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Identifying the Most Effective Sociological Theory for Criminal Studies
Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11243839
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List of sociological theories
A representative listing of the sociological theories of crime discussed by Hagan (2017) includes the following:
1) Anomie theory by Emile Durkheim;
2) General Strain Theory by Robert Agnew;
3) Differential Opportunity theory;
4) Albert Cohen’s lower-class reaction theory; and,
5) David Matza’s delinquency and drift theory (Hagan, 2017).
Selection of five sociological theories ranked in order of most effective to least effective
The five sociological theories listed above are ranked in order of the most effective to least effective in Table 1 below.
Table 1
Sociological theories ranked most effective to least effective (descending order)
Sociological theory
Differential Opportunity theory
Anomie theory
General Strain Theory by Robert Agnew
David Matza’s delinquency and drift theory
Albert Cohen’s lower-class reaction theory
Analysis of the most effective sociological theory of crime
The rationale in support of the rankings set forth in Table…

Cohen’s lower class reaction theory. (2016). Wyndham University Department of Sociology. Retrieved from
Goode, E. (2008). Out of control: Assessing the general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford Social Sciences..
Hagan, F.E. (2017). Introduction to criminology: Theories, methods, and criminal behavior (9th ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA; Sage.
Hoffmann, J. P. (2011). Delinquency theories: Appraisals and applications. New York: Routledge.
Hoffmann, J. P. & Spence, K. R. (2010, December). Who\\'s to blame? Elaborating the role of attributions in general strain theory. Western Criminology Review, 11(3), 1-4.
Zafar, S. & Gul, S. (2016, July). Parental acceptance-rejection and delinquent behavior among adolescents. Pakistan Journal of Criminology, 8(3), 118-122.

Trait Social and Classical Theories on the Occurrence of Crimes
Words: 1252 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39739940
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Criminological Perspectives: Sentencing and Criminology
The justice system in the United States has always incorporated the study of criminals in an attempt to reduce offenses in the country. Many theories are used in fostering our understanding as to why crimes occur in the society. However, the theories can be grouped into three main perspectives as a trait, the social, and the classical theories. The following study expounds the nature and occurrence of crimes in society by considering the three aspects.
Trait theories incorporate psychological and biological theories and are based on the argument that criminality is a product of abnormal physiological and psychological traits. The argument is that genetic and biological factors are to blame for criminal behavior and a person having the trait is more likely to commit a crime (Taylor, Walton, & Young, 2013). However, it is believed that people with such traits can be trained not to…

Akers, R. L. (2013). Criminological Theories: Introduction and evaluation. Routledge.
Taylor, I., Walton, P., & Young, J. (2013). The new criminology: For a social theory of deviance. Routledge.
Tonry, M. (2014). Remodeling American Sentencing: A Ten?Step Blueprint for Moving Past Mass Incarceration. Criminology & Public Policy, 13(4), 503-533.
Zhang, Y., Zhang, L., & Vaughn, M. S. (2014). Indeterminate and determinate sentencing models: a state-specific analysis of their effects on recidivism. Crime & Delinquency, 60(5), 693-715.

Is Crime Normal Durkheim
Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84836365
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What does Durkheim mean when he says that crime is “normal”?

When the sociologist Emile Durkheim states that crime is normal, he does not mean that crime should be accepted by society. However, he does advocate the point-of-view that the conditions necessary for crime are, in effect, hardwired into the human animal. The reason that societal laws and institutions have developed are to contain those impulses. Human beings in a state of nature, without such constraints, would not be virtuous beings. Crime is to some degree necessary, though, Durkheim believed, because without it, society would, in effect, not exist. In other words, human beings would not consign their freedoms to a general institution without the fear of losing their life or property to crime. People are willing to concede some of their freedoms and thus enable society to exist, in exchange for the freedom from fear and the security which…

Fraud Investigation Report
Words: 1214 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Questionnaire Paper #: 35496609
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Fraud Investigation The Interview Process

Q1. Using private industry as a potential background for developing your fraud prevention and detection strategy, what type of external resource(s) would you recommend be established as soon as possible and included in the company’s marketing brochures as a value-added differentiating service with regards to reporting potential fraud that may be occurring in the asset disposition process? Keep in mind, this is not a SEC or a Securities Act situation.

One important source of value differentiation from other fraud investigative organizations can be the approach used by the emerging company. One such an approach is the SPEC (scope, plan, execute, close) model (Parulkar, 2010). The beginning of this method involves first determining the scope, or ascertaining the resources needed to complete actual job. This is followed by planning the investigation, executing the fact-finding exploration, and finally closing the investigation (Parulkar, 2010). While the sequential process…

Giacalone, J. (2015). Four basic steps in a fraud investigation. LexisNexis. Retrieved from:
Investigation. (2016). Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc. Retrieved from: interview-theory.pdf
Parulkar, N (2010). Investigate fraud with these best practices. Computer Weekly. Retrieved from: