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Description of policy
Development of policy
Evaluation of policy
It is unquestionable to claim that the world is progressively advancing and entering into the epoch of developments. However, it is very unfortunate to state that the social issues especially juvenile delinquency at the same time is increasing at an accelerated pace. This apparently indicates the fact that youth violence over the years have raised to a much greater extent. In fact, statistical records have revealed the piece of information that juvenile delinquency has become one of the leading causes of deaths in the United States (LeBoeuf & United States - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1996).
In this regard, juvenile curfew policy has been designed, enacted, and enforced as one of the popular control strategy to increased juvenile delinquency and victimization, which is attributable to numerous social trends. The increased juvenile crime rates have…
Adams, K. (2007) Abolish Juvenile Curfews. Criminology & Public Policy. Volume 6, Issue 4: 663-669. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
ABA Center on Children and the Law, Center for Children & Law and Policy. (2009). Children, Law, and Disasters: What We Have Learned from Katrina and the Hurricanes of 2005. USA: American Bar Association.
LeBoeuf, D. & United States - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (1996). Curfew, an answer to juvenile delinquency and victimization? USA: U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Finley, L.L. (2007). Juvenile Justice. USA: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Curfew for Teenagers
Curfews for teenagers have long been a tradition in communities as a way to keep young people off of the streets and out of harm's way, so to speak. A curfew is a specific time set by city officials that determines when a certain age group has to home. This becomes a law of the community, meaning violations are punishable. While curfews may seem to be in the children's best interest, it creates more problems than it solves.
One problem that stems from curfews is that it creates criminals of otherwise law abiding teenagers. If a teenager is on public streets five minutes, ten minutes or an hour past curfew, they are subject to arrest. This makes them a criminal for something that for the rest of the population is not a crime. Moreover, it categorizes or stereotypes all teenagers as delinquents, as if to say any…
There is only supposed to be one other teen under 18 inside the car of an under aged driver (O'Donoghue), and this helps keep teen drivers safer, as well, as too many people in the car can be a distraction to the driver. Parents should ensure that these rules are followed, and the curfew causes parents to be more aware of where their children are and when they return home at night. It should open up new avenues of communication, which is good for teens and parents.
The arguments against the teen curfew laws are many. As reporter Mussenden notes, they are difficult to enforce. He writes of a driver education teacher, "But, based on conversations with students, she suspects that few teens obey all the rules, especially curfew restrictions. Police say enforcing some restrictions are a challenge, since telling a 16-year-old from a 19-year-old at 55 miles per hour…
Crash Investigation Team. "Report Number 196). Virginia Commonwealth University. 2006. 12 Dec. 2007. http://www.vcu.edu/cppweb/tstc/pdfs/196.pdf
Editors. "Virginia Licensing Laws." Safeteendriving.org. 2007. 12 Dec. 2007. http://www.safeteendriving.org/laws/laws.php
Editors. "Virginia Steps Up Efforts to Curb Drunk Driving with Checkpoints." InsuranceJournal.Com. 2006. 12 Dec. 2007. http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/east/2006/08/25/71734.htm
Mussenden, Sean. "Tough Driving Laws for Teens Saving Lives." Potomac News Online. 2006. 12 Dec. 2007. http://www.potomacnews.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=WPN%2FMGArticle%2FWPN_BasicArticle&c=MGArticle&cid=1137836300442&path=!news
Teen Curfew Hala
Teenage Curfew Laws
This is a paper that argues for the implementation of curfew laws for the youths to preserve the youths from going astray. It has 3 sources.
The young individuals have extra energy, which if not controlled, may lead them astray and curfew laws are viewed by some as punishment for all teens; however, in the end it is only a preventative measure in a struggle to preserve the youth.
Thomas Ognibene, Councilman of Queens City, has come up with legislation for creating a curfew for the juveniles, which he intends to introduce shortly. According to him the curfew will be applied to boys and girls below eighteen years of age and will be effective from 10:00 P.M. This has created much reaction in the city. Some of the people consider the intended legislation as amounting to throttling the freedom of teen-age boys and girls.…
Queen, Joseph W. William Murphy, Teen Curfew Law Proposed for City., Newsday, 07-10-1996, pp A03.
Ward, J. Richard Jr. Implementing Juvenile Curfew Programs. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, March, 2000.
Potok, Mark. MANY ADULTS SUPPORT TEEN CURFEWS., USA Today, 06-26-1995.
Curfews, military incursions, targeted killing, movement restrictions, arrests, terror acts, humiliation, poverty, and economic condition have affected every single person, right from infants to aged people. Volatility on a daily basis aggravates anxiety and stress - these unfortunate people cease to have any control over their lives (SAC, 2015; PCS Mental Health Department, 2003; Irwin & Scali, 2010).
The present situation in Syria is devastating, aggravated by memories of past conflicts and the ultimate loss of identity and land. Coping methods attack religious beliefs, cultural traditions, and community lifestyle vigorously. The most prominent impacts of relentless conflict include hopelessness; such situations have a lasting effect on people, their family, and the overall community. Discovering methods for overcoming the ordeal they have experienced is the lone means to a better future, for these people (SAC, 2015; Zimiles, 2009).
Epidemiology of the health/mental health issue
The collective effect of conflict elements deeply…
Allotey, P., Verghis, S., Alvarez-Castillo, F., & Reidpath, D. D. (2012). Vulnerability, equity and universal coverage - a concept note. BMC Public Health, 12 (Suppl 1), 1-3. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-S1-S2
DeSavigny, D. and Adam, T. (2009). Systems thinking for health systems strengthening: Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research. World Health Organization.
Irwin A, & Scali E. (2010). A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. Social determinants of health discussion paper 2: Debates, policy & practice, case studies Geneva: World Health Organization.
PRCS Mental Health Department (2003).Capacity Building for PRCS Psychosocial Services: Vision and Framework -- A Concept Paper. Palestine Red Crescent Society
You Decide: The Law
Who is to blame?
Suzy Marks and her friends Jerry and Kate were ordered to leave Elsewhere City Park at the 11pm curfew time by Officer uthless. Suzy told the Officer she wanted to wait for her friend Orson, who was supposed to pick her up at 11pm or said she would walk the short distance home. Officer uthless ordered her into Jerry's vehicle and said she should leave immediately. Jerry made several stops on the way home and got into an accident, causing Suzy to be injured
Was Officer uthless' action the proximate cause of Suzy's injuries?
estate or summarize the question. What is the legal question you are going to answer?
Was Officer uthless negligent?
According to McCollum v. CBS, "the threshold and, in this case, dispositive question with respect to the assertion of a claim for negligence…
Herrara et al. v. Quality Pontiac. Find Law. Retrieved:
McCollum v. CBS. (1988). Retrieved:
special case that focuses on the poverty-stricken neighborhood of Allerton Avenue. The paper highlights the issue of drug-trafficking and shows how some citizen-driven programs helped in decreasing this problem.
Curfew at nine: Case analysis
Drug trafficking is a very common issue in most poverty-ridden neighborhoods in the United States. The reason why youth in these areas seek refuge in delusional world of drugs is because they lack proper education and there is indeed no incentive for them to get respectable grades or degrees. For years they have seen their parents working hard to make both ends meet and despite repeated government promises, these people failed to get even the very basic amenities such as clean water and spacious apartments. In these conditions, it is only natural that youth tries to escape the reality and seeks refuge in drugs. ut drug-use has never been an isolated issue; it gives rise to…
Curfew at Nine: A Bronx Neighborhood Looks for Solutions.
