Criminology Essays (Examples)

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Criminology
What was the "rational choice theory" of crime causation?

The "rational choice theory" of crime causation holds that crime is consciously committed out of an intellectual desire to improve one's situation. Accordingly, the theory does not believe that delinquents are motivated through unconscious urges, but instead contends that people are goal-oriented. Another implication of the theory is that everyone, regardless of their neurological profile, has the ability to act in a rational manner. It also does not draw a distinction between adults and children, suggesting that all people have the innate ability to intellectualize the consequences of their actions. In this regard, criminals act only after judging the crime to be the most beneficial means through which to realize their objective. They believe that the costs or potentially negative consequences associated with the action are not as great as the benefits resulting from said action. The "rational choice theory" maintains that….

This is a form of punishment that is incremental in application, and establishes what the public perceives as unbreakable pattern of individual criminal recidivism (Siegel, p. 110). However, there is no evidence to support incarceration itself as a deterrent to crime (pp. 110-111). Many criminologists disagree with public opinion on the topic of three strikes incarceration (p. 110), which is, in brief, when a person commits a felony, that is a first "strike," in the person's sentencing history. A second felony is the second strike; then, any criminal act, from shoplifting to robbery takes the felon off the street for a minimum of 25 years, to life (p. 58). When a person is incarcerated for 25 years because of shoplifting - which has happened in states with the three strikes system (although three strike laws vary from state to state).
The public, and the goals of criminologists and the criminal….

All students would be responsible for monitoring the halls at all times and for telling their fellow students when they were violating one of the rules. o give them an incentive to engage in such monitoring, students would be responsible for certain duties, such as picking up litter, removing graffiti, and straightening the lunchroom when students violated school rules. A violation of the rules of the school would be a violation of the hard work of the other students and give students who were specifically responsible for these tasks a reason to make sure that other students did not litter, deface, or act disruptively. At the beginning of the year, students would be assigned age-appropriate tasks to mentor and orienting the youngest students during their first weeks at the school to create a sense of attachment to the future of the school and to the welfare of other students.
he….

Though the Positivist thinking does not contradict the beliefs toward human nature, it does argue that the majority of crimes that are of a serious degree are attributed to people whom have failed to the civilized norms of modern society (PSC, 2004).
In sum, the beliefs that invoked by criminal behavior have differed throughout time as much as the varying degree of crimes that we have seen through history. Sociologically speaking, crime is comprised of humans and their actions. Whether each instance is a direct result of the circumstances surrounding them or in part by the influences that have developed the criminal mind is subject for debate. However, one can only conclude that the full enlightenment for every instance of criminal behavior is most fully attainable through the psychological study of the criminal mind. It is through such evaluation that we as a society may determine the factors which contribute….

Criminology Theories
Biological Theory of Crime

The biological or bio-physiological theory of crime regards human behavior in general and of deviance and criminality in particular as mainly the result of internal states of mind (Schmalleger, 2009). More specifically, the biological perspective, as it was originally detailed in the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso, emphasized the role of heredity in conjunction with the (then) new concept of Darwinian Evolution also in conjunction with the principles of heredity by Gregor Mendel. That approach to understanding crime was called Atavism, meaning "from the father," to reflect the idea that behavior was largely a function of the genetics passed down from each generation to subsequent generations (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; Schmalleger, 2009).

According to biological perspective, criminal (an other) behavior patterns are attributable to inherent differences in brain structure, neurophysiology, neuro-chemical processes, and to hormonal and other endocrinal differences among different individuals (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; Schmalleger,….

Consider this short excerpt: "On the day after his 23rd birthday, Mr. Hammond, a high school dropout, found himself on the other side of a barrel. He had gotten into an argument with a rival on 132nd Street near a Chinese restaurant. A friend of the rival took offense, pulled a gun from his waistband, and pumped two shots into Mr. Hammond's stomach, and another into his back" (Gregory, 2013). One could argue that this short excerpt demonstrates a clear manifestation of Merton's social strain theory in that there's a clear disconnect between the goals that Hammond has in life and a way to attain them. Instead Hammond has elected to simply become another part of gang-life and the kill or be killed mentality. In fact, one could argue that this violent activity rife with frequent shootings is actually a form of retreatism -- but instead of indulging in….

