The initial modern clarification of crime is known as "classical hypothesis" (Cullen and Agnew 2011). This hypothesis was produced in response to the malefic, irrational, and barbaric frameworks of criminal equity that existed in Europe in the 1700s. The laws were frequently arbitrary; judges were corrupt; penal awards for the same wrongdoing varied broadly; and disciplines were at times very cruel, causative of extreme physical abuse and often resulting in death. Classical Theorists needed to supplant the framework with one that was more viable and just. They contended that individuals are balanced creatures who seek after their own particular pursuits, endeavoring to amplify their pleasure and minimize their unhappiness. Individuals decide to indulge in wrongdoing when they accept that it will bring more joy than agony, As such, the most ideal approach to control wrongdoing is to guarantee that the torment of penal awards exceeds the delight gained of wrongdoing, specifically, people will be deflected from wrongdoing if disciplines are quick, sure, and befit serious of the crime.
For this framework to work, however, the laws must be unmistakably expressed and implied to all equitably. Further, penalties ought not to be excessively cruel; this is unnecessary and may beget revulsion. Classical Theory has had a tremendous effect on the criminal equity frameworks across countries; an effect that is apparent today. Such frameworks are focused around the presumption that lawbreakers are reasonable creatures who are not forced into crime; express that the law is equitably applied, and endeavor to aver crime through penal awards. Classical Theory is additionally the immediate cause for "rational choice theory" and the crime control...
Cesare Lombroso and others contested the thought that lawbreakers are sound and balanced beings who freely decide to indulge in wrongdoings (Cullen and Agnew 2011). Rather, they vouched for the fact that offenders are not as naturally evolved as other individuals are, and their primitive or savage disposition drives them to indulge in criminal activities. Taking into account his physical examinations of crooks and law-abiding individuals, Lombroso asserted that culprits could be distinguished by their beastly organic peculiarities, for example, bushiness, extensive jaw and prominent cheekbones, and distinctively protruding lips. Lombroso's hypothesis and similar others were scrutinized scrupulously in the earlier to the middle of twentieth century, wherein scientists contrasted and compared the physical endowments of hoodlums with those of deliberately matched specimens of law-abiding folks. None of the aggravated natural contrasts portrayed by these speculations were accentuated. This, in tandem with the penal ramifications and legal punishments arising thereof (e.g., specific rearing and sterilization), caused the biological postulations to wane in the following decades. All the same, the work of Lombroso and others stimulated the ascent of the positivistic methodology to criminal activities; or the thoughts that wrongdoing is because of powers past the control of the individual and that hypotheses regarding offenses ought to be viewed against perceptions of the larger percepts. The biological postulates' posturing of Lombroso and others were supplanted with sociological and psychological hypotheses of criminal activity, with sociological hypotheses coming to the fore of criminology world in the mid- twentieth century.
These hypotheses, then again, were contested amid the '60s and '70s. The dissensions that rose in numerous states, in tandem with the worry over racial/ethnical, sexual orientation, and colonization excesses, lead numerous criminologists to focus attention on the part played by the state in stimulating criminal…
Interdisciplinary Theory Evaluation Middle range and interdisciplinary theories can significantly inform clinical practice. This is particularly true for Alberta Bendura's self-efficacy theory and Sister Callista Roy's adaptation model. This paper evaluates the applicability of the two models in breast cancer care. First, a description of breast cancer is provided. Next, the two theories are summarized. Attention is then paid to critical evaluation of the two theories. Finally, the most appropriate
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization? Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that
Introduction Dorothea Orem developed her self-care deficit nursing theory in order to improve the quality of nursing care in her state. Her theory is rooted in three sub-theories, which are the theory of self-care, the theory of self-care deficit and the theory of nursing system. Put together, they describe an approach to nursing where nurses work within a system to help patients to help themselves, as a means of improving the
Theory vs. Creativity in Design Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss,
The appeals process is needed by those institutions that were rejected by the accreditation body after the external evaluation. PRIM&R standards do not include such a step in the accreditation process. The accreditation is only valid for 3 to 5 years, after which it must be repeated. Despite accreditation's numerous advantages, it cannot totally replace federal regulation. The accreditation body is not responsible for uncovering, investigating and sanctioning any violations committed by
The theory is also highly generalizable, as it can be applied to truly any body of knowledge yet is especially suited for nursing knowledge, which occurs along common lines throughout the profession (Chinn & Kramer, 2008; Fawcett et al., 2001). At the same time, the theory is quite abstract, and implementation can be difficult without a great deal of self-awareness, self-confidence, and a thorough understanding of the non-concrete and