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Cultural Schemata Theory Together With Formal Schemata

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74524173

Cultural Schemata Theory:

Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.

Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:

Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…… [Read More]

References:

Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from  http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf 

Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading

Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from  http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf 

Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
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Cultural Counselor Being a Counselor Can Sometimes

Words: 2185 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 34235489

Cultural Counselor

Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.

Case Scenario

When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…… [Read More]

References:

Cannon, E.P. (2008). "Promoting moral reasoning and multicultural competence during internship." Journal of Moral Education, 37(4), 503-518.

Crethar, Hugh C. And Ratts, Manivong J. (2008). "Why Social Justice is a Counseling Concern?"

Gilbert, Jane. (2002). "Cross-cultural issues in counseling skillstraining: lessons from Lesotho."

Journal of Social Development in Africa. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
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Cultural Diversity Interview Narrative Cultural

Words: 4850 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8522541

While in high school, she worked as a waitress at a local diner. Most of the population was black, therefore there was little contact with white customers or employees. Margaret feels that she was socially isolated until the 1950s. She was not exposed to white culture; it was foreign to her. She was only exposed to black culture of the time. They were not allowed in certain stores, restaurants, or other places of business. She remembers "white only" restrooms and "black only" fountains. This cultural isolation was oppressive.

Margaret feels that the oppressive attitudes and discrimination that she experienced as a child determined much of how her life proceeded in adulthood. The idea that she could only go so far was ingrained as a child. She never really broke free of this feeling. In her 40s, she moved to upstate New York. Here, she found that many women had succeeded…… [Read More]

References

Diller, D. (1999). Opening the dialogue: Using culture as a tool in teaching young African

American children. Reading Teacher, 52(8), 820-828. [Available electronically through ERIC/EBSCOhost]

Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching:

using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31 (2), 132-141.
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Cultural Identity We Are All

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35389105

" Taking into consideration these three stages, I would position myself in the second stage - that of cultural identity search. I am aware of my cultural background and I always have been, but the fact that I live in the multicultural American society made it hard for me to fully embrace my cultural heritage. I am at a stage in my life when I feel the need to understand my culture in order to better understand who I am. The fact that I am aware of my cultural appurtenance does not mean that I completely embrace my cultural identity. Learning about my cultural heritage is the path towards better understanding who I am and identifying myself with the cultural group that I belong to.

ibliography

Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan;

Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;

Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.

Chapter 6, Cultural…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Culture of Pakistan, available at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan ;

Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;

Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.

Chapter 6, Cultural Identity, Cultural Biases, and Intercultural Contact.
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Cultural Observation of Dress

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 383010

Cultural Observation of Dress

Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.

Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)

f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.

People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…… [Read More]

Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)

Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.

Miner's article is discussing the appearance
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Cultural Conflicts in Multinational Corporations

Words: 1639 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 827318

Each customer's predictive score informs actions to be taken with that customer. usiness intelligence just doesn't get more actionable than that." (Siegel, 2009)

Predictive analytics involves: (1) a focus on actions; (2) rapid deployment; and (3) engagement of business and IT. (Siegel, 2009) Decision management is characterized by: (1) a focus on decisions; (2) the combination of business rules with analytics; and (3) putting predictive analytics to work. (Siegel, 2009) Irwin Speizer writes that there is a "new generation of workforce-planning tools" that offer great promise through the use of "sophisticated software and data-rich predictive-modeling techniques..." (Speizer, 2006) It is stated that the study of "internal staffing history and skill sets, external and internal business trends, demographic data and other variables" that the HR leader can "predict a company's talent-related needs years into the future." (Speizer, 2006)

V. Summary & Conclusion

Starbucks did manage to negotiate their way successfully through…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kaczmarczyk, Pawel and Lewicki, Mikolaj (2007) "Lost In Transformation."

Cultural Encounters In Multinational Corporations Investing In Central And Eastern Europe. DIOSCURI Final Conference, Institute for Human Sciences, Vienna. 20-22 April. 20007. Online available at:

Fellner, Kim (2008) Private Sector: Starbucks Leaner, Meaner. 8 Jul 2008. Post-Gazette.com Business. Online available at:  http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/08190/895381-28.stm 

O'Neill, Brendan (2009) Israel, Starbucks and the New Irrationalism. 14 Jan 2009. War In Gaza. SPIKED.com. online available at:  http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/site/article/6103/
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Cultural Conflicts in the Company

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95907820



Particularly in the conflict between Gerstner and the IBM head in Europe, conflicts arise because of the different culture that Americans and Europeans have. There are several assumptions that can be considered to deduce why conflicts arise between Gerstner and IBM head in Europe. First, the action of directly sending emails to European employees may be offending to the head of IBM Europe. It may be a culture to Europeans to show respect to the organization heads by communicating with them first before any other employees. Second, it can also be assumed that the action committed by Gerstner may just really be a normal procedure to the culture he was brought in. That is, that his business culture is to be straight and direct to the point and that he did not really intend any harm to the IBM head in Europe. Thirdly, based on several researches on the European…… [Read More]

References

The Pitfalls of Cross-Cultural Business, in Risk Management, March 2004, Volume 51, Pages: 38-43, by Jared Wade

Business: A hyper market, The Economist, London, April7, 2001

Shah, Satish. Who Says Elephants Can't Dance.  http://www.chally.com/enews/issue10/elephants.html
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Cultural Differences in Management Styles

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 12392752

In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.

Effect of Cultural Diversity on…… [Read More]

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Cultural Comparison Crucifixion and Seated

Words: 1251 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1368209



In addition, this door panel, composed of cedar wood, may represent a type of social event which was rather prominent during the Early Christian period, circa 430 C.E. Since one can make out some kind of brick background behind the three figures, the panel might not have been designed to teach or provide instruction on a spiritual event like the crucifixion of Jesus but may be images "from an early passion play, possibly one performed outside the city walls" of Rome. This type of play was part of what is known as Roman mime theater which "specialized in short scenes of gory violence, irony, satire and sarcasm" for the delight of audiences which still clung to and appreciated some of the worst social aspects of the Roman Empire, a good example being the killing of Christians in the coliseum (Storage, "The Door Panels of Santa Sabine," Internet).

Around the year…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Flowering of Faith: Christianity and Buddhism." Chapter 8.

De la Croix, Bertrand. History of Western Art. New York: Prentice-Hall, 2003.

Storage, Bill. "The Doors Panels of Santa Sabine." 2006. Internet. Retrieved May 3, 2008 from  http://www.rome101.com/Christian/Sabina .

Gandharan Art." 2008. Internet. Retrieved May 3, 2008 at http://www.afghan-network.net/Culture/gandhara.html.
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Cultural Models There Is One Reference Used

Words: 391 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11357169

cultural models. There is one reference used for this paper.

There are a number of things that can be done to improve school achievement. It is important to analyze the effects of cultural models and settings and their connection to school improvements.