Social Work Exercises
Preparing for 3 Clients
Mrs. Nancy Cannon telephoned from her place of work ( the Capital nsurance Company -- phone [HDDEN] She sounded concerned. She said that on the previ-ous Saturday night, her 14-year-old daughter Amy had come home after her 9: 00 p. m. curfew, smelling of alcohol. She says that she " grounded" her daughter but now wants to talk with a social worker about the situation. Mrs. Cannon requested an appointment for herself alone, indicating that she wanted to sort things out with someone before she dealt further with her daughter.
Mrs. C. reported that this was the first such incident. She said, " 've never had any trouble whatsoever from Amy. She's been a wonderful child." She stated that she had not sought pro-fessional help before and that this was her first contact with any social service or mental health agency. She indicated…
I would have to take a moment to breathe and clear my head. My own frustration about the fact I id not get a raise should not interfere with the well being of my upcoming client. I would remind myself that I am in this field not for the monetary benefits, but for the joy of helping real people with real problems. I would tell myself that this is a testing moment; I either need to center myself and help those in need, or stop altogether.
The issue of handling this case is a very sensitive one. Unfortunately, "despite many changes that have occurred in the treatment of rape victims, there still exists in our society ignorance about, and ambivalence towards the rape victim, causing for many an additional stress" (South Eastern CASA, 2012). This is especially true for date rape victims, who are often stigmatized as having not been raped in a traditional sense. Many tend to falsely believe that the victim was either using an excuse after the fact, or simply lost control because of their own vices in regards to drugs or alcohol. This creates a scenario where there needs to be a certain degree of trust built within the empathy provided by the social worker. Thus, "given that the victim's trust in people has been betrayed by the rapist, it may make it more difficult for her to trust others. The counselor needs to indicate that she can empathize with the victim's feelings, that she can listen and acknowledge the intense emotions the victim has, and encourage rather than suppress discussions of these" (South Eastern CASA, 2012). It is crucial that the social worker provide a sense of trust and understanding in order to best help the victim at hand. This trust will help
parents be held responsible for their children's actions?
I believe that parents should be held accountable for their children's criminal actions and according to an article in usiness Wire 72% of Americans agree. ("Harris Interactive Study Reveals Three Quarters of Americans elieve Parents Should be Held Liable for Children's Criminal Actions"). The article reports the results of a study conducted by Harris Interactive which interviewed 2737 people from around the country. The study found that regardless of social or economic standing Americans want to see parents held responsible for the criminal actions of their children. ("Harris Interactive Study Reveals Three Quarters of Americans elieve Parents Should be Held Liable for Children's Criminal Actions")
It is my assertion that holding parents responsible for the criminal actions of their children will deter crime. It will also encourage parents to be more attentive in the upbringing of their children.
The severities of the…
Armstrong, M., Evans, M., Wood, V. "The Development of a State Policy on Families as Allies." Journal of Emotional and Behavoiral Disorders. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FCB/4_8/68273227/p1/article.jhtml?term=parent+responsibility+for+juvenile+deinquency
Brown, Michael. "Juvenile offenders: should they be tried in adult courts?" USA Today (Magazine). January 1998.
Harris Interactive Study Reveals Three Quarters of Americans Believe Parents Should be Held Liable for Children's Criminal Actions." Business Wire. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0EIN/2000_March_13/60057449/p1/article.jhtml?term=Should+parents+be+held+responsible+for+their+childrens+actions
Kozlowski, James C. "Court Upholds Juvenile Curfew Law." Parks and Recreation. Jan, 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1145/1_35/59319073/p1/article.jhtml?term=parent+responsibility+for+juvenile+deinquency
Oganizational Stuctue & Policies
Oganizational Stuctue and Policies
Community centes can be the heatbeat of a neighbohood -- a vibant, enegetic space whee people ae guaanteed a wam welcome, find needed suppot, and exploe options fo impoving thei lives. Yet many community centes ae located in aeas of few economic suppots and substantive need. This means that duing the nighttime hous the community cente may be a pinpoint light in a hazadous o bleak milieu. Staff and voluntees give geneously and happily of thei time at Bightwood Community Cente. Safety fo Bightwood staff, neighbohood membes, and pogam paticipants is uppemost on the minds of the Executive Diecto, the Assistant Diecto, and the Boad of Diectos. Accodingly, a ecommendation has been fowaded to establish a policy equiing staff and othes who ae engaged in pogam activities duing the evening hous to leave the community cente in goups, neve going solo into…
references in order to increase the probability that adaptive behaviors are fostered. By practicing safe behaviors such as the one addressed in the policy, the staff of Brightwood Community Center can be confident that they are not presenting any temptation to individuals who might choose to rob or harass them should the be in a vulnerable situation. The policy doesn't really establish winners and losers, nor does it cost anything to enact. Basically, the consequences of the policy are that the probability of safety for staff is enhanced. Diversity in human behavior, cultural values, and socio-economic variables are reflected in the safety policy; and the policy speaks to the human right of safety in the community. The overall strengths of the policy are that it is simple and easy to implement, and the policy is realistically grounded in the actual attributes of the Brightwood neighborhood. The only apparent weakness in the policy is that some occasions may present exceptions that make it difficult for all staff members to comply, however, exceptions are expected to be rare -- and generally could be worked around. A potential recommendation for a policy modification could be to ensure that a sturdy male is present each evening when the staff leaves the facility: this could either be a security guard or a volunteer, such as one of the members of the Ten Point Coalition.
This exercise illustrated the importance of writing policy with due consideration of the context. For instance, knowing what external policies exist can be a fundamental assistance to creating a policy that is supported by community values and the weight of several years of curfew policy to verify the decision of the agency to adopt and implement the policy. The hierarchical structure of the agency ensures that important issues receive due consideration and that authority is coupled with responsibility -- a factor that can have substantive influence over compliance to policy. Methodically considering the various factors that influence policymaking and policy implementation can result in stronger policy with fewer unanticipated side effects.
I am currently writing a handbook of policies and procedures for my practicum, so there is nothing in writing yet, so your answers will come from interviewing CL Day and Izera Day (obviously you won't really be interviewing them).
The policy I would like the paper to discuss is how at the end of the night, everyone walks out in a group. Brightwood is not a safe area, so at nighttime it is important to walk out as a group.
Look at any communist regime in the last 100 years, where religion is considered an opiate of the masses. The government becomes god in that circumstance, and can get away with anything, including mass genocide (the Origin of ights - posted on."
True freedom should be given to individuals who do not harm other members of society.
One classic example of a lack of freedom that does not make sense is teenage curfew. Thousands of cities across the nation impose teenage curfews. The governments of those cities choose an arbitrary time by which teens have to be home or they can be taken into custody and their parents can be charged with contributing to the delinquency of a minor for letting their child be out past curfew.
Curfew laws impose on what freedoms should be allowed. Why is it necessary for teenagers to come in at a certain time? Who…
Enemies of the Future
The Origin of Rights - posted on March 30, 2005 @ 12:12: AM CST
internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…
Japanese camps http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jainternment.org
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fchildofcamp%2Fhistory%2Feo9066.html
Early Implementation of the Mass Removal http://www.densho.org/learning/spice/default.asp http://www.imdiversity.com/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=3228
("Home Confinement / Electronic Monitoring," n. d.)
