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Crisis Management at the United Nations
Though an admirable organization, the United Nations does not always function like a smoothly oiled machine. This is because of the organization's sheer size, but also of its many inefficiencies. However, if there is one department in which there should not be any kind of delay or misunderstanding, it is the department of communications. This department, because of the nature of the organization, is vital to effective communication not only between states, but also between the UN and its member states.
This paper will thus examine first the theory of communications planning models and then how they would function in the United Nations especially in a communication crisis aspect.
Communications planning models
Various individuals give theories on how to deal with crises. Yet every business is different.
Some guidelines, however, do help. First, one must start off by recognizing that no matter its capacity,…
Bernstein, J. (2011). The Ten Steps of Crisis Communications. Bernstein Crisis Management. Retrieved November 19, < http://www.bernsteincrisismanagement.com/docs/the_10_steps_of_crisis_communications.html > AND Ten Steps to a successful crisis management plan. (2011). Morebusiness.com. Retrieved November 19, < http://www.morebusiness.com/crisis-management >.
The United Nations History. (2011). UN.org. Retrieved November 19, .
Lukaszewski, J. (1998). Even dimensions of crisis communication management. Ragan's Communications Journal. Retrieved November 19, .
The authors noted that experience played a factor in the results of the simulation, yet during a crisis experience alone cannot be relied upon to restabilize the situation.
Roux-Dufort's thoughts on crisis management are particularly prescient for organizations, but may not be applicable in specific micro-level contexts (such as with Moorthy's surgeons). hat the literature highlights is that the divide in thought and perspective that was identified by Pearson and Clair in 1998 still exists. Some of the literature is focused on macro-level solutions; some on the micro-level. Some of the literature is focused on prevention as the key to effective crisis management while some of the literature is focused mainly on the restoration of control and order as the defining actions of effective crisis management. Roux-Dufort is correct, certainly, that as long as the study of crisis management lacks focus it will also fail to result in innovative, practical…
Pearson, C. & Mitroff, I. (1993). From crisis prone to crisis prepared: A framework for crisis management. The Executive. Vol. 7 (1) 48-59.
Pearson, C. & Clair, J. (1998). Reframing crisis management. The Academy of Management Review. Vol. 23 (1) 59-76.
Farazmand, a. (2007). Learning from the Katrina crisis: A global and international perspective with implications for future crisis management. Public Administration Review. Vol. 67 (1) 149-159.
Reddy, M., Paul, S., Abraham, J., McNeese, M., DeFitch, C. & Yen, J. (2009). Challenges to effective crisis management: Using information and communication tech nologies to coordinate emergency medical services and emergency department teams. International Journal of Medical Informatics. Vol. 78 (4) 259-269.
Uncertainty in regards to individual activities within a large student population is always a cause for concern. It is difficult to govern or even deter the questionable activities of a predominately young student population. This problem is exacerbated due to the rebellious nature of young students in regards to politics, social interactions, student programing and more. Public news often comes from universities with questionable activities such as fraternity hazing, supporting controversial leaders, and more. This behavior is what makes a university campus and atmosphere so unique relative to other educational venues. The university can foster these activities while being sensitive to others personal beliefs. The Vice President of Student Affairs is needed to foster this development while keeping the campus safe to express various beliefs. However, in some instances, activities can cause harm and damage to others. Such is the case with the resident hall fire. These unforeseen…
The most important step in the crisis management is gathering situational information. Decisions and responses should be based on the information at hand, evaluated on a situation-by-situation basis. If the bomb threat occurs in a school, it must be taken seriously. However, "many school bomb threats have been made by students seeking to disrupt the school day and to get out of school," (National School Safety and Security Services," 2013). Therefore, evacuations are not necessarily warranted or desirable.
An immediate visual search of the area is warranted, to determine whether or not the threat is to be taken seriously. Ideally, personnel familiar with the building will perform a visual scan because they will know if suspicious objects are seen. If a suspicious object has been detected, then an evacuation will be advisable. Effective crisis management demands a smooth evacuation procedure, with pre-designed protocols that all employees…
Department of Homeland Security (2013). Bomb threat call procedures. Retrieved online: http://emilms.fema.gov/is906/assets/ocso-bomb_threat_samepage-brochure.pdf
Miller, L. (2006). Practical Police Psychology. Charles C. Thomas.
National School Safety and Security Services (2013). School bomb threats and bombs. Retrieved online: http://www.schoolsecurity.org/trends/school-bombs.html
Wisconsin Department of Justice (2007). Crisis Management. Retrieved online: http://naminc.org/nn/blet/wisc-training-guide.pdf
Crisis Management Plan:
Moray Enterprises has accepted a proposal and chosen Baderman Island esort as the location for its annual conference. Before the organization signs any contracts, it wants to evaluate Baderman Island esort's crisis management plan concerning natural disasters. Moray Enterprises is requesting for the crisis management plan because it wants to ensure the safety of its workers since the conference will be held at the resort during peak hurricane season. Generally, a crisis management plan is an important document for businesses, especially establishments in the hospitality industry. This is primarily because these establishments are vulnerable to crises such as natural disasters and global terrorism.
A crisis management plan is developed to create a coordinated and effective approach towards a crisis situation through the use of maximum resources and trained personnel in order to enhance the operations of the business ("Crisis Management Plan," 2009). The main principles for Baderman's…
"Crisis Management Plan." (2009). International Loss Prevention Guide to Crisis Management.
Retrieved February 22, 2014, from http://loyaltylobby.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/crisis-management-plan-marriott-2009.pdf
"Managing Risk in Hotels." (2009). Inter-Continental Hotels Groups. Retrieved February 22,
2014, from http://www.ihgplc.com/files/reports/ar2009/managing-risks-in-hotels.html
The recent proliferation of such incidents stained My Space's image.
While the largest part of communication taking place through My Space is usually harmless, the incidents alarmed parents and thus created negative publicity.
My Space responded fast with a plan of imposing harsher safety measures in order to provide protection to its users from stalkers and sexual predators. The campaign offers not only online protection, but also education to parents and teens about the dangers of communicating on the internet with strangers and revealing their contact information as well as instructing parents on how to block search terms predators could use in order to locate a child.
This is another example of a well managed P crisis, where the company admitted the incidents and responded by creating a strategy to prevent such incidents from happening again. The campaign effectively eased the anxiety of nervous users and parents of youngsters using…
Hubbard, Michael (2006), History Lesson Part II: Diet Pepsi. Retrieved on April 25, 2008 from Crisis Public Relations Blog, http://crisispublicrelations.blogspot.com/2006_03_01_archive.html
Sterling, Greg (2006), MySpace, PR Nightmare in the Making. Retrieved on April 25, 2008 from Search Engine Journal, http://www.searchenginejournal.com/myspace-pr-nightmare-in-the-making/2969/
Wilcox, Dennis. (2006), Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics, Boston, MA. 8th Edition.
In a context in which alternative sources of energy are better developed and an infrastructure is accessible to the populations across the globe in an efficient manner, fossil using companies would be better punished for their mistakes. Today however, as these organizations remain strong and virtually without any real competition, dramatic impacts are not observable.
