Theory And Its Evaluation Essay

Length: 4 pages Sources: 1 Subject: Criminal Justice Type: Essay Paper: #75926065 Related Topics: Criminological Theory, Shoplifting, Decision Theory, Social Control Theory
Excerpt from Essay :

Theoretical Evaluation

Theory Evaluation

The initial modern clarification of crime is known as "classical hypothesis" (Cullen and Agnew 2011). This hypothesis was produced in response to the malefic, irrational, and barbaric frameworks of criminal equity that existed in Europe in the 1700s. The laws were frequently arbitrary; judges were corrupt; penal awards for the same wrongdoing varied broadly; and disciplines were at times very cruel, causative of extreme physical abuse and often resulting in death. Classical Theorists needed to supplant the framework with one that was more viable and just. They contended that individuals are balanced creatures who seek after their own particular pursuits, endeavoring to amplify their pleasure and minimize their unhappiness. Individuals decide to indulge in wrongdoing when they accept that it will bring more joy than agony, As such, the most ideal approach to control wrongdoing is to guarantee that the torment of penal awards exceeds the delight gained of wrongdoing, specifically, people will be deflected from wrongdoing if disciplines are quick, sure, and befit serious of the crime.

For this framework to work, however, the laws must be unmistakably expressed and implied to all equitably. Further, penalties ought not to be excessively cruel; this is unnecessary and may beget revulsion. Classical Theory has had a tremendous effect on the criminal equity frameworks across countries; an effect that is apparent today. Such frameworks are focused around the presumption that lawbreakers are reasonable creatures who are not forced into crime; express that the law is equitably applied, and endeavor to aver crime through penal awards. Classical Theory is additionally the immediate cause for "rational choice theory" and the crime control...


Cesare Lombroso and others contested the thought that lawbreakers are sound and balanced beings who freely decide to indulge in wrongdoings (Cullen and Agnew 2011). Rather, they vouched for the fact that offenders are not as naturally evolved as other individuals are, and their primitive or savage disposition drives them to indulge in criminal activities. Taking into account his physical examinations of crooks and law-abiding individuals, Lombroso asserted that culprits could be distinguished by their beastly organic peculiarities, for example, bushiness, extensive jaw and prominent cheekbones, and distinctively protruding lips. Lombroso's hypothesis and similar others were scrutinized scrupulously in the earlier to the middle of twentieth century, wherein scientists contrasted and compared the physical endowments of hoodlums with those of deliberately matched specimens of law-abiding folks. None of the aggravated natural contrasts portrayed by these speculations were accentuated. This, in tandem with the penal ramifications and legal punishments arising thereof (e.g., specific rearing and sterilization), caused the biological postulations to wane in the following decades. All the same, the work of Lombroso and others stimulated the ascent of the positivistic methodology to criminal activities; or the thoughts that wrongdoing is because of powers past the control of the individual and that hypotheses regarding offenses ought to be viewed against perceptions of the larger percepts. The biological postulates' posturing of Lombroso and others were supplanted with sociological and psychological hypotheses of criminal activity, with sociological hypotheses coming to the fore of criminology world in the mid- twentieth century.

These hypotheses, then again, were contested amid the '60s and '70s. The dissensions that rose in numerous states, in tandem with the worry over racial/ethnical, sexual orientation, and colonization excesses, lead numerous criminologists to focus attention on the part played by the state in stimulating criminal…

Sources Used in Documents:


Cullen, F.T., and Agnew, R. (2011). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. Los Angeles: Roxbury. [An overview of the leading theories of crime, with selections from the original works.]

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