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roots in critical theory, which stemmed from the approaches of the Frankfurt school of philosophers in the mid-20th century. The Frankfurt School was led by Theodore Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Erich fromm and other German intellectuals who had emigrated from Germany during the time of the Third eich. They held what an essentially neo-Marxist point-of-view -- that is, they based their critical analysis of society on the fact that the proletariat had failed to seize power from the elites. Adorno and Horkheimer especially focused on the "culture industry" which they claimed was responsible for the failure of the proletariat in the West to climb out of its class oppression. The "culture industry" promoted the concept that the elites wanted the proletariat to adopt -- namely, that they were comfortable and happy with the way things were. Through technological innovations like television and propaganda-producing systems like Hollywood, the working class was easily…
Caldwell, P. (2012). Marxist Criticism of Public Education Funding and Social
Reproduction. Colgate Academic Review, 2(10): 54-58.
Connelly, F.M., He, M.F., & Philion, J. (2007). The Sage handbook of curriculum and instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. NY: Continuum.
" Renouvier believed it was impossible to prove freedom in terms of being 'a fact'. He asserted the problem to be not only within actions but also within knowledge. Renouvier called the specific problem 'vertige mental' or a condition of psychopathological in nature, or a disturbance of rational harmony of self-possession which constitutes the essence of the personal consciousness."
In this state the individual has characteristics of hallucination. Stated is that Renouvier held that, "If all things are necessitated, then moral judgments, the notions of right and of duty, have no foundation in the nature of things." Accordingly the character vested in either 'virtue or crime' is lost with sentiments and feelings losing their meaning. Renouivier argues that, "if all is necessary, if all human actions are predetermined, then popular language is guilty of a grave extravagance and appears ridiculous, insinuating, as it does, that many acts might have been…
Conflict: Radical Theory Online at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/conflict.htm
Hil, Richard (2002) Facing Change: New Directions for Critical Criminology in the Early New Millennium?
Criminology: Radical and Neo-Critical Theory
hile that line of thinking is seductive, because it suggests an easy solution for complex problems, like racism; est believes that the real solutions will require people to question their own fundamental assumptions about power and its relationship to racism. Specifically, est talks about how racism is inherently linked to classification, and, in fact, that "the genealogy of racism in the modern est is inseparable from the appearance of the classificatory category of race in natural history," and then traces the history of race as a classification.
hile est cautions others against oversimplification, he appears to engage in oversimplification himself. He discusses race from a purely estern perspective, as if racial distinction was merely the result of estern race classification. However, by the time that Francois Bernier first formally used race as a classification in 1684, there was already a thriving and well-established slave-trade practice, which was at least partially…
Barker, Martin. "The Problems with Racism." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds.
Philomena Essed and David Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2001. 80-89.
Bhabha, Homi. "Of Mimicry and Man: The Ambivalence of Colonial Discourse." Race Critical
Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2001. 113-122.
Theoretical Applications in Sociology: Critical Theory vs. Systems Theory
Exciting advances are being made in the development and application of sociological theories to social work practices. Two of the foremost theories are systems theory -- currently undergoing an architectural evolution due to the implications of the chaos and complexity disciplines -- and critical theory, which seeks to change the current systematical frameworks of society for the better. For the purposes of this paper, I will compare and contrast the two theories, highlighting the similarities between them as well as the segments of departure and their practical implications. I will then apply both theories to a single case study in order to show the strengths and weaknesses of each theory in practice.
In "New Directions in Systems Theory: Chaos and Complexity," authors Warren, Franklin and Streeter examine how advances in the chaos and complexity disciplines are instigating an evolution of traditional…
Dominell, L. (2003). Anti-Oppressive Social Work Theory & Practice. Publisher's City: Publisher's Name.
Warren, K., Franklin, C. & Streeter, C.L. (1998). New Directions in Systems Theory: Chaos and Complexity. Social Work, 43 (4), 357-372.
**Not sure of all the information for the other sources (Book Title, Publisher, Publisher City ect). Take a look at the following cite for help in completing the reference page: http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/apa
Realist, Liberalist and Critical Theory
The field of International Relations (often abbreviated IR) is devoted to the study of how the system of states could be made to work more effectively to enhance the power of law, peacefully manage interstate affairs, preserve order and minimize the prospects of war (An Overview of the Field of International Relations 1). From the start, IR has been a policy-oriented discipline. There is no agreed-upon methodology for it other than the commonly-found normative perspective, which means that researchers often make value judgments or take a stand on certain issues. The field seeks to not only analyze foreign policy but to help formulate it. This has led, as one might imagine, to various debates (called theoretical debates) about ways of thinking in international relations. The content and character of those debates have shaped the field into what might be called the following "schools of thought"…
Works Cited List
An Overview of the field of International Relations. 1-11. Accessed 18 October 2011.
Friedman, T. "Globalization, Alive and Well." New York Times. 22 September 2002. Accessed 18 October 2011.
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Furthermore, while acknowledging that there was a consciousness of whiteness and white superiority in other lands, such as England, Roediger points out that part of the Americanization process for European immigrants was to become white, and that this process involved internalizing feelings of racism and hatred towards blacks.
Affirmative Action and the Politics of Race by Manning Marable
Manning Marable is a pro-affirmative action author, and he begins his essay by decrying the fact that the political right wing has largely defined the context of discussions about affirmative action. In addition, he stresses concern that those who have benefitted from affirmative action have been reluctant to defend it. He suggests that part of the problem is due to how affirmative action has traditionally been framed and its lack of a definition. Historically, he says, affirmative action was "designed to promote some degree of compensatory justice to the victims of slavery,…
Goldberg, David Theo. "Modernity, Race, and Morality." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 283-306.