In spite of this situation however, BP did encounter some negative impacts as a result of its poor management of the spill of April 2010. A first of these impacts is obvious at the level of the American population. The spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico, near the populated coast of Louisiana, creating a sense of danger and discomfort for the population in the area. Also, at a national level, tension occurred as the American people came to blame the English company for the environmental disaster. In other words, the reputation of the BP…
Biello, D.., 2011, One year after BP oil spill, at least 1.1 million barrels still missing, Scientific American, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=one-year-after-bp-oil-spill-millions-of-barrels-oil-missing last accessed on August 2, 2011
Jarboe, G., 2010, Online reputation management case studies: BP oil spill, Toyota recall and Goldman Sachs fraud charges, Search Engine Watch, http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2050808/Online-Reputation-Management-Case-Studies-BP-Oil-Spill-Toyota-Recall-and-Goldman-Sachs-Fraud-Charges last accessed on August 2, 2011
Kennedy, S., 2011, BP settles with Mitsui arm over Macondo spill, Market Watch, http://www.marketwatch.com/story/bp-settles-with-moex-over-macondo-spill-2011-05-20 last accessed on August 2, 2011
Kinver, M., 2011, BP oil spill: the environmental impact one year on, BBC News, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13123036 last accessed on August 2, 2011
Crisis Management and Public Relations Strategies
Case Studies on Louis Vuitton, Miley Cyrus and PETA
Louis Vuitton (Fashion rand)
The primary source of Louis Vuitton's success was the emergence of consumers with a desire in luxury, especially in emerging markets. However, the firm has made some decisions, which has seen consumers provide negative feedback. For instance, the company has introduced bags, which have logos. The logos have become the brands most visible symbol, and people have termed such a move as uncreative. Apparently, consumers termed the firm as a luxury brand; however, the company has been selling its bags to a mass-market. This has raised concern on the "luxury" aspect of the firm, and in response, Louis Vuitton increased the prices of its bags (Mull, 2013).
Louis Vuitton's bags
The firm has many competitors, and its move to increase prices made some of its consumers opt for other…
Borodzicz, E.P. (2005). Risk, Crisis and Security Management.Chichester: John Wileys.
Cushing, T. (2013).PETA Goes after Assassin's Creed for Its Depiction Of Whaling; Ubisoft
Responds With A Heaping Dose Of Sarcasm.Techdirt.com [Online] http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20130306/16443022231/peta-goes-after-assassins-creed-its-depiction-whaling-ubisoft-responds-with-heaping-dose-sarcasm.shtml (accessed February 2014)
Daily Mail. (2013). 'Louis Vuitton's prices are just too extreme': Kanye West takes a stand against the famous French fashion brand. Dailymail.co.uk [Online] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2478595/Kanye-West-Louis-Vuittons-prices-just-extreme.html (accessed February 22, 2014)
This is a hostage situation, because Bradley is holding Susan, her professor, and nine other students in a room. Bradley has weapons and is in a distraught emotional state, refusing to let any of the hostages leave. "In most hostage incidents, the explicit threat is to the hostage's life. It is not the loss of property, status, or belonging to a community that is at stake. Life itself is at stake" (McMains & Mullins, 2010, p.12). Therefore, this qualifies as a hostage situation. However, it is a specialized type of hostage scenario in that one of the hostages, Susan, is Bradley's wife. In a true hostage scenario, the "hostage has no value to the hostage taker as a person" (McMains & Mullins, 2010, p.13). In a family-violence hostage scenario, the hostage has value to the hostage taker as a person. The other nine students and the professor do…
McMains, M.J. & Mullins, W.C. (2010). Crisis negotiations (4th ed). New Providence, NJ:
Texas Association of Police Explorers. (Unk). Hostage negotiation. Retrieved September 19,
2013 from Wise County, Texas website: http://www.co.wise.tx.us/constable/Downloads/Hostage%20Negotiation.pdf
Crisis Management on 911
Summary of the Case
The real-time response to the terrorist attacks on 9/11 was chaotic. There were multiple problems concerning issues such as communication flows, equipment, and chains of authority. Key agencies such as the FAA were not brought into the meetings quickly enough. Key pieces of information were known to some players, but were not transmitted to all key players effectively. The NMCC and the hite House did not appear to be working together to coordinate a response. In general, the response was not organized, and this resulted in a slower and less effective response.
There were several specific errors that weakened the response. The first airplane was misidentified as a twin-engine plane, leading to speculation that the first crash was an accident. The NMCC did not discuss the scrambling of jets even after it knew that the first plane had been hijacked. The wrong…
Confort, L. (2007). Crisis management in hindsight: Cognition, communication, coordination and control. Public Administration Review. December 2007 special issue, 189-197.
Militello, L., Patterson, E., Bowman, L. & Wears, R. (2007). Information flow during crisis management: Challenges to coordination in the emergency operations center. Cognition, Technology & Work. Vol. 9 (1) 25-31.
Crisis Management Ethics
Effectiveness of Emergency Management and Readiness of Trauma:
An issue of primary importance when conducting field work such as is proposed here is the protection of both the privacy and security of those being observed. This is true for both emergency management professionals and for those who may be served in the context of an emergency during the time of our observation. Thus, it is of primary ethical importance that research be conducted with the anonymity of participants properly maintained. The onus to ensure this will fall upon researchers. This is especially important because the head of each trauma unit will be the first point of contact. Given this individual's role in the hierarchy of each facility, it is essential that assurances are made to respondents that their identities will not be associated with specific data sets outside the circle or researchers. Those the head of each…
Institutional Review Board (IRB). (2009). What is 'Exempt' Research? Towson
Members of the press and media
As you have probably heard, a matter of high concern for our school and community has been brought about by something that happened in our school this week. Our school has been involved in an incident concerning one of our 8th grade students. During a math class, being high on drugs, he pulled a gun on his math teacher, Mr. Smith. Fortunately for those concerned and for all of us, Mr. Smith, an ex-cop, was able to quickly retrieve the gun from the student and could thus discover that, however, the gun was not actually loaded. The student, being under the influence of drugs, meant to do a prank on his teacher. However, this kind of behavior, including the consumption of drugs and other substances, is not and will not be tolerated by our school. Dr. Maria Flores, our school's principal, immediately…
Dilemmas of Crisis Management
Crisis management and Incident Command System (ICS):
New Orleans' Hurricane Katrina and the SAS (Severe Acute espirator Syndrome) outbreak in Toronto
Hurricane Katrina was a natural, weather-related disaster; SAS (Severe Acute espirator Syndrome) was an unexpected disease outbreak. Both presented logistical and biological challenges that challenged the existing disaster mitigation policies of the cities of New Orleans and Toronto respectively. While hindsight is always 20/20, according to the cliche, arguably both cities could have been much better prepared for the disasters which they suffered. New Orleans was notoriously flood-prone and had endured the challenges of poorly-coordinated disaster responses in the past; Toronto's public health system did not engage in effective disease mitigation efforts when confronted with a new pathogen.
Arguably, the extent to which Hurricane Katrina caused damage to the city of New Orleans was somewhat predictable, given the nature of its location. The…
Garnett, J. & Kouzmin, A. (2007). Communicating through Katrina: Competing and complementary conceptual lenses on crisis communication. Public Administration Review, 171-188.
Scott, E. (2006). Hurricane Katrina Preparing for the 'Big One' in New Orleans. Kennedy School of Government.
Varley, P. (2005). Emergency response system under duress: The public health fight to contain
SARS in Toronto. Kennedy School of Government.
Conflict Crisis Management
Conflict and Crisis Management
Conflict and crisis management is classified into a three tier classification system. hat benefit does this classification have with respect to productive and practical activities? hy do you think a pyramid was used to illustrate the tiered system (why is Tier I on top, Tier II in the middle, and Tier III on the bottom)?
The benefit of using a tiered system to provide visualizations for conflict and crisis management is that the pyramid sums up the probabilities of conflicts and crisis fairly well; although in reality the pyramid would be incredibly elongated. However, tier III which would represent the most common hazards can be found almost anywhere. In the presence of these hazards people should focus on prevention and planning. The next tier, tier II, is composed of emergency situations. This situations call for a more serious response. These are events that…
FEMA. (N.d.). Introduction to Emergency Management. Retrieved from FEMA: training.fema.gov/.../Chapter%201%20-%20Intro%20to%20EM.doc
Upper Valley. (N.d.). Emergency Management. Retrieved from Planning Commission: http://www.uvlsrpc.org/projects/emergency-management/
e. physical layout, security procedures and vulnerabilities), in most cases, a non-employee is not. In principle, many of the standard procedures in work environments with established security at access points are already effective at vetting strangers, either via requiring real-time confirmation at remote (i.e. lobby) access points or via manually activated intercoms or digital displays.
