What was the "rational choice theory" of crime causation?
The "rational choice theory" of crime causation holds that crime is consciously committed out of an intellectual desire to improve one's situation. Accordingly, the theory does not believe that delinquents are motivated through unconscious urges, but instead contends that people are goal-oriented. Another implication of the theory is that everyone, regardless of their neurological profile, has the ability to act in a rational manner. It also does not draw a distinction between adults and children, suggesting that all people have the innate ability to intellectualize the consequences of their actions. In this regard, criminals act only after judging the crime to be the most beneficial means through which to realize their objective. They believe that the costs or potentially negative consequences associated with the action are not as great as the benefits resulting from said action. The "rational choice theory"…… [Read More]
This is a form of punishment that is incremental in application, and establishes what the public perceives as unbreakable pattern of individual criminal recidivism (Siegel, p. 110). However, there is no evidence to support incarceration itself as a deterrent to crime (pp. 110-111). Many criminologists disagree with public opinion on the topic of three strikes incarceration (p. 110), which is, in brief, when a person commits a felony, that is a first "strike," in the person's sentencing history. A second felony is the second strike; then, any criminal act, from shoplifting to robbery takes the felon off the street for a minimum of 25 years, to life (p. 58). When a person is incarcerated for 25 years because of shoplifting - which has happened in states with the three strikes system (although three strike laws vary from state to state).
The public, and the goals of criminologists and the criminal…… [Read More]
All students would be responsible for monitoring the halls at all times and for telling their fellow students when they were violating one of the rules. o give them an incentive to engage in such monitoring, students would be responsible for certain duties, such as picking up litter, removing graffiti, and straightening the lunchroom when students violated school rules. A violation of the rules of the school would be a violation of the hard work of the other students and give students who were specifically responsible for these tasks a reason to make sure that other students did not litter, deface, or act disruptively. At the beginning of the year, students would be assigned age-appropriate tasks to mentor and orienting the youngest students during their first weeks at the school to create a sense of attachment to the future of the school and to the welfare of other students.
he…… [Read More]
Though the Positivist thinking does not contradict the beliefs toward human nature, it does argue that the majority of crimes that are of a serious degree are attributed to people whom have failed to the civilized norms of modern society (PSC, 2004).
In sum, the beliefs that invoked by criminal behavior have differed throughout time as much as the varying degree of crimes that we have seen through history. Sociologically speaking, crime is comprised of humans and their actions. Whether each instance is a direct result of the circumstances surrounding them or in part by the influences that have developed the criminal mind is subject for debate. However, one can only conclude that the full enlightenment for every instance of criminal behavior is most fully attainable through the psychological study of the criminal mind. It is through such evaluation that we as a society may determine the factors which contribute…… [Read More]
Biological Theory of Crime
The biological or bio-physiological theory of crime regards human behavior in general and of deviance and criminality in particular as mainly the result of internal states of mind (Schmalleger, 2009). More specifically, the biological perspective, as it was originally detailed in the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso, emphasized the role of heredity in conjunction with the (then) new concept of Darwinian Evolution also in conjunction with the principles of heredity by Gregor Mendel. That approach to understanding crime was called Atavism, meaning "from the father," to reflect the idea that behavior was largely a function of the genetics passed down from each generation to subsequent generations (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; Schmalleger, 2009).
According to biological perspective, criminal (an other) behavior patterns are attributable to inherent differences in brain structure, neurophysiology, neuro-chemical processes, and to hormonal and other endocrinal differences among different individuals (Gerrig &…… [Read More]
Consider this short excerpt: "On the day after his 23rd birthday, Mr. Hammond, a high school dropout, found himself on the other side of a barrel. He had gotten into an argument with a rival on 132nd Street near a Chinese restaurant. A friend of the rival took offense, pulled a gun from his waistband, and pumped two shots into Mr. Hammond's stomach, and another into his back" (Gregory, 2013). One could argue that this short excerpt demonstrates a clear manifestation of Merton's social strain theory in that there's a clear disconnect between the goals that Hammond has in life and a way to attain them. Instead Hammond has elected to simply become another part of gang-life and the kill or be killed mentality. In fact, one could argue that this violent activity rife with frequent shootings is actually a form of retreatism -- but instead of indulging in drugs…… [Read More]
Is Criminology a Hard Science?
Criminology is a discipline within the social sciences and as such is the study of people (Bhattacherjee, 2012). By comparison, researchers within the natural sciences focus primarily on physical phenomenon, such as the speed of radio waves through different materials or the impact of a drug on blood pressure. Since social science researchers, including criminologists, focus on the behavior of people as individuals and in groups there is inherently less certainty in the conclusions reached. For example, the change in temperature of a beaker of water when exposed to radio waves of a specific energy and frequency would be expected to be exactly the same under the same conditions. Any differences in temperatures would be attributed to either human error or some unnoticed change in the conditions; therefore, causal uncertainty would be an indicator of experimental error. By comparison, understanding the impact of…… [Read More]
These studies are in relation to some several factors. These include rehabilitation of offenders, historical studies of crime and critical inquiry of crime. Others include studies of reforms of crime control and studies of linking crime control to public policy.
Pratt suggests that the relevance of criminology is that it gives solutions as to how people can prevent a rise of criminal cases in society. People desire to protect themselves from negative situations they may encounter in the future. The relevance of criminology is that people need to safeguard their interests and safety (Pratt 2008). Criminal activities in society bring insecurity. Criminology, according to Pratt helps in offering solutions to these problems in society. Pratt states that an interest in crime is personal and bears a social qualification. This is evident because police and judiciary reporters in newspapers and television channels have programs and write essays on criminals and crime.…… [Read More]
Social control regulates the behaviour of people, preventing them from committing a crime. The high level of homicide in Chicago is a result of lack of social control. Population heterogeneity also contributes to the high level of homicide in the neighbourhoods (after 1990). The two theories complement each other in that they both support the idea behind the high levels of homicide in Chicago. Social disorder brings disunity in society, and this makes people commit criminal behaviours.
Social learning theory states that people will develop the motivation to commit crime if they associate with people who commit crime. Social control will enable people to practise social order and help them from associating with criminals who might influence them negatively. It is crucial for people to have self-control in order for them to refrain from committing criminal behaviours. Factors such as lack of self-control make people engage in criminal behaviour to…… [Read More]
In the case of family therapy, this may also be true for children. In addition, breaking the children away from the family may foster hatred or further anxiety between the groups, and bringing the children back into the home after the couples have undergone counseling may subject them to an unintended stressor, further harming their relationship with one another. In this case, it is important for members of law enforcement to realize that each family makes mistakes, and that being a part of a family is -- for many -- a new experience. Children of divorced parents, abusive parents, etc. may indeed be covered by an explanation of social learning theory when they have trouble running a family unit. However, addressing problems with the family intact can be one way to insure that the legacy does not pass to the children of this family.
Another negative affect that this policy…… [Read More]
This pleasure comes from some symbolic meanings of the act and the neurophysiologic high that is given to them by the act. (Motivations for Violent Crime among Incarcerated Adults: A Consideration of einforcement Processes) This means that before any individual has to commit violence, he has to move into his mental state for being able to commit violence. It does not happen without warning. This is true even for individuals who are normally violent. Only when a person is mentally unstable, he can flash into violence, but then that sort of person is likely to be in a mental ward.
Sometimes it can be even argued that when an individual puts a weapon in his pocket, he has a desire to commit violence. Even they may have some mental restrictions against committing violence, and this causes some to alcohol. Drinking is a very common excuse for becoming violent. The next…… [Read More]
This is because many people do not have the opportunity to do so or they chose not to do so. People start to engage in criminal activities such as theft to satisfy their needs. Cochran suggests that anomie is greatest where the goal of attaining societal goals occurs under conditions of individual competition. A decrease in state control and regulations leads to positive impacts in the economy. Three key elements affect crime in an economy (Cochran 2012). The first element is the degree of economic regulation/freedom. The second is the ability of the economy to sustain accrual of wealth opportunity. The third key element is the nature of economic conditions.
The economic freedom index measures the prominence of a free market and unregulated social constraints. Economic freedom index also measures political constraints in a market. Economic freedom is the absence of government control and coercion in production, distribution and the…… [Read More]
2010). The two conflicting factors in this version are a person's goals and the reality that prevents him from achieving the goals. In the micro level of analysis, strain theory shows how an individual of a family fails to achieve the societal goals because they lack the opportunities to do so. At the macro level of analysis, strain theory explains how a whole nation or civilization fails to achieve cultural goals because of lack of opportunities. This leads to increase in the level of crime because they may not have a source of income, therefore, will resort to crime.
The strengths of this theory are that it clearly explains how lack of opportunities will lead people to experience strain. The desire to live a happy life drives people because they want a life of riches and honor. People will practice anti-social behaviors when they lack opportunities to achieve success. Strain…… [Read More]
If human beings categorize behavior, experiences and events in a way they appear as representations of reality with effects that people can experience positively or negatively. Crime is examples of these social realities that people can collectively construct, deconstruct, and replace with less harmful realities (after 1990). Crime is a violation of criminal law while deviance is a threatening and moral offensive behavior. Crime is harmful because it leads to people facing losses. Crime leads to physical, social and psychological harm. According to the authors of the article, several factors lead to rise and fall of crime. These are rise in criminal activities, social constructed fear of crime presence and a willingness of authorities classify some activities as potential crimes. The authors, however, state that real developments in crime are hard to establish because crime is a social construction.
In the first article, Pratt (2004) states that the main cause…… [Read More]
M8D1: Assessing criminological theories
According to Bernard (2010), individual differences between people are a factor that can explain why some people commit crime while other does not. Individual difference between people leads to some people to be aggressive and engage in rule-breaking behaviors in society. These unruly behaviors according to may be as a result of genetic factors that are different in all people. There is a strong connection between genetics and the likelihood of a person to commit crime. Individual genetics from settings of ecological behavior and the macro level context of a community and the social systems may describe why some people commit crime (Bernard 2010). Some of the factors to consider in individual difference are willful antisocial proclivities, feeblemindedness, emotional instability, physical disability mental disability and antisocial personalities. These factors describe why some individuals commit crime while others refrain from doing so.
The second theory according…… [Read More]
Crime differences between Japan and U.S.