Marable, Manning. "Affirmative Action and the Politics of Race." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 344-354.
Roediger, David. "Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of 'White Ethnics' in the United
States." Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Eds. Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. 325-343.
Essed notes the profound perceived threat to power experienced by those in the majority feel when even small encroachments are made by other groups into the dominant fabric of society, and how tacit racism against minorities is often allowed even by those who might not consider themselves prejudiced on an interactional and personal level (184). In short, the institutional racism of society inevitably affects interpersonal relations, even amongst people who do not harbor what we might think of as hatred in their hearts. Racism for Essed is an ideological social construct, a powerful social and philosophical method of enforcement that affects how 'people' see the world, and also the mechanisms of the justice system (185). Racist images and practices become an invisible and accepted part of daily life, and are unquestioned, thus it is not enough to simply change one's individual mind (190). Her essay, though it seems overly focused…
Race Critical Theories: Text and Context. Philomena Essed & David Theo Goldberg, Ed.
Great Gatsby: As Seen Through Marxist Perspective
A Marxist perspective of F. Scott Fitzgerald's famous novel, The Great Gatsby may be interested in social class representations, together with how characters acquired and retained riches and power. An overall analysis of the novel reveals that it portrays the extremely rich social class that does not work and devotes most of its day to leisure activities primarily. A few less rich minor characters also find mention, along with a smaller share of workers and servants seen at work in the course of the story. In terms of the Marxist theory, the affluent social class denotes the "haves." At the time of the American industrial revolution, capitalists -- the people with capital (i.e., wealth, equipment, or land) -- meant the upper social class. On the other hand, the "have-nots" indicated the lower social class, or workers. In Marx's opinion, a class with economic…
Falth, Sebastian. "Social Class and Status in Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby." Web.
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. Amersham: Transatlantic Press, 2012
"Marxist Interpretations." -- The Great Gatsby Study Guide from Crossref-it.info. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
TYSON, LOIS. "Critical Theory Today." Web. 16 Dec. 2015.
' Culture, in Buck's point-of-view, and the construction of race, thus had a greater importance upon the creation of modern Kentucky than a logical evaluation of individual's real interests. This is why both whites and blacks have been worked to the bone.
Discrimination against poor whites still abounds in present-day Kentucky in the form of stereotypes. Poor whites are often characterized as supposed 'rednecks' who deserve their economic fate because their days are devoted to "drinking, incest," and "family violence," and living lives of "general backwardness, bare-footedness, improvidence, and red-necked cussedness (7). "The actions of coal mine owners, of corporate tobacco buyers, or of manufacturing executives are irrelevant in explaining Kentucky's bony fingers if they can be explained by the problems in Kentucky's culture instead," not by bad corporate behavior (7).
In defending her thesis, Buck begins with evidence from her own life, as she opens with her struggles opening…
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…
Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.
Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.
Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.
Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
Thus even the process of reclaiming ones identity is subject to the conditions imposed by colonial oppression.
hile the book certainly touches upon some of the lingering and seemingly intractable problems associated with colonial oppression, there is also glimpses into how human beings are able to transcend these problems and carve out their own identity; even without an adequate understanding of their roots. e see for example, how Lucy misses her life in Antigua, even though it represents and existence that was constantly stifling her and preventing her from reaching her true potential as a woman. As she implies, this is because while Antigua represents a more restrictive existence compared to her experiences in America, the bonds of family which were forged on the island, are not easily broken (Kincaid, 6). Her experiences in the United States, while liberating and interesting, fail to elicit the same deep emotional connections she…
Kincaid, Jamaica. Lucy. Macmillan, 2002. Print.
Tyson, Lois. Critical theory today. CRC Press, 2006. Print.
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
UPB management will be able to capitalize on the five years of training and other investments in Mark Williams
The colleagues will feel a sense of security as Williams has decided to stick with the company
Costs with replacing him will now be incurred and the money could be used in another direction
UPB clients will be content as they will not have to switch consultants
Mark Williams will feel loyal and the sense that he has betrayed his 'savior' will not torment him
Mark Williams will continually feel frustrated with the sense of things at UPB
He will give up his opportunities for further professional development and promotions
It is highly possible that his sacrifice will not even be recognized by the UPB stakeholders
Mark Williams graduated Business College and found a job at UBP Consulting in a time in which nobody else…
Brown, C., Ethical Theories Compared, Trinity University, 2001, http://www.trinity.edu/cbrown/intro/ethical_theories.html last accessed on June 26, 2009
Geuras, D., Garofalo, C., Practical Ethics in Public Administration, 2nd Edition, 2005, Management Concepts, ISBN 1567261612
Todd, H.C., Speaking of Ethics -- Changing Jobs, The District of Columbia Bar, 2009, http://www.dcbar.org/for_lawyers/resources/publications/washington_lawyer/march_2009/ethics.cfm last accessed on June 26, 2009
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
Everyone navigates their way through the world using a set of preconceived ideas, stereotypes, notions and beliefs concerning how things work and how others will behave in any given situation. Not surprisingly, many people are surprised and even shocked to learn that some of the things they have firmly believed to be true all of their lives are inaccurate or even false. These frailties of the human condition mean that the search for the truth is ongoing and learning how to find it represents a critical part of the skill set needed in the 21st century. This paper provides a discussion and comparison of "elements of truth" and the "right questions" that should be asked in any given situation to discern the facts, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Not only does…
Browne, N. & Keeley, S.M. (2012). Asking the right questions. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice.
