Criminological Theory Essays (Examples)

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Theory Based on the Factors That Leads to Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50594089

Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency

Underlying Assumptions

Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).

Structure of Theory

Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community…… [Read More]

References

Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,

Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.

Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American

Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.
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Theory and Its Evaluation

Words: 1208 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75926065

Theoretical Evaluation

Theory Evaluation

The initial modern clarification of crime is known as "classical hypothesis" (Cullen and Agnew 2011). This hypothesis was produced in response to the malefic, irrational, and barbaric frameworks of criminal equity that existed in Europe in the 1700s. The laws were frequently arbitrary; judges were corrupt; penal awards for the same wrongdoing varied broadly; and disciplines were at times very cruel, causative of extreme physical abuse and often resulting in death. Classical Theorists needed to supplant the framework with one that was more viable and just. They contended that individuals are balanced creatures who seek after their own particular pursuits, endeavoring to amplify their pleasure and minimize their unhappiness. Individuals decide to indulge in wrongdoing when they accept that it will bring more joy than agony, As such, the most ideal approach to control wrongdoing is to guarantee that the torment of penal awards exceeds the…… [Read More]

References

Cullen, F.T., and Agnew, R. (2011). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. Los Angeles: Roxbury. [An overview of the leading theories of crime, with selections from the original works.]
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Biological and Psychological Theory of

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8769866

Whereas atavists may commit crimes due to their physiological attributes, "passionate criminals" engage crimes of their own make (C. Bartol & a. Bartol, 2006).

The first advantage in the Lambroso theory lies in the physicality of determining criminal. The attributes that underlines atavists may trigger a trend of caution while dealing with people with the characteristics given. This precaution trend may lessen crime in instances where early detection is done through careful handling of the atavists. With the understanding that physical attributes may relate to chances of committing crimes, reform campaigns may get directed to this group of people to enhance secure communities.

Another advantage arises from the understanding that in communities where crime rates occur at an all-time high, more people tend to commit crimes due to the influence of the adverse environment they live in. In trying to fit into society, people relate with one another. If situations…… [Read More]

References

Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, a.M. (2006). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach.

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Heather, Z. (2007) Biological, Sociological and Psychological Theories of Crime

May 16, 2007. http://voices.yahoo.com/biological-sociological-psychological-theories-342380.html?cat=72
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Criminal Justice Theory

Words: 2525 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51732386

Criminal Justice Theory and the Los Angeles County Probation Department

Criminal and antisocial behaviors have been studied in the field of criminology for many years. Criminologists are very interested to learn what types of things cause specific criminal and antisocial behaviors. hile criminal behavior and antisocial behavior are not always related, they often have close ties. Criminologists and other researchers are looking to find commonalities between certain genetic makeups and deviant behavior. They believe that many people are genetically predisposed to be violent, and if these people can be located they can be treated.

That does not mean that criminologists are in favor of testing everyone's genetic makeup on the planet to see if any of them show violent tendencies. hat they are interested in doing, however, is studying criminals who already have a history of violent and deviant behavior to see what other traits they have, and what their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, R.H. (2000, January 13). Unit 5: deviance, conformity and social control. University of Colorado at Denver. Retrieved September 2, 2005, from http://psychology. about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fthunder1.cudenver.edu%2F%2Fsociology%2Fintrosoc%2Ftopics%2FUnitNotes%2Fweek05.html

Brand, C. Cycad Web Works. (2003, February). Can crime be traced to such often-mooted personality features as extraversion and lack-of-conscientiousness? Are genetic factors involved-in whatever interaction with the environment? And can any therapeutic or preventive steps by recommended? Retrieved August 29, 2005, from http://www.cycad.com/cgi-bin/Brand/quotes/q16.html

Brunet, J.R. (2002, November 15). Discouragement of Crime Through Civil Remedies: An Application of a Reformulated Routine Activities Theory. In Western Criminology Review 4 (1) Retrieved September 5, 2005, from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v4n1/brunet. html

Casey, D. Human Genome Project. (1997, June). Introduction. Retrieved September 1, 2005, from http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Human_Genome/publicat / primer/prim1.html
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Conference Theories to Support Conference

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89997042

A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.

eferences

Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ

Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.

Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow

Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA

Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and…… [Read More]

References

Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Public Policy Research 21(1). Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKiRnOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8Ryw-RdfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbROjWa5vU-CorRdw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ

Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.

Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWRScZuXra2PExRdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfRl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlRIUDHqnfiObow

Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXRvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_ShxR7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbReyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
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Sociological Theories of Crime There Are a

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10016462

Sociological Theories of Crime

There are a number of respected sociological theories of crime and criminality, and in this paper four of those theories -- social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory -- will be reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. Also, of the theories discussed, one or more will be referenced in terms of the relevance to a recently convicted offender.

Social Control Theory

According to professor Larry Siegel social control theories put forward the notion that everyone has the potential to become a law-breaker, and the society offers multiple opportunities for illegal activity. The attraction for some people to deal drugs or steal cars, Siegel explains, is that there is "…the promise of immediate reward and gratification" (Siegel, 2011, p. 248). And so, Siegel continues, given the attraction of crime for many, and the benefits for some, his question is: why do…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akers, Ronald L. (1999). Criminological Theories. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.

Briggs, Steven, and Friedman, Joan. (2009). Criminology for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John

Wiley & Sons.

Siegel, Larry J. (2011). Criminology. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
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Psychological Trait Theory

Words: 2333 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91327853

Psychological Trait Theory in Criminology:

The field of criminology can basically be described as the scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior since professionals in this field try to develop theories that explain the reason for the occurrence of crimes and test the theories through observation of criminal behavior. The criminological theories in turn help in shaping the response of the society to crime in relation to preventing criminal behavior and reacting to such behaviors after they occur. Generally, the field of criminology has evolved in three different phases since the inception of this discipline in the 18th Century. While crime and criminals have existed for as long as societies have existed, the systematic study of these incidents began in the late 1700s. Prior to this period, crime and criminal behavior were mainly equated to sin i.e. The infringement of a sacred obligation.