School Improvements

Cultural models in the educational setting can be related to the ethnical background of children or the mode of teaching employed by educators. When a study was conducted on Latino children as they entered kindergarten and their literacy background, it was discovered that the main focus of the parents was to teach good moral values. While this illustrated the cultural background of the parents, it was noted the parents were willing to attempt new methods in order to further their children's education. Unfortunately, most of the parents quickly reverted to their previous behavior in terms of reading fundamentals and literacy.

Many teachers have cubby holed themselves…… [Read More]

References

Gallimore, Ronald. 2001. Analyzing Cultural Models and Settings to Connect Minority

Achievement and School Improvement Research. Educational Psychologist. Pp. 45-56.
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Cultural Diversity Issues

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69969007

From WWMT.com comes the news story of Western Michigan University Bronson School of Nursing receiving $2 million in grant money for scholarships to students who are from different cultural backgrounds so that a more diverse culture of student nurses can be achieved (VanTimmeren, 2017). As Bryan (2014) points out, culture is very important in this day and age because it informs people’s perspectives and values about what is good and bad regarding others in society. If people have a very narrow and poorly conceived viewpoint or perspective on other cultures, there is going to be tension in the field. To discourage this tension, the Bronson School of Nursing is looking to bring a wider diversity to its student body with the aim being that the more diverse its student population is the more likely that population is to generate tolerant, accepting, respectful and understanding viewpoints of different cultures.

This news…… [Read More]

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Cultural Diversity Affect You as

Words: 828 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27084026

90).

Therefore, in the light of these current developments, I envisage that the nurses will require much more comprehensive training in issues related to cultural diversity in the future. For example, the nurse will need to become more knowledgeable about the way that various cultures respond to conventional medicine and that alternative medicine and therapies play in the healing process.

The subject of alternative therapies illustrates the way that the role of nursing is changing. For example, it has been found that "…44% of Mexican-Americans had used alternative practitioners at least once in the previous year" and that "Mental or physical illness is seen by many Hispanics to be a consequence of behavior, or simply the result of fate" (Breeding, Harley, ogers & Crystal, 2005).

This means that in future the nurse will need to be trained in greater depth in order to understand the way that other cultures perceive…… [Read More]

References

Breeding, R.R., Harley, D.A., Rogers, J.B., & Crystal, R.M. (2005). The Kentucky Migrant Vocational Rehabilitation Program: A Demonstration Project for Working with Hispanic Farm Workers. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 71(1), 32+.

Business Case for Diversity. Retrieved June 7, 2009, from  http://www.chubb.com/diversity/chubb4450.html 

Kim, H.S. & Kollak, I. (Eds.). (2006). Nursing Theories: Conceptual and Philosophical Foundations (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.

Varcoe C. ( 2004) Advancing Nursing Scholarship in Diversity: Complexity and Equity. CJNR Editorial, 36 (4).
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Cultural Assessment in Community or Public Health

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85252882

cultural assessment in community or public health care with vulnerable populations? Explain.

I feel that it is expedient to include a cultural assessment in community or public health care with vulnerable populations. The very fact that the population is considered vulnerable suggests that there will be dangers in making assumptions about the patient's health care. Moreover, it is well established that cultural background can have a tremendous impact on health care choices for the individual. Decisions that may seem counter-intuitive or misguided to a health care professional may be much easier to understand if the professional completes a cultural assessment. Knowing the potential conflicts between the population's culture and the dominant culture can help a nurse prepare to deal with potential problems.

However, it is important to keep in mind that while it might be expedient to do a cultural assessment when dealing with vulnerable populations, that does not mean…… [Read More]

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Cultural Diversity in Rural Settings

Words: 478 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52197051

Cultural Diversity in Rural Settings for Nurses

On a continuum of cultural awareness to cultural relativity, how do you view yourself and your interactions with others?

As a nurse practitioner, it is easy to see the patient simply as a patient, as a sick person needing treatment, rather than a well person who perceives his or her body as only temporarily ill, but sees his or her person as permanently a part of a family and culture outside of the hospital. As Small and Dennis (2003) counsel, the increase in immigration has resulted in greater diversity of both patients and practitioners within the United States, rather than in traditional urban locations. Thus Small and Dennis remind the nurse that it is not simply enough to treat the patient, but the patient must also understand his or her illness in culturally comprehensible terms. A nurse must be able to communicate to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dennis, Betty Pierce & Ernestine B. Small. (Jan-Feb, 2003) "Incorporating cultural diversity in nursing care: an action plan" The ABNF Journal.

"New Position Statement Originated by: Council on Cultural Diversity in Nursing Practice, Congress of Nursing." (1996) Adopted by: ANA Board of Directors.
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Cultural Competence Sensitivity and Empowerment Nursing

Words: 3277 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43772626

Nursing: Cultural Competence, Sensitivity and Empowerment

Cultural Competence, Sensitivity and Empowerment: Nursing

The changing demographics of the modern-day multicultural world are increasingly challenging healthcare professionals to consider cultural diversity as a priority in the health sector. Being able to deliver effective care to patients from diverse backgrounds begins with understanding the values, beliefs, and customs associated with different cultures. This text summarizes the writer's experience in a Native American powwow, and explores the effect of the Native American culture on the nursing profession.

Nursing: Cultural Competence, Sensitivity and Empowerment

Diversity is a word that perhaps means something different to each and every individual (Campinha-Bacote, 2003). What is for sure, however, is that the changing demographics of the modern-day multicultural world have, and continue to challenge healthcare professionals to consider cultural diversity as a fundamental concern in the health sector. The U.S. population is projected to reach 400 million by 2050,…… [Read More]

References

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2003). Many Faces: Addressing Diversity in Healthcare. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 8 (1), Manuscript 1. Retrieved from  http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume82003/No1Jan2003/AddressingDiversityinHealthCare.aspx 

Cooper, M. (2012, December 12). Census Officials, Citing Increasing Diversity, Say U.S. will be a Plurality Nation. The New York Times, p. A20.

Grandbois, D. M. (2012). The Impact of History and Culture on Nursing Care of Native American Elders. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 38(1), 3-5.

McCluskey, M. (2009). Indian Education for All: Your Guide to Understanding and Enjoying Powwows. Montana Office of Public Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.opi.mt.gov/Pdf/IndianEd/Resources/PowWows.pdf
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Cultural care of an Aboriginal patient in an Australian hospital

Words: 1901 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53146497

Australia, indigenous people recognize themselves as belonging to Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander or by descent, and also identified as the same by the society. A resistance has been observed in them to access hospitals for healthcare. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to plan, implement and maintain appropriate policies for their treatment. Also, cross-cultural awareness training should be given to paediatric hospital staff. (Munns & Shields, 2013, p. 22)

How would you support ianna and her family in this situation?

The poor health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is well documented, and has been the subject of official policy and program attention for many years. The mainstream health system has responded to increased funding and clear portfolio responsibility, with increasing attention to the burden of illness that Aboriginal people experience and the need for effective health care (Dwyer et al., 2014). I would thus make arrangement for proper…… [Read More]

References

Ansuya. (2012). Transcultural Nursing: Cultural Competence in Nurses. International Journal of Nursing Education, Volume 4(1), pp. 5-7.