Crime is the act of breaking the law and involves the commission of a forbidden act or rather the neglect of a duty commanded by the law. It results into punishment to the offenders. Japan is a society with secular values and low crime rate based on the cultural beliefs and practices. The cultural contradictions found between Japan and U.S. influence the differences in the rate of crime. Japan has strong regional, cultural and social bases. This greatly increases the state of crime in the region. The people feel indebted to maintain peace by reducing conflicts. The concept of responsibility comes out in the Japanese culture compared to U.S..
In Japan, it is wrong to perform anything that will bring disgrace and shame to the family and the other social units. Crimes in U.S. are violent and include incidences such as rape, murder,…… [Read More]
An interesting aspect to the film is the communities change in attitude towards Delbert. While they had previously shunned him and his brothers they now supported Delbert as they felt that he has been wrongfully accused by the authorities. They also believed that he had been bulled and forced to sign. An interesting insight that the film provides is that the community rallied behind Delbert largely as the result of the intrusion of outside forces into their community. As one critic notes, "It's not that they believe that he's innocent, it's simply that he is one of "theirs." (Movies: Brother's Keeper)
From as criminological point-of-view the film has some interesting aspects. In the first instance the directors are very even-handed when it comes to the central issue of Delbert's guilt or innocence. "…Berlinger and Sinofsky firmly refuse to sugarcoat their subject; their glimpses of the & #8230;brothers and their bizarre…… [Read More]
By so doing, they hope to gain acceptance within that community as well.
Question: The question addressed here is whether cultural and community forces are causing individuals to commit delinquent acts as a way to be accepted and feel as though they belong.
Information: Information that was important to this study was a chart detailing the concerns for individuals in what was deemed the 'lower class culture.' In addition, each one of these concerns was addressed from the point-of-view of what they meant to the individuals within that culture.
Inferences: The main inference in this study is that individuals that come from lower-income and disadvantaged homes and communities often join gangs at a higher rate. When they do this, they work to be accepted by other gang members, and crime and delinquency are often ways to gain this acceptance.
Concept: In order to understand the reasoning of the author, it…… [Read More]
Concept: In order to understand Goddard's reasoning, one must understand the nature of feeblemindedness.
Inferences: The data establishes that the combination of feebleminded individuals with poor environments is likely to result in criminality.
Assumptions: Goddard assumes that morality and feeblemindedness are negatively correlated, without providing any data to support that assumption.
Implications: If one were to accept Goddard's reasoning, one would assume that criminal behavior was genetic and linked to intelligence, which could have positive consequences, such as focusing prevention efforts on the most at-risk individuals.
Point-of-View: The author seems to believe that feeblemindedness contributes to criminality in a manner that goes beyond the fact that the feebleminded may be forced to resort to criminal behavior in order to survive.
Chapter 23: The American Criminal
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine whether or not a criminal's physical characteristics are relevant to his crimes.
Question: Are criminals physically…… [Read More]
Marxism is very totalitarian and stilted, as opposed to the more relaxed attitude that was taken by some other philosophers in more recent times. An example of the Marxist ideals can be seen in the war that is still ongoing with Iraq. Many of the people there are now more unhappy than they were when Saddam Hussein was in power, and this comes as a surprise to those that are over in that country, trying to save it from itself. The Iraqi people, however, do not want the kind of 'saving' that the U.S. And others have offered to them. Many of them did want to be free of Hussein, but not at the cost of being bound to the American people or the other countries that sent troops over there. In other words, they were seeing first-hand the Marxist ideal that those that change the society change it for…… [Read More]
Similarities and differences
The two theories both agree that the structure of the society influences the level of crime. When people do not have the fundamental means of achieving success, they will look for other ways to do so. The two theories, however contrast with what causes increase in the level of crime. The anomie theory states that crime will increase when people have strain. This means that they have no opportunities or the institutional means of achieving societal goals. Social learning theory states that people are prone to commit crime when they associate with criminals. The social learning theory is best suited to describe the nature of black communities as opposed to affluent white communities. There is a higher level of criminal groups in black communities as opposed to white communities. When law-abiding citizens associate with criminals, there is a higher possibility that they will join the criminal gangs…… [Read More]
The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program was set up by the International
Association of Chiefs of Police in 1929 to produce reliable and uniform crime statistics for the country (FI 2004). The task of collecting, publishing and archiving these statistics first belonged to the FI. At present, these data come from almost 17,000 law enforcement agencies throughout the U.S.A. There are also annual publications that gather and print specialized facets of crime, such as hate crime, murder an assaults of law enforcement officers, special studies, reports and monographs.
Uniform Crime Reports provide periodic nationwide assessments of reported crimes not available in the criminal justice system (National Archive of Criminal Justice Data) from approximately 17,000 law enforcement agencies directly r through state reporting programs. Data are classified into agency-level, incident-level, and county-level. Agency-level data consist of five types, such as offenses known and clearances by arrest; property stolen and recovered;…… [Read More]
The documentary showed how the criminal justice system is biased towards the whites while having a huge number of African-American imprisoned. This documentary revolves around the racial injustice that happens within the criminal justice system, incarcerating many African-Americans on petty crimes, filling most of the prisons with them. This is shown as just an extension of slavery, which was abolished in the 13th amendment. However, this amendment has a loophole as no Americans can be slaved except for criminals, which was excessively exploited by the whites to get them to labor on small crimes. The perspective that Blacks are criminals was ingrained within the society through movies, which gave birth to public lynching and hanging of African-Americans based on the idea of them being criminals. From the start, this was just about enslaving the blacks through exploiting the amendment and portraying them as animals.