Theory vs. Ideology
What is ideology?
Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence. Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation. Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. wrong, just vs. unjust, and Evil Empire vs. God's Country. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its…
Cusac, Anne-Marie (2009). Cruel and Unusual: The Culture of Punishment in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
During the critical thinking process the thinker will use all of these components, evaluating the implications and consequences of each, until they reach a satisfactory answer.
In order to reach a conclusion using critical thinking, one must hold off making judgment until all available facts are given and fully evaluated. However, the very nature of the critical thinking process means that there is no end to the critical thinking process. Although one may end at a conclusion, this conclusion is only tentative based on the evidence used in the evaluation that led to that particular conclusion. However, a conclusion is always subject to new information and evidence, thus the critical thinking process goes on.
Each of will employ the methods of critical thinking on a regular basis. Often times we find ourselves using critical thinking when we are presented with a situation where our perception of reality is far from…
Damer, T. Edward. (2005): Attacking Faulty Reasoning. New York: Wadsworth.
Fisher, Alec. (2001): Critical Thinking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Paul, Richard and Linda Elder. (2002): Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life. New York: Prentice Hall.
Critical Path Method (CPM) and Critical Chain Method (CCM). How is CCM an improvement over CPM?
The concept of paths and the slacks on the path have been around the management circles from the 1960s, with the concept of slack being defined as the amount of time an activity on a production line can be halted without affecting the project completion date. (Hansen, 1964) Likewise the critical path and the critical management of work flow are not new concepts. However the way they come to be viewed are new. The project planning begins with the concept of what is to be achieved, how it will be achieved and the time and method that will be used in completing the project. There are many variables that are to be considered that include dependence is, slack and the work flow and allocation of work and the performance appraisal. It also…
Hansen, B.J. (1964) "Practical Pert: including Critical Path Method"
Herroelen, Willy; Leus, Roel. (2001) "On the merits and pitfalls of critical chain scheduling"
Journal of Operations Management, vol. 19, no. 5, pp: 559 -- 577.
Critical Thinking Essay Photography
Examining Photographs: Bias in Photography
A picture is worth a thousand words. Yet, what goes on behind the scene to make that image possible in reality? Photography as a genre is incredibly powerful. On the one hand, it is seen as more realistic than any other art form; yet at the same time, many within the field have constructed tailored messages within this preconceived preference within the public mind frame.
The philosophy behind photography is actually much more complex than it may seem. Examining the writings of Sontang (2005), there is clearly a much more abstract conception of the power of photographs and their position within society. As such, Sontang presents a very interesting view of the paradox with photographs in contemporary societal life. Photographic images are everywhere in society. As our technology has continued to evolve, so has our fascination with images. As photographs are…
Sontag, Susan. (2005). On Photography. Rosetta Books.
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…
(Eljamal; Stark; Arnold; Sharp, 1999)
To conclude, it be said that if we will not be able to master imparting the capability to think in a developed form, our profession, as well as perhaps our world, would be influenced and taken over by someone who would be able to outsmart us to find it out. We would in that case not only remain thinking as to what happened but would also not have the skills required to provide answers to our own question.
Braun, N.M. (2004, March/April) Critical thinking in the business curriculum. Journal of Education for Business, 79(4). etrieved from ProQuest database on February 20, 2007.
Carroll-Johnson, .M. (2001, April - June). Learning to think. Nursing Diagnosis, 12(2).
etrieved from Thomson Gale database on February 14, 2007.
Cheung, C., udowicz, E., Kwan, a.S.F., & Yue, X.D. (2002, December). Assessing university students general and specific critical thinking. College Student…
Braun, N.M. (2004, March/April) Critical thinking in the business curriculum. Journal of Education for Business, 79(4). Retrieved from ProQuest database on February 20, 2007.
Carroll-Johnson, R.M. (2001, April - June). Learning to think. Nursing Diagnosis, 12(2).
Retrieved from Thomson Gale database on February 14, 2007.
Cheung, C., Rudowicz, E., Kwan, a.S.F., & Yue, X.D. (2002, December). Assessing university students general and specific critical thinking. College Student Journal, 36(4). Retrieved from ProQuest database February 14, 2007.
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…
Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there
A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,
Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26
international relations theory due to their background in agriculture related research and study, including a BSc. degree in agriculture, a master's degree was in agricultural development and a master's degree in sustainable development in agriculture. ith regard to sustainable development this applicant was struck by the number of issues that were purely related to an understanding of the nation state and the crisis that it now faces in the era of neoliberal globalization due to the growth in power and influence of non-state corporate entities that have become more powerful than traditional nation states.
hat is happening to date in globalization challenges all of the areas of international relations theory, whether using the approaches of realism, constructivism, or Marxism and critical theory, feminism, foundationalism, the "English school," functionalism, post-structuralism or post-colonialism. The overall topic of this author's research is ambitious. It will be to fuse the elements of all of…
George, A.L., & Smoke, R. (1974). Deterrence in american foreign policy. New York,
NY: Columbia University Press.
Claude, I.L.Y (1984). Swords into plowshares. New York, NY: Random House.
Allison, G. (1999). Essence of decision. New York, NY:
Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).
Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach…
Giddens, A. (1997). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.
McLennan, G, Allanah, R., & Spoonley, P. (2000). Exploring society: Sociology
for New Zealand students. Auckland: Pearson.
Stephens, P., & Leach, A. (1998). Think Sociology. New York: Nelson Thornes.
ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist
ousseau: ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist?
What is ousseau's real Philosophical identity?