Durey, A, Wynaden, D, Thompson, SC, Davidson, PM, Bessarab, D & Katzenellenbogen, JM. (2012). Owning Solutions: A Collaborative Model to Improve Quality in Hospital Care for Aboriginal Australians. Nursing Inquiry, Volume 19(2), pp. 144-152.

Dwyer, J, Willis, E & Kelly, J. (2014). Hospitals Caring for Rural Aboriginal Patients: Holding Response and Denial. Australian Health Review, Volume 38(5), pp. 546-551.

Kelly, J & Willis, E. (2014). Travelling to the City for Hospital Care: Access Factors in Country Aboriginal Patient Journeys. Australian Journal of Rural Health, Volume 22(3), pp. 109-113.
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Cultural Observation

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34124470

Clothing is a very important concept in India and a person is likely to focus on adopting a certain dress style according to the circumstances he or she comes across. Factors like ethnicity, geography, climate, and cultural background are essential in determining the attitudes that a person is likely to take on with regard to dress style. Dressing styles have evolved from Langotas and loincloths to more elaborate costumes that Indians are probable to wear when they attend festivities. hile most people would like to adopt a superficial attitude when regarding what they want to wear, conditions are different in several Indian communities, taking into account that dress styles are treated with a form of intellectual seriousness there.

The Sari is the most popular form of dress for Indian women and is typically wrapped around the lower part of the body with one of its ends and taken over the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bruzzi, Stella, and Church Gibson, Pamela, "Fashion Cultures: Theories, Explorations, and Analysis," (Routledge, 2000)
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Cultural Influence among Immigrant Women from Sub Saharan Africa in Canada

Words: 2723 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51475943

Culture among Immigrant Women from Sub-Saharan Africa Diagnosed with Chronic Diseases, Living in Grande Prairie, Alberta

The concept culture is defined as learned beliefs revealing the method people interact with their physical and social environment generally shared among a large segment of the population and transmitted from one generation to the other. These beliefs can include body size, habit and food habit. This proposal discusses the impact culture among immigrant women from Sub-Saharan Africa diagnosed with chronic diseases, living in Grande Prairie, Alberta. The review of the literature and its outcomes reveal that SSA women in Canada still prefer using the traditional medicine rather than western medicine. Moreover, African women in Canada diagnosed with chronic disease continue indulging unhealthy lifestyle that includes overeating to gain body weight because of the cultural beliefs that overweight is associated with wealth and prestige. Moreover, many women from Sub-Saharan Africa still rely on traditional…… [Read More]

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Value of Cultural Diversity

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13220583

Cultural Diversity in the United States

The United States is one of the most multi-culturally diverse nations in the world. It has often been described as a melting point in which diverse cultures converge. The country is filled with people drawn from different cultures such as Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Europeans. This study focuses on the concept and importance of cultural diversity in the U.S. I believe that cultural diversity is desirable in the United States because it fosters harmonious interaction of people: it should be encouraged because it makes American Citizen's appreciate and respect each other's culture.

Culture refers to an integrated system of learned conduct or behavior patterns that are distinct with members of a given society. As such, culture refers to a people's way of thinking or living. It incorporates people's traditions, religions, mode of dressing, language, values, and beliefs. Language allows people to establish a sense…… [Read More]

References

Pojman, L. (1999). Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, 3rd edition. Belmont, CA:

Wadsworth.
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Cultural Diversity Refers to the Diverse Varieties

Words: 1102 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48954019

Cultural diversity refers to the diverse varieties of human cultures that exist in a certain region, society or in the world as a whole. The characteristics of diversity may include ethnicity, traditions, geographic background, language spoken, religious beliefs, race or physical features. This term is also based on the idea that different cultures should respect each other's differences. With the global integration, the need for communication in accordance with other person's cultural awareness has intensified. Many times, any gesture that is considered offensive in one culture is completely accepted in the other culture. Hence, people sometimes develop misunderstandings when communicating with someone from a different culture. Therefore, it is essential that differences are appreciated for an effective communication.

I am a Christian man who is originally from Ukraine. My mother tongue is Ukrainian and I came to United States some 10 years ago. I am very moderate in my religious…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Newsom, D., Turk, J.V., and Kruckeberg, D. (2004). This is PR: The Realities of Public Relations. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Rosener, J.B. (1990) "Ways Women Lead," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, No. 6, pp. 119-25
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Cultural Concerns Influences Cultural Factors This Paper

Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84861509

Cultural Concerns Influences

Cultural Factors

This paper will examine and evaluate the cultural influences and apprehensions of today's modern societies with mixed cultures and also the impact on the justices system. This paper will deal with the way the cultural concerns influence administration of security and justice. The paper is going to reveal some contemporary techniques which the police and security forces utilize in communities of mixed cultures. The paper will additionally deal with how these factors and influences connect with and affect nondiscrimination practices inside the justice system. Lastly, the paper will address Mr. obert Peel's nine concepts and just how they can fit into today's public law enforcement agencies.

The military occupation of several nations in the centre East and Europe has placed police practices into question. The neighborhood police forces happen to be trained through the military where the rules will vary. The individual within modern societies…… [Read More]

References

Cochrane, R., Tett, R. & Vandercreek, L. (2008).Psychological Testing and the Selection of Police Officers. Retrieved from  http://www.corwin.com/upm-data/19737_Chapter_3.pdf 

French, L.A., & Wailes, N. (2008). Accessing and training police and security personnel relevant to ethnic and cultural sensitivity. Jackson State University Researcher, 21(4), 51.

A history of the nine principles of policing. (2002). Retrieved from  http://www.magnacartaplus.org/briefings/nine_police_principles.htm#en1 

Sir Robert Peel's nine principles. (n.d). Retrieved from  http://www.nwpolice.org/inside-new-westminster-police-department/history/
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Cultural Observation

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 26981494

Cultural Observation

In any culture, the way someone dresses will have an impact in identifying who they are and the traditions which are embraced. The Indian civilization has their own form of dress that is holding onto various social customs in the form of the sari. To fully understand how this is impacting society requires carefully examining the cultural context of the dress ensemble, providing a description of it and discussing various influences (such as: somatotypes). Together, these elements will highlight the impact of these styles on different segments of society. (Katiyar, 2009)

Briefly describe the cultural context of the dress practice or ensemble.

The Indian sari is a strip of indistinct cloth which is worn by women. It is from four to nine yards in length and is draped over the body in various styles. The outfit is worn based upon historical traditions which are dating back to the…… [Read More]

References

The Classification System of Dress. (2013).

The Three Somatotypes. (2013). University of Houston. Retrieved from:  http://www.uh.edu/fitness/comm_educators/3_somatotypesNEW.htm 

Eicher, J. (2008). The Visible Self: Global Perspectives on Dress, Culture, and Society. New York, NY: Fairchild Books.