However, with respect to potential violence perpetrated by family members of employees, many standard security systems are ineffective without specific personnel training addressing the risk. For example, security training for employees should address the fact that employees responsible for granting physical access to non-employees - typically, the reception staff - must remember that they are probably not going to be privy to very much information about the private lives and relationships of all of their co- workers.
ecognizing spouses of co-workers, for instance, is simply not a valid reason to grant access. At the very…
Larsen, R.J. (2007) Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Tylenol Crisis Management
One of the most famous business-related crises ever to strike modern industry was that of the Tylenol scandal of 1982. It changed the way over-the-counter painkillers were packaged in America for all time, ushering in the creation of tamper-proof seals. It also has become a paradigmatic way for companies to respond to crises. The crisis occurred when it was revealed that "during the fall of 1982, for reasons not known, a malevolent person or persons, presumably unknown, replaced Tylenol Extra-Strength capsules with cyanide-laced capsules, resealed the packages, and deposited them on the shelves of at least a half-dozen or so pharmacies, and food stores in the Chicago area. The poison capsules were purchased, and seven unsuspecting people died a horrible death" (Analysis case study, n.d., DoD).
The most obvious stakeholders were that of Johnson & Johnson, who sold Tylenol, and investors and employees with a strong…
Analysis case study: The Johnson & Johnson Tylenol crisis. (n.d.). Department of Defense.
Retrieved from: http://www.ou.edu/deptcomm/dodjcc/groups/02C2/Johnson%20&%20Johnson.htm
Blankenbeckler, W. (2012). 5 PR crisis management truths from the Tylenol murders.
ED Universe. http://eduniverse.org/5-pr-crisis-management-truths-tylenol-murders
Ethics eview Committee -- Crisis Management
Ethics eview Committee
elative Values of Proactive and eactive Thinking in Determining an Action Plan
The first consideration is to limit immediate and future damages to the firm. Two courses of action must be undertaken: Crisis communications and client relationship management. Both action plans will require consultation with the Legal Department and the Compliance Department.
A position of managing the company's reputation and ensuring it survival must be undertaken. Generally, public relations employees in an agency are aware of the steps to take for crisis communication. A crisis communications action plan must be developed that follows the best practice guidelines for crisis management. These guidelines are detailed in the next subsection.
ules for crisis management. The people involved in managing the crisis communications for this incident must be fully briefed on the particulars. Of utmost importance is to establish who will be…
Breach of Contract and Nonperformance, Lawyers.com. (2011). © LexisNexis, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. Retrieved http://business-law.lawyers.com/small-business-law/Breach-of-Contract-and-Non-Performance.html
Leighton, N. (2008, November 11). Crisis Communication: Practical PR Strategies for Reputation Management and Company Survival, International Public Relations. Retrieved http://bx.businessweek.com/crisis-communications/
Lerbinger, O. (1997). The crisis manager: Facing risk and responsibility. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Background and General Information
The world watches while Mount Agung slowly erupts on the island of Bali, emitting plumes of smoke, ash, and steam, even resulting in some cold lava flows (Tambini, 2017). While the images are certainly impressive, if Agung fully erupts, the results could be disastrous. According to latest news stories from the Indonesian island, about 67,000 residents have already been evacuated, with tens of thousands more on alert (Tambini, 2017). The Mt. Agung evacuation zone has been established a minimum of nine kilometers from the volcano A total of 100,000 people will be immediately affected with long-term consequences like the decimation of entire villages.
In addition to the displacement of people and obvious immediate humanitarian and financial crisis, the eruption of the volcano means loss of tourism dollars for Indonesia’s most important and lucrative destination. Although the mountain is not located in the prime tourist zone, international…
American Red Cross (n.d.). Volcano preparedness. http://www.redcross.org/get-help/how-to-prepare-for-emergencies/types-of-emergencies/volcano#Before
“Developing a Volcano Emergency Plan,” (n.d.). http://www.disastersrus.org/emtools/volcano/volcano_emergency_plan.htm
Doyle, E.E.H., McClure, J., Paton, D., et al (2014). Uncertainty and decision making. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 10(A): 75-101.
Gibbens, S. (2017). What you need to know about Bali’s rumbling volcano. National Geographic. 27 Nov, 2017. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/11/mount-agung-bali-indonesia-eruption-mudflow-spd/
“Indonesia: Volcanic Eruption Mt Agung Emergency Plan of Action (EPoA) Operation n° MDRID012,” (2017). Relief Web. https://reliefweb.int/report/indonesia/indonesia-volcanic-eruption-mt-agung-emergency-plan-action-epoa-operation-n
Pallister, J. (2015). Volcano disaster assistance program. In Global Volcanic Hazards and Risk. Cambridge University Press.
Tambini, J. (2017). Bali volcano eruption latest update: Plume rises from Mount Agung. Express. https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/889441/Bali-volcano-eruption-latest-update-Mount-Agung-news-erupts
Intensity is directly correlated due to what E.coli poisoning does to the individual affected by it. Symptoms of E. coli include stomach cramps that may be severe and diarrhea that may turn bloody within one to three days. E. coli sometimes can lead to complications including kidney failure. (MSNBC, p.2) the response by the government is a massive recall of the tainted product, and news reports to let product consumers know that there is cause for concern and a need to be aware of current product conditions. If this were a shipment of tainted meat to a store in somewhere, Al. there would only be a need for local officials to make a small recall and deal on a local level. This directly correlates to the model.
Kim, & Lee, (2001). Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management (1st ed.). New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc..
MSNBC.online (2007, 06/09/07). Meat…
Kim, & Lee, (2001). Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management (1st ed.). New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc..
MSNBC.online (2007, 06/09/07). Meat recall expands again on E. Coli Fears. Breaking News, pp.1-2. Retrieved 06/09/07, at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19092079/
Crisis management refers to the process of comprehensive risk assessment and strategic planning. A Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) provides proactive strategies for mitigating risk and managing crises through effective mobilization of human, financial, and technological resources, coordination of different support agencies and allies, and the implementation of recovery and response missions. There is no one central crisis management protocol, for each organization or community will have its own specific risks and resources (“Crisis Management and Emergency Response Plans,” n.d.). The CERT team works within the parameters of its community contingencies.
Emergency management refers to specific plans for responding to specific emergencies. While not all emergencies can be fully planned for, and unexpected situations will arise, CERT teams are trained and equipped to provide emergency management services for preventing fatalities, minimizing injuries, reducing loss and damage to property, reducing the environmental hazards resulting from an emergency, and…
Employee Relations Financial Crisis
Managing Employee Relations in the Event of a Financial Crisis
A Look into Management can Effectively Navigate through Adverse Conditions
Austerity Protests (Dowling, 2012)
Employee relations can often be a difficult aspect of maintaining the overall health of an organization. In general, employee relations often refer to the act of fostering productivity, motivation, and employee morale in an organizations human resources pool. However, there are some circumstances in which it is virtually impossible to maintain high levels of morale. One example of this is during a period of economic turmoil. During the global financial crisis of 2008, the world's economy took a sharp turn for the worse. This economic downturn had many implications for businesses and their employees. The level of unemployment rose quickly in many nations and pressure was also applied to lower employee wages.
In the event of such an economic downturn, it is…
BLS, 2012. The Recession of 2007-2009. [Online]
Available at: http://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2012/recession/pdf/recession_bls_spotlight.pdf
[Accessed 12 September 2012].
Business and Marketing, 2009. Consumers in a Recession. [Online]
The last decade has been riddled with crisis on the global as well as domestic scale. Crisis on many fronts have been noticed for instance natural calamities, terrorism issues, scandals, technological issues and financial disarray. Even so, most leaders aren't fully up to the task in terms of leading a company or society, in general, out of a crisis successfully. Experts at the start of this decade went hand in hand to eliminate the Y2K bug, which became the first Internet crisis. On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks in New York City on World Trade Center threw U.S. off balance. Next, the Katrina Hurricane struck with full vengeance in the gulf region which tore apart communities as we know it. The Tsunami of 2004 was another tragic event which rendered millions of people homeless. Last but the not the least, the recession of 2008 shutdown major corporations…
OECD (2011), OECD Reviews of Risk Management Policies, Future Global Shocks, Improving Risk Governance, OECD Publishing.