There are several questions and ideas to be addressed and analyzed in this paper. One: Is Jean-Jacques ousseau a realist -- can it be said from the assigned essay, without equivocation that his views follow those of classic realism? (ealism: the doctrine that puts forth the idea that universals only exist outside one's mind; the insistence that all things in the empirical world should be explained in terms of the "real world" and not in terms of abstractions or perceptions.)
Based on this essay, is ousseau a liberal in the tradition sense -- not today's "liberal" in the popular juxtaposition of "liberal" and "conservative" -- and do his views follow that thread throughout his extensive narrative? (Liberalism: a moral philosophy that emphasizes religious toleration, personal freedom, governments being led by consent of the governed, economic…
Froese, Katrin. "Beyond Liberalism: the moral community of Rousseau's social
Contract." Canadian Journal of Political Science 34 (2001): 579-581.
Hall, Cheryl. "Reason, passion, and politics in Rousseau." Polity 34 (2001): 69-89.
Merriman-Webster. "Realism" and "Liberalism." 30 Nov. 2004. http://www.m-w.com
For example if a person feels that life without wealth is meaningless, he might decide that if he ever becomes poor, he would become a hermit and quit social life. This would be his maxim and thus a principle by which he must abide when such a situation arises. Kant knew that only rational being could be expected to have a maxim of morality. 'Everything in nature, works in accordance with laws. Only a rational being has the power to act in accordance with his idea of laws, that is, in accordance with principles.' (Gr, 412)
However a person who has a maxim is not allowed acting on it unless he decides that it is something he would want for everyone. Kant argues that unless a person wants to attach universality to this maxim, it cannot be considered a correct principle or a moral one. this is known as the…
H.J. Paton, the Categorical Imperative: A Study in Kant's Moral Philosophy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948)
Timmons, Mark, (ed.) Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: Interpretative Essays, Oxford University Press, 2002
Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Translated by H.J. Paton. New York: Harper and Row, 1964
III. Instructional Format
The instruction in this instance to teenagers concerning substance abuse would likely be presented first in an informative way such as a slide show or short talk about the facts associated with substance abuse. It would be highly effective to have someone the same age as the teens who has had a problem with substance abuse to come into the classroom and talk with the teens about the 'real-life' experience of substance abuse. According to the work reviewed a small informal group would be the optimal learning environment for teens being instructed concerning substance abuse. Furthermore, the 'Interpersonal Realm' will be fertile learning ground in this instance in that it is a "therapeutic, supportive" environment that is "conducive to providing quality educational interaction" with the learners contributing through their interest and responsiveness to the subject in the group interactions.
Stanhope, Marcia & Lancaster, Jeanette (nd) "Community…
Stanhope, Marcia & Lancaster, Jeanette (nd) "Community and Public Health Nursing" 6th edition.
Target: Teens (Teaching Theories & Instructional Methods)
Ethical Theory & Moral Practice
Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.
This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…
Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.
"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml
Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3
Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
Freud's Theory Of Repression
Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…
Bibliography." August 8, 2004. http://www.usd.edu/~tgannon/jungbio.html
Matson, Floyd. "Humanistic theory: the third revolution in psychology" The Humanist, March/April 1971. August 8,. 2004 http://web.isp.cz/jcrane/IB/Humcrit.html
Slater, Lauren. "Why Is Repression Possibly Better Than Your Therapist?" New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. August 8, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/magazine/23REPRESSION.htm
Rieff, P. (Ed.) Freud: General Psychological Theory. New York: Collier, 1963
Webster, Richard. Excerpts from Why Freud was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis (1995). August 8, 2004. http://www.richardwebster.com
Suicide ates Among Geriatric Persons
The causes of death among the elderly are traditionally associated with the normal aging process or what would be called natural process, diseases associated with age and the debilitations it can cause. Yet, other factors also contribute to the cause of death an individual might succumb to, widowhood, retirement, forced relocation, and/or loneliness especially around the holidays. (Huyck Hoyer 1982) Still other studies are making it clear that murder and suicide rates are increasing dramatically among the elderly. (cf., Birren, Schaie, 1977) (Nussbaum, Pecchioni, obinson & Thompson, 2000, p. 294) Suicide was the eleventh leading cause of death among persons over the age of 65 in 1982. (iley, 1983, p. 144) Some strides have been made and between the years 1983 and 1998 suicide averaged as the fourteenth leading cause of death for persons over the age of 65, lower than the average for all…
Birren, J.E., & Schaie, K.W. (Eds.). (1977). Handbook of the psychology of aging. New York:
Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Coleman, P.G. (1995). 2 Facing the Challenges of Aging: Development, Coping, and Meaning in Life. In Handbook of Communication and Aging Research, Nussbaum, J.F., & Coupland, J. (Eds.) (pp. 39-68). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hudson, C.G., & Cox, A.J. (Eds.). (1991). Dimensions of State Mental Health Policy. New York: Praeger Publishers.
theoretical concepts from parts XII and XIII to the events and actors at the Malheur Wildlife efuge occupation. Be sure to utilize the different sections in your application.