Answer B:…… [Read More]
Describe your understanding of criminology
Evidently, criminology deals with crime, which may be described as human behavior in violation of any local jurisdiction, state, or government’s stipulated laws; the entity in question should be authorized to formulate and implement them (Schmalleger, 2016). The above description is preferable as, in the absence of laws that specify behavior, one cannot claim that a crime has been committed, irrespective of the social repugnance or level of deviancy of a person’s conduct. The study of criminology may be described as an interdisciplinary occupation utilizing the systematic study of criminal conduct and crime; this covers cause, manifestation, control, and legal elements.
What parts of the criminal justice system are important to you?
I believe the following two components of the crime justice system hold significance: correctional systems and the courts.
The courts form a key criminal justice system component as they aim at ensuring fair…… [Read More]
List of sociological theories
A representative listing of the sociological theories of crime discussed by Hagan (2017) includes the following:
1) Anomie theory by Emile Durkheim;
2) General Strain Theory by Robert Agnew;
3) Differential Opportunity theory;
4) Albert Cohen’s lower-class reaction theory; and,
5) David Matza’s delinquency and drift theory (Hagan, 2017).
Selection of five sociological theories ranked in order of most effective to least effective
The five sociological theories listed above are ranked in order of the most effective to least effective in Table 1 below.
Sociological theories ranked most effective to least effective (descending order)
Differential Opportunity theory
General Strain Theory by Robert Agnew
David Matza’s delinquency and drift theory
Albert Cohen’s lower-class reaction theory
Analysis of the most effective sociological theory of crime
The rationale in support of the rankings set forth in Table…… [Read More]
Criminological Perspectives: Sentencing and Criminology
The justice system in the United States has always incorporated the study of criminals in an attempt to reduce offenses in the country. Many theories are used in fostering our understanding as to why crimes occur in the society. However, the theories can be grouped into three main perspectives as a trait, the social, and the classical theories. The following study expounds the nature and occurrence of crimes in society by considering the three aspects.
Trait theories incorporate psychological and biological theories and are based on the argument that criminality is a product of abnormal physiological and psychological traits. The argument is that genetic and biological factors are to blame for criminal behavior and a person having the trait is more likely to commit a crime (Taylor, Walton, & Young, 2013). However, it is believed that people with such traits can be trained not to…… [Read More]
What does Durkheim mean when he says that crime is “normal”?
When the sociologist Emile Durkheim states that crime is normal, he does not mean that crime should be accepted by society. However, he does advocate the point-of-view that the conditions necessary for crime are, in effect, hardwired into the human animal. The reason that societal laws and institutions have developed are to contain those impulses. Human beings in a state of nature, without such constraints, would not be virtuous beings. Crime is to some degree necessary, though, Durkheim believed, because without it, society would, in effect, not exist. In other words, human beings would not consign their freedoms to a general institution without the fear of losing their life or property to crime. People are willing to concede some of their freedoms and thus enable society to exist, in exchange for the freedom from fear and the security which…… [Read More]
Fraud Investigation The Interview Process
Q1. Using private industry as a potential background for developing your fraud prevention and detection strategy, what type of external resource(s) would you recommend be established as soon as possible and included in the company’s marketing brochures as a value-added differentiating service with regards to reporting potential fraud that may be occurring in the asset disposition process? Keep in mind, this is not a SEC or a Securities Act situation.
One important source of value differentiation from other fraud investigative organizations can be the approach used by the emerging company. One such an approach is the SPEC (scope, plan, execute, close) model (Parulkar, 2010). The beginning of this method involves first determining the scope, or ascertaining the resources needed to complete actual job. This is followed by planning the investigation, executing the fact-finding exploration, and finally closing the investigation (Parulkar, 2010). While the sequential process…… [Read More]
obert Merton was the brain behind Anomie Theory. This theory majors on deviance. The theory's major preoccupation is why rates of deviance differ from one society to the other and from one subgroup that come from one society to the other. Merton's work emphasizes cultures' unifying aspects and how it can create deviance and disunity within a society. Cultural norms, according to this theory, break down as a result of rapid changes that take place. The theory attributes occurrence of Anomic suicide to the occurrence of major economic depression that makes people not to achieve the goals they had learned to pursue (Siegel, 2008). Anomic suicide can also occur when there is an economic boom. In such circumstances people fail to limit their goals and be satisfied with their achievements. There can be lack of fit with regard to culture's norm about what constitute success in life and the…… [Read More]
This fear is intensified in the close quarters of prisons. Also, as noted in "Police Control of Juveniles" of Donald J. Black and Albert J. Reiss, Jr. both groups use techniques of fear and intimidation to deal with such a hostile environment. The police use their authority to intimidate prisoners or potential convicts on the street, while convicts use their potential menace and the real or threatened use of violence to assert authority against one another.