Evolution of the Discipline of Criminology:

As…… [Read More]

References:

Lynch, J.P. (n.d.). Criminology. Retrieved from University of Colorado Boulder website:

 http://autocww2.colorado.edu/~toldy3/E64ContentFiles/LawAndCourts/Criminology.html 

See, E. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Applications. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf

"Trait Theories." (2011). Chapter 5. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://ebooks.narotama.ac.id/files/Criminology%20(11th%20Edition)/CHAPTER%205%20Trait%20Theories.pdf
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How the Control Theory Works in Criminology

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14982861

deviance and criminal behavior can result from people feeling disconnected from their school and home situation. This backs up the control theory, which posits that with less control -- or weak bonds -- behavior can and does become deviant and even criminal later in life.

Control Theory -- Narrative Explanations

In his narratives on delinquency, Travis Hirschi, one of the most prominent theorists when it comes to control theories, said there are four variables that help explain why people either conform to, or deviate from social norms. And this is important because delinquents are often caught up in criminal activities later in life. In the process of deviating from socially respectable behaviors -- and in the extreme, becoming involved in crime -- people are just reacting to four variables, Hirschi explains. The four are: a) attachment (with parents, peers, teachers, and others); b) commitment (this is what a person must…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2008). Review of the Roots of Youth

Violence: Literature Reviews. Retrieved March 29, 2014, from  http://www.children.gov.on.ca .

Welch, K. (1998). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Florida State University. Retrieved March 29, 2014, from http://www.criminology.fsu.edu.
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Criminology - Theory Understanding Crime

Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25210065

Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).

In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Henslin, J.M. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
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Criminal Justice Theories Drift Theory Suggests That

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82978264

Criminal Justice Theories

Drift theory suggests that people drift from one extreme to another during the course of their lifetimes. When applied in the context of criminal justice, it reflects the idea that people drift between conventional and criminal behaviors. After a crime is committed, the individual may balance that criminality by drifting back towards conventional behavior. In this way, criminality is partly chosen, but also partly determined, because the willingness to commit a crime comes with preparation and desperation. Preparation does not imply that the person has actively prepared to engage in criminal behavior but that the person has placed himself in a position where it is possible to commit a crime. Fatalism contributes to drift, with people being more likely to commit crimes when they feel as if their options have been limited and that they lack control. Furthermore, with drift comes an underlying sense of injustice, so…… [Read More]

References

Patchin, J. (2011). Criminological theory summaries. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from University of Wisconsin Eau Claire website:

http://www.uwec.edu/patchinj/crmj301/theorysummaries.pdf

See, E. (2004). Student study guide for Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers'

Criminological theories: Introduction, evaluation, and applications, 4th Edition. Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Roxbury Publishing Company website: http://roxbury.net/images/pdfs/ct4ssg.pdf
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Ethical Theory and Moral Practice

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43571515

Ethical Theory and Moral Practice developed as a cohesive field in the late twentieth century, with the establishment of the Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Journal, in 1998. The theory therefore represents a culmination of scholarly thought and analysis in the fields of philosophy, sociology, and psychology. As a cross-disciplinary theory, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice reveals the increasing hybridization of fields that relate to normative ethics.

Because Ethical Theory and Moral Practice is a relatively new field of scholastic inquiry, the field is currently "undergoing change," ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008). Changes reflect shifting social, economic, and political realities. Without falling pray to the traps of ethical relativism, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice remains heterogeneous and diverse.

The roots of the theory are difficult to trace because of the "disciplinary cross-pollination" that has occurred ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008).…… [Read More]

References

"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links/special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml

"What Makes Us Moral?" (2011). VU University Amsterdam. Retrieved online: http://www.ph.vu.nl/nl/onderzoek/secties/praktische-filosofie/conference-what-makes-us-moral/index.asp
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Biological Biosocial Classical Theories Biological

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1567850



Biological explanations, in contrast to fair and severe punishment as advocated by classical theorists, stress the need for institutionalization and psychological and medical treatment for the 'ill,' but they also offers what seems like a defeatist attitude towards the improvement of the criminal, as the criminal has no rational choice in his or her behavior. The presumption is that irrationally generated behavior cannot be conditioned out of the individual through incarceration, and criminality must be treated like an illness, although opinions differ as to the best way to go about treating the individual so the criminal is 'cured' of the crime, or if a cure is even possible.

However, biosocial theories suggest that society plays an important role in causing crime, such as social learning theory: "Some children are raised in families in which violence is used as a means to achieve desires. Abusive parents model to their children that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Greek, Cecil. (2005). "Criminological Theory." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/lectures.htm

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Biological and Psychological Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/biotheor.html 

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/devtheor.html
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Hirschis Social Bond Theory and Its Impact on the Juvenile Justice System

Words: 947 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58417535

Hirschi's Social Bond Theory

Hirschi's social bonding theory argues that those persons who strong and abiding attachments to conventional society are less likely to deviate than persons who have shallow or weak bonds (Smangs, 2010). These bonds come in four interrelated forms, the first of which is attachment. Attachment, refers to the level of psychological affection one has for pro-social others and institutions. Parents and schools are of critical importance in this regard. Youths who form close attachments to their parents1 and schools will, by extension, experience greater levels of social control. The second type of bond is referred to as commitment. Commitment stresses the importance of the social relationships that people value, which they would not want to risk jeopardizing by committing criminal or deviant acts. People are less likely to misbehave when they know that they have something to lose. For juveniles, this could mean not wanting to…… [Read More]

References

"Key idea: Hirschi's social bond/social control theory." (NDI). Sage Publications. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/36812_5.pdf

Smangs, M. (2010, December) Delinquency, social skills, and the structure of peer relations: Assessing criminological theories by social network theory. Social Forces, Vol. 89, Issue 2, 609-631. University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=a9dcb4b0-c42c-4f64-8b67-c1a089b82105%40sessionmgr110&hid=108
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Application of Criminology Theories Sociology

Words: 1885 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23733167

theoretical concepts from parts XII and XIII to the events and actors at the Malheur Wildlife efuge occupation. Be sure to utilize the different sections in your application.