Environmental criminology often focuses on opportunity theory, which is linked with rational choice theory. Opportunity theory suggests that criminal behavior is motivated or prompted by available opportunities to commit the crime. Although the Malheur occupiers were not environmental criminals in the traditional sense of being motivated also by an environmentalist agenda with related ecological goals, the Malheur Wildlife efuge is a nature preserve. There are also compounding issues related to territoriality, the "extent to which a space conveys a sense of being 'owned' or 'private' and has having clearly designated purposes," (XII, p. 459). Territoriality has been a primary driving factor in the occupation. The occupiers, spearheaded by Ammon Bundy and the Hammond brothers "sought to turn the refuge into a symbol…
Bernton, Hal. "Birds -- and staff -- return to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge." Seattle Times. 27 March, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/northwest/birds-and-staff-return-to-malheur-national-wildlife-refuge/
Carpenter, Zoe. "Inside the Bundy Brothers' Armed Occupation." The Nation. Jan 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/inside-the-malheur-wildlife-refuge-occupation/
The Central Question
How important is it that IR (International Relations) scholars reflect on the relationship between power and knowledge? From a feminist theory perspective, it is critical for IR scholars to highlight the relationship between power and knowledge in order to uncover the gender dynamics of power and knowledge in an IR setting. Feminism is more than simply a theory about women—it also provides a framework for understanding gender and gender constructs and how these constructs impact international relations.[footnoteRef:2] In order for IR scholars to excel in their work and more fully understand the parameters of IR, they have to be attentive to the socio-political implications of the political structures within which they work. [2: Christine Sylvester, “The Contributions of Feminist Theory to International Relations,” International Theory: positivism and beyond (1996), 254.]
Feminist IR theory proceeds from Critical theory, which is based on past fundamentally disruptive theories…
Freedom in the Classroom
The first chapter asks why theory, especially Critical Theory, matters in today's classrooms. The very first chapter essentially sets the stage for the kind of "freedom" that is aimed at achieving in the classroom: freedom from "historical norms" such as marriage being between a man and a woman (Hinchey, 2010, p. 1). Granted, this is just an example of the way ideas become entrenched in society, and Hinchey proceeds to apply this observation to the ways in which schools become bogged down by accepted norms -- such as the use of standardized text books, the division of work into subjects, and the amount of time spent in a class room as opposed to outside of it. The purpose of this chapter is to draw attention to the cultural habits that keep us from questioning conventional attitudes about the way things are done -- especially when it…
Hinchey, P. (2010). Finding Freedom in the Classroom. NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?
Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. esults of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles:…
Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Fraley, R.C. (n.d.). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved online: http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective Development in Infancy. 95(124).
Critical Chain Approach
he AMA Handbook of Project Management Chapter 29: Multiproject Constraint Management -- he "Critical Chain" Approach, (AMACOM Div American Management Assn)
his text is particularly important in providing more information concerning the 'critical chain' approach because it makes it possible for readers to get a more complex understanding of why this approach is effective. By concentrating on the relationship between organizations and projects, the text emphasizes the fact that critical chain management is an important step in assisting an institution track its performance and progress over time. Critical chain projects can basically provide an organization with the opportunity to stay effective and competitive in the long run.
Hill, A.V. (2011). he Encyclopedia of Operations Management: A Field Manual and Glossary of Operations Management erms and Concepts. F Press.
Hill makes it possible for readers to understand exactly what critical chain implies and why it would be effective…
This essay discusses the concept of critical chain in depth and puts emphasize on ideas that make it successful. Critical chain focuses on how some of project management's most important ideas involve making and keeping promises. Depending on concepts like time, costs, and purpose, critical chain makes it possible for individuals to devise a system that is likely to benefit all parts involved in a project.
De Jesus N.R.R. (2012). The Pmp Certification Exam Study Guide. CRC Press.
This book provides a brief history of the idea of critical chain and proceeds to presents instances when it has proven to be efficient. By relating to the Student syndrome and Parkinson's law, the book shows how critical chain works and how individuals are predisposed to putting across certain attitudes in particular situations.
c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)
Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.
One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of…
Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.
Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.
Bartholomew, K. And L. Horowitz. (1991). "Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 61, No. 2.
Bartholomew, K. And P. Shaver. (1998). In Attachment theory and close relationships. J. Simpson and W. Rholes (Eds.). NY: Guilford Press.
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…
Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.
Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.
Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.
-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
theory about something, but not many people realize exactly what defines a theory. While there are as many definitions of a "theory," "generally speaking, a theory is an abstract system of concepts with indications of the relationships among these concepts that help us understand a phenomenon." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") When discussing a theory, it is important to understand that the application of a theory is dependent upon the level of generality. For instance, a theory about communications can apply to the all humans in general, or a specific group of people, or just very specific people in specific circumstances. But whether the theory is "Grand," "Mid-Level," or "Narrow," it must contain a number of specific goals which "can include explanation, understanding, prediction, and social change…." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") Theories attempt to explain certain phenomena, then based on patterns recognized by the theory, predict something, and finally can cause social change…
"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida
State University. Retrieved from http://ezto.mhecloud.mcgraw-
I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)
Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of rennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to…
Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1
Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.
Levine, Robert a. (2002) Attachment Research as an Ideological Movement: Preliminary Statement. Revised from presentation at the ISSBD, 2002, Ottawa. Harvard University.
Blizard, Ruth a. (1997) the origins of Disassociate Identity Disorder from an Object Relations and Attachment Theory Perspective. Journal of Dissociation. Vol. X No. 4, December, 1997.
Phenomenology and Hermeneutics
Aside from positivism or quantitative research paradigm, two other paradigms are considered essential in the conduct of research or simply, knowing and understanding a particular event or phenomenon using a particular 'lens'or paradigm / perspective. These two (2) paradigms are qualitative in nature, namely the interpretive and critical paradigms. Critical paradigm is closely associated with the Marxist, feminist, and psychoanalytic schools of thought, while interpretive or symbolic interactionism paradigm is linked with hermeneutics and phenomenology. The focus of the discussions that follow will be on this second paradigm, interpretive paradigm, particularly exploring the hermeneutic and phenomenological schools of thought (Fossey, 2002, p. 719).