Katiyar, V. (2009). Indian Saris. New Delhi: Wisdom Tree.
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Cultural Transmissions by the Italian

Words: 2492 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82728048

Indeed the Germans, the French, and the rest looked back to an antiquity in which their ancestors had been subjugated by the legions. Nothing is more remarkable therefore than the rapid and irrevocable penetration of Italian ideas and practices among the "barbarians," as the Italian writers referred to them, some of whom were currently invading the peninsula." (Wiener, 124) it's also important to note that influence of antique classicism typical for Italian architecture of the 14-16th centuries is not observed in the north. Classical style of Italian cathedrals and churches, typical for Ancient Greek and oman pagan temples is usually not observed in buildings of enaissance epoch in Germany, Britain or France, where architecture was influenced by Gothic style, which got earlier spread in Europe.

eformation and Counter eformation

The spread of Protestantism over Europe, which is considered to be one of the most historically significant achievements of enaissance and…… [Read More]

References

Hileman, Tony Living on the Creative Edge of Our Culture available at www.americanhumanist.org/about/messageED1.php

Wiener, Philip P. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas available at  http://etext.virginia.edu/DicHist/dict.html 

Kohl, Benjamin G., and Witt, Ronald G., eds., the Earthly Republic: Italian Humanists on Government and Society (1978)
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Cultural Weddings a Wedding Can

Words: 2831 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28632912

Since weddings are meant to bring families together the unity of the community as a whole is catered for and this can be advantageous. This culture will also ensure that the customs and traditions are retained and covered from erosion by other cultures, this is because the arrangements will ensure that only individuals with similar backgrounds are brought together and no new cultures are incorporated. To someone who does not admire the African culture this may not sound positive but I am sure to the owners of the culture this is a very big boost to them.

Now looking at the Australian cultural wedding very little seems strange but is totally different to the African ceremony. I feel that the Australian cultural wedding is more 'liberal' in nature as compared to the African wedding. This is because the weddings are based on love and agreement between two individuals. This gives…… [Read More]

References

Africaguide.com (2011). Africa people & culture, accessed on November 25, 2011 from  http://www.africaguide.com/culture/weddings.htm 

Euroevents & Travel (2004). Wedding Traditions and Customs around the World Bridal

Customs in different Countries accessed on November 25, 2011 from  http://www.worldweddingtraditions.com/ 

Gardner, H. (1985). The mind's new science. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
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Cultural Literacy - Issues &

Words: 2434 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57845496

scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?

Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Booklist. "Reference Books Bulletin: The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." (2003): 1702.

In the first edition of Hirsch's book, the author was criticized as being "elitist," but the Subsequent editions add "tools for assessing cultural literacy" that makes sense and Now it does "keep up with changes in American culture."

Chylinski, Manya S. "Hirsch, E.D. Jr., & others. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Library Journal, 127.18 (2002): 78-80. Chylinski writes that the book has been given "an exciting update" - "sorely needed"...for those "who like to have a great reference work..."

Giddings, Louise R. "Beyond E.D. Hirsch and Cultural Literacy: Thinking Skills for Cultural
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Cultural Empowerment

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57264674

Cultural Empowerment

When planning a health promotion program, we should consider the positive (empowerment process) and the negative behaviors. As we begin to understand our intended audience we can assure the most culturally-appropriate educational intervention. In doing so, we are more likely to create partnerships that help people successfully achieve lasting change and truly promote health.

One of the most common issues that are not discussed in the armed forces is military sexual trauma (MST). This is when an individual will face unnecessary amounts of sexual pain from others they are serving with. A few most common forms include: unwanted sexual touching / grabbing, threating / offensive remarks about someone's body / sexual activities and unwarranted sexual advances. This has begun to occur so frequently that the Veteran Administration conducted a study, where they found that the total amounts of MST affected: 1 in every 5 women and 1 in…… [Read More]

References

Coping Skills for Trauma. (2004). Ibiblio.org. Retrieved from:  http://www.ibiblio.org/rcip/copingskills.html 

Military Sexual Trauma. (2011). VA. Retrieved from:  http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/military-sexual-trauma-general.asp 

Robins, A. (1992). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
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Cultural Artifact Mental Health Drugs as Panacea

Words: 2205 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95196658

Cultural Artifact

Mental Health Drugs as Panacea

A culture is made up of people who have developed the same language (or at least dialect of a larger language), art forms, religion, and other means of distinguishing one group from another. It can be said that all groups have a certain culture that they have established by which they are constrained. For example, a company develops a culture that is specific to it, and that culture governs everyone who works at, or is affiliated with, that company. In ethnic terms, a culture will define the ways in which one ethnic grouping is different from another. Although certain groupings may have similar languages, religions and ways of doing things, they will also have differences which distinguish them. In the same way that different species of birds are characterized by slight differences in appearance or location, people are grouped by the culture from…… [Read More]

References

Cottone, R.R. (2007). Paradigms of counseling and psychotherapy, revisited: Is social constructionism a paradigm? Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 29(3), 189- 199.

Haylock, B. (2004). Resilience education and drug information. Australian Screen Education, 38, 142-144.

Sharav, V.H. (2005). Screening for mental illness: The merger of eugenics and the drug industry. Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 7(2), 111-121.

WebMD. (2005). Major depression (clinical depression). Retrieved from  http://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/major-depression
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Cultural Challenges of Doing Business Overseas Steve

Words: 1246 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11675456

Cultural Challenges of Doing Business Overseas:

Steve Kafka, franchisor for Chicago Style Pizza

Steve Kafka, a proprietor of Chicago Style Pizza, a U.S.-based franchise, is attempting to capitalize upon his Czech heritage, and knowledge of Czech culture and language to expand into Prague and take advantage of a largely untapped pizza market in the region. However, it is critical that Steve does not forget that, despite his familiarity with Czech culture, he was born in the United States and must orient himself to the unique cultural worldview of the Czech nation

Major differences and incompatibilities between cultures and risk mitigation

Perhaps the most significant difference between the U.S. And Czech business culture is a historical one, namely the legacy of communist rule in the Czech epublic. "All commentators on Czech business culture focus on the difficulty of developing deep levels of trust within any business relationship" (Doing business in Czech…… [Read More]

References

Czech Republic. (2010). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved December 10, 2010 at  http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_czech_republic.shtml 

Czech Republic. (2010). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 10, 2010 at  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3237.htm 

Doing business in Czech Republic. (2010). World Business Culture. Retrieved December 10,

2010 at  http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Czech-Business-Style.html
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Cultural Profile of Danny Below Is the

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53226579

Cultural Profile of Danny

Below is the profile of a college Freshman using the ADRESING format by Hays (Hays; Hays 309-315) This method of assessment of cultural awareness is used by many clinical psychologists in order to guarantee cultural sensitivity during therapy and to provide culturally relevant care:

Age or generational differences:

Danny is 19, and a Freshman in college

Disability:

He has no visible disabilities and none of which he is aware.

Religion:

He is a Christian, but is not currently attending any local church.

Ethnicity:

Danny is Han Chinese.

Social status:

At home in Beijing, Danny is upper middle class. His parents have good jobs and are party members, though they are not rich.

Sexual orientation:

Unknown

Indigenous heritage:

He is a member of the majority culture in Beijing, but is Asian minority in America.