Dezenhall, E.; Weber, J. (2007). Damage control: Why everything you know about crisis management is wrong. Portfolio Hardcover.
Erickson, Paul A. (2006). Emergency Response Planning for Corporate and Municipal Managers (2nd Ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier, Inc.
Barton, L. (2007). Crisis leadership now: A real-world guide to preparing for threats, disaster, sabotage, and scandal. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
By using this type of planning, any company can simulate what would take place in a crisis, and can determine what would be done if it were to actually occur. The old adage of "practice makes perfect" may seem very cliche, but there is some truth to the statement. Even though no company wants or expects to have a crisis in it or technology, the companies that are truly prepared for just about every eventuality will be the companies that have the smallest amount of damage based on the significance of the crisis that takes place (Dezenhall & Weber, 2007). A contingency plan has to stipulate who will perform what activities, so that there is no confusion about that issue during a crisis. This is especially true with a spokesperson, because there should only be one person who is designated to speak for the company and who will provide information…
Barton, L. (2007). Crisis leadership now: A real-world guide to preparing for threats, disaster, sabotage, and scandal. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Dezenhall, E. & Weber, J. (2007). Damage control: Why everything you know about crisis management is wrong. New York, NY: Portfolio Hardcover.
Ulmer, R.R., Sellnow, T.L., & Seeger, M.W. (2006). Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Leaders who are fluent in crisis management are not afraid of crises because they have engaged in the necessary planning and preparation, have a number of coping skills to deal with a variety of scenarios, and are skilled at turning potential negatives into positives. They are adaptable, and can quickly readjust strategies to suit present needs, rather than remain stuck in one specific plan for the future.
Another critical aspect of effective crisis leadership that also has applications in day-to-day leadership is the need for participatory strategies, to get all members of the organization 'on board' with the leader's plan. Participatory leadership requires soliciting input from different members of the organization to create a holistic plan of attack, and draws upon a variety of perspectives, avoiding tunnel vision. Using participatory strategies increase organizational members' sense of investment and 'buy-in' with a crisis prevention or management plan. It might be protested…
Crisis leadership competency model. (2009). Retrieved March 1, 2011 at http://www.asph.org/userfiles/Competencies-Resources/08_CDC_CrisisLeadership.ppt
James, Erika Hayes. (2008). Linking crisis management and leadership competencies: The role of human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources
10(3): 352. Retrieved March 1, 2011 at http://adh.sagepub.com/content/10/3/352.short
Assessing the Many Management Challenges George Faces
Having stepped into Stevenson Company transportation department as its new supervisor, George is quickly overwhelmed by a department in disarray, chaotically operating without any leadership or guidance. The major management issues George faces is predicated on the lack of clarity regarding roles, authority and organization structure and clarity of performance expectations. In short, the management issues George faces are what happens when senior management abdicates leadership of a given area of a business, allowing personal agendas and resentment to ester instead of implementing clear performance expectations. The lack of willingness to change and improve is more attributable the managers of dysfunctional teams than the teams themselves (James, Wooten, Dushek, 2011).
The first and most significant management issue is getting the transportation department integrated back into the company. The many symptoms of its malaise and dysfunctional nature can be attributed to its lack…
James, E.H., Wooten, L.P., & Dushek, K. (2011). Crisis management: Informing a new leadership research agenda. The Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 455.
Jaques, T. (2012). Crisis leadership: A view from the executive suite. Journal of Public Affairs, 12(4), 366.
Kovjanic, S., Schuh, S.C., & Jonas, K. (2013). Transformational leadership and performance: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of basic needs satisfaction and work engagement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(4), 543.
Mathis, R.L., & Jackson, J.H. (2011). Human Resource Management (13th ed.). Cengage Learning.)
Ebert (1986) believes "there is absolutely no justification for preventing mental health professionals from participating in virtually all facets of hostage negotiation," (p. 580). As Hatcher, Mohandie, Turner & Gelles (1998) point out, most mental health professionals that do participate in any aspect of hostage negotiation do so "by invitation only in police-established hostage negotiation schools," (p. 461). With this training, the mental health professional is thus theoretically prepared to engage the perpetrator directly. However, the mental health professional is only prepared when the training provided is thorough and consistent, and in accordance with the parameters and goals of each crisis situation.
The pros of employing a psychologist as a primary negotiator are clear. Most significantly, the psychologist has expertise in human behavior and cognition and can apply that knowledge to making quick decisions. The psychologist can also provide post-traumatic stress intervention services to the hostage victims and…
Ebert, B.W. (1986). The mental health response team: An expanding role for psychologists. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 17, 6, 580-585.
Hatcher, C., Mohandie, K., Turner, J. & Gelles, M.G. (1998). The role of psychologists in crisis/hostage negotiations.Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 455-472.
A competitive advantage can be founded on expenditure or separation. Michael Porter recognized three industry independent general strategies from which the company can choose (the Strategic Planning Process, 2010).
The chosen strategy is put into practice by way of programs, budgets, and measures. Execution entails organization of the company's capital and inspiration of the employees to attain goals. The manner in which the strategy is put into practice can have an important impact on whether it will be victorious. In a big corporation, those who put into practice the strategy likely will be dissimilar individuals from those who devised it. Therefore, concern must be taken to speak about the strategy and the motive behind it. If not, the execution might not do well if the strategy is not understood or if lower-level supervisors resist its execution because they do not understand why the particular strategy was chosen (the Strategic Planning…
Basic Description of Strategic Planning. (n.d.) Retrieved February 21, 2011, from Web site:
Shapiro, Janet. (n.d.). Strategic Planning Toolkit. Retrieved February 21, 2011, from Web site:
It is no secret that the emergency management response of the city needs to improve, especially when it comes to winter snowstorms and related issues. With that in mind, it becomes necessary to focus on how to help both businesses and residences who may have people trapped in them. Additionally, people can easily become trapped in their cars, and without food or water they can be at serious risk. With the freezing temperatures, the danger in which these people find themselves is extremely significant, and not something they can easily ignore or extricate themselves from. Of course, there is more than just people to consider. The safety of structures, the clearing of roadways, and the proper functioning of city services are all issues that can come about when snowstorms and other natural disasters hit a city (Howitt & Leonard, 2009). Individuals who work for city agencies need the…
Buchanan, . (2000). Emergency preparedness. In Banks, P. & Pilette, R. Preservation Issues and Planning. Chicago: American Library Association.
Drabek, T. (1991). Emergency management: Principles and practice for local government. Washington D.C.: International City Management Association.
Howitt, A.M. & Leonard, H.B. (2009). Managing crises: Responses to large-scale emergencies. NY: CQ Press.
Suttmeier, R.P. (2011).China's management of environmental crises: Risks, recreancy, and response. In Jae Ho Chung (ed.). China's Crisis Management. London: Routledge.
In August 2016, the state of Louisiana experienced catastrophic flooding, specifically at Baton Rouge and Lafayette areas. The flooding, rated as the most terrible natural disaster since the 2012 Hurricane Sandy, resulted in 10 deaths and destruction of property worth billions of dollars, leaving thousands of residents homeless. The situation presented a major crisis for organizations mandated with disaster response, particularly the Federal Emergency Management Authority (FEMA). Many agencies and people have criticized FEMA for not attending to the disaster with adequate urgency, as well as for its failure to warn the residents adequately prior to the storm. Such criticism often puts the reputation of disaster response organizations at stake. FEMA may be subject to greater public pressure, leading to internal reorganization and even dismissal of some officials.