Environmental criminology often focuses on opportunity theory, which is linked with rational choice theory. Opportunity theory suggests that criminal behavior is motivated or prompted by available opportunities to commit the crime. Although the Malheur occupiers were not environmental criminals in the traditional sense of being motivated also by an environmentalist agenda with related ecological goals, the Malheur Wildlife efuge is a nature preserve. There are also compounding issues related to territoriality, the "extent to which a space conveys a sense of being 'owned' or 'private' and has having clearly designated purposes," (XII, p. 459). Territoriality has been a primary driving factor in the occupation. The occupiers, spearheaded by Ammon Bundy and the Hammond brothers "sought to turn the refuge into a symbol…… [Read More]

References

Bernton, Hal. "Birds -- and staff -- return to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge." Seattle Times. 27 March, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/northwest/birds-and-staff-return-to-malheur-national-wildlife-refuge/

Carpenter, Zoe. "Inside the Bundy Brothers' Armed Occupation." The Nation. Jan 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/inside-the-malheur-wildlife-refuge-occupation/
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Analyzing Low Self Control Theory

Words: 2356 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29114176

Low Self -Control Theory

This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity,…… [Read More]

References

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Burfeind, J. W. & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Demuth, S. & Brown, S.L. (2004). Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.

Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
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Media Theory Essay

Words: 1325 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38166825

Introduction

Cyberterrorism, illegal (and legal) espionage, piracy, and cybercrimes differ from their pre-digital counterparts in serious and meaningful ways. For one, the nature of online social interactions diverges from that of face-to-face or even voice-only interactions due to the shields of anonymity. Second, technological prophylactics ranging from encryption to skillful network architecture can add multiple levels of protection to shield perpetrators while exposing the weaknesses in a less advanced consumer public. Third, the rapid advancement of artificially intelligent systems creates new possible realities and problems, as non-human actors become part of increasingly complex systems. Finally, digital media has enabled formal and informal surveillance and other forms of illicit behavior, transforming the relationship between actors and objects in ways that could alter political and social realities. Actor-network theory is an ideal lens and process by which to better understand the complex gamut of cybercrime. Developed initially in the 1980s and solidified…… [Read More]

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Crime Theory Case Study

Words: 799 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33285217

Criminal Minds

The constant battle with violent crime is a perplexing problem for those designated to solve these types of problems. This frustrating cycle of failure and success seems to adopt the mantra, "one step forward, two steps back" in its purest sense. As gains are made it is important to understand the root causes of these results in order to better adapt the ever changing environment that creates new problems in this type of battle.

Zimmerman's (2007) case study investigated this struggle within the city of Boston, MA. In this research he described a story of great success through the help of community involvement as violent crime rates and homicides drastically reduced when this method was applied. Unfortunately, the gains were soon lost after a distorted strategy led the leadership awry.

The purpose of this essay is to explore this case study, and apply the research to the current…… [Read More]

References

Travis, L.F., III. (1983). The case study in criminal justice research: Applications to policy analysis.Criminal Justice Review (Georgia State University), 8(2), 46 -- 51. EBSCO Permalink: http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=14236432&site=eds-live

Wahyuni, D. (2012). The research design maze: Understanding paradigms, cases, methods and methodologies.Journal of Applied Management Accounting Research, 10(1), 69 -- 80. EBSCO Permalink: http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=76405928&site=eds-live

Scott, E., & Zimmerman, P. (2007). Revisiting gang violence in Boston.Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Available from http://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/web/product_detail.seam?E=3458242&R=HKS329-PDF-ENG&conversationId=192877
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Criminological and Criminal Justice Research

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36279086

Data collected in the survey questionnaires is then translated into the dialect of the country by professionals from that country who then regulate the fielding of the study in their country of origin (Cohen, 2008).

Benefits and drawbacks to using this type of research in criminology

With the increase in global criminal justice and crime, more scientists are devoting their interest in comparative studies. Comparative studies have limited implications on policies of a country unlike researches directed to a country where discoveries are drawn with significant approach suggestions provided. Therefore, funding for comparative studies is the major hindrance. Any study that includes more than one country will be very expensive regardless of whether it engages original observations, data, and interviews (Bennett, 2009).

Access to the research subjects has demonstrated to be challenging. Access could involve securing confidential and sensitive data, interviewing groups of sensitive agencies and observing clandestine activities. While…… [Read More]

References

Bennett, R.R. (2009). Comparative criminological and criminal justice research and the data that drive them*. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 33(2), 171-192. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/236984614?accountid=33337 

Cohen, S. (2008). Against criminology. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Books.

Winterdyk, J., Reichel, P.L., & Dammer, H.R. (2009). A guided reader to research in comparative criminology/criminal justice. Bochum: Universita-tsverlag Brockmeyer.
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Criminological Research Surpasses the Mere Act of

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59205292

criminological research surpasses the mere act of searching and viewing material on a topic and writing an expressive paper. Before research is conducted, it is important to fully grasp and comprehend what it is that needs to be research, why it would be researched, why if it at all it has been researched, and how it may be performed. Types of research that can be performed are basic, multipurpose, or applied. The purpose for research is usually to gain information or knowledge. This information might be predictive, explanatory, intervening, or descriptive in nature.