Nationality:

Citizen of the PRC

Gender:

Male

Profile:

Danny is a college freshman…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"China - Chinese Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Explained "Web. 11/23/2010 .

"China today "Web. 10/31/2010 .

Hays, Pamela A. "

Multicultural Applications of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 26.3 (1995): 309-15. Web.
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Cultural Diversity in Organizations Organization

Words: 4681 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 71138902

The solutions are numerous and more diversified.

Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.

Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…… [Read More]

Reference list:

Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.

Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.

Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
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Cultural and Construction History of

Words: 8066 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21023993

Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Cultural Environment

Atrisgerinko, V.A. Origins of the Romanesque. London: Lund, 2005. Print.

Benson, R.E. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982. Print.

Benson, Robert L. et al. (eds). Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Medieval Academy of America, 1991.
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Cultural and Construction History of

Words: 5800 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2908770

Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.

The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…… [Read More]

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Cultural and Construction History of

Words: 3190 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30043809



Crusaders were able to implement feudal states throughout their travels during this period of warfare, many of which have been termed Crusader states and which were erected throughout the Holy Land and in parts of Asia Minor as well as Greece. The most famous of these, of course, was the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which took place in 1099 and reigned until its fall in 1291.

Kingdom of Jerusalem

It should be remembered that for the vast duration of the reign of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, European settlers were widely outnumbered by Franks and Muslims, and only comprised approximately 15 to 25% of the entire population (Kedar 148). The Europeans lived in areas which were both rural as well as urban, and despite attempts to integrate with the surrounding foreigners, they did not infiltrate areas which were predominantly Muslim and which had never had many Christian dwellers (Ellenblu…… [Read More]

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Cultural Perceptions of Time in Africa Time

Words: 6951 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52859355

Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica

Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.

Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.

In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…… [Read More]

Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)

Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.

(Adjaye 1994, 57)
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Cultural Capital Theory of Pierre Bourdieu the

Words: 311 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69786566

Cultural Capital Theory of Pierre Bourdieu

The section discussing Pierre Bourdieu's Theory of Reproduction, also termed as the Cultural Capitalism theory, illustrates how economic stratification results to social stratification within a society, and vice versa. Bourdieu's Theory of Reproduction is exemplified in the educational system, where economics and social roles and classes are inevitably related with each other. In this section, the social phenomenon of socio-economic stratification between the high- and middle-class and low-class students is perpetuated. By making quality education available only to the middle- and high-class families, the society is advocating the fact that it is imperative that an individual must be financially capable of providing for his/her formal education. Furthermore, students belonging to low-class families are further relegated down onto the lower rungs of the socio-economic ladder, primarily because they were not given formal education simply because they could not afford to have it. This is exemplified…… [Read More]

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Cultural Intonation Cultural Differences in

Words: 3430 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 73347025

2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.

An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…… [Read More]

references during the first half year of life: Evidence from German and French infants." Infant behavior and development 32(3), pp. 262-74.

Laroche, M.; Pons, F. & Richard, M. (2009). "The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: A multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation." Journal of social psychology 149(4), pp. 513-40.

Nguyen, T.; Ingrahm, C. & Pensalfini, J. (2008). "Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns." Journal of phonetics 36(1), pp. 158.

Turk, a. & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (2007). "Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words." Journal of phonetics 35(4), pp. 445-72.

Wyatt, J. (2007). "Skinner 1, Chomsky 0." Behavior analysis digest 19(4), pp. 13-4.
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Cultural Competancy Recent Awareness About

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 11083706

The study reveals the ways culture and religion intersect with gender, and in fact the authors base their research on the theory of intersectionality. White privilege, gender, and any other issue related to social justice and personal consciousness is situational. Each individual will experience race, class, gender, power, religion, and ethnicity in different ways.

When reading the three articles, I first note their similarities. All three articles address white privilege. The problem with white privilege is that it is built into the social institutions upon which societies are built. White privilege can also be extended to refer to gender privilege and patriarchy, which is why Greenwood & Christian (2008) note that women from whatever culture or religion tend to gloss over their differences to bond together in sisterhood. Sisterhood might trump experiences such as racial prejudice and bias. However, when faced with the problem of the hijab, women who are…… [Read More]

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Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it

Words: 2251 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69764147

Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it Like

BECKHAM

COSS CULTUAL THEOIES BASED ON BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM

Cross cultural theories based on bend it like Beckham

Movies are one way in which different issues such as social and cultural backgrounds of different societies are filmed to educate or enlighten the community at large on different life styles as well as cultural diversity. Different films do have different numbers of characters, who act as family members, friends, and business personnel's in order to portray to the different issues to their viewers. With the help of a team comprising of the writer, producer and the directors, the characters are able to follow instructions so as to produce a film with the required themes. Bend it like Beckham, is a comedy-drama film in which the title is derived from a famous England football player David Beckham and his ability to score from…… [Read More]

Reference list

Bates, D.G., & Plog, F. (1976). Cultural Anthropology, 3rd Ed., New York: McGraw-Hil

Baruth, L.G., & Manning, M.L. (2003). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan perspective (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., and M.W. Feldman (1981), Cultural Transmission and Evolution.

Princeton: Princeton University Press
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Personal Cultural Diversity the World

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61218229

Not celebrating Christmas, and not having time off from school for Persian religious holidays, has always made me take great notice of the fact that I am "different." As I have matured, however, I have come to appreciate this difference, and to realize that everyone truly is "different" in many ways. It took me quite awhile to come to this realization and to fully accept my culturally diverse identity as a Persian-American, but now that I have I realize that the diversity I struggled with in my youth has actually given me a great advantage in modern society. I am already prepared and well equipped not only to "deal with" cultural diversity, but to actively engage and navigate a world where it is commonplace.

Learning to not only tolerate but to utilize cultural diversity in the workplace can be very difficult. Even something considered as standard by many people such…… [Read More]

References

Carnevale, a. & Stone, S. (1994). "Diversity beyond the golden rule." Training and development, pp. 22-39.

During, J. & Mirabdolbaghi, Z. (1991). The art of Persian music. New York: Mage publishing.

Fordham. (2007). "Persia." Internet ancient history sourcebook. Accessed 8 September 2009.  http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook05.html 

Woods, S. (2009). "Workplace diversity." Cornell university ILR school. Accessed 8 September 2009.  http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/library/research/subjectguides/workplacediversity.html
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Culture and the Military Cultural

Words: 1915 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 48326917



This also has major implications for military operations, both within a military unit and in the interaction between the military unit and another culture. Essentially, the problem of ethnocentrism can be seen at the root of the other cultural problems discussed in this context; it implies both a lack of understanding about the impacts of the unit's culture on the people of a foreign culture, as well as a lack of appreciation and understanding for that culture (Hoskins 2007).

Conclusion

Culture is strange, in that it is both constant and always changing. The only static culture is a dead one; as the various elements and generations of a culture interact, change is bound to happen. When there is no longer any interaction within a culture or between a given culture and other cultures, there is no longer any point to that culture, and indeed that culture could not realistically exist…… [Read More]

References

DiMarco, L. (2003). Traditions, changes, and challenges: Military operations and the Middle Eastern city. Diane Publsihing.