Criminology esearch
Is Criminology a Hard Science?

Criminology is a discipline within the social sciences and as such is the study of people (Bhattacherjee, 2012). By comparison, researchers within the natural sciences focus primarily on physical phenomenon, such as the speed of radio waves through different materials or the impact of a drug on blood pressure. Since social science researchers, including criminologists, focus on the behavior of people as individuals and in groups there is inherently less certainty in the conclusions reached. For example, the change in temperature of a beaker of water when exposed to radio waves of a specific energy and frequency would be expected to be exactly the same under the same conditions. Any differences in temperatures would be attributed to either human error or some unnoticed change in the conditions; therefore, causal uncertainty would be an indicator of experimental error. By comparison, understanding the impact of implementing a….

These studies are in relation to some several factors. These include rehabilitation of offenders, historical studies of crime and critical inquiry of crime. Others include studies of reforms of crime control and studies of linking crime control to public policy.
Pratt suggests that the relevance of criminology is that it gives solutions as to how people can prevent a rise of criminal cases in society. People desire to protect themselves from negative situations they may encounter in the future. The relevance of criminology is that people need to safeguard their interests and safety (Pratt 2008). Criminal activities in society bring insecurity. Criminology, according to Pratt helps in offering solutions to these problems in society. Pratt states that an interest in crime is personal and bears a social qualification. This is evident because police and judiciary reporters in newspapers and television channels have programs and write essays on criminals and crime.….

Social control regulates the behaviour of people, preventing them from committing a crime. The high level of homicide in Chicago is a result of lack of social control. Population heterogeneity also contributes to the high level of homicide in the neighbourhoods (after 1990). The two theories complement each other in that they both support the idea behind the high levels of homicide in Chicago. Social disorder brings disunity in society, and this makes people commit criminal behaviours.
Social learning theory states that people will develop the motivation to commit crime if they associate with people who commit crime. Social control will enable people to practise social order and help them from associating with criminals who might influence them negatively. It is crucial for people to have self-control in order for them to refrain from committing criminal behaviours. Factors such as lack of self-control make people engage in criminal behaviour to….

In the case of family therapy, this may also be true for children. In addition, breaking the children away from the family may foster hatred or further anxiety between the groups, and bringing the children back into the home after the couples have undergone counseling may subject them to an unintended stressor, further harming their relationship with one another. In this case, it is important for members of law enforcement to realize that each family makes mistakes, and that being a part of a family is -- for many -- a new experience. Children of divorced parents, abusive parents, etc. may indeed be covered by an explanation of social learning theory when they have trouble running a family unit. However, addressing problems with the family intact can be one way to insure that the legacy does not pass to the children of this family.
Another negative affect that this policy….

This pleasure comes from some symbolic meanings of the act and the neurophysiologic high that is given to them by the act. (Motivations for Violent Crime among Incarcerated Adults: A Consideration of einforcement Processes) This means that before any individual has to commit violence, he has to move into his mental state for being able to commit violence. It does not happen without warning. This is true even for individuals who are normally violent. Only when a person is mentally unstable, he can flash into violence, but then that sort of person is likely to be in a mental ward.
Sometimes it can be even argued that when an individual puts a weapon in his pocket, he has a desire to commit violence. Even they may have some mental restrictions against committing violence, and this causes some to alcohol. Drinking is a very common excuse for becoming violent. The next….

This is because many people do not have the opportunity to do so or they chose not to do so. People start to engage in criminal activities such as theft to satisfy their needs. Cochran suggests that anomie is greatest where the goal of attaining societal goals occurs under conditions of individual competition. A decrease in state control and regulations leads to positive impacts in the economy. Three key elements affect crime in an economy (Cochran 2012). The first element is the degree of economic regulation/freedom. The second is the ability of the economy to sustain accrual of wealth opportunity. The third key element is the nature of economic conditions.
The economic freedom index measures the prominence of a free market and unregulated social constraints. Economic freedom index also measures political constraints in a market. Economic freedom is the absence of government control and coercion in production, distribution and the….