All research follows basic steps. These steps can be interpreted in a variety ways, but normally follow the same structure, form hypothesis, state hypothesis, collect data, review and record results or conclusion. Fitzgerald, Cox, & Fitzgerald, 2002, p. 124). Different methods of inquiry help gather the data for the research. easoning, causal (observation), deduction, induction, and the…… [Read More]

References

Fitzgerald, J.D., Cox, S.M., & Fitzgerald, J.D. (2002). Research methods and statistics in criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub.

Graziano, A.M., & Raulin, M.L. (2013). Research methods: A process of inquiry. Boston, Mass: Pearson.
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Criminology Theories and Their Impact

Words: 1252 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30304167

"

One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993).

elating Theory to Social Issue

elating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse.

The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence. If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem,…… [Read More]

References

Harrison, Larry R (1997) Control theory, labeling theory, and the delivery of services for drug abuse to adolescents. Adolescence Marcos, a.C., & Johnson, R.E. (1988). Cultural patterns and causal processes in adolescent drug use: The case of Greeks vs. Americans. The International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 545-572.

Ray, M.C., & Downs, W.R. (1986). An empirical test of labeling theory using longitudinal data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 23, 169-194.

Pawlak, Rebecca (1993) Effects of social bonds and childhood experiences on alcohol abuse and smoking. The Journal of Social Psychology
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Integrated Theory

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89798470

Integrated Theory

Sexual assault is an assault which is of a sexual nature done on another person either of the same of different sex. It also includes any form of sexual act that is committed without the consent of the person. Although in most cases, sexual assault is done by a man on a woman but in some cases, it has been documented to also be done by several men, women or children on men and children also Openshaw et al., 1993()

Prevalence

In the U.S. alone, about 300,000 cases of rape of women are reported every year. Additionally, 3.7 million women are usually subjected to other forms of unwilling sexual activity. There are also another 80,000 children in America who are abused sexually every year. Estimates by help agencies say that about one in every six American women has experienced sexual assault or will experience sexual assault at least…… [Read More]

Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2), 222-226.
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Crime Theories Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773820

Crime Theories

Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.

ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]

References

Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/

Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.

Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.

Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
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Influential Theories Related to Deviance by Robert

Words: 3803 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29991827

influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.

The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas

There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from  http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html 

Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.

Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications

Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
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Social Bonding Theory

Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14253591

Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory

The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
 

Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory

Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.

The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…… [Read More]

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Applying Criminology Theory in Iceman

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34321498

Introduction

“The Iceman” was a prolific assassin, Richard Kuklinski, whose title was owing to his modus operandi of freezing victims using cyanide (which was a rapid acting agent hard to identify by pathologists conducting autopsies) for impeding forensic analysts. He died nearly a decade back and left behind a self-confession of innumerable murders. The man’s own account and popular theory indicate that he was a happily married man with children who served as a contract killer for New York mobs prior to separating from them and continuing his gruesome work. His victims included acquaintances and friends. Psychiatrists claim he had a tendency to murder those who antagonized him (Anderson).

Family Background and Education

Born on 11th April, 1935 into a poor Jersey City household to a railroad brakeman (father) and a meat-packing factory worker (mother), Kuklinski demonstrated a preposterous degree of nastiness towards animals, right from his childhood. He enjoyed…… [Read More]

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Socialization Theories

Words: 869 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9283169

Homelessness in America has been a problem for a very long time. The homeless are a vulnerable population therefore something has to be done to make sure that the situation is either controlled or improved. One suggestion I would make is putting the homeless up in a local shelter and tries to re-integrate them back to the society very rapidly. The shelter encourages the people to look out for themselves by requiring that the homeless take part in the upkeep of the shelter if they want to stay. The second suggestion would be enabling these homeless people at these shelters go back to work. Social workers can help the homeless get their birth certificates or proof that they are citizens and a social security card hence they can be bale to get work. These ideas can make the homeless more responsible and hence they can be able to stand out…… [Read More]

Reference

Rebecca Bay, (2014). Testing for the Chivalry Hypothesis within the Central Nebraska Drug Court System. University of Nebraska at Kearney. Retrieved July 24,2014 from  http://www.lopers.net/student_org/SSRP/papers/pdf/crj_bayr.pdf
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Crime Theory in the World of Criminology

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16714251

Crime Theory

In the world of criminology, several theories have been constructed to help legal professionals understand the nature of and motive behind criminal activity. Studying these more closely can help with the rehabilitation of criminals and curb criminal activity. Criminal theory, therefore, is constructed to determine ways in which to prevent crime and mitigate the crime being committed. Theories such as the social control theory, strain theory, differential association theory, and neutralization theory can therefore be used for the purposes mentioned above. Each theory has its strenghts and weaknesses; to determine the theory to use could be determined on a case by case basis, hence enhancing the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of the theory in question.

According to Welch (1998), Hirschi wrote his Causes of Delinquency, in which he developed the social control theory, during the 1960s. This was a troubled time in social terms, and American society…… [Read More]

References

Ball, R.A. (2006, Mar 7). An Empirical Exploration of Neutralization Theory. Criminology, Vol 4, Iss 2. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1966.tb00147.x/abstract

Matsueda, R.L. (2000). Differential Association Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.soc.washington.edu/users/matsueda/DA.pdf

Nash, M. (2002, Nov. 15). General Strain Theory as an Explanation for Crime and Deviance. Retrieved from: http://web.viu.ca/crim/student/nash.pdf

Welch, K. (1998, Nov. 30). Two Major Theories of Travis Hirschi. Retrieved from: http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/hirschi.htm
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Gendered Criminology Theory the Authors

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25317278



A truly gendered theory would therefore provide a more unified theoretical framework. The gendered theory that the authors suggest has four key elements. These are the following. Male as well as female criminal behavior should be able to be explained by the theory. This is achieved through the understanding of the he organization of gender. For example, the organization "... deters or shapes delinquency by females but encourages it by males." This refers to norms and gendered identities as well as the effect of institutions and relationships that shape both female and male criminal behavior and criminal predilection.