Harrison, D.; Light, L. & Rothschild-Boros, M. (2008). Cultural anthropology: Our diverse world. New York: Wadsworth.

Hoskins, B. (2007). "Religion and other cultural variable in modern operational environments." Accessed 16 October 2009.  http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA470675&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf 

O'Neil, D. (2007). "Characteristics of Culture." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_2.htm
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Emerging Standards of Care Mental Health Cultural Competence

Words: 2289 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2653470

Standards of Care/Mental Health/Cultural Competence

EMEGING STANDADS OF CAE/MENTAL HEALTH/CULTUAL

Sometime in 1999, the Surgeon General released Mental Health: A eport of the Surgeon General. Inside this report, it acknowledged that not every Americans, particularly minorities, are getting the equal mental health treatment, a discovery that provoked the Surgeon General to give out a supplemental report on differences in mental health care for individuals of color (Donini-Lenhoff, 2006). The addition, which was available in 2001, sends out one obvious message: culture does actually count. Cultural competency is considered to be one the vital ingredients in closing the differences hole in health care. It is looked as the way patients and doctors are able to come together and then talk about health issues without cultural differences stopping the conversation, nonetheless improving it. Fairly simply, health care services that are deferential of and receptive to the health beliefs, practices and cultural and…… [Read More]

References

Choi, H.M. (2006). ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENTS' MENTAL DISTRESS, SOCIAL STRESS, AND RESOURCES. Adolescence, 41(126), 263-83.

Donini-Lenhoff, F. (2006). HEALTH: Cultural competence in the health professions; insuring a juniform standard of care. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 65(45), 45.

Furler, J. & . (2012). Mental health: Cultural competence. Australian Family Physician, 39(5), 206-8.

Sawrikar, P. & . (2013). The relationship between mental health, cultural identity and cultural values in non-english speaking background (NESB) australian adolescents. Behaviour Change, 21(3), 97-113.
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Managing Cultural Differences in an Organization

Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53810970

Global Perspectives on Leadership

Working with individuals from Latin America requires significant consideration of various factors that influence the relationship and the realization of a shared organizational objective. Firstly, taking into consideration the cross-cultural communication that will dominate the interaction with individuals from this culture is imperative. The fact that cultural differences exist translate to the communication breakdown that should be managed by the leader of an organization. Developing a culture-sensitive environment will help eliminate such barriers. The leader should also consider the context and content of understanding business setup when working with individuals with Latin America culture. Textual analysis shows that Latin business culture focuses on the broad aspects of the organizational relationship, social approaches, and broad circumstances influencing the business (Moran, 2011, p. 215).

However, the culture of other states such as the U.S. places a strong emphasis on the communication content. The content of focus includes facts,…… [Read More]

References

Moran, Robert T. Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success (8th Edition).: Routledge, . (2011). Print
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Cross Cultural Leadership Cultural Differences in Leadership

Words: 1565 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26626360

Cross Cultural Leadership

Cultural Differences in Leadership

Cultural differences determine certain leadership traits and portions of our personality. It is easy to discredit the importance of cross-cultural differences and their influences on various leadership styles. Different cultures are known for certain traits. For instance, the Australian culture is known for it egalitarianism. Chinese culture is known as an authority oriented culture (Sharpe, 2007). These differences in culture result in the development of different leadership styles and traits. The following will explore the issue of cultural differences and will support the thesis that leaders from authoritarian countries have a greater power distance from their employees than do those in egalitarian cultures.

Sharpe (2007) found that the Australian culture and the Chinese culture dictated certain traits in regards to desirable leadership traits. Both the Australian and Chinese participants felt that these leadership traits were more important on the lower levels than on…… [Read More]

References

DeGrosky, M. (2011). Lost in Translation. Wildfire. Retrieved March 4,.2011 from http://wildfiremag.com/command/cultural-context-leadership-200907/

Deng, L. & Gibson, P. (2008). A Qualitative Evaluation on the Role of Cultural Intelligence in Cross-Cultural Leadership Effectiveness. The International Journal of Leadership Studies. 3 (2): 181-197.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Lewis, R. (2006). Cultural Differences in a Shrinking World: Leadership Implications. Personnel Decisions. January 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.hreonline.com/pdfs/PDIPaper.pdf
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China-Cultural Review Touching Upon the

Words: 1888 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88159045

The latter type of employees will act as mediators between the foreigner and the host, will point out potential mistakes and will also be more easily accepted by the staff. Undoubtedly, if Chinese who haven't had international experiences are capable of appropriately managing the business, they will be given the chance to hold top management positions after a certain period of intercultural training.

4) Referring to demand and customer relations, a foreign company should display a high respect towards its clients by offering them qualitative products and services that take into account their cultural background (i.e. avoiding colors which are associated with fatality, avoiding gestures, words that are considered to be offensive etc.).

The Chinese market's demand for a foreign company's products is significantly influenced by collectivism. For instance, in Japan which is a collectivist culture too, a U.S. based company selling ice cream paid several Japanese to stay in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. China Interview (2007). On the internet at: www.cyborlink.com/besite/china_interview.htm. Retreievd March 4.

2. Chinese Business Etiquette (2007). On the Internet at: www.cyborlink.com/besite/china.htm. Retrieved March 4.

3. Geert Hofstede Analysis (2007). On the Internet at: www.cyborlink.com/besite/hofstede.htm. Retrieved March 4.

4. Hofstede's Analysis for China (2003). On the Internet at: www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_china.shtml. Retrieved March 4.
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Leadership and Motivation Leadership Cultural

Words: 3842 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84901355



Also, virtue ethics must ensure that the leader acts in the best interest of those who he represents, works with, and works for. However, this does not suffice in order to implement an effective leadership style.

In addition to this, the leader must be surrounded by individuals with similar ethical behavior. This would help the leader to achieve ethical responsibilities. Also, it would make it easier to observe any unethical conduct from the leader.

As mentioned above, there are also different levels of ethics, like mandatory and aspirational ethics. The lowest level of ethics, but not the least important, is represented by mandatory ethics. This type of ethics refers to compliance with the law. In this case, things are clear. All individuals, especially leaders, must respect the law.

Aspirational ethics refer to the effects and influence that leaders' actions have on others. The first people leaders influence are represented by…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Finkelstein, S. (1992). Power in Top Management Teams: Dimensions, Measurement and Validation. Academy of Management Journal. No. 8. Retrieved May 13, 2009.

2. Snell, S.A., Dean, J.W. (1992). Integrated Manufacturing Resources Management, A Human Capital Perspective. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 35, No. 2. Retrieved May 13, 2009.

3. Kings, Queens, and Dictators (2000). Forbes.com, Inc. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from  http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2000/0703/6515256a.html?partner=whiteglove_google .

