Williams also denies his right to an attorney, permits a foot imprint of his incriminating boots, and also states in the interview that he "was hoping" that he would not have raped or killed again had…
"Dr. John Bradford won't work Magnotta case because of PTSD," (2014). CBC. Mar 13, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/dr-john-bradford-won-t-work-magnotta-case-because-of-ptsd-1.2571463
Fifth Estate (2010). The Confession. [Video documentary].
Friscolanti, M. (2014). Russell Williams's wife knew he was a predator: victim. Maclean's. Retrieved online: http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/russell-williamss-wife-knew-he-was-a-predator-victim/
La Salle, L. (2013). Colonel Russell Williams where have you been? I've been to London to fly the queen and back to collect artifacts. All Things Crime. Dec 11, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.allthingscrimeblog.com/2013/12/11/colonel-russell-williams-where-have-you-been-ive-been-to-london-to-fly-the-queen-and-back-to-collect-artifacts/
The killing of the two black American young men Amadou Diallo and Louima were separated by about two years but Amadou's killing happened just before the trial of Louima's case. Amadou's killing drew a lot of public interest that was focused on the conduct of the New York Police. It was the only such heated debate since the Knapp commission of the 70s which disclosed corruption in the police department. Amadou was from a middle class family that migrated from Guinea. They were engaged in simple trade activities including selling items on the streets. Amadou was shot 41 times in his apartment house in Bronx. His life was brought to an end by a special crimes unit of a group of four policemen operating under cover. It is a New York born strategy for combating aggressive crime (Harring & Ray, 1999). There is no doubt that a crime was indeed…
Unethical behavior that a few years ago would have been considered appalling has become acceptable. Dishonesty, cheating, lying, and sexual misconduct, is not only common, but in most cases is expected" (Ramirez 2006).
In order to reduce police brutality and force the use of force matrix, criminal justice managers suggest exercise for police officers. If officers are healthier and more physically fit, this could lead to better community perception and relations, and may decrease the amount of citizen complaints against officers for verbal abuse and excessive physical force. Physically fit officers can increase the safety of themselves and fellow officers and change the public perceptions that police officers are out of shape donut eaters. Police departments can lower their medical premiums through decreased sick leave and injuries, as well as decreasing lawsuits from citizen complaints of verbal abuse and/or excessive physical force. Decreasing these lawsuits will also lower the city's…
From the evidence in this paper, it is apparent that police officers need more outlets relieve their stress in order to force ethical issues because they could eventually hurt others. Police organizations must find more help for their officers due to the fact they are in danger of the affects of chronic stress, which could permanently alter their personalities and behavior and that could add to ethical issues that criminal justice managers have to deal with. Beyond physically fitness, more effective research and funding must be put into the mental health of police officers so that they can serve and protect their communities and ethical issues can be addressed properly (Finn 2000).
This essay discusses how the criminal justice system is an important part of the government, allowing for the prosecution, imprisonment, and rehabilitation of criminals. Apart from the court system and police, the criminal justice system has other components like criminal justice agencies that provide additional information for researchers to form studies and articles to help improve the criminal justice system as a whole. This Criminal Justice Essay will help students looking to understand what the system is and what components make up the system. By exploring the core of the criminal justice system, one can understand law and how the government carries out enforcement of the law within the country.
What is at the Core of the Criminal Justice System in the United States?
The Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Crime
Does the Criminal Justice System Need Change?
Selected Title: The Role of The American Criminal Justice…
acial profiling is one of the most pressing civil right issues of our time. It extends beyond directs victims to negatively affect all persons of color of all generations and income levels. It undermines the legitimacy of the criminal justice system, and hinders effective policing in the communities that need it the most. A esource Guide on acial Profiling Data Collection System defines racial profiling as any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity. In the context of traffic stops by police officers, racial profiling should be defined broadly as encompassing officer's use of race or ethnicity as a factor in deciding to stop, question, search or arrest someone. acial profiling has been monitored in a…
Brenner, S.J., Schencke, L. (2002). Local officials seek to resolve racial profiling.