The process of "prisonization" and "policization" thus both involve the entry of the individual into a unique subculture, different from those ordinary persons inhabit. Like all human beings, there is a desire for survival, group approval, and esteem, all of which are met, according to the dictates of prison life, by obeying the rules of the social hierarchy. Prisoners are continually watched and monitored for deviant behavior, and these prisoners watch the police to…… [Read More]
Inaccurate and selective observations are common problems in all realms of research. In fact, they are basic perceptual fallacies that can lead to problems like stereotyping. Selective observation and inaccurate observations often occur unnoticed, and it take a lot of effort to recognize when such problems occur. However, researchers must remain aware of such errors, by being vigilant about their own work and by peer reviewing the work of others.
Schutt (2010) defines selective observation as "choosing to look only at things that are in accordance with our preferences or beliefs," (p. 4). Selective observation can be a major impediment to criminological research and law enforcement. One example of selective observation is racial profiling. As Dantzker & Hunter (2011) point out, selective observation "is when one sees only those things that one wants to see" and that "racial and ethnic stereotyping" are among the most common forms of the…… [Read More]
Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).
In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…… [Read More]
The environment extends beyond the family to friends and neighborhood. Neutrality has no effect on development of criminal behavior.
In order to understand the authors reasoning it is important to understand the concepts of behavior development, i.e. how observation of a behavior leads to development of that behavior. It is also important to understand the dynamics in various groups to understand why behaviors may be imitated from some sources and not others.
The author is working on the assumption that there are no other factors which develop criminal behavior. For example the assumption is that if criminal behavior develops then the criminal will undertake criminal activity at any possible opportunity. The theory does not explain why some children grow up in an environment which promotes crime and yet does not develop these behaviors and vice-versa.
If the reasoning of the author were to be accepted it has…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Research Review
Ricciardelli, R., Bell, J., & Clow, K. (2009). Student attitudes toward wrongful conviction, Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 51(3), 411-427.
There has been considerable research addressing the underlying factors regarding wrongful conviction; however, minimal research has been completed that investigates attitudes toward wrongful conviction. First and third year Canadian undergraduate students in criminal and non-criminal justice majors were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward various facets of wrongful conviction, the need to educate criminal justice personnel regarding contributing factors to wrongful conviction, the Blackstone ratio ("better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer), and the question as to whether wrongful conviction causes individuals to lose faith in the criminal justice system.
The problem was sufficiently narrowed down into a researchable problem, and is certainly formidable enough to warrant formal research efforts. The authors complete a significant comparison to the most…… [Read More]
From what I can tell Guantanamo Bay served no real purpose it its entire existence. It was a defensive move made by the Government after September 11th because they felt as though they had to do something, even though they truly did not know what that was.
Closure of Guantanamo Detention Facilities. (2009). etrieved March 25, 2010, from The White
House Web site:
Guantanamo Bay. (2009). etrieved March 25, 2010, from Discover the Networks Web site:
Marguiles, Joseph. (2004). A Prison Beyond the Law. Virginia Quarterly eview. 80(4), p37-55.
Obama defends plan to close Gitmo. (2009). etrieved March 25, 2010, from CNN Politics Web
Obama orders Guantanamo closure. (2009). etrieved March 25, 2010, from BBC News Web
Pries, Dana and Higham, Scott. (2004). At Guantanamo, a Prison within a Prison. etrieved March 25, 2010, from The Washington Post Web site:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A5918-2004Dec16.html…… [Read More]
These liberties are those on which this country was formed and have been upheld for many years as absolute certainties.
The Patriot Act has put a lot of doubt on whether these liberties are still protected guarantees. With this act giving the Government the power to use wiretaps to spy on people, search warrants to look for things that they don't even have to tell you about and the ability to look at ones private computer records it makes you wonder what this country is coming to. How is it that we the people have allowed it to come to this? What has happened to the guts on which this country was built? Back then this type of act would never have been passed and put into practice. Although it can be argued that this is because times are so much different now than they were back in the day,…… [Read More]
Purpose: In the Etiology of Female Crime: A Review of Literature, author Dorie Klein provides the reader with a brief overview of the development of female criminal activity. The purpose of the article is to inform the reader about the possible reasoning for this increasing trend.
Question: The driving question is what is the cause of female delinquency and female crime, especially violent crime.
Information: The author's survey of available material gathers information that generally points to the subordinate role in females as the cause for violent female behavior. Particularly, the author finds that the minimal role society gives to the adolescent female is a leading cause for adolescent female criminal behavior, a trend that tends to continue on into adult life.