House arrest or home confinement started as a program to handle particularly as a sentencing substitute meant for drunk drivers, but rapidly spread over to a number of other offender populations in a lot of jurisdictions. Depending on the nature of crime committed by the offenders, home confinement has been designed with various degrees of stages of restrictions. These can vary from ordinary curfews to complete confinement. For instance, the home confinement program of the Federal courts extends three separate levels of restrictions under the U.S. Probation and Pretrial Services, 2000. Under the first level ie., curfew, it requires the program participants to stay at home daily during certain time periods. Under the second level house arrest it requires on the part of the participants to stay at home round the clock save for attending to work, school, treatment etc. which must be…
Black, Matt; Smith, Russell G. (n. d.) "Electronic Monitoring in the Criminal Justice System"
No. 254. Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi2/tandi254.pdf
Caputo, Gail. (2004) "Intermediate Sanctions in corrections"
Clear, Todd R; Cole, George F. (2005) "American Corrections"
(8-16) Furthermore, the tendency to take risks may be increased by peer pressure, emotional lability, and other stresses. Finally, teenagers drive more frequently under higher risk conditions (ie, at night and/or without seatbelts). (1)
The American Academy of Pediatrics, the National Highway Traffic afety Administration, and other governmental, private, and professional organizations have recommended legislation to institute a program of graduated driver licensing (GDL). These programs remove driving restrictions in stages as the TD gains experience and maturity, until full licensure is granted a minimum of 18 months after the learner's permit is obtained. (17) This type of program has been shown to decrease the crash rate of TDs in New Zealand, Canada, and several states in the United tates. (18-22) Each of these programs incorporates different features of the National Highway Traffic afety Administration recommendations, yet it has not been well established which components are the most effective. In…
Four data sets were used in these analyses: 1) Utah MVC records; 2) the Utah hospital discharge database; 3) the Utah Emergency Department database; and 4) the Utah Division of Motor Vehicles driver license file. The 1992 to 1996 MVC records were obtained from the Utah Department of Transportation, Division of Traffic and Safety. This crash database contains information on all reportable crashes (defined as occurring on a public road and resulting in at least 1 injury or at least $1,000 in property damage). These data are collected on reports that are filled out by police officers at the scene of the crash. Data points include detailed information on the time, location, type of crash, vehicles, drivers, and any other people involved (eg, passengers, pedestrians).
The 1992 to 1996 hospital discharge database was acquired from the Utah Health Data Committee/Office of Health Data Analysis, Utah Department of Health. The Utah Department of Health mandates that all licensed hospitals report all inpatient admissions. The hospital discharge database includes demographic information and up to 9 International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision diagnosis codes and 5 procedure codes, up to 2 external-cause-of-injury codes (E codes), discharge status, and hospital charges.
Emergency department (ED) records for 1996, the first year for which they were complete, were acquired from the Utah Department of Health. The Department of Health mandates that all Utah licensed hospitals report information on ED patient encounters. The ED database includes demographic information, up to 9 International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision diagnosis codes and 5 procedure codes, up to 2 E. codes, discharge status, and hospital charges. Patients in this database were by definition treated and released from the ED.
The driver license file includes all information required for a driver's license, as well as the original and current issue dates and expiration date. The Institutional Review Board of the University of Utah approved use of these databases for this study.
How was the "get tough" movement different from the original parens patriae concept? This paper reviews both forms of punishment (or penalizing) when juveniles stray away from law-abiding behaviors.
The history of parens patriae
The system known as parens patriae was developed many centuries ago, beginning in the late fourteenth century, according to the book Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach. And early in the fifteenth century parens patriae (the law that emerged from this concept was called "equity law") cases were brought before courts in England, and in time parens patriae was imported to the United States, because many legal traditions that settlers in the U.S. adopted were in fact from English law (Burfeind, 2011, 13).
hat does parens patriae mean in Latin? Originally it meant "parent of the country," and in England it offered "far-reaching power" to the King of England, as the ultimate ruler and guardian…
Burfeind, J.W., and Bartusch, D. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Elrod, P., and Ryder, S. (2011). Juvenile Justice: A Social, Historical and Legal Perspective.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
atts riots in South-Central Los Angeles (that took place from August 11-17 in 1965) cost approximately $40 million in property damage and caused 34 deaths and over 1,000 injuries. This paper puts that horrendous event in perspective, from causes that led up to the riots, to the actual damage, and the government's response afterwards.
hat were the long-term causes of the social upheaval in atts in 1965?
The social and economic conditions in South-Central Los Angeles well before the disturbances should be understood in terms of explaining why the tension had built up and why atts was a tinder box ready to explode. riter Josh Sules wrote a thorough background essay on the history of South-Central Los Angeles (in the book, Disasters, Accidents, and Crises in American History: A Reference Guide to the Nation's Most Catastrophic Events), pointing out that the " ... underlying causes" can be traced back to…
Civil Rights Digital Library. "Watts Riots." Retrieved February 11, 2016, from http://crdl.usg.edu . 2016.
Dawsey, Darrell. "25 Years After the Watts Riots: McCone Commission's Recommendations
Have Gone Unheeded." The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 11, 2016, from http://articles.latimes.com . 1990.
Edy, Jill A. "Watts Riots of 1965." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved February 11, 2016, from http://www.britannica.com . 2016.
PIA and the British Government's esponse
The war between the Provisional Irish epublican Army (PIA) and the British State from 1969 to 1998 was a complex situation in which various entities pursued similar and dissimilar aims through various channels (political as well as militaristic/terroristic). Even in the midst of the most violent clashes, secret talks were held between leaders of the PIA and the British State, with the political face of epublican beliefs (Sinn Fein) gaining popular support over the years and to some degree undermining the aims, objectives and capacity of the PIA to operate effectively (O'Brien, 1999; Tonge, 2002). The PIA's strategic effectiveness, however, was also complicated by its own inability to overcome specific problematic features of its own organization -- such as the factors of security and territoriality. Likewise, the British State had enacted a program of using informants and infiltrators to undermine the PIA from within.…
Beggan, D. (2009). Understanding Insurgency Violence: A Quantitative Analysis of the Political Violence in Northern Ireland 1969-1999. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32: 705-725.
Bell, J. B. (2008). The Secret Army: The IRA. London: Transaction Publishers.
Bennett, H. (2010). From Direct Rule to Motorman: Adjusting British Military Strategy
for Northern Ireland in 1972. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33: 511-532.
In this case one may imagine the student who attending class in school and cannot concentrate on what is being taught because their stomach is rumbling from lack of having eaten and they also have a headache from a general lack of nutrition. Furthermore, this student has no sense of security or safety and is nervous and anxious.
Example 2: The individual in this example is not hungry and they are not tired but they are nervous because their parents fought all night and this resulted in their being awake and scared the neighbors would call the police again and that their parents would wind up in jail by morning. This individual has no inner motivation to learn because they are worried and stressed about their own safety and security in their home life. This individual may very well be extrinsically motivated to learn but have not reached the level…
Soenens, Bart et al. (2005) Maladaptive Perfectionist Self-representation: The mediational link between psychological control and adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences 38 (2005). Online available at Science Direct:
Michalik, Nicole M. et al. (2007) Longitudinal Relations among Parental Emotional Expressivity and Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescence. Social Development May 2007 Vol. 16 No.2. Online available at: ttp:/ / www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1949391
Experience Alters How We Perceive Emotion (2002) Science Daily - Science News. 18 Jun 2002. Online available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/06/020618072601.htm
If a Community Corrections participant is questioned by police for any crime whatsoever they can be violated simply for being questioned. If their officer decides not to violate them they still have to report the questioning within 12 hours of its occurrence or face violation.
Following several months on the program the participant is moved to phase two at which time he or she is allowed one pass a week. The pass must be pre-approved and under no circumstances can the participant be out after 9 p.m.