Retrieved February 10, 2005, from The Daily Illini
Web site: http://illinimedia.com/di/feb02/feb28/news/stories/news_story01.shtml
Gewertz, K. (2005). Schauer: Profiling can be a useful investigative tool. Retrieved February 10, 2005, from the President and Fellows of Harvard College
Racial Profiling and Discrimination in America
Slavery in the United States formally began during the late seventeenth century, when the country was still a British colony. The institution then expanded and intensified rapidly during the eighteenth century, reaching its peak during the start of the nineteenth. During most of this time, for all intents and purposes, simply to be black was enough to identify one as a slave. That is to say, racial distinctions between whites and people of color were not merely noted, but comprised the economic and legal foundation of American society. Once slavery was abolished, black Americans did not suddenly occupy a station equal to that of their white contemporaries. Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws were in effect, usually in the South, and other forms of segregation were commonplace throughout the nation. In the poem "Outcast," Claude McKay clearly identifies the prejudice and the alienation he faces…
Franklin, John Hope. "The Train from Hate." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.
McKay, Claude. "Outcast." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.
Okita, Dwight. "In Response to Executive Order 9066." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.
Criminal Law Due Process
Due process is an essential guarantee of basic fairness for citizens based on law. It has two basic goals; to produce accurate results through fair procedure to prevent wrongful deprivation of interests and to make people feel the government treated them fairly by listening to their side of the story (Procedural Due Process). Due process requires fair procedures when governments take actions against citizens, whether it is the federal government or a state government that is taking action.
Due process is divided into two categories, substantive due process and procedural due process (Due Process of Law - Substantive due Process, Procedural Due Process, Further Reading, 2013). Substantive law creates, defines, and regulates rights. Substantive due process makes the laws that give rights to citizens by due processes. Procedural law enforces those rights or seeks redress for violation of those rights. Evidence presented against a citizen will…
Criminal Procedure. (2010, August 19). Retrieved from Cornell University Law School: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/criminal_procedure
Due Process of Law - Substantive due Process, Procedural Due Process, Further Reading. (2013). Retrieved from JRank: http://law.jrank.org/pages/6315/Due-Process-Law.html
Fifth Amendment. (n.d.). Retrieved from Cornell University Law School: http://www.law.cornell.edu/we/fifth_amendment
Procedural Due Process. (n.d.). Retrieved from University of Missouri: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/proceduraldueprocess.html
How the Criminal Justice System is Dysfunctional according to Paul Butler's Let's Get Free
The American criminal justice system has had a long history of prejudice. From the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision that institutionalized the false concept of "separate but equal" to the Jim Crow laws that followed to the methods of "control" enacted by police in urban communities, criminal justice in the U.S. has seen lots of crime but little justice. Part of the reason for the inherent dysfunction in the way minorities have always been treated in America is that the country was founded on prejudiced WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) principles: the principle of "manifest destiny" was based on the supposedly "divine right" that WASPs had to "control" the New World and eradicate the "lesser" races (such as the Native Americans and the African-Americans). These prejudiced principles were absorbed into the criminal justice system through lawmakers…
Butler, P. (2010). Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. UK:
As part of my studies in terrorism and homeland security which were a requirement of my military service, I have come to understand the need for strong intelligence, culturally-astute law enforcement, and effective security protocols when dealing with threats from within as well as from without.