In order to understand these schools of thought, it is important to also understand the tradition from which these ideas emerged. Under the interpretive paradigm, truth is considered subjective and variable. In truth-seeking, the researcher recognizes that there are many "truths," and these…
Fossey, E., C. Harvey, F. McDermott, and L. Davidson. (2002). "Understanding and evaluating qualitative research." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 36.
Laverty, S. (2003). "Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations." International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 2(3).
One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The…
Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bedside-manner
Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).
Gilbert, P. (2010) The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life's Challenges. Constable. London.
McMurray, A., Chaboyer, W., Wallis. M., & Johnson. J. (2010). Patients' Perspectives of Bedside Nursing Handover. Retrieved from http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/10072/40081/68872_1.pdf;jsessionid=3089DAF1AC9C366501436C4A0ABA2C05?sequence=1
The advantages of network use are apparent enough and from such an obvious position, it is interesting that there is an inadequacy in the understanding of the processes by which networks function. Thus, the article focuses on the role of network governance and its impact on network effectiveness.
The authors demonstrate that network effectiveness while not entirely illusive is a difficult prospect. This phenomenon is multifaceted and multi-tiered and consequently the solutions that are engaged to create network effectiveness must align themselves with this particular reality. The problems of explicating effectiveness begin at the level of conceptualization and measurement. They note that despite these theoretical impediments effectiveness requires a measure of articulation.
The authors contrast organizational as opposed to network governance and suggests that most of the literature on the subject of governance does not specifically address the issues of the role of networks in the governance dynamic. The establishment…
Dwyer, P.D. And Minnegal, M. (2006). The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Risk, Uncertainty and Decision-Making by Victorian Fishers. Journal of Political Ecology 13:1-23
Emerson, R. (1962). Power-Dependence relations. American sociological review 27 (1):31-41.
Newcomer, K.E. (2007). Measuring Government Performance. International Journal of Public
Administration, 30: 307 -- 329.
theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today
Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive.…
Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from:
Hinde, Robert A. (1976). On describing relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 17, 1-19. Retrieved from:
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…
Behavior Management Theories and Applications
The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of easoned Action
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of easoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects…
Dunlap, L.L. (2012). What all children need: Theory and application. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Ellis, S. & Tod, J. (2013). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Routledge.
Florian, L., & Hegarty, J. (2007). ICT and Special Educational Needs. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.
Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Boston: Pearson.
Psychology in Group Work
There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).
The learning theory of Bandura
The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:
Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Culture Care Universality and Diversity
Leininger conceptualized the theory of care was developed in the 1950s and provided a way to bridge a culture and nursing care. "Leininger theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality" (Garmon 2011 p 1) is derived from the understanding the fields of culture and anthropology and is credited for her contribution to the nursing theory by establishing the transcultural concept in the nursing care. Typically, culture care is a holistic method of understanding, interpreting, explaining, and predicting care for the nursing practice. According to Leininger, culturally congruent care had been missing in the nursing practice and knowledge. Thus, a creative process of reformulation and integration of cultural practice is very critical for the development of nursing practice and knowledge. Leininger holds that a cultural care provides the most important and broadest means to explain, study and predict the nursing care practice. To discover patterns, and…
Department of Commerce (2010). U.S. Census 2010. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Fitzpatrick, J.J & Kazer, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research, Third Edition. Springer Publishing Company.
Garmon B. S. (2011). Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. In J. Fitzpatrick, Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Leininger, M. (1988). Leininger's Theory of Nursing: Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Nurs Sci Q.1 (4): 152-160
S. involvement in World War II.
Is it possible to have a general theory of war?
Perhaps the most well-known "theory" of war is articulated in Matthew 24:6: "You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. . . . Such things must happen" (New International Version 1984). Therefore, although it is possible to have a general theory of war, any such theory will be limited in its ability to explain the why's and how's of its occurrence. According to Gray (1999), in his seminal text, on War, Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz, set forth a modern general theory of war, but Sun Tzu's Art of War also addressed this issue. Clausewitz, though, is cited time and again in the relevant literature as having propounded a general theory of war. For instance, eid (2004) reports that, "In particular, he seeks to explain the methods to establish a general theory of…
Clausewitz, C.V. (1976) on War. Princeton, NJ.
Gray, C.S. (1999) Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
-. The 21st Century Security Environment and the Future of War. Parameters, 38(4): 14-9.
Lichbach, M.I. (1989) "An evaluation of 'does economic inequality breed political conflict?'
International relations theory refers to the study of the theoretical perspective of international relations. It provides a framework which is conceptual upon which analysis of international relations is done. International relations theories can also act like pairs of colored sunglasses which only allows the person wearing it to see what’s relevant to the theory. There are three most prominent theories available - constructivism, liberalism and realism. International relations theories are divided into rationalist and reflectivist theories. Rationalist theories are those that focus on analysis that is principally of state level. Reflectivist theories incorporate the meanings of security in an expanded manner from post-colonial security, gender to class.