Following several months on that program without incident the participant can move to the curfew phases. This is a time period in which the participant has graduated curfews of 7 p.m. And 9 p.m. For the remainder of time in the program (Evans, 1996).
Throughout the program probation officers do surprise house checks to be sure the participant in indeed in the house…
Evans, Donald (1996) Defining community corrections.
Connect a Minimum Personal Concurrent Milsestone elating Their Lives Theories Concepts Assocated Milestones
Examples of Adolescent Danger
Adolescence can be a particularly difficult time period in the lives of most people. These crucial few years (spanning between 13 and 20) represent the formative stages in a person's development that will eventually solidify into adult characteristics that will remain, for the most part, for life. As such, there are a number of crucial processes that adolescents go through while emerging from childhood and before arriving into adulthood. During these tumultuous years many will incur increasing levels of responsibility that are mitigated with rewards and potential entrapments that are all typical steps in maturation. Yet as great as the results of a happy, healthy adolescence may be, there is infinite potential for people to falter and succumb to their fledgling developing minds, bodies, and most importantly, emotions during this critical juncture. Many…
Jacobs, J.A. (2001). Book Reviews.
Steinberg, L. (2007). "Risk Taking in Adolescence: New Perspective from Brain and Behavioral Science." Association for Psychological Science. 16 (2): 55-59
Sugar, M. (1970). "Children of Divorce." Pediatrics. 46 (4): 588-595.
Community Oriented Policing
new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:
For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…
Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.
O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.
Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.
MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
Aung San Suu Kyi
comparison between Aung San Suu Kyi and Rosa Parks
Both Aung San Suu Kyi and Rosa Parks have become enduring and vivacious symbols of the civil rights movements in their respective countries. By refusing to give up her seat to a white person and to move to the back of the bus, Parks ignited a firestorm of race-related protests that galvanized civil rights crusades of later leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. And Malcolm X In the beginning, Parks was not a civil rights leader. She was a citizen who had decided to take a stand against the social oppression that was predominant against African-American people.
Like Parks, Suu Kyi did not start out as a leader of the Burmese people. Though she had an influential father, Suu Kyi was living in England with her family prior being involved in Burma's fight against the military regime.…
We are still prisoners in our own country: An interview with Aung San Suu Kyi." The Humanist. Nov/Dec 1997. 57(6). Proquest Database.
Kurlantzick, Joshua. "Can Burma Reform?" Foreign Affairs. Nov/Dec 2002. 81(6). Proquest Database.
Myoe, Maung Aung. "The national reconciliation process in Myanmar." Contemporary Southeat Asia. 2002. 24(2). Proquest Database.
Throughout modern history, society has struggled with how to handle children and adolescents who committed crimes. Historically, juveniles who came to the attention of the courts have been considered less guilty, because of their age, than adults (Klein, 1998). This in turn developed into an attitude at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century that the appropriate role for police and the courts was to guide the young person to a better path. This in turn encouraged the idea of "status offenses" -- that is, offenses that would not be crimes if committed by an adult. For example, a 15-year-old could be considered truant if he or she stopped attending school, but an 18-year-old who dropped out of high school without graduating would not be truant.
The change from adult to juvenile courts for youthful offenders, however, took some time to accomplish. Until 1899…
Feld, Barry C. 1997. "Abolish the Juvenile Court: Youthfulness, Criminal Responsibility, and Sentencing Policy." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 88.
Klein, Erik K. 1998. "Dennis the Menace or Billy the Kid: An Analysis of the Role of Transfer to Criminal Court in Juvenile Justice." American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 35.
O'Connor, Jennifer M., and Treat, Ludinca Kinau. 1996. "Getting Smart about Getting Tough: Juvenile Justice and the Possibility of Progressive Reform." American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 33.
Wolcott, David. 2001. "The Cop Will Get You': The Police and Discretionary Juvenile Justice, 1890-1940." Journal of Social History, Vol. 35.
District of Columbia Metro Environment Must Be Funded for Efficient Transport to Be Realized
Cole, Danny. "The effect of a curfew law on juvenile crime in ashington, DC.." American Journal of Criminal Justice 27.2 (2003): 217-232
This journal investigates the criminal patterns in DC. The journal will facilitate this research in the nature of the crime, and the way criminals in DC. use the relatively underutilized infrastructure to foster their goals.
Grieger, T.A.. "Follow-Up of Pentagon Employees Two Years After the Terrorist Attack of September 11, 2001." Psychiatric Services 56.11 (2005): 1374-1378
This article assesses the nature of September 11, 2001 Terrorist attack in the neighboring state of Virginia. In this article, one will notice how DC transport system can present a possible breeding place for terrorist. The article will also elaborate further on the issue of transport and domestic insecurity.
Guo, Zhan. "Does residential parking supply affect…
Cole, Danny. "The effect of a curfew law on juvenile crime in Washington, DC.." American Journal of Criminal Justice 27.2 (2003): 217-232
Grieger, T.A.. "Follow-Up of Pentagon Employees Two Years After the Terrorist Attack of September 11, 2001." Psychiatric Services 56.11 (2005): 1374-1378
Guo, Zhan. "Does residential parking supply affect household car ownership? The case of New York City." Journal of Transport Geography 26 (2013): 18-28
Kamruzzaman, Md., Douglas Baker, Simon Washington, and Gavin Turrell. "Residential dissonance and mode choice." Journal of Transport Geography 33 (2013): 12-28
UCR and NIBRS
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…
Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Maltz, M. D., & Targonski, J. (2002). A note on the use of county-level UCR data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 297-318.
Menard, S., & Covey, H. C. (1988). UCR and NCS: Comparisons over space and time. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16(5), 371-384.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. M., Lester, T. K., Kirby, J., & Jira, C. (2006). Establishing the “Statistical Accuracy” of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) in West Virginia. West Virginia Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Charleston.
Odunze, D. O. (2019). Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and 2012 Redesign. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, 1-3.
Large number of respondents will require large number of questionnaires to be given to the individuals and this would have high financial implications.
Due to the problem of fear of the information that if the Facebook members disclose will be used against them in future, I intend to guarantee them anonymity on any information given and confidentiality by ensuring no names or sensitive information is required in the questionnaires. On the time constraint, the questionnaires will be designed so that it takes small amount of time with few open ended questions. On the financial, the samples taken will be done randomly so that even if it's quite small compared to the whole Facebook membership, it will be representative.
Social networking is considered the as the manner of communication in the 21st century. It refers to the individuals grouping into groups…
The inclusion of alcohol and drug education is a vital component of most drug and alcohol abuse interventions, for both the users and non-user. (Montagne et al., 1992). This education can be offered as a preventive measure to beginners of abuse of substances of to the vulnerable group to save the future generations from the menace and the whole society from the drug's association with crime. Alternatively, it should be offered to be taught as part of the educational curriculum in schools
ecent literature reviews have not found enough evidence to convince many researchers that drug and alcohol awareness programs have great impact on changing substance and drug use, attitude and behavior (Eliany et al., 1993). Although it is of great effort, it has been observed that education alone is not enough to change the actual behavior of alcohol and drug use (Tobler et al1976), in the actual examination of…
ADAM (1998) Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program):1998 Annual Report on Adult and Juvenile Arrestees. Addiction Research Foundation ( 1994). Alcohol and Drug Treatment in Ontario, Toronto:
BUREAU of JUSTICE STATISTICS (1998). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Burrell, N. And K. English. 2006. "Successful completion rates from Community Corrections in Colorado decreased for the first time in many years." Elements of Change: Highlighting Trends & Issues in the Criminal Justice System. Colorado Division of Criminal Justice, Office of Research and Statistics. Vol. 10, No.1. Viewed December 26, 2007 at http://dcj.state.co.us/ors/pdf/docs/EOC_No1_071906.pdf .