Inferences: From this article, one can conclude that the basic philosophy of Marx, particularly as to how criminal behavior is a result of a class or group being…… [Read More]
In fact, and quite surprisingly, one of the key findings of the Rand Report was that 50% of the nation's detectives could be eliminated without having a significant effect on clearance rates in the country (O'Connor). This conclusion flies in the face of conventional wisdom on police work, yet was fully supported by the exhaustive study. The study was funded by the National Institute of Justice and was designed to monitor the effectiveness of detectives in clearing cases in a variety of situations. Surveys were designed and then sent to local and county police departments throughout the country with at least 150 fulltime personnel or a municipal jurisdiction of more than 100,000 people. In total, three hundred agencies were solicited, of which 153 responded with answers to the survey. hile all of the data from those 153 agencies was used in the compilation of the study, twenty-five of the respondents…… [Read More]
In a modern society, police have important roles play in preventing and managing crimes. The police are in good position to learn and investigate crimes and threats because they have available resources to ensure that communities are protected from vulnerable targets. However, changes and multi-dynamic complexities within a given society have necessitated police force to develop partnership relationships with various public agencies to enhance prevention of crimes and security matters within a society. (Clarke and Newman, 2007). Partnership working or partnership approach is largely based on the premises that only police force could not deal with the crime and complex safety problems within a community. Partnership working is defined as the cooperative relationships between two or more organizations with the aim to achieve common goals such as tackling the crime problems in a society. Partnership working with the goal to tackle crimes is now strongly embedded in the methods…… [Read More]
In this particular case, it appears that at least two elements of Ms. Stewart's arrest and her subsequent sentencing can be related to consensus theory.
Berle's theory of public consensus focuses on conditions within a civil society, where the consensus of the public forms a continuous although informal check on the powers of decision making held by managers (Moore and eberioux, 2010, p. 1113). In other words, managers and other powerful entities within corporations are subject to the public eye, which should serve as a deterrent for corporate crime. In a more formal way, this public consensus is legalized within guidelines and rules implemented by entities such as the SEC and other government agencies governing business ethics.
In the light of the above, one might therefore state that Martha Stewart's arrest for insider trading is the result of legal and public consensus regarding her guilt. She was found guilty according…… [Read More]
The victims of crimes are very important in the operation of the criminal justice system; this is because they are the ones who can lead the police to the offender. However, after the victim reports incidents to the police, provide vital information for the investigation and cooperate with the persecution of the offender and appearing in court when required, the criminal serves his time and the victim goes on with his life. Most may question the justice in this. According to the Victims of Crime Act 1994, the victims of crime are given better treatment during proceedings and are more informed and involved. Victims are treated with sympathy in a constructive and reassuring manner, and the victim (if the crime is violent) should be protected at all times. This may seem that the victim is well taken care of, and that the victim is in no way neglected, however it…… [Read More]
One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993).
elating Theory to Social Issue
elating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse.
The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence. If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem,…… [Read More]
It provides thousands of jobs and seemingly infinite streams of revenue for local businesses and corporations. Many citizens' livelihood is tied into the boom of the tourist industry, and has been for generations. Therefore, the attitude of many citizens within the boundaries of the city of Las Vegas, tend to favor protecting the city from theft. In fact, theft means not only their own suffering in the case of local theft cases, but also the potential to but a damper on the tourism which supports most of the city. Therefore, focusing on the crime wave of current theft cases will prove to best serve the interests of the citizens of Las Vegas.
With this then in mind, more specific recommendations can be given and potentially implemented within Las Vegas city limits which would help curb the tide of theft related crimes. One such recommendation is the investment into better technology…… [Read More]
This is the foundation of the psychiatric classification of antisocial personality disorder. obins also thought that antisocial personality is evident early in life and that it tends to persevere from childhood to adulthood, with dissimilar behavioral demonstrations (Farrington, 2002).
Normally, psychological theories often comprise motivational, inhibiting, decision-making, and learning processes. The most ordinary motivational notion is that individuals, particularly kids are naturally self-indulgent and self-centered, looking for pleasure and staying away from pain, and thus that kids are naturally antisocial. Another characteristic notion is that individuals are provoked to uphold an optimal level of stimulation. If their level falls below the best, they will try to augment it, while if it is above the best they will try to reduce it (Farrington, 2002).
Sociological theories put forth that crime is caused by anomie or the dissociation of the person from the shared conscience. This can happen by social disorganization; by…… [Read More]
Research and compare and contrast education in America. Dr. Carson grew up in poverty and claims education is the reason for his success. Is this an accurate statement? How does education impact directly or indirectly crime in America? Next, choose a district in an inner city and one in a non-urban area. Discuss the educational programs in each and then discuss the crime statistics within each area. What conclusions can you draw regarding education and its effect on crime in the area?
Several explanations of this have been thoroughly elaborated and they are based on the traditions popular in poverty-stricken regions, the unequal distribution of educational infrastructure, the standard of education in the less developed regions, the opinions of poor households and several others. There has been conclusive evidence showing that education truly boosts the development and advancement experienced by a region or community. Educational regulators and workers find themselves…… [Read More]
VI. DURKHEIM'S ANOMIE
Another theory in criminology is known as 'Durkheim's Anomie' which was conceived by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist who first introduced the anomie in the work entitled: "The Division of Labor in Society" in which the anomie was utilized in provides a description of a "condition of deregulation that was occurring in society." (Criminological Theory, 2001) This anomie was used to describe how that the mores' of behavior in society was unclear and due to this breakdown in a code of proper social behavior resulting was the 'anomie' or the failure to know what to expect between individuals. It was posited by Durkheim that: "...societies evolved form a simple, nonspecialized form, called 'mechanical' toward a highly complex, specialized form, called 'organic. In the former society people behave and think alike and more or less perform the same work tasks and have the same group-oriented goals. When societies…… [Read More]
criminology which uses psychological knowledge to analyze criminal behavior. This will include a consideration of historical values ant trait and choice theories. Also, the author will compare how society responds to a criminal's behavior with options of punishment and prevention. e will then contrast these historical values with trait choice theories to analyze how society responds to criminal behavior in terms of punishment and prevention.