A second key aspect of this theory is context. This is an essential aspect of the theory and is a concept that makes it different to many other theories on this subject. Context is the aspect that possibly raises this gendered theory to another level of significance. By context is meant that…… [Read More]

References

Steffensmeier D. Emilie a. (1996) Gender and Crime: Toward a Gendered

Theory of Female Offending. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22, pp. 459+.
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Victimization Theories of Crime Victimization Theories of

Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51701514

victimization theories of crime. Victimization theories of crime focus on victim characteristics and behavior patterns, rather than focus exclusively on the perpetrators of crime. These theories help present a broader picture of crime rates and patterns within any given community. Victimization theories also help to identify vulnerable groups, and can therefore be helpful when creating public policy or law enforcement strategies.

Some victimization theories include victim participation theory, victim lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and routine activity theory. Each of these theories can be useful in helping communities, individuals, and law enforcement officials discover ways of promoting public safety and minimizing crime. For example, a victimization theory revealing that people in a certain neighborhood are more vulnerable can help raise awareness about crime in that community so that the local residents and law enforcement can collectively pool resources.

Data on victimization can be used in a number of different ways.…… [Read More]

References

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Retrieved online: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245

Herek, G.M., Gillis, J.R. & Cogan, J.C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67(6), Dec 1999, 945-951

Ybarra, L.M.R. & Lohr, S.L. (2002). Estimates of repeat victimization using the national crime victimization survey. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 18(1).
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biological theories of crime

Words: 1593 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13502099

.....biological well-being and the features of the environment and how these affect a person's behavior and criminal tendencies is made clear by biological theories. Research has proved that the common traits and actions seen in criminals like delusion, brutality, loneliness and spontaneity are a function of several biological features such as physical problems, blood glucose levels and eating habits, external head damage, mental function and makeup, heredity, body systems and impaired mental function. The supporters of this theory believe that the biological insight into conventional actions of criminal minds give more effective tools, mechanisms, beliefs and examples which can work smoothly with the normal anticrime systems in keeping up their work quality.

The basic belief of the study targeted at biological makeup and criminality is that there is a connection between delusion, brutality, loneliness and spontaneity and crime. Several studies apply their own developed methods and parameters, a trend which…… [Read More]

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Criminology and the Use of Statistical Evidence

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90843203

Criminological Theory and Statistical Data

Introduction

Criminological theory is not always based on evidence—that is, on statistical evidence. Sometimes it is based on ideas that seem logical at the time. Theorists will notice correlations in the ways in which crime emerges in certain communities and they will base their theories of crime on these observances, though no statistical evidence is actually accumulated to verify the theory. The theory simply makes sense from a logical or rational point of view and in this manner it can be promoted. Its basis of evidence is qualitative (i.e., content-related, conceptual or thematic) rather than statistical and empirical (i.e., data that can be measured, quantified and verified through testing). Broken Windows Theory is one example of criminological theory that was based on qualitative assessments rather than on statistical data (Jean, 2008). While the theory has been embraced over the years since it was first developed,…… [Read More]

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Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

Words: 1770 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62195901

Crime

Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

The increase in juvenile delinquency has become a world-wide phenomenon, especially in many developed countries. This trend is also evident in cities like Hong Kong and can be seen in a recent report which asserts that the age of juvenile offenders in Kong is getting younger. This study by Pang (2008) states that, "Some juvenile delinquents are now as young as 10 and 11..." (Pang, 2008).

According to the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, another disturbing indication of the increase in youth crime was the number of crimes committed by young females, which increased in 2006. "The young girls, mostly aged 13 to 14, usually like to commit crimes with their friends, like stealing accessories or cosmetics"..." ( Pang, 2008). Furthermore, this study notes that there was a thirteen percent increase in crimes committed by children…… [Read More]

References

Broadhurst R. ( 2000). Crime Trends in Hong Kong. Retrieved from  http://www.crime.hku.hk/rb-crimetrends.htm 

Cagape E. ( 2008). Why I think juvenile offenders are getting younger. Retrieved from http://asiancorrespondent.com/17054/why-i-think-juvenile-offenders-are-getting-younger/

Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory. Florida State University.

Retrieved from http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
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Ivan Nye

Words: 498 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22663436

Criminology and Their Relevance

Ivan Nye's Teenage Delinquent Theory

Ivan Nye's 1958 book "Family Relationships and Delinquent Behavior" provides information with regard to the role families and environments in general play in a person's upbringing. Nye emphasized the fact that families are in charge of teaching children about social ideas and in assisting them to take on rational attitudes. By presenting them with rules and by making it difficult for them to interact with individuals or situations that can have a negative effect on them, families can enable children to behave in normal ways.

Nye's theory relates to how in spite of the fact that people are typically inclined to perform deviant activities, the majority of individuals act in agreement with social norms. From his perspective, there are four types of social control that families provide their children with: internal control, indirect control, direct control, and legitimate need satisfaction. Internal…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Cullen, F.T. "Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory, Volume 1," (SAGE, 2010)

McLaughlin E. & Newburn, T. "The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Theory," (SAGE, 6 Jul 2010)
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Crime on March 9th 2013 Two New

Words: 5716 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8975565

Crime

On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…… [Read More]

References

Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.

Domes, 19(1), 68-81.

Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.

Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
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Anthony in June 2008 Casey

Words: 817 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1779162

To achieve these objectives, she murdered her daughter and created a story about how she was kidnapped. The situational choice theory states that crimes will occur based on individual choices and motivating factors. When this is applied to Anthony's situation, it is clear that murdering her daughter was a choice that she made. This is because she was motivated to have her personal freedom. ("eview of Basic Criminological Theory") (Jensen 284 -- 288) ("Casey Anthony")

What category of theory is least effective for explaining this young woman? Why?

The theory that is least effective in explaining Anthony's activities is the neo-classical approach. The reason why is because this theory is focused on understanding the importance and dynamics of character development. It will then examine how this will affect the person's ability to make rational decisions. In the case of Anthony, her character did not have any kind of impact in…… [Read More]

References

Casey Anthony. Investigation Discovery, 2011. Web. 6 Mar. 2012

Review of Basic Criminological Theory, 2012.

Jensen, Vicky. Women Criminals. Staten Island: Greenwood, 2012. Print.

MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
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Teens Get Involved in Gangs

Words: 1776 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 238085

al, 1994). Furthermore, the role of police in a community has to change from merely trying to suppress gang activity to actively trying to prevent gang activity. (Spergel, et. al, 1994).

The proliferation of gangs is one of the most pressing social problems facing modern America. While the primary purpose of gangs may be to engage in criminal activity, they serve other social functions that attract teens as gang members. Each teen who becomes involved in a gang runs a significant risk of not being able to participate in normal, non-criminal society. Therefore, it is important to understand how teens become involved in gangs and to focus efforts on prevention. Although no one theory seems capable of entirely explaining how and why teens become involved in gangs, the various criminological theories and the social disorganization theory are capable of giving insight into why children feel attracted to gangs. These theories…… [Read More]

References

Cantillon, D., Davidson, W., & Schweitzer, J. (2003). Measuring community social organization: sense of community as a mediator in social disorganization theory.

Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 321-339.

Jones, D. et al. (2004). Street gangs: a review of theory, interventions, and implications for corrections. Ottawa: Research Branch Correctional Service of Canada.

National Youth Gang Center. (2006). National youth gang survey analysis. Retrieved November 2, 2006 from National Youth Gang Center
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Gang Activity Please See Notes

Words: 3398 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36646386

This becomes further complex as economic ties blur between the poor and middle classes and the expectations each has about the definition of materialistic success. By belonging to a subculture, however, one can feel part of something larger, insulated a bit from the criticisms and unattainable messages of the upper middle class, and certainly a way to belong and feel important with one's own environment (Siegel and Welsh, 2009, 130-1).

Contemporary Urban Issues- in the United States, the National Gang Center estimates that there are almost 800,000 active street gang members, most concentrated in Los Angeles County and the greater Chicago area. Demographically, Hispanics account for almost 50% of gang members, African-Americans 30%, Caucasians 13%, and Asians 6% (Carlie, 2002). Unfortunately, Native American communities are also being overrun by gang violence and drug trafficking. Most tribal communities, in fact, have significant gang activity; contributing also to the continued economic downturn…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Gangs in America. (2003). The National Center for Victims of Crime. Retreived January 2011, from NCVC.org:

http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32352

The Gang Threat - Get Educated. (2009, February 6). Retrieved January 2011, from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2009/february/ngta_020609

Adamoli, Di Nicola, Savona and Zoffi. (1998, March). Orgqanized Crime Around the World. Retrieved January 2011, from University of Helsinki: http://www.heuni.fi/uploads/mmadzpnix.pdf
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Case Summary Analysis

Words: 1790 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72324559

Kennedy, aged 46, was traveling in a convoy when he was shot. He was in a limousine with an open top, passing the Book Depository of Texas School Building, in downtown Dallas at around 12:30 P.M. Kennedy's wife, Jacqueline Kennedy, the governor of Texas John Connally (1917-1993), and John's wife Nellie were riding with President Kennedy that day. John Connally also got shot and sustained serious injuries. Kennedy is said to have died 30 minutes after the shot. He had been rushed to the Parkland Hospital of Dallas.

Less than 60 minutes after the shooting, Oswald, who was formerly a Marine, murdered a police officer who interrogated him while on a street close to his rooming house in Dallas. Oswald had just begun his job at the Book of Depository of Texas School Building. After half an hour, he was apprehended while at the movie theatre. The police had been…… [Read More]

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Crime the Purpose of This

Words: 2753 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71668087

Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.

Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]

References

Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352

Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime 

Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.

Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
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Humans Have Been Contemplating Their

Words: 1076 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94761475

g. stealing bread in Les miserable), and allowing the nature of punishment be focused more on the crimes that tend to hurt society the most.

Part 2 -- Developmental Theories and Understanding of Criminal Behavior - the basic idea of development theories of crime have at their core the idea that humans are actually either inherently good (more Locke) or more of a blank slate in which society/culture leaves its mark. Any antisocial behaviors must develop over time and are the result of some sort of underlying behavior or condition that occurs and is amplified during life's processes and activities. Circumstances, not an inherent bent on being deviant, is what makes this theory work.