Public Health and Safety
In February 2016, Johnson & Johnson, a multinational firm involved in manufacturing medical devices as well…
(Jones, Kowalk and Miller, 2000) The following is an example of these classifications.
isk Assessment Matrix
Source: Jones, Kowalk and Miller (2000)
III. PUBLIC SECTO'S ESPONSIBILITIES
The critical incident management plan is important in the community response provided and this includes the response of emergency responders, police officers, the fire departments as well as others who are involved in such plans. The first duty of the public sector is to maintain community safety. (Jones, Kowalk and Miller, 2000) It is important that the critical incident management plan "define situations where public policy or legal mandates require public sector intervention even though the private sector has ample resources to handle the event." (Jones, Kowalk and Miller, 2000)
IV. THE INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS)
The incident command system (ICS) has been adopted by many jurisdictions and endorsed by law enforcement and fire services. ICS is stated to establish "an organized…
Jones, R.W., Kowalk, M.A. And Miller, P.P. (2000) Critical Incident Protocol -- A Public and Private Partnership (2000) Office for State and Local Domestic Preparedness Support, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Online available at: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/docs/cip.pdf
Agency Administrator's Guide to Critical Incident Management (2008) National Wildfire Coordinating Group. July 2008. Online available at: www.nwcg.gov/pms/pubs/pms926.doc
The success of leaders and managers is contingent on the following three key capabilities: positive intelligence, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence (Kaifi, 2013). Management and leadership modification focuses on leaders' capability of motivating subordinates to deliver extraordinary performance. Further, it relies on leaders' efficacy of creating opportunities capable of facilitating personnel transformation of problems into achievements, in difficult periods. Emergency management necessitates robust leadership which may spur enterprise growth, produce change, and thus reshape the firm's business operations as well as long- and short-term stakeholder perceptions regarding the firm (Fragouli & Ibidapo, 2015).
A successful leader can grasp the fact that he/she is best- equipped for decision making because of his/her thorough organizational knowledge. While specialists' narrow focus is necessary, it only supplements and doesn't replace a leader's thorough organizational knowledge. Change management constitutes a well- discussed subject in corporate efficacy and management literature. Among the most difficult…
Anderson, E. (2014, April 10). Manage or Lead? Do Both. Forbes.
Fragouli, E., & Ibidapo, B. (2015). Leading in Crisis - Leading Org Change and Business Development. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 71 - 90.
Kaifi, B. (2013). Organizational Behavior: Managing and Leading Organizations. Llumina Press.
Stanfield, R. (2016). From Managing to Leading - Unlocking the Hidden Talent. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, 99 - 112.
crisis, risk, and security all play a role and are linked within an organizational context. It is also important to examine the role gaming and simulation play within this phenomena. In the past, risk was established as an idea that generated academic interest not just in social sciences but in pure sciences. It also has become subject to overzealous social and political controversy. isk management has then become the main source of debate as well as theory development (Borodzicz, 2005) As risk can appear within anything from public safety, to transportation, and health, businesses must learn an effective way to manage it. Security management however, has less developed theories and debates but still plays a vital role is lessening risk and increase proper risk management. It is then crucial to understand how both play roles in the stability and safety of any organization.
In John Adam's isk at the beginning…
Adams, J. (1995). Risk (1st ed.). London [England]: UCL Press.
Borodzicz, E. (2005). Risk, crisis and security management (1st ed.). West Sussex, England: J. Wiley & Sons.
Button, M. (2008). Doing security (1st ed.). Basingstoke [England]: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cavanagh, T., & Whiting, M. (2003). Corporate security management (1st ed.). New York: Conference Board.
Domino's Pizza Crisis And The esponse
With the growth of the social media, many organizations have found themselves on the receiving end from careless social media users and even some accurate documentation of faults within the organization have as well found way into the social media world. Domino's Pizza was a victim of brand attack in April 2009 when two employees of one of their North Carolina stores made a video of themselves doing despicable and unhygienic things with the food to be delivered to clients as seen on the video still found on youtube (Householdhacker, 2009). The video went viral on the internet and the criticism started coming in fast. The Domino manage had to do something about the entire saga in order to retain their market share and also to recapture the customer confidence by depicting this as an isolated incident. Domino's effectively managed to put this crisis…
Frampton F., (2015). A Timeless Social Media Crisis Plan-Domino's Pizza. Retrieved March 10, 2016 from http://sos.marketing/a-timeless-social-media-crisis-plan-dominos-pizza/
Rogers W., (2014). Sales Mastery: 10 Keys to Building Trust and Credibility with Your Customers. Retrieved March 10, 2016 from https://www.salesforce.com/blog/2014/07/sales-mastery-10-keys-to-building-trust-and-credibility-with-your-customers-cso-gp.html
McBain, (2014). Leverage Customers to Increase Marketing for Your Business. Retrieved March 10, 2016 from https://paysimple.com/blog/leverage-customers-increase-marketing/
Householdhacker, (2009). How to Get Fired from Dominos Pizza. Retrieved March 10, 2016 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1D9PikBzNNo
Argenti raises many sound points regarding the proper protocol during crisis management. The bulk of chapter ten demonstrates a sound understanding of how crises unfold, and how every crisis is different. While this is true, there are still strong areas of overlap among crises. "Few circumstances test a company's reputation or competency as severely as a crisis. Whether the impact is immediate or sustained over months and years, a crisis affects stakeholders within and outside of a company" (Weiner, 2006). In such a case, clients cancel orders and cancel subscriptions. Employees start asking questions or worse, quitting. Competitors start circling like sharks and government agencies and other regulators often start knocking, with attorneys at their heel (Weiner, 2006). Given all the aggravated circumstances connected to a crisis and the variety of ways that any potential crisis could be handled, Argenti makes a continually strong and pervasive argument about…
Argenti. (2007). Strategic Corporate Communication. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill
Friedman, K. (2013). Dealing with the Media During a Crisis. Retrieved from bernsteincrisismanagement.com:
The document states the plan of an organization in different phases. For each phase there will be a different management strategy. The document has described the management strategy and the effects that they will have on the performance of the business and why that particular management strategy has been chosen.
Management structure needs to be examined carefully when a new business venture is setup. In order to develop and build on the business plan a compact management structure is necessary. The managers are the people who are responsible for steering an organization towards achieving the business objectives. In the second phase the business plan will be implemented on the basis of geographical region and the management structure will be based accordingly.
The four key functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling the business. The type of managers which are selected for the business venture must be…
Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19.
Kleiman, Lawrence S. (2010). " Management and Executive Development" Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business
Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries (2003). The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26
Richard Barrett (2003). Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51
This concept originated with the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM).
The notion that only managers play a role in controlling work activities is based on two false ideas. One is the antiquated notion of totalitarian management. Modern management does not follow this style, as it is often not consistent with organizational objectives. The second false idea is that the manager can control the employee at all times. In practice, managers merely provide instruction and guidance with respect to work activities. Employees often devise their own ways of performing different tasks, and it would be near impossible for management to control this. Thus, employees do exert some control over work activities.
Q3. Operations management can be applied to any managerial function.
Operations management techniques are based around analysis of processes. Control is merely one aspect of the role, even within the operations setting. In fact, operations management also consists of…
This is one way to ensure everyone can work together with the same goals and information. Neighboring states could us the same criteria for training, thereby cutting training costs and ensuring cooperation and understanding from neighboring responders in the U.S. As well.
It is clear the field of emergency management is not what it was even ten years ago. Today, there are more considerations about terrorism, global warfare, and WMD that were not as prevalent even ten years ago. Emergency management has to evolve as disaster and the threat of disaster evolves. With all the talk of global warming, there may be ramifications from that problem that may become much more apparent in the future, and emergency management may have to deal with those too, such as mass evacuations, massive climate change, and other problems.
Farazmand, a. (2001). Handbook of crisis and emergency management. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Farazmand, a. (2001). Handbook of crisis and emergency management. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
"The most important issues which have to be addressed here are precise monitoring (diagnosis) of current results and their comparison with what has been planned. Effective managerial control must always be followed by feedback for correcting initial plans " (http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm).