International relations theories have a big role in helping policy-makers produce solutions that are effective instead of being regarded as being too abstract. In policy organizations that are foreign, people are not selected by their theories’ quality but by their quality of…
Mental illness appears in various forms. It is characterized by some serious disruptions in someone's thoughts or even demonstrated in their actions. The person presenting these symptoms is often unable to deal with the day-to-day activities and patterns of a normal life. Mental illness can take over 200 forms each having an effect on the patient's disposition, character, traits, and even the way they interact with others. Some of the common forms of mental illness are 'schizophrenia', 'depression,' 'bipolar disorders' and 'dementia'. Taylor and Brown (1988) state that mental illness can be presented in a psychological, emotional way and even in physical symptoms. A person under severe stress due to dealing with an incident or series of stressors' build-up over time is prone to mental illness. A person may also present symptoms of mental illness through a biochemical imbalance, a negative reaction to his environment, and the pressures accrued thereby,…
Bartlett, A., & McGauley, G. (2010). Forensic mental health: Concepts, systems, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Clinic, M. (2015, October 13). Mental illness. Retrieved December 7, 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mental-illness/basics/definition/CON-20033813
Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S., Larson, J., Rafacz, J., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., ... Rusch, N. (2010). SELF-STIGMA AND COMING OUT ABOUT ONE'S MENTAL ILLNESS. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3), 259-275. http://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20363
Dowrick. C., Dunn. G., Ayuso-Mateos.J et al. (2000). Problem-solving treatment and group psycho-education for depression: multicenter randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 321, 1450-4
saw two houses: one in the suburbs and one in the center of town. he suburban house was less expensive than the one in town so there must be something wrong with it.
he fallacy present in this remark revolves around the notion that when something costs less, it's as a result of some sort of flaw. While there is an expression "you get what you pay for" this expression is not always absolute. Many times there is a host of reasons why something might cost less than something else, and many of these reasons will have nothing to do with flaws or something being "wrong" with the house. For instance, the house might be priced less because it is further a way from the center of town, or might have an undesirable view or might be on a street where some tragic act of violence occurred. Regardless, none of…
The fallacy of this statement is that it seeks to separate human actions from religion. The reality is that man human actions are motivated by their spiritual beliefs and it might be sound in theory to attempt to separate them, but that is not realistic.
20. Socrates is a man. All men are mortal. Therefore, all men are Socrates. (Woody Allen Love and Death 1975)
The fallacies of this statement cannot even be stated. It is illogical and absurdist.
What is the Theory of Constraints?
There has been a continuous development of management from the time it was realized that it can be studied carefully to form a branch of knowledge and the individuals who had studied it generally performed better as managers than others who never spent time on the matter. The Theory of Constraints or TOC is basically a philosophy of management and improvement. The first person to draw the attention of the world to this was Eliyahu M. Goldratt and he brought it to the notice of others through his famous book, The Goal. The guiding principle behind this theory is that in any organization there exists a weak link, and this acts somewhat like a chain with a weak link. This tops the organization from performing even better than it is performing at any period of time. In short, it is important to remove…
Chaleff, Ira. (October, 1995) "Process Improvement for Knowledge Workers" AFSM International. Vol: 20; No: 3. Retrieved from http://www.ibt-pep.com/default.asp?ObjectID=257 Accessed on 29 May, 2005
'Constraint Management & Supplier Relations" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/supp1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
"Constraint Management & the Market" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/mktg1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
'Critical Chain & Project Management the TOC Way" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/projects.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Responsibilities of a Critical Thinker in a Contemporary Society
Some thinkers consider critical thinking to be solely a type of mental skill, devoid of any moral value; it is often utilized to rationalize prejudice and to promote self-interest. While moral integrity is understood as good heartedness, it is also susceptible to manipulation to satisfy vested interests in the same way as responsible citizenship can be manipulated. The human mind, regardless of conscious goodwill, is subject to the more powerful and self-deceptive egocentricity of the unconscious part of the mind. The complete development of each and every characteristic, be it critical thought, responsible citizenship, and moral integrity - needs to include cultivation of each other characteristic, in a parallel strong sense (Paul, 1993). The three characteristics of higher thought can only be developed in an environment that promotes intellectual virtues such as integrity, intellectual courage, intellectual fair-mindedness, intellectual empathy, intellectual perseverance,…
Ambert, A. Parents, (1997) Children, and Adolescents: Interactive Relationships and Development in Context. New York, NY: Hayworth Press.
Duffy, A. & Momirov, J.(1997) Family Violence: A Canadian Introduction. Toronto: James Lorimer and Company.
Duperrin, B. (2013). Social Media make critical thinking critical. Www.duperrin.com. Retrieved from www.dupperin.com: http://www.duperrin.com/english/2013/06/28/social-media-critical-thinking/
Erdur-Baker, O. (2010). .Cyberbullying and its correlation to traditional bullying, gender and frequent and risky usage of internet-mediated communication tools. New Media & Society, 12(1), 109-125. DOI: 10.1177/1461444809341260
The theory of constraints is a management concept that emphasizes that an organization is only as strong as its weakest link. Weaknesses, therefore, are constraints on organizational capability. In order to improve organizational performance, the weaknesses need to either be removed or strengthened (MindTools.com, 2016). While this theory has most commonly been applied to production, such as in overcoming bottlenecks or improving defect rates, it can also be applied to other practices.