The theory changes the position of how we view criminal activity in that some actions increase the possibility of deviance, while others decrease crime. It is not, however, as simple as nature vs. nurture. People who…… [Read More]

References Taken From:

Cullen, F. & Agnew, R. (2011). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. New York:

Stafford, M. & Warr, M. (2011). Reconceptualizing Deterrence Theory. In Cullen & Agnew. Criminological Theory: Past to Present. New York:

Oxford University Press, pages 394-99.
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Punishment Program

Words: 1860 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22230280

Punishment Program

This punishment program is a middle ground between incarceration and traditional probation and parole. The individuals participating in this program are released into the community, however, they are subject to very strict guidelines and conditions; failure to meet the requirements leads to a jail term in one of the state's jails to serve their sentence. The punishment program is divided into three types; house arrest, day reporting and intensive reporting. Individuals on house arrest are required to wear ankle bracelets along with a tracking device at all times, which electronically monitors their whereabouts. Any eligible individual can be placed on house arrest, however, those individuals serving mandatory D.U.I. sentences are by law, required to be on house arrest with electronic monitoring. In addition, individuals on day reporting are required to report in person to the respective I.P.P. office on a daily basis. Once at the office, all individuals…… [Read More]

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Crime the Importance and Significance

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3336847

The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.

These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruce C.W. Crime Analysis. 16 October 2007. http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:Rv5FYusFZ4gJ:www.iaca.net/ExploringCA/exploringca_chapter1.pdf+importance+of+analysis+of+crime&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=ukFundamentalsof

Keel, R. (2004) Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory.

Retrieved October 17, 2007. from the University of Missouri. Web site. http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html

Overview of Labelling Theories. October 16, 2007. http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/crime/labeling.htm
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Causes Crime & Process Change Choose Country

Words: 3639 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52403436

Causes crime & process change): Choose country (*Iraq Afghanistan) crime (*Terrorism) relevant country. Obtain statistics crime show crime trends a period 8-9 years (e.g. 1995-2009). Then explain, criminological theories (*Conflict Theory Lableling Theory), crime relevant country (context), occurred place (causal factors), increased decreased years (change).

There has been much controversy in the last two decades regarding the issue of terrorism in Afghanistan, given that numerous countries have changed their international policies as a result of acknowledging the terrorist threat in the Middle East. ith the Taliban political group holding power for several years before the September 11, 2001, events at the orld Trade Center in New York, terrorism has reached a whole new level. It is difficult to determine the exact factors that fueled the terrorism movement in the country, with some of the most influential of them being the drug industry, the concept of jihad, and biased interpretation of…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Brecher, Irving. "Terrorism, Freedom and Social Justice: the War in Afghanistan," International Journal 57.1 (2002)

Chesterman, Simon. "Tiptoeing Through Afghanistan: The Future of UN State-Building" International Peace Academy. 2002.

Donohue, Laura K. In the Name of National Security: U.S. Counterterrorist Measures, 1960-2000. 2001.

Dunne, Michele Durocher. Integrating democracy promotion into U.S. Middle East Policy. Democracy and the rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. no 50, October 2004.
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Society as Insulation Chapter Review Reaction

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36022929

The whole idea of society's role and function as a matter of control is being turned on its head yet again (Lilly, Cullen & Ball, 2011).

This entire thought pattern dovetails nicely with the eckless talk of pushes and pulls. Many people that are protesting against private industry and/or society as a whole are no doubt influenced by internal pushes and external pulls. This is not to automatically label all such influencing as deviancy, but there are some that would absolutely do that and no doubt the two parties in many days do the labeling against each other for the same situation (Lilly, Cullen & Ball, 2011).

Even so, the focus of eckless on juvenile delinquency and other related behavior is a lot less shades of gray and much more black and white. Crime is crime, even if the motives and indicators of it are stemming from something that is…… [Read More]

References

Lilly, J.R., Cullen, F.T., & Ball, R.A. (2011). Criminological theory: context and consequences (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications.
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Criminal System the Juvenile Criminal System This

Words: 455 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18446102

Criminal System

The Juvenile Criminal System

This paper will seek to address two questions:

How is the juvenile justice system different from the adult system? Explain your response.

Response:

adek (2011) states that the two systems share both commonalities and differences. He presents the juvenile justice system as a rehabilitation center instead of a punishment center for juveniles. However, he also states that punishment is still a central feature of this system, though it is a last resort. Some similarities include "the police, judiciary, and corrections have discretion relative to decision making in both systems."

adek also states that "those adults and juveniles that admit guilt there is a system of procedural safeguards to protect their rights."

Furthermore, he argues that the other commonalities include age group separation, plea bargaining, as well as processes of hearings an appeals.

When adults are tried for crimes, it is clear that there is…… [Read More]

Gadek, Radek. (2011). The Juvenile Justice System and the Adult Justice System. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from  http://criminaljusticeonlineblog.com/11/the-juvenile-justice-system-and-the-adult-justice-system/ 

Gadek, Radek. (2011). The Juvenile Justice System and the Adult Justice System. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from
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Criminal Offending in the Past Any Form

Words: 2294 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36633122

Criminal Offending

In the past, any form of criminal activity was associated with low self-esteem that is why criminal activity was minimal. Paying for crime in the past involved ruthless means, including tying a criminal on a stone and throwing them into the river. Comparing the past with the modern world, a great contrast occurs. Criminal offenders in the modern world appear to be of very high self-esteem. The self-esteem arises from prior criminal activities, personal traits and participation in prison. It is so unfortunate because criminals do not fear the law, security officials and subsequently no regard for positive punishment.

Criminologists and psychologists have a task of establishing whether crime is in either way related to the human mind, behavior and psychology. Criminal activity is increasing by day, and the securities do not know what to attribute for especially, when correctional facilities are full of criminals. It is likely…… [Read More]

References

Broidy, L.M., (2001). A test of general strain theory. A Journal of Criminology, 39, 9-36.

Cesar, J.R., Nicole, L.P., Alex, R.P., & Stephen, G.T., (2010). Anticipated shaming and criminal offending. Journal of Criminal justice, 38, 988-997.

Inga, D.S., Alfgeir, L.K., & Robert, A. (2012). A comparative analysis of general strain theory.

Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 117-127.
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Criminology Biological Sociological and Psychological

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52134365

This is the foundation of the psychiatric classification of antisocial personality disorder. obins also thought that antisocial personality is evident early in life and that it tends to persevere from childhood to adulthood, with dissimilar behavioral demonstrations (Farrington, 2002).

Normally, psychological theories often comprise motivational, inhibiting, decision-making, and learning processes. The most ordinary motivational notion is that individuals, particularly kids are naturally self-indulgent and self-centered, looking for pleasure and staying away from pain, and thus that kids are naturally antisocial. Another characteristic notion is that individuals are provoked to uphold an optimal level of stimulation. If their level falls below the best, they will try to augment it, while if it is above the best they will try to reduce it (Farrington, 2002).

Sociological theories put forth that crime is caused by anomie or the dissociation of the person from the shared conscience. This can happen by social disorganization; by…… [Read More]

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Role of Prisons in the Society I

Words: 1988 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37250638

role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and negative aspects. In the conclusion, I have given my preferred theory of imprisonment as the most effective and important ones.

A prison can be defined as a protected and locked institution where juvenile and grown-up offenders are housed with punishments that vary from a year to life. Such facilities hold the objective of accomplishing the verdict that the courts impose on the offenders and also of protecting the community and civil society by taking measures to prevent escapes. These facilities are also liable to provide programs and services that are important for taking care of the convicted population under their custody (Sumter 2007).

The issue of imprisonment has constantly been an intense experience for every individual found guilty of committing offenses. Sometimes…… [Read More]

References

Banks, C. (2004). The Purpose of Criminal Punishment. In: Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publicaton, pp 103-126.

Mauer, M. (2004). Thinking About Prison and its Impact in the Twenty-First Century. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law [online].2, p.607-618. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].

Macionis, J.J. & Plummer, K. (2008). Control, Crime and Deviance. In Sociology: A Global Introduction (5th edition), New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp591-592.

MacKenzie, D.L. (1996). Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice University of Maryland, Maryland. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
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Juvenile Offenders and Reoffending

Words: 11154 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46175369

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.

The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…… [Read More]

References

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Burfeind, J. & Bartusch, D. (2015). Juvenile delinquency (p. 158). Routledge.

Cale, J., Smallbone, S., Rayment-Mchugh, S., & Dowling, C. (2015). Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal Of Research And Treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063215580968
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Ecological Models of Crime

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9960090

Chicago School of Thought, Anomie and Strain Theories

Criminology: Chicago School, Anomie and Strain Theories

The Chicago School of criminology is a name for a conglomeration of different criminological theories that stress how the environment shapes crime-related behaviors. Chicago School theories are often said to be based on an 'ecological' models of crime. For example, theorist obert Park held "all cities would contain identifiable clusters, which he called natural areas, where the cluster had taken on a life or organic unity by itself," including ethnic and class-based enclaves (Criminological theory: A text/reader, 384). Park specifically commented upon trends in which saw commercial businesses invading traditionally residential areas of Chicago, causing the residents to care less about the quality of their neighborhoods, show less solicitousness to their fellow human beings, and thus precipitate more crime (Criminological theory: A text/reader, 385). Ernest W. Burgess later expanded upon the theory, dividing cities into…… [Read More]

References

Criminological theory: A text/reader. Sage. Retrieved from:

http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/29411_6.pdf

Robert Agnew's general strain theory. (2014). FSU. Retrieved from:

http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/agnew.htm
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Gang Prevention Program Gangs Contain

Words: 5590 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76787344



George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.

Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs

Suppression techniques may be one of the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009

from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx

ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.

Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
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Peacemaking Criminology the First Difficulty

Words: 3963 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20599631

They began to outline an issue of the journal which they tentatively called Contemporary Criminology: A Journal of Ideas Predisposed Toward Radical Democratization. It was hoped that the first issue might arrive during the Fall of 1996.

About the same time, Sullivan and Tifft also spoke about creating a new association for scholars, activists, and practitioners that would serve as an alternative to the conventional academic criminology and criminal justice organizations. It was suggested that the members of this association might come together each year and share their ideas and discuss their current work in mostly plenary sessions. Great emphasis would be put on the participation of everyone present through extensive discussions. An invitation would be extended to all those associated with the restorative justice community who, though they met periodically around the globe, had no permanent home or community with which to share their ideas and find support.

It…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Annual Report Fiscal Year 2004. Restorative Justice Program, Prince William County Office of Dispute Resolution. 2004.

Coser, Lewis. (2004). Crime Theories. Retrieved June 28, 2005 at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/111/111lect03.htm.

The Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis. Research and Statistics Division Methodological Series. Department of Justice Canada. 2001.

Gulati, Shruti Gola (1996). Healing the Circle: Exploring the Conjuncture of Peacemaking Criminology and Native Justice Initiatives. M.A. thesis. Department of Criminology. University of Ottawa. Retrieved June 29, 2005 from www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk3/ftp05/mq20919.pdf.
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Have Stiff Drug Laws Helped or Hurt the Criminal Justice System

Words: 1901 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4814440

Drug Laws

The Shortcomings in our Current Drug Law Policy: Research Proposal

As a major policy issue in the United States, the ar on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, America's policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the ar on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the United States has been one of prosecution and imprisonment rather than one of decriminalization, treatment and rehabilitation. As our medical and scientific communities characterize addiction as a disease, the United States government continues to characterize this disease as a crime. And in doing so, it has created an unnecessary criminal class in the United States. The research proposal will set out to prove…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Debusmann, B. (2012). Obama and the failed war on drugs. Reuters.

DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory.

DeMelo, D1. (2005). Cloward & Ohlin's Differential Opportunity Theory. Criminological Theory.

Eldredge, D.C. (1998). Ending the War on Drugs: A Solution for America. Bridgehampton, NY: Bridge Works.