Bloom, B.E., and Covington, S.S. (2001) "Effective gender-responsive interventions in juvenile
Further, while some upward mobility did exist, competition among small business entrepreneurs and economic instability caused by depression and financial panics created just as much downward mobility (Ibid. At 58).
Housing among the poor in the cities usually consisted of multiple families (as many as 8) living in homes designed for just one. The price of rent was disproportionately high because the numbers of immigrants in the teeming cities kept demand higher than supply (Ibid. At 132). As a result, slum housing developed and the risk of fire and disease became a daily risk for the urban lower class.
The middle class enjoyed much better conditions. hile downward mobility was always possible, the middle class could typically expect rising wages and could afford moderate consumerism, that is, purchasing magazines, clothing, books and some of the new manufactured goods becoming more and more available. A basic middle class characteristic was the…
Chudacoff, Howard P. And Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Prentice Hall, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000).
Goodfriend, Joyce D. Slavery in colonial New York City. Urban History, Vol. 35
(2008), pp. 485-496.
Tomlins, Christopher. Reconsidering Indentured Servitude: European Migration and the Early
The nature of the juvenile justice system may be adversarial at times, but unlike the adult criminal system it is not necessarily so. Agreement is the goal. In fact, depending on the nature of the offense, a juvenile case may be dismissed or dealt with in an informal hearing, rather than subject to formal proceedings at all.
The purpose of the juvenile system is almost always to rehabilitate the offender, rather than to enact social retribution. Given that our society believes that a child usually does not have the moral or cognitive capacity to judge the wrongfulness or rightness of his or her own actions like an adult, there seems to be a need for two systems of justice. For example, a child who burns down a building because he is playing with matches is unlikely to deserve the same type of sentence or treatment as an adult who commits…
Champion, Dean J. (2006). The Juvenile Court System: Delinquency, processing and the law.
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.
On the other hand,…
Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html
Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann
Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,
Successful achievement of program requirements will often lead to a dropping or reduction of the charges while failure may bring back or enhance the penalties that are involved. Charges dismissed because of a diversion program will still lead to additional criminal history points under the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines if there was a finding of guilt by a court or the defendant pleaded guilty or otherwise admitted guilt in open court, provided that the deferred disposition was not a juvenile matter (Diversion Programs: An Overview, 1999).
Alternative to Incarceration Programs (ATIs) are part of the mix of factors that have allowed the City to reduce crime, reduce jail and prison populations, and help individuals and neighborhoods across the City. As an alternative to sentencing someone to jail or prison, ATIs permit a judge to sentence someone to a program where they obtain treatment, education and employment training in the community,…
Alternative to Incarceration Programs: Cut Crime, Cut Costs, Help People and Communities. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2010, from Web site:
Electronic Monitoring of Offenders in the Community. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2010, from Michigan Department of Corrections Web site:
http://www.michigan.gov/corrections/0,1607,7-119-1435-5032 -- ,00.html
The study revealed that teenagers typically run away from home as a means of escaping from situations and circumstances that they view as oppressive or stifling, such as the rules and curfews imposed by parents and guardians. In retrospect, many of them acknowledged that running away did not solve their problems and often caused them more problems than those from which they had hoped to escape. Among teens who runaway, the desire to spend more time with friends or to associate with those with whom parents had forbidden from association was a predominant theme as well. To a large extent, the draw of gang life was a common motivation among teens who cited that reason for leaving home.
Ultimately, the research disclosed the direct connection between abuse in the home and mental health issues and runaway behavior. They concluded that running away is almost always harmful to teenagers and that…
Donny's problems are discussed squarely through Daisy's perspective. The reader is never privy to how Donny feels, and only sees what he does through his mother's eyes. Interestingly, the reader can sense what Donny might be experiencing. He is instinctually rebellious, resenting the restrictions on his life that school and curfews pose. Donny takes well to Cal because of Cal's permissive attitude. Anytime Daisy confronts Donny with a problem, Donny reacts with irritability and anger. The reader also becomes frustrated, as Daisy does everything she possibly can from showering Donny with love and praise to taking a more hands-off approach.
Cal's role becomes one of the more poignant aspects of "Teenage Wasteland." Because Donny's dad is only mentioned once or twice in the story, it is apparent that Cal acts as a sort of surrogate father or older brother. Daisy does not comment on her husband's lack of presence in…
George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.
Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs
Suppression techniques may be one of the…
ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009
from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx
ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.
Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
One of those alarming physical changes is that the younger a person is when they begin drinking, even at low levels the more likely they are to become alcoholics. This change even overrides a known genetic predisposition for alcoholism. (Butler, July 4, 2006) Time forward ads regarding adult failure could be developed at a later time but again such images and concerns do not seem to sway teens. Funding for such a campaign would likely come from national and local foundations that stress clean living, and possibly from litigation funds that have been secured for healthier youth programs.
Alcohol use may begin simply as an exciting experiment, or as a way for a teen to feel a part of his or her peer group, lowering the feeling of awkwardness that often comes with the territory. Yet teen drinking can become a social disaster, that brings on extreme grief and loss.…
"AH shoes the best pillow when your a drunk teen and can't get up!" April, 10 2005 http://www.myspace.com/babyjenaya
"American Academy of Pediatrics Survey of Teen Alcohol Consumption: Summary Findings,"
American Academy of Pediatrics, September 30, 1998.
In terms of correctional program implementation, operant conditioning principles provide the basis for motivating cooperation and other desirable behaviors (including reduction of undesirable behaviors) in a quid pro quo arrangement. Typical examples of operational implementation of operant conditioning would include so-called "token economies" and other bilateral agreements, arrangements, or understandings that certain desired behaviors provide specific rewards (Van Voorhis 2007). Operant conditioning principles are particularly useful in parenting, such as between teenagers rewarded with late weekend curfews for good grades; it is also a proven method of increasing inmate compliance within correctional institutions where good behavior is rewarded with increased privileges and undesirable behaviors are punished through privilege reduction (Spiegler & Guevremont 1993). Generally, the most important fundamental element of successful implementation of operant conditioning principles in behavior modification is the gradual phasing out of the reward-based motivation for compliance (Van Voorhis 2007). The goal of any such operational conditioning-based…
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, P.G. (2005) Psychology and Life. New York: Pearson
Goldstein, Glick, and Gibbs. (1986) Aggression Replacement Training, pp 1-68
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercus
We allowed them to popose a mutually fai distibution of choes and eve since, thee have been no aguments ove choes, wheeas pio to this solution, it was a constant and epetitive souce of pepetual conflict.
Obviously, this paticula solution could just as easily have been esolved much ealie, saving eveyone involved the fustation of having to pefom hated choes, not to mention the geneal esentment odinaily associated with the choe schedule and the malaise that often pesisted within the family afte dawing us in to calm them down.
Pesonal Intevention: My pesonal style of expessing ange is to become quiet initially, eteat to compose my thoughts and esponses, and then seek esolution in a calm manne by discussing the issues without ange. My patne tends to espond to conflict by escalating his level of intensity in eal time, pefeing to "have it out" as soon as the issue aises.…
references. Where possible and practical, I try to implement the same solution except that I prefer to do so without necessarily divulging my motive for assigning various responsibilities to members of my team. In the professional environment, my concern is that allowing subordinates to expect accommodations of this nature may undermine elements of my authority.