2010). The two conflicting factors in this version are a person's goals and the reality that prevents him from achieving the goals. In the micro level of analysis, strain theory shows how an individual of a family fails to achieve the societal goals because they lack the opportunities to do so. At the macro level of analysis, strain theory explains how a whole nation or civilization fails to achieve cultural goals because of lack of opportunities. This leads to increase in the level of crime because they may not have a source of income, therefore, will resort to crime.
The strengths of this theory are that it clearly explains how lack of opportunities will lead people to experience strain. The desire to live a happy life drives people because they want a life of riches and honor. People will practice anti-social behaviors when they lack opportunities to achieve success. Strain….

If human beings categorize behavior, experiences and events in a way they appear as representations of reality with effects that people can experience positively or negatively. Crime is examples of these social realities that people can collectively construct, deconstruct, and replace with less harmful realities (after 1990). Crime is a violation of criminal law while deviance is a threatening and moral offensive behavior. Crime is harmful because it leads to people facing losses. Crime leads to physical, social and psychological harm. According to the authors of the article, several factors lead to rise and fall of crime. These are rise in criminal activities, social constructed fear of crime presence and a willingness of authorities classify some activities as potential crimes. The authors, however, state that real developments in crime are hard to establish because crime is a social construction.
In the first article, Pratt (2004) states that the main cause….

Criminology Theories
PAGES 4 WORDS 1448

Criminology
M8D1: Assessing criminological theories

According to Bernard (2010), individual differences between people are a factor that can explain why some people commit crime while other does not. Individual difference between people leads to some people to be aggressive and engage in rule-breaking behaviors in society. These unruly behaviors according to may be as a result of genetic factors that are different in all people. There is a strong connection between genetics and the likelihood of a person to commit crime. Individual genetics from settings of ecological behavior and the macro level context of a community and the social systems may describe why some people commit crime (Bernard 2010). Some of the factors to consider in individual difference are willful antisocial proclivities, feeblemindedness, emotional instability, physical disability mental disability and antisocial personalities. These factors describe why some individuals commit crime while others refrain from doing so.

The second theory according to explains that….

I. Introduction
A. Background information on ethical issues
B. Overview of criminological theories
C. Thesis statement

II. Ethical issues in criminology
A. Definition of ethics in criminology
B. Ethical dilemmas faced by criminologists
C. Importance of ethical considerations in research and practice

III. Criminological theories
A. Overview of classical criminology
B. Description of biological theories
C. Explanation of psychological theories
D. Introduction to sociological theories

IV. Ethical issues in relation to criminological theories
A. Ethical implications of classical criminology
B. Moral concerns of biological theories
C. Ethical considerations of psychological theories
D. Social implications of sociological theories

V. Case studies on ethical issues and....

Essay Outline: Ethical Issues and Criminological Theories

I. Introduction
A. Overview of the relationship between criminological theories and ethics
B. Thesis statement: Ethical issues can arise when criminological theories are used to explain and respond to crime

II. Ethical Issues in Criminological Research
A. Consent and confidentiality
1. Protecting the rights of research participants
2. Balancing the need for research with the privacy of individuals
B. Bias and objectivity
1. The influence of researchers' values and beliefs on their work
2. The importance of minimizing bias in criminological research
C. Data collection and interpretation
1. Ethical considerations in collecting and using data....

1. The psychology of serial killers: exploring their motives and behaviors

2. Nature vs. nurture: understanding the factors that contribute to serial killer tendencies

3. The evolution of profiling techniques in identifying and catching serial killers

4. Society's fascination with serial killers: the role of media in perpetuating their fame

5. Serial killers and mental illness: exploring the link between psychopathy and violent behavior

6. The impact of childhood trauma on the development of serial killers

7. Female serial killers: uncovering the myths and realities behind their crimes

8. Serial killers and the justice system: examining the challenges of prosecuting and sentencing these criminals

9. The legacy of....

Rational Choice Theory

Rational choice theory, a prominent sociological perspective, posits that individuals make decisions and engage in behaviors based on careful calculation and rational evaluation of potential outcomes. This theory emphasizes the role of individual agency, rationality, and utility maximization in understanding human behavior.

Key Assumptions:

Individuals are rational: They possess the cognitive abilities to make informed decisions and calculate the potential costs and benefits of various actions.
Individuals are utility-maximizers: They strive to choose actions that will yield the greatest benefit or satisfaction.
Individuals act in their own self-interest: They prioritize their own goals and desires when making decisions.
Individuals....

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5 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Criminology What Was the Rational Choice Theory

Words: 1505
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Essay

Criminology What was the "rational choice theory" of crime causation? The "rational choice theory" of crime causation holds that crime is consciously committed out of an intellectual desire to improve one's…

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5 Pages
Thesis

Criminal Justice

Criminology and Criminal Justice as

Words: 1598
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Thesis

This is a form of punishment that is incremental in application, and establishes what the public perceives as unbreakable pattern of individual criminal recidivism (Siegel, p. 110). However,…

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5 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Criminology Definitional Sentences Technique of

Words: 2111
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

All students would be responsible for monitoring the halls at all times and for telling their fellow students when they were violating one of the rules. o give…

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1 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Criminology the History of Crime

Words: 434
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Though the Positivist thinking does not contradict the beliefs toward human nature, it does argue that the majority of crimes that are of a serious degree are attributed…

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3 Pages
Capstone Project

Criminal Justice

Criminology Theories Biological Theory of Crime the

Words: 848
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Capstone Project

Criminology Theories Biological Theory of Crime The biological or bio-physiological theory of crime regards human behavior in general and of deviance and criminality in particular as mainly the result of internal…

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6 Pages
Essay

Criminal Justice

Criminology Identify Two Criminological Theories

Words: 2056
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Essay

Consider this short excerpt: "On the day after his 23rd birthday, Mr. Hammond, a high school dropout, found himself on the other side of a barrel. He had…

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2 Pages
Research Paper

Sociology

Criminology Has Serious Limitations

Words: 432
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Criminology esearch Is Criminology a Hard Science? Criminology is a discipline within the social sciences and as such is the study of people (Bhattacherjee, 2012). By comparison, researchers within the natural…

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5 Pages
Research Paper

Criminal Justice

Criminology I Chose the Topic

Words: 1399
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

These studies are in relation to some several factors. These include rehabilitation of offenders, historical studies of crime and critical inquiry of crime. Others include studies of reforms…

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2 Pages
Discussion Chapter

Criminal Justice

Criminology M3D1 Crime Trends and

Words: 897
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Discussion Chapter

Social control regulates the behaviour of people, preventing them from committing a crime. The high level of homicide in Chicago is a result of lack of social control.…

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3 Pages
Essay

Children

Criminology Social Learning Theory and

Words: 1031
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

In the case of family therapy, this may also be true for children. In addition, breaking the children away from the family may foster hatred or further anxiety…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Criminal Justice

Criminology the First Point in

Words: 1382
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

This pleasure comes from some symbolic meanings of the act and the neurophysiologic high that is given to them by the act. (Motivations for Violent Crime among Incarcerated…

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5 Pages
Research Paper

Criminal Justice

Criminology This Study Explains the

Words: 1446
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

This is because many people do not have the opportunity to do so or they chose not to do so. People start to engage in criminal activities such…

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3 Pages
Discussion Chapter

Criminal Justice

Criminology the Relationship of Crime

Words: 688
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Discussion Chapter

2010). The two conflicting factors in this version are a person's goals and the reality that prevents him from achieving the goals. In the micro level of analysis,…

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5 Pages
Research Paper

Children

Criminology Social Control Plays a

Words: 1437
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

If human beings categorize behavior, experiences and events in a way they appear as representations of reality with effects that people can experience positively or negatively. Crime is…

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4 Pages
Discussion Chapter

Criminal Justice

Criminology Theories

Words: 1448
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Discussion Chapter

Criminology M8D1: Assessing criminological theories According to Bernard (2010), individual differences between people are a factor that can explain why some people commit crime while other does not. Individual difference between…

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