4. Saddam Hussein (2005). Global Security Organization. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/saddam.htm .
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Cross Cultural Leadership There Is

Words: 3076 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4327320

Internal and external customers are both considered important and their needs must be anticipated and satisfied in the most suitable manner. The decisions that the executive leader makes must be based on solid information. He must be aware of the consequences of his decisions. At the same time, he must have a long-term perspective and make the best choice even if at the beginning its consequences might seem negative.

A further competency that must be taken into consideration refers to the ability to efficaciously manage strategic resources including the human ones, the financial ones and the information ones. From this point-of-view, one needs to be updated with the technological development which are relevant for his work area. In addition, he must make sure that everything from the recruitment process to the selection and rewarding of the staff members is done in the manner which best serves the organization.

A leadership…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Executive Competencies, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site:  https://www.opm.gov/ses/ecq.asp 

Executive management, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site:  http://www.govexec.com/features/0404-15/0404-15view.htm 

Krishnan, R. (2002). Impact of gender on influence, power and authoritarianism, Women in management review, vol.17, 197-206

Leadership, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site:  http://www.leadershiplouisville.org/programs/network
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Global Cultural Politics the Process

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64656937

This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.

The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008.  http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-ayres.pdf 

Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?IdDoc=1676

Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.

Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 https://faculty.washington.edu/modelski/Global4.html. html
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Standards of Cultural Competent Care Emerging Standards

Words: 2144 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52199356

Standards of Cultural Competent Care

Emerging Standards of Cultural Competent

This research paper is established to explore upon the emerging trends of culturally competent care in general organizational settings. However, the scope of this care will be narrowed down specifically to health care organization I am working with. All the bits and bytes allied with the phenomenon of cultural competent care have been included in this paper, including the overview of what this trend is all about, what are the standards being followed in this particular domain and how those standards are applicable within my workplace premises. All in all, this paper will serve as a primer for the culturally competent care that is required to be promoted within different workplace environments.

An Overview of Culturally Competent Care

As a matter of fact, United States has appeared to be one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world. esearchers…… [Read More]

References

Callister, L.C. (2005). What has the literature taught us about culturally competent care of women and children? MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 30(6), 380-388.

Giddings, L.S. (2005). A theoretical model of social consciousness. Advances in Nursing

Science, 28(3), 224-239.

International Council of Nurses (1998). Nurses and Human Rights. Retrieved September 2, 2012, from  http://www.icn.ch/pshumrights.htm .
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Analysis Cross-Cultural Tourist Research

Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Introduction Chapter Paper #: 43756105

Cross-Cultural Tourist esearch

Cross-Cultural Interactions

From the onset, it would be prudent to offer a concise definition of two of the terms that will be variously used in this text, i.e. cross-cultural interactions and culture. Culture, according to Hofstede (as cited in Bowe and Martin, 2007, p. 80), is "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another." It, hence, has got to do with that cumulative deposit of roles, societal hierarchies, as well as values and beliefs adopted by a group of people over a long period of time. In that regard, therefore, cross-cultural interactions are in line with the ability of an individual or group of persons to not only form but also foster and enhance relationships with those who may not be members of their own culture. On this front, successful cross-cultural interactions are essentially based on…… [Read More]

References

Bowe, H. & Martin, K. (2007). Communication across Cultures: Mutual Understanding in a Global World. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hong, J.K. & Lee, Y. (2014). The Influence of National Culture on Customers' Cross-Buying Intentions in Asian Banking Services: Evidence from Korea and Taiwan. New York, NY: Routledge.

Mueller, B. (2008). Communicating with the Multicultural Consumer: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.

Reisinger, Y. & Turner, L. (2012). Cross-Cultural Behavior in Tourism. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
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Analyzing the Social Cultural Diversity

Words: 2609 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81908575

Social and Cultural Diversity

The U.S.A. is widely viewed as a unifying state in which immigrants are accommodated and assimilated into the largely 'white' dominant socio cultural structure. This principle has allowed the country to facilitate a friendly environment for the nation to sustain a pluralistic perspective. The immigrants retain and maintain their beliefs and ideals even as they adjust their lives to be practically functional in their new American society. Multicultural counseling has come up against three core challenges linked to such diversity. There is the culture, attitude and theoretical perspective; then there is the culture of the client and, finally the many variables naturally wound around individual characteristics (olton-rownlee, n.d.).

Oversimplifying the Client's Social asis: Application of universal categories is essential for our understanding of human experiences. However, if we lose sight of differences between individuals, it would lead to a range of ethical breaches. Clients are influenced…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ACA. (2014). 2014 ACA Code of Ethics. American Counselling Association.

Banks, J. A. (1996). Multicultural Education, Transformative Knowledge, and Action. New York: Teachers College Press.

Barnett, J., & Bivings, N. (n.d.). Culturally Sensitive Treatment and Ethical Practice. APA Divisions.

Bolton-Brownlee, A. (n.d.). Issues in Multicultural Counseling. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest. Retrieved from Eric Digests:  http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-925/issues.htm
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Analyzing Multiple Assignments for Cross Cultural Education

Words: 5084 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72383288

Cross Cultural Education

Cultural History

The information gathered was mostly from my grandparents and my parents. From the interviews conducted, I found out that my ancestors came to the United States in 1850. The main reason why they came to the United States is due to famine. According to information obtained, at the time, Ireland was facing a severe famine, owing to upsetting crop disasters. Due to lack of food for lengthy periods, my ancestors were left with no other option but to move to the United States. However, there are quite a number of challenges they faced upon arrival. To begin with, they had no expertise and no preceding experience in becoming accustomed to a new nation. In addition, they also faced the challenge of having no cash, minimal clothes and lack of education. Another distinctive challenge that they faced upon arrival to the United States was a great…… [Read More]

References

Colin, M., O'Dea, M. (2006). The Feckin' Book of Everything Irish. New York, Barnes & Noble.

Derderian-Aghajanian, A., & Wang, C. C. (2012). How culture affects on English language learners'(ELL's) outcomes, with Chinese and Middle Eastern Immigrant Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(5).

Frontline. (n.d). A Class Divided. PBS. Retrieved from:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/class-divided/ 

McDonald, K. E., Keys, C. B., & Balcazar, F. E. (2007). Disability, race/ethnicity and gender: themes of cultural oppression, acts of individual resistance. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39(1-2), 145-161.
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Analyzing Healthcare Cultural Assessment

Words: 5773 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 24073629

cultural diversity issues and its impact on nursing professionals' practice. It assesses a client hailing from a different culture, and employs information derived from the assessment determining and reflecting on health practices and beliefs of the client's culture. Lastly, nurses' role in the care of patients hailing from diverse backgrounds care is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn.

Client Interview Data

Client's health beliefs in relation to cultural diversity

The client comes from a family-focused background, in which she plays the role of chief household organizer and attends to her family and their needs. She believes one ought to lead a life of a good and virtuous individual, and support one's family, particularly in times of need. In her opinion, sickness must be tended to, for preserving life. She believes in healthcare professionals and services they offer, for leading a healthy life. She is comfortable having healthcare professionals take care…… [Read More]

References

American Nurses Association. (1998). Discrimination and Racism in Health Care. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.