It is important to understand both the trait and choice theories when considering the reasons that lead to criminal activity. The traits theory supplies the base from which a range of options arises. This theory considers that criminal behavior emerges from the biological and/or psychological conditions of a person. Theoretically, their control coping strategies ultimately result in criminal behavior. According to this theory, people are born with inherited traits. Some of these traits are suited to leadership or participation in criminal enterprises. Control of crime…… [Read More]
Campbell, K.W. (2010). Victim Confidentiality Promotes Safety and Dignity. Journal of the Missouri Bar, 69(2), pp. 76-83.
Being the president of the Missouri Victim Assistance Network (MOVA), Campbell, the author of this particular article, is an authority on the topic at hand. In the past, she has actively been involved in various aspects of victim assistance, including, but not limited to, presenting a workshops touching on the issue of victims and confidentiality. She is a University of Missouri-Colombia School of Law graduate.
In this particular piece, Campbell concerns herself with the relevance of victim confidentiality as far as the safety and well-being of the victim is concerned. The article, in basic terms, highlights "the legal authority in place that provides for victim confidentiality with regard to non-disclosure of identity, location and certain confidential communications…" Further, the article puts a strong case for the application of the laws…… [Read More]
Becker, S, Tinkler, J (2015) 'Me Getting Plastered and Her Provoking My Eyes': Young
People's Attribution of Blame for Sexual Aggression in Public Drinking Spaces, Feminist Criminology, 10(3): 235-258.
This article is about how "unregulated" barroom aggression that is sexual in nature can lead to questions of hostile conflicts that are confused and not very well studied by researchers. So this study examines this environment to better understand what causes this activity. The researchers show that alcohol, gender, and contextual setting affect the way that blame is placed when sexual aggression happens in public barrooms.
This article is helpful because it shows how many different factors play a role in shaping the way that opposite sexes view conflict and sexual aggression in public drinking environments. It shows that alcohol is a big factor in flirting and causing rows and that genders are identifying different actions and reactions to joking…… [Read More]
An authoritarian leader gathers members in a cult and isolates them from the mainstream. Bodrero says this does not constitute a problem, unless the group becomes violent. When a leader uses rhetoric and violence to silence internal opposition, Bodrero believes the group may be on the path to violent extrem- ist behavior. Doomsday cults emerge from such dynamics and believe they must take offensive action to bring about the end of the world.
Black Hebrew Israelism is a form of black supremacy. Its origins trace back to the Civil War and were relatively peaceful. Recently, Ben Ami
Ben Israel, also known as Ben Carter, had a vision in Chicago telling him that African- Americans were the true Jews of old and the people who call themselves Jews are impostures. Whites are evil incarnate, descended from the devil. Bodrero (1999) says the most violent aspect of this movement formed in the…… [Read More]
Comparison of the Classical and Positivist Approaches
What is Criminology?
The Classical Approach
The Positivist Approach
The common ground between the classical and positivist schools
What is Criminology?
Criminology is a term which is used to describe the entire study of criminal behavior under which narrower aspects of factors, causes and consequences are also studied. The subject deals with and undertakes the personal and social factors that are associated with criminal behavior. It also sheds light on the impact that this kind of behavior has on the family life itself and how the victim affects himself as well as his family and those around him. There are mainly two broad classifications of crime which highlight the disciplines involved in the social sciences. The first one is the classicist approach and the other being the positivist approach to criminology. The positivist criminologists state that the criminal loses the conscience mind…… [Read More]
The supposed reasons for crime vary as much as crime itself. Even though an individual may have a very personal reason for committing a criminal act, there are underlying causes which get more to the point of crime. At least this is the assertion of most criminologists. adical criminology posits that disparities in society are the main reasons for crime (Livesy, 2005). Why radical criminologists tend to believe that this is the truth and what remedies they have are the focuses of this paper.
adical criminology has its roots in the Marxist tradition (Livesy, 2005) which basically says that there are two distinct parts to any society. The bourgeoisie is the ruling, capitalist class. The proletariat is the underclass which is controlled by the desires of the capitalists. Livesy (2005) states that;
"all social institutions (for example, work, family, education, legal systems and so forth) and specific…… [Read More]
Identify key indicators of involvement in a criminal lifestyle and then identify and explain the varied consequences associated with high levels of criminal propensity.
The key indicators of involvement in a criminal lifestyle include underdeveloped conscience, low perceived risk, (Copes & Vieraitis, 2009); development of a criminal identity (Copes, Hochstetler & Williams, 2008); and various biosocial factors (Beaver, n.d.; Wright, Tibbetts & Daigle, 2008). Lack of internal and external constraint is a related issue that can lead to propensity for a criminal lifestyle. Increasingly, the neurological and biological factors that are associated with criminal behavior are being discovered to be reliable predictors of involvement in a criminal lifestyle (Beaver, n.d.). In general, key indicators of involvement in a criminal lifestyle are both related to nature (biological and genetic factors impacting psychological growth and development); and nurture (environmental factors).