The observation of the way in which people within an organization behave is of extreme importance. ut leaders and managers obtain feedback not just from observations, but directly from people. This provides them with a better understanding of the relation between the actions performed by the individuals and the beliefs which guide their behaviour. An efficacious control upon these factors implies the contribution to the creation and maintenance of a healthy organizational culture.
There are various strategies that an organization can choose to implement in order to make sure it preserves a healthy organizational culture. Among them we can mention the adoption of various principles, such as the following: a…
Baker, Kathryn (2002), Organizational Culture, 19 May, 2007, <
Four Management Functions, 19 May, 2007, http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/ibatullina/eng/function.htm
Schein, Edgar, H (1992), Organizational Culture and Leadership, San Francisco: Jossey -Bass Publishers
In my opinion, valuable organizational change is a process. It is nothing that comes from one day to the other. It requires the combined efforts of the organization as a whole: Skilled managers and the commitment of an organization's workforce alike.
Discussion of the paper's results: What are the key findings? What does it add to the body of knowledge?
The key findings of the paper are threefold.
First, the current management of organizational change tends to be reactive in its response to the pace of change that has never been greater than today. Second, successful management of change within organizations is a highly required skill. Third, further research into the nature of change management needs to be conducted and a new and pragmatic framework for change management is needed as a critical success factor for the management of change. It adds to the body of knowledge, that managerial skills…
Management Approach That Offers the Best Outcomes
for Knowledge Development
Understanding business, and what that process contains, is extremely complex. It takes years of study and focus to gain even a rudimentary idea of all a company has to do to remain viable. A company has to have employees who understand their jobs, clear work goals for all concerned in the business, accounting practices that tell the actual financial workings of the company and keep government agencies happy, along with many other processes among the strata. Threads run through all of the working practices of an organization which tend to bind it together. These can be tangible communication channels (email, phone lines, other forms of information technology), or they can be intangible. These intangible communication lines are another layer of complexity which the organizations managers have to control and mold. How people deal with one another is the way an…
Cohen, Debra J. "Knowledge Development -- Future Focus: Emerging Issues -- in Human Resource Management." HR Magazine (2003). Web.
de Dreu, Carsten K.W., and Evert van de Vliert. Using Conflict in Organizations. New York: Sage Publications, 1997. Print.
Fischler, Michael L. "From Crisis to Growth…Race, Culture, Ethnicity, Conflict and Change." Education 124.2 (2003): 396-398. Print.
"Knowledge." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2011.
Management Case Study
Where the Rubber Meets the Road
Total quality management (TQM), defined in the most simplistic of terms, is the incremental improvement of all facets of a business to increase customer satisfaction and, in turn, company viability. Although TQM is often applied first to manufacturing functions in an organization (zero defects, on-time production), the intent of TQM is equally meaningful in all aspects of business, from administrative (zero defects in billing and timely collection of accounts receivable), to distribution (no breakage, just-in-time delivery) to management (appropriate incentive structures, timely and accurate stakeholder reporting). The increased efficiency and competitiveness created through TQM initiatives is not limited to only the manufacturing sector, with many of the benefits of TQM occurring in the service sector, too.
In the case of ridgestone/Firestone, TQM was not pursued prior to the recall of its 6.5 million tires in 2000, as evidenced by the magnitude…
Case study: Where the rubber meets the road
Leadership styles: Switching from authoritarian to participatory leadership
Leadership styles: Switching from authoritarian to participatory leadership
There is no singular style of leadership that is appropriate for all situations. The type of leadership that is required to command soldiers in the field of battle is very different than the type of leadership demanded at an advertising agency. The latter situation requires soliciting creative input from all employees, not reflexive obedience like a wartime scenario. At the organization in question, the manager is deploying an authoritarian style of leadership at a company where individuals believe they can make a positive contribution to the organization's growth and development. ather than effectively keeping people in line, the manager's style is merely causing anger and resentment. Also, through manipulating the staff, the manager is 'playing' certain staff members 'off' against one another, rather than creating an effective and united team dynamic. This…
Bartle, Phil. (2007, May 17). Participatory management. CMC (Community Empowerment
Collective). Retrieved December 23, 2010 at http://www.scn.org/cmp/modules/pm-pm.htm
Maintaining professionalism, when communicating the physical security, ensures its adoption by the stakeholders. In addition, providing a cost estimate for the whole process makes the management team understand the need for the adoption of the physical security in the business/organization (Chapter 7 of Broder, & Tucker, 2011).
Cost benefit/benefit analysis enables the business to assess the risks and advantages associated with the security option. This entails evaluating the efficiency of the security program with the perceived operational costs and implications on organizational performance. This ensures proper development of security design for ensuring effective management operations management. Some of the risk management options that ensure physical security include the development of effective policies, procedures, hardware, and labor that promote utilization of security programs. ecovery can be achieved by ensuring developing the desired hardware that stores data related to operations management in the organization. Evaluating the effectiveness of a security program is…
Chapter 5 of Broder, JF. & Tucker, G. (2011). Risk Analysis and the Security Survey. Upper Saddle River,
Chapter 7 of Broder, JF. & Tucker, G. (2011). Risk Analysis and the Security Survey. Upper Saddle River,
Since, this one lacks structure means that many employees can become confused about their responsibilities. Once this occurs, it can often lead to employee issues, where this confusion can become an issue of contention between the staff and management. As management is telling them to engage in particular activity, yet they don't understand why they are doing such tasks. Over time, this can cause moral to drop as those employees who do not thrive under such a system, begin to lower the overall positive attitude in the work environment. ("Contingency Theory," 2010)
Despite some of the obvious weaknesses, the contingency theory is effective for those organizations that are small. This is because the in formalized structure allows managers / owners the opportunity to adapt to changes that are occurring in real time. Where, they can use their experience and common sense to adjust to various business conditions. As a result,…
Building Emotional Capital. (2004, June 24). Retrieved April 10, 2010, from Executive Education website: http://executive.education.insead.edu/programme/documents/Nissan_004.pdf
Contingency Theory. (2010). Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Values-Based Management website: http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_contingency_theory.html
Babineck, M. (2006, March 13). The Enron Trial. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Chron website: http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/special/enron/3718892.html
Bissonette, Z. (2008, August 1). How Does General Motors CEO Rick Wagoner Still Have a Job. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Blogging Stocks website: http://www.bloggingstocks.com/2008/08/01/how-does-general-motors-ceo-richard-wagoner-still-have-a-job/
Where, the benchmarks will show if the system is helping or hindering the company from achieving its objectives. This is significant, because when it is used in conjunction with flexibility, you can be able to effectively adapt to changes in the markets. With flexibility providing the necessary ingredients to implement such changes, while the use of benchmarks will identify when a management system is becoming unproductive. (Ireland, 2008, pp. 33 -- 39)
The use of knowledge management is when an organization is collecting and analyzing the total amounts of knowledge at their disposal. This would include analyzing all available: resources, employee / managerial skills and documents. This is significant, because it provides a way for an organization to quickly collect and analyze a wide variety of information. At which point, managers can be able to effectively place the different resources and personnel of the company, in those areas where they…
Symptoms of a Dysfunctional Organization. (2005). Retrieved July 9, 2010 from Copper Comm website: http://www.coopercomm.com/dysfnorg.htm
What are Management Control Systems. (2010). Retrieved July 9, 2010 from Wisegeek website: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-management-control-systems.htm
Flamholtz, E. (1998). Case Studies in Changing the Game. Changing the Game. (pp.81 -- 90). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ireland, D. (2008). Promoting Integrity and Ethical Behavior. Understanding Business Strategy. (pp. 33 -- 39). Mason, OH: South Western.