Fiscal accountability can operate under this theory. In the typical organization, most people normally behave ethically, and with a high level of accountability. It only takes one or two people, however, to behave unethically, and the entire organization is undermined. Many cases of accounting fraud, for example, were perpetrated by only a few well-placed people. Thousands of good people worked at Enron, for example, but they were entirely undermined because the people running the company were criminals.…
Lean Production (2016). Theory of constraints. Lean Production.com. Retrieved April 10, 2016 from http://www.leanproduction.com/theory-of-constraints.html
MindTools.com (2016). The theory of constraints. MindTools.com. Retrieved April 10, 2016 from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/toc.htm
Part One: Main Ideas and Insights
Critical thinking does not necessarily come naturally to people, who are subject to biases and prejudicial assumptions. According to Paul & Elder (2016), critical thinking can be learned and mastered. Critical thinking is essential for improving quality of life and promoting best practices in any field. With critical thinking, a person actively seeks answers and solutions to problems, probing multiple points of view and perspectives. Therefore, critical thinking requires open-mindedness and strong communication skills. Critical thinking also requires time and self-discipline, including the painstaking gathering of data, information, and evidence, and picking apart each issue using systematic methods. Rather than being reactive or subjective, critical thinking involves thorough analyses and assessments, with problem solving as its primary goal. Critical thinking is clear, accurate, significant, and ultimately, fair.
According to Paul & Elder (2016), all thought involves the same eight elements including point of view,…
Learner autobiography [EFLECT] Like most children, when I was very young I did not experience learning as a punitive exercise. Learning was fun and natural. While I was learning how to read I enjoyed how the teacher would read aloud to us; I remember learning about the multiplication tables using various piles of colored M&Ms. Unfortunately, around middle school there is often a period of resistance to learning, as students try to establish their own identities and view directions from the teacher in a negative light because they do not want an adult telling them what to do. Students are also aware enough that they are being 'taught' something but often question the applicability of that learning to what they consider real life.
[IDENTIFY] In college, I became more intellectually curious although I was still not 100% certain about what I needed to know for my future career. Still, I…
Knowles, M.S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education, from pedagogy to andragogy. The Journal of Technology Studies, 26(2). Retrieved from http://www.hospitalist.cumc.columbia.edu/downloads/cc4_articles/Education%20Theory/Andragogy.pdf
McLeod, S.A. (2010). Zone of Proximal Development. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Zone-of-Proximal-Development.html
Flaubert, Bouvard and Pecuchet
Gustave Flaubert's posthumously-published novel Bouvard and Pecuchet is a sustained exercise in irony: to some extent this irony can be interpreted as the distance between theory and practice. Bouvard and Pecuchet is a text about texts. The work's eponymous protagonists begin their lives as professional copyists, dutifully transcribing documents they did not author, in the style of a Xerox machine, and Flaubert's planned ending for the unfinished work would see them return to this drudgery. Between these two bookends of the plot, Bouvard and Pecuchet, as beneficiaries of an unexpected financial windfall, retire to the country -- "No more writing! No more bosses!" (Flaubert 14) -- and proceed to devour theoretical texts on a variety of subjects, and then attempt to put them into practice, with invariably ironic disastrous results. Their freedom from "writing" (which is not really writing) turns into an overabundance of reading (which…
Leadership Applications and Theories
Tim has been described by both his boss and friends as charismatic. It is clear why this is so. In addition to constantly inspiring his staff (something he believes is critical in the acquisition of a competitive edge), Tim also continually motivates his team.
How effective do you think Tim's posts are in terms of expressing his charisma?
In the words of Williams (2011, p. 423), "charismatic leaders have strong, confident, dynamic personalities that attract followers and enable the leaders to create strong bonds with their followers." Essentially, charismatic leaders should be able to broadcast their 'charm' so that they can inspire others to action. Indeed, it is through their infectious charm (and not the formal positions they occupy) that leaders of this nature inspire followers. Tim's posts are highly inspirational and on this front, he succeeds in communicating with his team on a rather deep,…
Lussier, R. & Achua, C. (2012). Leadership: Theory, Application, and Skill Development (5th). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Williams, C. (2011). Effective Management (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
students opportunity discuss a key political science concept, show a basic understanding academic research reporting skills.
Define "loose construction" and "strict construction" methods of constitutional interpretation, and describe how each perspective aligns with formal vs. informal methods of change.
The 'strict construction' view of the Constitution has traditionally been aligned with conservatives such as Robert Bork who argue that "a judge interpreting the Constitution" should only consider "the words used in the Constitution [as] would have been understood at the time [of enactment]" (Linder, citing Posner, "Theories"). In contrast, the 'loose construction' view (traditionally aligned with more liberal politics) stresses the need to interpret the Constitution in a manner beyond the letter of the law. There are a number of factors which justices traditionally consider when making constitutional interpretations, including the text itself; likely intentions of the founders; precedents; consequences of the decision in the 'real world;' and so-called 'natural…
Chemerinsky, Erwin. "Conservatives embrace judicial activism in campaign finance ruling."
The L.A. Times. 2010 Jan 22. [2014 Apr 6]
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965). Exploring Constitutional Law. [2014 Apr 6]
Shaping of Virtues in a Child
There have been many debates on the behavioral patterns of children and how they will grow up. Indeed, some scholars like Aristotle have indicated that virtues are innate and each child is born with his own set of virtues. The question that hence lingers in many minds is then how should one bring up a child if these virtues are innate?
The answer to this challenge is not a straight jacket answer that fits all but in this paper there will be attempt to try and explain how both nature and nurture marries to develop the real, not ideal, person that lives in the contemporary society. Many arguments abound on whether behavior is developed by nurture or endowed by nature, and the long running debate has come to a conclusion that behavior is shaped by both and these two play crucial roles in the…
Joseph, J. (2001). Is crime in the genes? A critical review of twin and adoption studies of criminality and antisocial behavior. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 22, 179-218. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/jones.html
Strategic Policy Brief, (2009). Theories of the Causes of Crime. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.justice.govt.nz/justice-sector/drivers-of-crime/publications-and-background-information/documents/spb-theories-on-the-causes-of-crime