The biological and genetic factors impacting psychological growth and development have…… [Read More]
Classical theory elucidates crime as a creation and outcome of beliefs that advantages of committing crimes are extremely greater than normative, socially acceptable behavior. The foundation of this school of thought on criminology is that crime is a rational choice and that many individuals have the capacity to resort to crime. In addition, individuals will commit crime subsequent to the comparison of prospective advantages and disadvantages of such actions. The positivist school of criminology tries to ascribe crime causation to understood, contemplative assertion of advantages that criminal activities carry. Next, sociological school of criminology asserts that crime comes about due to manifold factors that can be split into mental, biological, and social factors. Therefore, it implies that crime is a result of social factors and elements that influence the behavior of human beings.
eek 2 Discussion
Siegel delineates the three different ways crime is recorded in our country. The…… [Read More]
Features of Positivist Criminology
Positivist criminology uses scientific research (primarily quantitative, laboratory, empirical experiment) to investigate the causes of crime and deviant behavior. Positivist criminology posits that the roots of deviancy are located in the physical, genetic, psychological or biological makeup of the individual and the individual, consequently, is not held accountable (or is faintly held accountable) for his deeds. Use of instruments, statistics, classification, and similar scientific instruments are used in this branch of study.
Positivist criminology is the opposite of classical criminology which sees the criminal as responsible for his actions and able to reform would he so wish. The school is closely identified with the behaviorist way of thinking, which ignores mentalism (i.e. beliefs, values, and meanings) and sees individuals as tied to external dictates of action (as, for instance, that one's environment impels one to act in a certain way; free-will is omitted from the equation).…… [Read More]
They began to outline an issue of the journal which they tentatively called Contemporary Criminology: A Journal of Ideas Predisposed Toward Radical Democratization. It was hoped that the first issue might arrive during the Fall of 1996.
About the same time, Sullivan and Tifft also spoke about creating a new association for scholars, activists, and practitioners that would serve as an alternative to the conventional academic criminology and criminal justice organizations. It was suggested that the members of this association might come together each year and share their ideas and discuss their current work in mostly plenary sessions. Great emphasis would be put on the participation of everyone present through extensive discussions. An invitation would be extended to all those associated with the restorative justice community who, though they met periodically around the globe, had no permanent home or community with which to share their ideas and find support.
It…… [Read More]
Classical criminology was an idea formed because there was no formal understanding of what caused criminal behavior. In an attempt to make sense of what was deemed socially irresponsible behavior, Cesare Beccaria was determined to formulate a theory that not only helped explain criminal behavior, but also helped to streamline punishment. Before this theory was developed, crime was not studied and the enforcement of crime was very arbitrary. Many times crime was considered a class issue. People in the lower classes were thought to be prone to crime whereas those in the upper classes were generally upstanding citizens. Of course, this could have been because the gentry were making and enforcing the laws. Therefore, the primary context around which Beccaria based his premises was that of justice which was not a primary concern previously. His theory was based on the fact that people are in control of their own fate.…… [Read More]
Feminist Criminology and Victimization Theory
Feminist criminology theory proposes that social and ethnic structures that lead to gender oppression will increase the prevalence of criminality among the oppressed (Bernard, 2013). In most cultures, including the west, there exists a history of subjugation of women at all levels of society. The feminist movement in the United States and elsewhere accordingly sought to reduce or eliminate the power of these social, legal, and religious sanctions that relegated women to second class citizenship. This was the driving force behind the emergence of the feminist criminology model.
In support of the feminist criminology model, Bernard (2013) points out that some women within society have a higher risk of incarceration. In the U.S., this high-risk demographic is non-white, young, living in poverty, under-educated, and unmarried with children. There also tends to be a multi-generational history of drug/alcohol problems and domestic violence. This demographic…… [Read More]
classical criminology theory. The author will apply the theory of the Lacassagne School which combines Durkheim's determinism plus biological factors. This applies to contemporary criminology in the case of recidivist situations where a criminal will not or can not be reformed. In the opinion of the author, this theory supports a social responsibility perspective. In this case, such a criminology theory would explain the behavior of serial killers who are hopelessly recidivist and justify the death penalty.
The above view would follow logically into neoclassical criminology theory that applies to contemporary criminology. This type of approach supports a social responsibility perspective. If the behavior is caught early enough, it should prevent crime because the criminal is certain that they will punished. For instance, this is the case in situations of direct control whereby punishment is threatened or applied for wrongful behavior and such compliance is rewarded by family, parents or…… [Read More]
Conflict Theory-The Relationship between Sociology and Criminology
Theorists, on, social conflict propose that crime, in general, is triggered by conflict in the class system, as well as, laws that have been shaped by individuals and groups in power to safeguard their interests and rights. All acts of crime have political nuances, and Quinney refers to this as crime's social reality. Research attempts to confirm the conflict method; on the contrary, have not generated significant results (Seigel, 2000). Moreover, sociologists ponder over the social patterns that exist among social classes and the complications that arise from conflict between such social classes. They try to establish the relationship between deviant behavior and social class. These are some of the considerations and ponderings of sociologists when examining the Social conflict theory. The theory explores issues to do with inequality on societal settings. The theory states that the laws and norms adopted by society…… [Read More]