Another trait of leadership Zinni and Klotz (2009) explore is the ability of a leader to communicate clearly and articulately with the organization and the public. He can no longer afford to be the faceless top of a chain of command. It behooves the modern leader to develop a variety of decision making skills, such as honing his intuition, learning to quickly recognize developing patterns and trends, and quickly communicating his directions and intentions. This also means that today's leader must be able to show the way through times of crisis and change. A leader's ability to calmly steer a course in times of turmoil is crucial to the survival of any enterprise. Finally, a modern leader needs to think and act strategically. He must plan out the future course of action and guide the organization toward achieving the vision he has articulated. He must be able to hold fast…
Cooper, I.D., (2007, May/June). The impotence of importance -- reflections on leadership. Annals of family medicine, 5:261-262. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from www.annfammed.org (25)
Li, C., (2010). Open Leadership: How social technology can transform the way you lead. San Fransico, CA: Jossey-Bass Wiley.
Shulstad, R.A., (2009, summer). Perspectives on leadership and management. Air & space power journal, 11-17. Superintendent of Documents. Retrived June 28,2010, from http://www.airpower.au.af.mil (24)
Spurgeon, P., & Cragg, R., (2007). Is it leadership or management? Clinician in management. 15: 123-125. In R. Chambers, K. Mohanna, P. Spurgeon, & D. Wall, (Eds.). How to succeed as a leader. Oxford, U.K.: Radcliffe Publishing. (21)
Therefore, it is important that they understand the influence of violence on their behavior.
The most important objectives of this campaign are represented by:
Increasing awareness on this issue
Improving the activity of authorities in such situations
Changing violent behaviors
The resources that the campaign is based on are represented by supporters, reputation from other campaigns, and the help of authorities. It is important that the campaign benefits from an increased number of supports. This is because they can help promote the campaign and its objectives. The reputation from other campaigns is intended to attract a higher number of sponsors. The success of this campaign relies on the relationship between the ed Cross and the authorities in these countries.
The targets of this campaign are represented by:
People that observe violent behavior in others
People that practice such violent behaviors
There are several messages addressed by the campaign. The…
1. Annual Report (2010). ICRC. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
2. Kimbarovsky, R. (2009). 10 Small Business Social Media Marketing Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from http://mashable.com/2009/10/28/small-business-marketing/ .
3. Guion, M. (2008). Internet Usage Gaps in Developing Countries: Challenges and Solutions. InfoTech. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from http://it.tmcnet.com/topics/it/articles/36595-internet-usage-gaps-developing-countries-challenges-solutions.htm .
It shows that no one is infallible, but there are steps that can lead just about anyone down the path toward good decisions if they are followed and implemented in sequence and with thought and care.
A also felt the section on barriers to effective decision-making was important. It is helpful to recognize the things that may get in the way of good decision-making, both in others and myself. Certainly, at least some of these barriers will crop up in the decision-making process, and it is good to understand them so they will be recognizable. To recognize these barriers is the first step in overcoming them and moving along toward a successful conclusion. Providing the six steps was valuable, but illustrating no decision-making process is always clear sailing is also a valuable step for me and how I view the entire management process. Learning how to be a more effective…
Still, since it is looking to sell a property asset that is not their main residence, they will be required to pay a capital gains tax, in the amount of 18 per cent (Direct Gov). For an estimated retail price of £150,150, and a tax rate of 18 per cent, Olly Lloyd would have to pay £27,027 in taxes.
For the new employment contract, Lloyd would have to pay taxes in the amount of £5,281. The sum is decreased significantly by deductions adherent to contributions made by Olly to the pension funds (Listen to Taxman).
c) Suggestions for financial management
Leone Lloyd-Cardle is, without a doubt, facing severe problems. In order to restore the responsibility and stability of her financial decisions, the following financial management recommendations are made:
Discussing the problem with her husband. Having reached such a high level of debt indicates severe problems which cannot be overcome by…
Davis, E.P., 2009, Financial stability in the United Kingdom: banking on prudence, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 717, http://www.ephilipdavis.com/uk%20financial%20stability%20oecd.pdf last accessed on December 19, 2011
Inmann, P., 2008, Traders predict house prices will fall by 50% in four years, The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2008/jun/09/housingmarket.houseprices last accessed on December 19, 2011
2009, Residence, domicile and the remittance basis: operation changes, HM Revenue and Customs, http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/briefs/income-tax/brief1709.htm last accessed on December 19, 2011
2011, Tax liability, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/taxliability.asp#axzz1gxx7hXX1 last accessed on December 19, 2011
Innovation in its simplest form can be termed as something new or newly introduced into the market. Innovation in the business field is quite necessary since it forms the backbone of a company's growth and that of the economy as a whole. Innovation is the success of every business and must be managed effectively and efficiently (Limerick, 2002).
The ever changing technology and instant global communication have made it easier for companies to find answers to some problems they encounter and more so come up with innovations to improve on the current ones. Companies are also faced with pressures arising from global competition and by this; most of them are seeking the need to manage their innovations. Companies are nowadays attracting and managing innovations by having rewards or prizes for individuals within the company who manages to come up with brilliant and innovative concepts. This will give the…
AFUAH, A. 2003. Innovation Management: Strategies, Implementation, and Profits, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press.
ALEXY, O. & REITZIG, M. 2012. Managing the business risks of open innovation. McKinsey Quarterly, 17-21.
BROWN & HELEN 2008. Knowledge and innovation: a comparative study of the U.S.A., the UK, and Japan London Routledge.
DANNEELS, E. 2002. The Dynamics of Product Innovation and Firm Competences. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 1095-1121.
Managing Exchange ate isk
For a number of multinational corporations, currency fluctuations can pose an extreme risk for them. This is because of sudden changes and dramatic amounts of volatility inside the marketplace can have a negative effect on their bottom line results. When this happens, there is a realistic possibility that these challenges could negatively impact their financial position and ability to compete inside many different markets. (Berger, 2011)
In the case of Fed Ex, the company has operations around the globe and is one the larger overnight package delivery services. This means that sudden shifts in the currency could negatively impact their earnings. To fully understand the overall scope and the way they are able to deal with these challenges requires focusing on how this impacts their operations, options financial managers can use to manage it and the benefits / drawbacks of these strategies. Together, these elements will…
Fed Ex. (2013). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=FDX+Profile
Fed Ex First Quarter Results. (2012). IPC. Retrieved from: http://www.ipc.be/en/Newsroom/General%20news/FedEx%20reports%20first-quarter%20results
Berger, A. (2011).Case Study Fed Ex Corporation. Nordstadt: Verlag.
Grady, G. (2010). Foreign Exchange Risk Management Methods. E Zine Articles. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Foreign-Exchange-Risk-Management-Methods&id=3047383
The way in which these quotes were related to previous research also asserted trustworthiness. The reliability and validity of ethnographic research is often questioned in comparison to experimental research, although there are several strategies recognized to enhance credibility (LeCompte and Goetz, 1982); there is little evidence of use of such strategies in the study.
The findings of the study enabled the researchers' to put forward several indications towards future practice in health care in rural communities, although it was recognized that in order for a comprehensive set of nursing care management regulations and interventions to be identified, further research within the specific types of community used are required.
Summary of critique and conclusions
Overall, the piece of research effectively identified several gaps in the current research regarding the effect of health care transitions in rural communities. The study identified three relevant research questions, although presented little information regarding the current…
Boyd, C.O. (1993) Toward a nursing practice research method. Advances in Nursing Science, 16 (2), 9-25.
LeCompte, M.D. And Goetz, J.P. (1982) Problems of reliability and validity in ethnographic research. Review of Educational Research, 52 (1), 31-60.
Lowenberg, J.S. (1993) Interpretive research methodology: broadening the dialogue. Advances in Nursing Science, 16 (2), 57-69.
Magilvy, J.K. And Congdon, J.G. (2000) the crisis nature of health care transitions for rural older adults. Public Health Nursing, 17 (5), 336-345.
There are some disadvantages to the transactional leadership style, however. This style is often considered to be inferior in times of crisis when strong transformation of the business is required. Should FedEx's core business move beyond the "cash cow" stage of maturity, the company may lack the vision to radically transform itself (for example, if jet fuel costs become too high to offer overnight courier service profitably). The company has succeeded thus far with its leadership style in part because it has had the same leader for its entire history -- the ability of FedEx to develop transformational leaders has not yet been tested. In addition, the company has been able to utilize their current business model profitably since the years following its inception, and there has been no crisis that threatened this cash flow significantly.