Therefore, I prefer to make the assignment without openly acknowledging my reasoning to those involved, even if they suspect the reason for their apparent "luck."
Similarly, my experiences settling the issue over stylistic differences in expression in response to conflict at home have increased my awareness of these types of idiosyncratic differences among coworkers. As a result, I now perceive more accurately what types of interactions or negotiations are natural to certain individuals. More importantly, doing so has enabled me to minimize the potential impact of several conflicts that had potential to escalate, but more by virtue of differences between the individuals involved in negotiation styles than by virtue of the substance of the actual argument.
The insight gleaned from my family relationships and the manner in which we eventually learned to negotiate differences at home have also provided me with the opportunity to assign team members to work tasks differently than I used to before. In the interest of efficiency, I have begun taking into account personal conversational styles and what I know about their respective compatibilities for resolving difficulties that sometimes arise even within the most professional environments among coworkers.
In this respect, what I focus on is less about the likelihood for conflict or the personal sentiments between and among various coworkers, but rather, what I have learned about their natural tendencies and responses to conflict once they materialize.
States like Bangladesh, Egypt, and Indonesia have severe challenges due to the risks of flooding, drought, and deforestation. Recently Bangladesh was hit by a powerful Typhoon (same as a hurricane), which caused thousands of deaths and was so severe it was beyond the capability of its weak government to deal with the disaster.
The U.S. Department of State (DOS) has been working for many years to try and help with a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. The violence between these two states has been going on for many years, and numerous previous attempts to find a lasting peaceful solution have failed. In a document called "A Performance-Based roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," the DOS plan includes three phases. The first is the most crucial and pivotal - an end to the "terror and violence" and an attempt to normalize Palestinian life - in conjunction with…
Textbook Chapter 8 "Post-War Reconstruction."
Dixon, Robyn. (2007, Dec. 15). Zimbabwe may shatter, but Mugabe holds firm. The Los
Angeles Times, p. a-1 - a-5.
Foreign Policy. (2007). Failed States Index 2007. The Fund for Peace and Carnegie
The idea that a holiday is supposed to be a day off from work seems to be lost after the hostess as been cooking a turkey since 5am, and relatives had to slog through hours of traffic or long lines at airport security. Why not just approach the table as any other meal, but with more family members, than try to assemble the perfect sage-stuffed, wine-paired Thanksgiving?
Of course, the other major holidays seem like a mere lead-up to Christmas and Chanukah. The masses are in a desperate frenzy while searching for the perfect gift. A hapless shopper finally falls into a tear-stained muddle at the cash register, as she buys a generic pair of slippers for her father, since she was unable to find a tennis racket from his favorite manufacturer. People, spurred on by the consumption encouraged by advertising buy gifts strangers, from the mailperson to their garbage…
com, 2003). Fitting into the system of France is very important, and creating a good French citizen is one of the goals of the educational system. Students in France, for example, cannot wear religious clothing or other affiliations with national, non-French institutions of identity.
As in France and Japan, in the United Kingdom, education is free and compulsory until age sixteen, as an educated workforce is highly valued. There is also a great deal of respect and deference given to the role of the teacher. "Teachers in primary schools (4- to 11-year-olds) are always addressed by their surname by parents and pupils alike, always Mr., Mrs. Or Miss Smith
In secondary schools (11-16 years), teachers are always addressed as Miss or Sir" ("Introduction to School Life," oodlands Junior School, 2007). Students in the United Kingdom must wear a uniform, which enforces a certain sense of national and school cohesion, although…
French state education - an introduction." FrenchEntree.com. 2003. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.frenchentree.com/fe-education/DisplayArticle.asp?ID=70
Introduction to School Life." Woodlands Junior School. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/education/index.html
Primary and Secondary Education." Country Studies: Japan. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.country-studies.com/japan/primary-and-secondary-education.html
Samovar, Larry a., Porter, Richard, E. And McDaniel, Edward R.
He is the last resource of the dying; he is the instrument of heavenly mercy. Sire, we supplicate you with clasped hands and bended knees, as the Deity is supplicated! Madame Fouquet has no longer any friends, no longer any support; she weeps in her poor deserted house, abandoned by all those who besieged its door in the hour of prosperity; she has neither credit nor hope left. At least, the unhappy wretch upon whom your anger falls receives from you, however culpable he may be, the daily bread which is moistened by his tears. As much afflicted, more destitute than her husband, Madame Fouquet- she who had the honor to receive your Majesty at her table; Madame Fouquet, the wife of the ancient Superintendent of your Majesty's Finances,- Madame Fouquet has no longer bread."
eality v Fiction
There are many ways in which Dumas stretches the reality of not…
Dumas, Alexandre. The Vicomte de Bragelonne. Ed. David Coward. Oxford: Oxford University, 1998. Questia. 3 Aug. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=22933050 .
Macdonald, Roger. "Behind the Iron Mask." History Today Nov. 2005: 30+. Questia. 3 Aug. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012048049 .
S. citizens. In this program designed to help young ones value the freedoms they currently experience:
according to Tyler Barnwell, stands for grievance, as in "to petition the government for a redress of grievances." which denotes religious freedom, Leslie Anne Hill, a Presbyterian, states:
"means you don't have to follow a certain religion." stands for freedom of assembly, Sherri Jones states is "the right to get together with other people peaceably, but not to disturb anyone." which is for freedom of speech, Stephanie Kenfield relates: "means you can say anything you want to say, and nobody can stop you or anything, but not bad words and stuff." stands for freedom of the press, Justin Jolly explains: "You could write and say anything you want on a piece of paper or in a newspaper or anything like that." "Getting a grasp..., 1994)
The ruling for The Alpha Epsilon Pi v. The…
Blankley, T. (2001, March 7). Freedom under Siege. The Washington Times, p. 17.
Cicero, Marcus Tullius. (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved 12 December 2006 from www.bartleby.com/66/65/12465.html.
COURT THROWS OUT LAW USED TO BAN WEEDSTOCK 4TH DISTRICT COURT OF APPEALS DECIDES SAUK COUNTY'S OPEN AIR ASSEMBLY LAW VIOLATES THE FIRST AMENDMENT.(LOCAL/WISCONSIN)," Wisconsin State Journal (Madison, WI), July 25, 2003.
American Civil Liberties Union
(Friend or Foe)
America was founded on the astute principles of democracy and the potential benefits of freedom it derives. America, unlike many of its foreign counterparts has long recognized the benefits of individual rights, freedoms and privileges and has fought to the death to protect them. Currently, America aims to spread these principles of democracy around the globe in an effort to create a better quality of life for all mankind. Even with these lofty and ambitious goals, America, on occasion fails to uphold these principles within its own borders. Too often, America has overlooked the problems prevalent within its own country while criticizing other nations about their own circumstances. Many of these overlooked issues including slavery, discrimination, women's rights and others have left an unfavorable image in American history. In such instances, the American Civil Liberties Union has become the beacon of hope for…
1) " American Civil Liberties Union." Social Welfare History Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
2) "ACLU History | American Civil Liberties Union." American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
3) "ACLU: Accomplishments." Action Center | American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .
4) "American Civil Liberties Union - New World Encyclopedia." Info:Main Page - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011.
, 2009). While there are schools in the juvenile system, some of these Hispanic children may come in so behind in their educations that they will requires special services to bring them current in their educations. Therefore, educational and mental health concerns are highlighted for Hispanic youth entering into the juvenile justice system.