Anderson, L. (2012, October 10). Cultural Competence in the Nursing Practice. Retrieved from Nurse Together:  http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competence-nursing-practice 

Coe, S. (2013, January 15). Cultural Competency in the Nursing Profession. Retrieved from Nurse Together:  http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competency-nursing-profession 

Graue, M., Dunning, T., Hausken, M. F., & Rokne, B. (2013). Challenges in managing elderly people with diabetes in primary care settings in Norway. Scand J Prim Health Care, 31(4), 241-247.
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Comparing Cultural Differences

Words: 1952 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16272495

Learning Project

As our nation becomes increasingly more diverse we will be presented with the challenge of understanding our cultural differences. The purpose of this paper is to develop and design a learning project that compares cultural differences of two ethnic/cultural groups. For the purposes of this project we will compare the differences between Asian and Western cultures. The project will be based on the cultural impact of performance in workforce, production, sales, customer services, etc.

efore we can create a learning project we must first understand the cultural backgrounds of both groups.

Cultural ackgrounds

Asian Culture

The economic boom seen in various Asian countries during the 90's called into question the work ethic and cultural values that made these nations successful. One of the most definitive explanations for the work values that are prevalent in Asia, especially China, has been attributed to the concept of Confucianism. Confucianism is the…… [Read More]

Bibliography www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5001406091

Marcus, George E. "Meanings of the Market: The Free Market in Western Culture." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 4.4 (1998): 804.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5001903725

Marglin, Stephen A. "Development as poison: rethinking the Western model of modernity." Harvard International Review 25.1 (2003): 70+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5001352685
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Challenging Cultural Myths Is an Introductory Preface

Words: 765 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36761124

Challenging Cultural Myths" is an introductory preface to the seventh edition textbook Rereading America, published in 2007 by Bedford/St.

Martin's Press and edited by Gary Colombo, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle The authors believes that becoming a college student is one of the most challenging experiences of your lifetime. For most students, it is the first time you have been independent, which can be exciting but scary. If you are living in a dorm setting, you are dealing with totally different people that you have never met before and they have completely different backgrounds, some are from other areas of the country and some are from foreign countries. Also there are increased expectations, you will have to read more and do more coursework than you have done before and most of them are all due on the same day. Another thing is that you are practically required to question your…… [Read More]

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Clinician's Mirror Cultural Self-Assessment in

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 18764787

He looks at the methodological and practical problems that can impact assessment research in correctional settings, including the distinctive culture in correctional institutes. Megargee's reason for doing the research is today's huge population of incarcerated persons and the fact that psychological research that has been conducted on people outside of the incarceration setting may not be applicable to people who are incarcerated. He recognizes that there is a need for research in this area to determine whether tools developed elsewhere are applicable. He points out the irony of this lack of applicable research because clinical psychology was developed in the criminal justice setting. He does not really conduct any individual research, therefore the methodology is most akin to a literature review in which he assesses the information available about correctional institutions and draws conclusions from that information to determine why there is a lack of research on assessment in correctional…… [Read More]

References

Author Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Chapter 3: Looking into the clinician's mirror: cultural self-assessment. In Editor's Last Name, First Initial (Ed). Book Title. Place of Publication, Publisher.

Megargee, E. (1995). Assessment research in correctional settings: Methodological issues and practical problems. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 359-366.
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Cross-Cultural Barriers to Mental Health

Words: 803 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14721311



ecommended policy

To deal with these difficulties, several recommendations can be formulated:

1. Cross-cultural variables: Ethnic matches should be arranged between client and therapist. These will be effective in dealing not only with communication problems, but also with cultural perceptions of the disease as well as with possible social stigmas attached to the disease. The therapist, sharing similar cultural background to the patient understands the patient's concern and speaks the patient's language therefore is more able than another to 'pull' her through.

Other recommendations include items such as that Government should allocate more funding to establishing specific mental health treatments that are run by and appeal to the various ethnic minorities. In a similar manner, government should increase their funding for research and clinical training of ethnic and racial minority members (e.g. The minority Fellowship Program and the CO). Finally, general Mental health services should incorporate cross-cultural communication variables in…… [Read More]

References

Leong, F.T.L., & Lau, A.S.L. (2001). Barriers to providing effective mental health services to Asian-Americans. Mental Health Services Research, 3, 201 -- 214.

Leong, F.T.L., & Kalibatseva, Z. (2011) Cross-cultura Barriers to mental Health services in United States. Cerebrum. The DANA Foundation.  http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=31364
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The Traditional and Nutritional Values of the Chinese Cultural Diet

Words: 1767 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79869132

Examining Cultural Influences of Behavioral Nutrition: The Traditional and Nutritional Values of the Chinese Cultural Diet
It is a general belief that adequate nutrition equals healthy living. From time immemorial, human beings have understandably placed a premium on diets. Rightly so as lives have been saved or lost through food. However, while nutrients will always be a significant factor which decides what people eat or do not eat, there are other as worthy elements that influence human eating behavior. One of those other several factors that determine people's choice of food is cultural influences. This explains why food is one of the crucial elements that define people's way of life. People’s culture cannot be holistically discussed without good attention to their diets. One of the world's cultural groups that are very popular for their diet culture are the Chinese people. Of several other components of the Chinese, food is a…… [Read More]

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How to Conduct a Study of Education and Cultural Diversity

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70627257

students perceive cultural diversity as an issue worth talking about both in and out of school. The purpose of this study is to better understand the climate in which educators seek to implement curricula designed to promote cultural awareness and diversity in schools. The study will show how students approach this subject, whether they embrace, view it skeptically, are concerned about it, think it important or superfluous and what their overall assessment of culture and diversity is when they leave the classroom and engage in the real world.

This will be a phenomenological study that will utilize first-hand interviews with students in middle school and high school from schools around the area where I live. It will be a random sample that will help to show a general view of what children grades 6-12 think about diversity and at what ages in adolescence and young adulthood their views really start…… [Read More]

References

Heyer, D. (2009). What if Curriculum (of a Certain Kind) Doesn't Matter? Curriculum

Inquiry, 39: 27-40.

Turner-Vorbeck, Tammy A. (2005). Expanding multicultural education to include family diversity. Multicultural Education,13(2), 6-10.
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Gender Culture and Arousal Cultural

Words: 411 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74829783

If the individual's personality and cognitive processes gear him or her up to be rebellious, then he or she might become attracted to persons with different ethnic features. Other cognitive factors such as memory or ethnic and gender stereotypes may come into play when viewing arousing imagery. For instance, if a woman was once raped by a man with a mustache, she might respond negatively to a photo of a man in a mustache, even if the man is found alluring to other women. Likewise, a person who is prejudiced against African-American people might not find potentially arousing images of Blacks stimulating.

Finally, physical traits such as gender play a key role in the way people respond to images that are potentially arousing. Gender and sexual orientation affect one's view of physical beauty and attractiveness. A gay man will not find Angelina Jolie's photo to be sexually arousing, whereas a…… [Read More]