Homeland security remains one of the most vitally necessary components of law enforcement, as seen by the recent alerts raised regarding potential terrorist attacks threatening our nation's major cities. The exciting aspect of this field is that it is constantly changing -- just as America's enemies are always looking for new ways to attack the U.S., law enforcement officials within this specialty must have a flexible and open-minded approach, so they too can change with the needs posed by the environment. I would like to have a substitutive impact in terms of my future career, and I believe that I have the potential to…
International Criminal Organizations
Over time, Mexico has experienced significant growth in crime levels -- something that has led to an increase in criminal activity not only in Mexico but also across the entire region as well. In this text, I concern myself with the rise of international criminal organizations in Mexico. In so doing, I will amongst other things explain the role poverty and/or corruption has played in the creation of fertile ground for organized gangs and how the Mexican government has responded to the rise in criminal activity. Further, in addition to evaluating the effect of the said criminal organizations on the stability of the nation as a whole, I will also speculate over what the situation in Mexico means to the United States from a national security perspective. ecommendations with regard to how the government of Mexico should respond to the situation will be offered at the end…
Barkan, S. & Bryjak, G. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: A Sociological View (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Center for International Cooperation -- CIC (2013). Organized Crime. Retrieved from http://cic.nyu.edu/content/organized-crime
CNN Library. (2013). Mexico Drug War Fast Facts. CNN. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/02/world/americas/mexico-drug-war-fast-facts/
Edmonds-Poli, E. & Shirk, D.A. (2012). Contemporary Mexican Politics (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Yet Arab-Americans are not necessarily hostile to the idea of greater community intervention, provided it is done to enhance community life, and not done to profile all Arab-American residents as terrorists. In fact, in the city of Chicago, there have been calls for greater police intervention in Arab-American communities by parents and local leaders, to reduce the threat of violent crime. Nizar Hasan, president of the Arab-American Police Association, believes Arab-American youth are increasingly falling into negative criminal behaviors. "It's getting worse…Some of these kids first try [drugs], get hooked, want more and look for ways to make money to support their habit, which means criminal activity" (Bohn & Schott 2009). However because Chicago, like many cities, does not track crime rates amongst Arab-Americans they are not labeled as 'minorities' -- "according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, persons from the Middle East and North Africa, like those…
Bohn, Lauren E. & Paul Schott. (2009, November 17). Blight of street crime creeping into Arab-
American community. Merrill reports. Northwestern University. Retrieved October 19,
2010 at http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=147319
Elliott, Andrea. (2006, June 13). After 9/11 Arab-Americans fear police, study finds. New York
Community esponse to ace and Criminal Justice
The Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), in Decatur, GA was chosen for this assignment. The department is responsible for serving the state's youth offenders up until the age of twenty-one. The organization's mission as stated on their web page is: "Our Mission is to protect and serve the citizens of Georgia by holding young offenders accountable for their actions through the delivery of services and sanctions in appropriate settings and by supporting youth in their communities to become productive and law-abiding citizens" (http://www.djj.state.ga.us/AboutUs/AboutUsOverview.shtml). Cathy Dravis, the Juvenile Program Manager was interviewed. Below is a summary.
When asked how they view the issue of the disproportionate amount of African-American males arrested for drug distribution vs. Caucasian and Hispanic males, the response was that the person's environment that they grew up in plays a large role in shaping their adult lives. Many…
DJJ - About Us. (n.d.). DJJ Internet Home. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.djj.state.ga.us/AboutUs/AboutUsOverview.shtml
Grunwald, H., Lockwood, B., Harris, P., & Mennis, J. (2010). Influences of neighborhood context, individual history and parenting behavior on recidivism among juvenile offenders. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 39(9), 1067-1079. doi:10.1007/s10964-010-9518-5
Ryberg, J. (2011). Racial profiling and criminal justice. Journal Of Ethics, 15(1/2), 79-88. doi:10.1007/s10892-010-9098-3
Western, B. (2010).Decriminalizing poverty. Nation, 291(26), 12-14.
Ethics-CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Details of the Source
When does police mistake become murder?
The Christian Science Monitor,
Date of publication: 04-05-1999,
Summary of Facts
Racial profiling is probably the biggest concern of minorities groups in our country because it has been the cause of numerous injustices against them. Our law enforcement agencies appear to be ruthlessly biased in their exercise of duty as is clear from this article. The author shows that racial profiling has resulted in prosecution and death of many innocent immigrants. The article argues that when death results from irresponsible actions of the police, it should be counted as murder because it violates basic civil rights provided by the constitution to every citizen regardless of color or creed. However it has been noticed that our police would open fire on any immigrant who appears to be a threat. The author asks: "Should the police officer be tried…
Be Back Home
I'm not sorry. I'm not sorry cuz I didn't do nothin' wrong. I didn't commit no crime. I never raped nobody, but now I gots to pay for something I ain't even done. It's bull***** really. I stuck in here for 15 years and I know the bastard who done it. ***** he's probably still doin' it.
A gotta little boy who's daddy's in jail, and he don't understand any of this. He lives with his mama in the Bronx, in our beat up apartment but hey, at least it's home. Much better than livin' here if ya ask me. She brings him to see me once a month, and I say man that's bull***** that I only get to see my boy once a month! How's a boy supps'd to grow up without his daddy? When she brings him to me, I'm always in…