The juvenile justice system in the United States is out-of-control. While Fairfax County, Virginia's juvenile justice system is not experiencing the same problems as other areas, it would be erroneous to assume that its system is still the best way of dealing with juvenile offenders. Fairfax County has a large Hispanic population, and Hispanic youth are overrepresented in its juvenile justice system. One must assume that a lack of cultural sensitivity has helped contribute to this problem. Ensuring that Hispanic youth and their families have access to the same quality of non-penal services as other youth…
Chambers, B. (2009, June 11). Latino youth in the juvenile justice system -- key facts.
Retrieved October 11, 2011 from Reclaiming Futures website: http://www.reclaimingfutures.org/blog/node/1028
County of Fairfax Virginia. (2011). Delinquency (juvenile criminal cases). Retrieved
The population of Britain and London would be much smaller today, for a couple of reasons. Many would have been killed defending the island. Many more would have fled, first to the Free Irish State and then when that was inevitably overrun many would have attempted to flee to America or Canada. While Britain today attracts millions of immigrants from around the Commonwealth, that would not be the case if the Allies had lost the war. The Commonwealth would have disintegrated, with Japan claiming the Asian territories, Germany and Italy claiming Africa, and resources from these regions used to extend the power of the Axis nations.
Social life would have been very different. Gatherings would be not tolerated, except rallies in support of the party. Those would be frequent. Travel within the country would be limited. Communications would be monitored. And that is for those who survived the inevitable purges…
In my case, that time is in the mid-afternoon because I have learned that this is the time when I tend to be able to concentrate the best ([email protected], 2011). Another aspect of time management I have learned is that it is extremely important to control my environment to prevent distractions from wasting my time. That means that if it is difficult to concentrate on my work in my dorm room because other people are socializing, I have the responsibility to change my environment to one that is more conducive to studying ([email protected], 2011). I have combined those two elements in the following way: regardless of what else is going on, I go to the library at 4:00 PM on Monday, Wednesdays, and Fridays and I plan out in advance exactly what my goals are for that time period on each a particular day.
I have also learned that catching…
. (2011). 57 Time-Management Hacks for College Students. Retrieved http://www.collegeathome.com/blog/2008/05/21/57-time-management-hacks-for-college-students/
Lucier, K.L. (2008). "8 Steps for Strong Time Management for College Students
Learning How to Manage Your Time in College Can Be Critical for Your Success." About.com. Retrieved from:
"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar
In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.
A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
MS-13 -- the focus of a nationwide crackdown by FBI and federal immigration agents -- has become known in recent years for home invasion robberies, drug dealing and machete attacks on its enemies. however, after the sweeping chaos across America, the FBI has heightened concerns that MS-13 could be far more dangerous than thought.
Mara Salvatrucha, or MS-13, continues to expand its influence in the United States. FBI investigations reveal that it is present in almost every state and continues to grow its membership, now targeting younger recruits more than ever before.
To counteract this growth, the FBI formed the MS-13 National Gang Task Force in December 2004. Based at FBI Headquarters, this intelligence-driven task force combines the expertise, resources, and jurisdiction of federal agencies that investigate this violent international street gang. It focuses on maximizing the flow of information and intelligence, coordinating investigations nationally and internationally, and helping state…
Electronic visa application begins for visa waiver countries. (2009). Foreign Policy Bulletin, 19(1), 40-57. doi:10.1017/S1052703609000525
Boatright, L.R. (2006). "Clear eye for the state guy": Clarifying authority and trusting federalism to increase nonfederal assistance with immigration enforcement*. Texas Law Review, 84(6), 1633-1674. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203710946?accountid=34899
Donohue, L.K. (2006). Anglo-american privacy and surveillance. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 96(3), 1059-1208. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/218394830?accountid=34899
Hamm, M.S. (2009). Prison islam in the age of sacred terror. The British Journal of Criminology, 49(5), 667-685. doi:10.1093/bjc/azp035
City of Boulder View -- ISSUE
The issue from the City of Boulder's point-of-view, and the one that would be presented to a Court, deals with the legality of legislating particular actions on city property. The City of Boulder would maintain that it has the legal right to legislate activities in the park, not only for safety reasons, but to maintain order and fairness. For instance, there is already an ordinance in place that closes the park at night, likely to protect the citizenry since the park is dark and cannot be policed properly at night. Similarly, there is already a park rule prohibiting placement of private signs in the parks. These rules were already put in place and are based upon the notion that a City Park is designed for the needs of all the citizens, should be free of commercialization, danger, and overt issues that would hamper the…
Freedom of Speech -- Public Forum Regulation. (2011). Cited in: Freedom of Speech - Public Forum Regulation
How to Brief a Case using the IRAC Method. (n.d.). CSUN.edu. Cited in:
Negligence. (2011). Find Law.com. Cited in: http://injury.findlaw.com/personal-injury/personal-injury-law/negligence/
validity of the two official U.S. government reasons: 1) military necessity and 2) protection of the Japanese-Americans, for the imprisonment of Japanese-American and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. Be specific in your reasoning and examples.
One of the most shocking decisions in the history of American injustices is the official, legalized internment of Japanese-Americans and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. hile Americans fought a war abroad for democracy, against the racist tyrant Adolph Hitler of Germany, back home Japanese-Americans and legal Japanese resident aliens were deprived of their liberty and property, simply because of their racial and ethnic heritage. The official reasons given for the internment were military necessity and the protection of the Japanese-Americans. The first statement of 'military necessity,' or national security, as a justification for internment, implied that Japanese-American and Japanese Issei was more 'suspect' than other Americans. It was assumed these Asian-Americans had divided…
Jones, Jacqueline Peter Wood, Thomas Borstelmann, Elaine May, and Vicky Ruiz. (2005) Created Equal: A Social and Political History of the United States. New York: Pearson Education.
Martis, Nancy H. (1994) "Illegal Aliens. Ineligibility for public services." California Journal#187. Retrieved 29 May 2005 at http://www.calvoter.org/archive/94general/props/187.html
Takaki, Robert. (1998) Strangers From a Distant Shore: A History of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little & Brown.
On October 6, 1973, Israel was attacked by the combined forces of Egypt and Syria. It was Yom Kipper, the most sacred day in the Jewish calendar. Egypt began as Israel had, with an air attack. On the ground, Israel was outnumbered six to one, fielding only about 200,000 soldiers against a combined force of over 1,150,000 Arab troops. Once again, the Soviet Union was involved, sending over 1,000 tons of weapons and ammunition to Egypt and Syria during the early days of the war. The United States was forced to intervene. On October 13, President Richard Nixon ordered an airlift of military supplies, enabling Israel to sustain its forces. After initial success, the war had gone against the Arabs and eventually Egyptian President Anwar Sadat appealed to the Soviet Union to save them. Following negotiations in Moscow on October 21, U.S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger flew to Tel…
The Anti-Terrorist Fence - an Overview." 9 July 2005 http://securityfence.mfa.gov.il/mfm/data/48152.doc.
Bregman, Ahron. A History of Israel. New York: Palgrove MacMillan, 2003.
Chomsky, Noam. "A Wall as a Weapon." The New York Times 23 February 2004. 9 July 2005 http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0223-02.htm .
Crock, Stan. "Israel's Wall: A Step toward Peace?" Business Week Online 18 July 2002. 9 July 2005 http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jul2002/nf20020718_1722.htm .