That said, FedEx does have within its leadership style the ability to make changes…
Smith, F. (2010). What the Marine Corps taught me can be seen every day in FedEx. Military.com. Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://www.military.com/veterans-day/famous-veterans/frederick-smith.htm
Epstein, M. (1998). Hiring veterans: A cost-effective staffing solution. HR Magazine. Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/workforce-management-hiring-recruitment/708916-1.html
Row, H. (1998). The 9 faces of leadership. Fast Company. Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/13/9faces.html
MindTools.com. (2010). Leadership styles. MindTools.com. Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm#transactional
Management and Control of Quality
The HMO pharmacy crisis
One has to understand the role played by the science of statistics in managerial decision-making. It is vital that managers think statistically in order for them to understand the processes, which would offer the context to determine variation effects and proper managerial actions. Looking at work as a process, a manager can apply the tools of statistics to identify consistent, predictable processes. Armed with such information or knowledge they would be able to study and improve upon the processes. Variation does occur everywhere, but many business decisions fail to account for variation. It is vital that one understand the variation nature for them to concentrate on reducing variation.
Dover was able to pick up some solid statistical thinking when he attended the "Statistical Thinking for Continuous Improvement" course offered to all employees of the organization. From the course, he also received…
Gomez, M., Oliete, B., Rosell, C.M., Pando, V., & Fernandez, E. (2008). Studies on cake quality made of wheat -- chickpea flour blends. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 41(9), 1701-1709.
Morrow, C., Moore, D., & Lockner, D. (2000). The effect of mineral bond strength and adsorbed water on fault gouge frictional strength. Geophysical Research Letters, 27(6), 815-818.
Today, emergency managers know there are more risks than ever, and emergency management efforts must be coordinated and applied to the terrorist threat, because, no matter how much we don not want to face it, another attack will occur, and emergency management procedures will come into play. Develop a cohesive model now to make the country a little more manageable and coherent during a terrorist attack. Waugh also notes that we must alter the process of terrorism to make it less beneficial to the terrorists. Developing a comprehensive emergency management model can assure a better response from emergency workers, creating fewer deaths and fewer "rewards" for the terrorists, as well.
Farazmand, a. (2001). Handbook of crisis and emergency management. New York:…
Farazmand, a. (2001). Handbook of crisis and emergency management. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
As the workplace and management techniques have developed over the decades, employees have enjoyed an increasingly powerful position in their companies. According to Eisler and Montuori (2001), the changes in both business and its surrounding environment in terms of society, the economy and the environment have necessitated new paradigms of the employer-employee relationship. It is no longer sufficient to mindlessly follow traditional methods such as marionette management. Instead, the workplace needs to be assessed in terms of which management styles will most efficiently drive the specific business.
Partnership management is one of these new paradigms. In partnership management, it is acknowledged that employees are more than entities to perform specific functions for a specific time during the day. In this management style, employees are recognized as an important part of business growth and success. As such, they are expected to provide input that would be valuable for the…
Eisler, Riane and Montuori, Alfonso. (2001). The Partnership Organization: A systems approach. OD Practitioner, vol. 33, no. 2. http://www.partnershipway.org/html/subpages/articles/organization.htm
Eisler, Riane. (1991). Women, Men and Management; Redesigning Our Future. Futures, January/February. http://www.partnershipway.org/html/subpages/articles/management.htm
Heller, Robert. (2007). Business Enterprise: Entrepreneurship and spotting business opportunities. Thinking Manager's Blog. http://www.thinkingmanagers.com/management/business-enterprise.php
Nowicki, Michael & Summers, Jim. (2003, Oct). "The benevolent autocrat: is it the right fit for the times?." Heatlhcare Financial Management. Online database: FindArticles.com
This also includes making sure that bias is not an influence in the decision making process.
Change is often brought about by internal and external factors. The desired change in any organization cannot be brought about without implementing organizational change strategies. The entire process requires assessing, planning, implementing, benchmarking and keeping an eye on the goals and objectives of the organization. To bring about the preferred changes a strong, secure and motivated leader is necessary. In this fast paced world where each and every company fights to survive and grow, the leader must be able to expand vision and unite the organization. Adjusting to new competitive and market demands is a significant instrument for both organizational and personal survival. To bring about a desired change in an organization careful formulation of organization change strategy in order to address the key variables that affect the change outcome is required (Strategies…
Allwood, C, & Salo, I 2012, 'Decision-making styles and stress', International Journal of Stress Management, 19, 1, pp. 34-47, viewed 21 March 2012.
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Decision Making Confidence. 2012. A Variety of Rational Decision Making Models. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/rational-decision-making-models.html . [Accessed 21 March 12].
National Defense University. n.d. Strategic Leadership and Decision Making. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt1ch4.html. [Accessed 21 March 12].
Nearly everything the company does…is aimed at reducing the cost and expanding the scope of Internet use" (Carr 2008, p.2). Because of its business model, Google thrives on innovation, so it can encourage its employees to take more risks in their work and act more independently: "Google faces far less risk in product development than the usual business does. It routinely introduces half-finished products & #8230;even if the offerings fail to win a big share of the market they will still tend to produce attractive returns by generating advertising revenue and producing valuable data on customer behavior. For most companies, a failed launch of a new product is very costly. For Google, in general, it's not. Failure is cheap" (Carr 2008, p.2).
This stress on innovation and its ability to minimize financial damage from failure because of its advertisement-driven model allows one of the most substantial advantages of taking a…
Carr, Nicholas G. (2008, January 1). The Google enigma. E-News: Developments in Strategy and Business. Journal published by the global commercial consulting firm Booz & Company.
Retrieved April 7, 2009 at http://www.strategy-business.com/press/enewsarticle/enews013108
Helft, Miguel. (2007, March 10). Google's buses help its workers beat the rush.
The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2009 at htp://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/10/technology/10google.html?scp=10&sq=google working&st=cse
It is essential fo company manages, safety pactitiones and manufactuing enginees to be infomed of and gain sufficient knowledge about cuent eseach developments in this field and implement safety stategies as well as systems to minimize occupational health and safety isks. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Active and pocedual isk management stategies ae impotant elements in any manufactuing unit. Active isk management efes to implementing intelocks, alams and mitigation systems that can detect a hazad and immediately shut down o set the system into a safe position. Pocedual isk management efes to implementing safety checklists, opeato taining, standad opeating pocedues and seveal such people dependent management systems. Ceating "inheently safe design stategies" in a manufactuing unit would involve fou key stategies. These ae minimizing, modeating, substituting and simplifying systems. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Despite all safety guidelines, accidents still occu mainly as a esult of human complacence…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
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Fleming, Mary Louise; Parker, Elizabeth. 2007. Health promotion: principles and practice in the Australian context. Ligare Book Printer, Sydney.
International Labour Organization. Occupational safety & health. 2009. Retrieved 12 November, 2009 from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/sectors/mee/safety.htm
Management Account in the Public Sector and Management Accounting in the Private Sector: A Comparative Review
The late 20th and early 21st centuries have brought increasing change to almost every country in the world, Australia included. Globalism describes, in fact, the increasing unification of the world through economic means (reduction of trade barriers, support of international trade, and mitigation of export and import quotas). They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies. Additionally, the idea of globalism and international trade has changed the way Australian's view public and private businesses and the opportunities afforded them because of investment,…
Alexander Performance Management, Inc. 2004, Private vs. Public Sector, viewed May 2012, .
Broadbent, J & Laughlin, R 1988, 'Public Private Partnerships: An Introduction', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol 16, no. 3, pp. 332-41.
Financial Accounting Standards Board 2012, Convergence with the International Accounting Standards Board, viewed May 2012, http://www.fasb.org/international/convergence_iasb.shtml .
Funnell, W & Cooper, K 1998, Public Sector Accounting and Accountability in Australia, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.