Community Plan of Action
There are many responsibilities that have to be met to satisfy the needs for personal satisfaction, and this may need changes in work schedules and adjustments. The objective here is to judge the possibilities of obtaining satisfaction from three different types of activities that can be conducted -- helping pregnant teenagers, teaching the methods of care to individuals who have recently found out that they are diabetics, and helping the elderly get on with their daily lives. The first of these is the problem of teenage pregnancy, and the best method to help such teenage children in not getting pregnant. Once they are pregnant, then a lot of other social questions come up and the most important of that is that we should not interfere in the personal lives of people. For teenagers not to get pregnant, they require close monitoring. (Teen Pregnancy Prevention)
Lauerman, John. F. "The Prescription Paradox" Brown Alumni Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.brown.edu/Administration/Brown_Alumni_Magazine/99/3-99/features/paradox.html Accessed 10 September, 2005
"Medications and Older People" (September-October, 1997) FDA Consumer Magazine.
Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1997/697_old.html
Accessed 10 September, 2005
This problem was compounded by the fact that many of the people that stayed behind were low-income, had many children, or were elderly. Some also stayed because they could not take their pets and would not leave them behind. Many of these disadvantaged people needed the help much more rapidly than they got it, especially if they were elderly and infirm, or if they had young children that needed to be taken care of. They needed food, water, diapers, etc., and this was part of what caused the looting in some areas. While some people looted simply because they could, others broke into businesses and stole water, diapers, and non-perishable food - things that they should have been able to get for free, much sooner than the state actually provided it. The state government had an obligation to take care of its own people, and it appeared that this was…
adults have an episode or two from their youth of which they are not extremely proud. Perhaps it involved sneaking a beer (or several beers) at a social function, or lying about one's plans for the evening to get permission to attend a questionable event. Most kids have learned the hard way on at least a few experiences -- speeding, missing curfew, or cheating on a test. Younger children are taught that taking a pack of gum from the store without paying for it is wrong, and that there are certain words on television that they shouldn't repeat in school. e accept these facts of life fairly easily; minors aren't mentally or socially equipped to know how they should behave all of the time. Children have to be taught about social mores, and teenagers test authority without considering the consequences in a way that most adults would. Lawbreaking -- whether…
Atkins v. Virginia, 2004, 536 U.S. 304
Case 12-285, Inter-American Court on Human Rights Rep. No 3/87 (1987)
Domingues v. State, 961 P. 2d 1279,1280, Nev. 1989
Sports Illustrated proposed a thorough, if summary, compromise with regard to many of the issues that players and owners could not agree on: the elimination of arbitration in exchange for unrestricted free agency for 3-year veterans, establishing a middle ground between the owners' demand of free agency only after four years and the player's dislike of arbitration; also in the SI proposal were stipulations such as giving a luxury tax a three-year trial period for all parties to decide if it was in their best interest to keep.
Even solutions such as those proposed by the everyday baseball fan, such as "split profits 50/50" or other simplistic ideas could have been considered as options; instead, owners and players held fast to their positions and did not introduce new ideas to the negotiating arena, effectively ensuring that no progress would be made unless one side was a clear loser and one…
Drooz Drooz, Alan, "Baseball economy 101: Both sides look like the skunk at the party," San Diego Union-Tribune, August 28, 2002. Online at http://www.signonsandiego.com/sports/drooz/20020828drooz.html
Fisher, Roger and Ury, William, Getting to Yes. New York: Penguin Books, 1991.
Grabiner, David, "Frequently Asked Questions about the 1994 Baseball Strike," 3/314/02, accessed online at http://remarque.org/~grabiner/strikefaq.txt
Kurkjian, Tim, and Verducci, Tom, "Time is Running Out." Sports Illustrated, 3/20/95, Vol. 82 Issue
Medical personnel served patients and visitors deftly; they were professional, attentive and knowledgeable and operated in a no-nonsense manner that I respected and hope to emulate as a practicing physician. The occasionally present language barrier posed few problems in the doctor-patient relationship while my friend recuperated in hospital.
Cultural differences in the medical experience can become issues for medical practitioners anywhere but especially in multicultural America. Doctors who treat patients from different backgrounds sometimes fail to accommodate for large extended families for visiting hours, for example, or doctors may resist accommodating for outmoded misogynistic cultural norms such as addressing the husband directly about the wife's medical decisions. Linguistic barriers can also impede a doctor's ability to properly treat a patient or offer the patient all the options available for treatment.
While in Asia I witnessed the diverse ways patients and relatives interact with doctors, reflecting social structures that emphasize hierarchy.…
And for example, in 1910 one group of Islanders "...gave 10,000 coconuts to their island neighbours and an additional 3,000 to the Papuan Industries Limited for a new church rather than selling" the coconuts, according to Lui-Chivizhe. Meanwhile, in the 1930s, control of the pearl boats was taken over by government administrators, who controlled "earnings of the Islanders who worked the boats," Lui-Chivizhe writes. When the Islanders didn't work fast enough or hard enough to suit the administrators, the Islanders were punished. Eventually, the Islanders not only lost the right to control their production, the government of Queensland "introduced a nightly curfew and a permit system to control Islander movement between the Islands."
Eventually, those restrictions were eased, and more recently, things have not been quite as repressive. "Even though the social and political organizational context for our lives has changed with European arrival in the region," Lui-Chivizhe concludes, "the…
Bibliography - List of References
Beckett, Jeremy 2000, 'Chapter 3: Colonial Occupation,' Humanities Department Central
Queensland University, Retrieved July 20, 2006 at http://humanities.cqu.edu.au/abtorres/tsiwww/course/module/chap3/chap3.htm .
COAG, 2006, 'Indigenous Issues: Generational Commitment,' Council of Australian
Governments' Meeting 14 July 2006. Retrieved July 20, 2006, at http://www.coag.gov.au/meetings/140706/index.htm#indigenous .
These methods of informal deterrence would help to prevent Bobby's criminal behavior.
Since he already committed the crime, Bobby would certainly need to be punished. However, Beccaria strongly argued that punishment must not be cruel, and must fit the crime. Clearly, Bobby never intended to hurt the homeowner; he broke into the home when he knew she would not be there.
Depending on the amount of property stolen, Bobby would have to pay the consequences. If this is his first offense, Bobby could be sentenced to a public form of community service, such as picking up trash by the roadside. He would also have to regularly report to a counselor. Parents could impose a strict curfew. This mixture of informal and formal methods of deterrence would help to stop Bobby from engaging in more criminal behavior.
Beccaria, Cesare. 1963. On Crimes and Punishment.…
Beccaria, Cesare. 1963. On Crimes and Punishment. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
FI & FP
FI and FP
FP (equest for Proposal) is a type of bidding solicitation, which an organization or a company use to announce that there is an availability of funding opportunity for a program or project. On the other hand, a request for proposal is a document that organizations post to elicit the bidding process from potential vendors for the product and services. The request for proposal outlines the contract term or bidding process and provides the method the bid should be presented and formatted. The FP generally opens to wide range of bidders and creates an open competition among companies looking for a project. Typically, a request for proposal for a specific program will provide the project requirements to make the vendors examining the feasibility of the project and to understand whether they could actually carry out the project. Moreover, the FP may provide detailed information about…
Adams, J.S. Pavlick, S. & Diaz, D. (2012). Treasury Department and IRS Release Initial Lifetime Income Guidance. McDermott Will & Emery.
Department of Agriculture (2012). Rural Housing Service Request for Proposals (RFP): Farm Labor Housing Technical Assistance Grants. Federal Register . 77 (173 ) .
North Carolina Department of Correction (2008). Request for Information # 42009027 Offender Monitoring Systems. Department of Purshasing & Services.
University of California (2012). Request for Proposal .The Greater Good Science Center . California. Berkeley.