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Description of the data models
A detailed description of all the tables that a database consists of is referred to as a data dictionary. A data dictionary will contain all the attribute characteristics and names for every table found within a database system. A data dictionary can also be referred to as a metadata repository. This is because it contains information like relationships with other data, meaning, usage, format, and origin. According to Coronel, Morris, and ob (2011)
the data dictionary is a vital component for any database management systems as it is used for determining the database structure.
Data fragmentation is a characteristic of database management systems which allows for the breaking of a single object into two or more fragments or segments. The object being broken down might be a system or user database. Each of the broken fragments can then be stored at any location…
Abdelhak, M., Grostick, S., & Hanken, M.A. (2012). Health Information: Management of a strategic resources. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.
Cohen, R., Elhadad, M., & Elhadad, N. (2013). Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies. [Article]. BMC Bioinformatics, 14(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-14-10
Coronel, C., Morris, S.A., & Rob, P. (2011). Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management (with Bind-in Printed Access Card). Boston, MA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.
Hebda, T.L., & Patricia Czar, R. (2009). Handbook of Informatics for Nurses and Healthcare Professionals. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Limited.
The objective of this study is to present a new database to be implemented in the clinical setting to increase quality and safety of patient care.
The database at focus in this work in writing is that of the Targeted Therapy Database (TTD) in a Cancer unit in a hospital. The work of Mocellin, et al. (2010) relates that the "efficacy of current anticancer treatments is far from satisfactory and many patients still die of their disease. A general agreement exists on the urgency of developing molecularly targeted therapies, although their implementation in the clinical setting is in its infancy. In fact, despite the wealth of preclinical studies addressing these issues, the difficulty of testing each targeted therapy hypothesis in the clinical arena represents an intrinsic obstacle. As a consequence, we are witnessing a paradoxical situation where most hypotheses about the molecular and cellular biology of cancer remain…
Zhu, Feng, et al. (2010) Update of TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res 2010, Jan; 38. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2808971/
Mocellin, S. (2010) Targeted Therapy Database (TTD): A Model to Match Patient's Molecular Profile with Current Knowledge on Cancer Biology. PLoS. Retrieved from: http://www.plosone.org/article/citationList.action;jsessionid=9668016174E6CACB8CFBBB1BD64BC81B?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0011965
Chen, ZL and Chen, YZ (2002) TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucl. Acids Res. 39 (1). Retrieved from: http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/30/1/412.full
"STUDENT INFOMATION TABLE" (
"STUDENT ID" CHAACTE (4) NOT NULL,
NAME CHAACTE (25) NOT NULL,
"STEET NUMBE" CHAACTE (10) NOT NULL,
"STEET NAME" CHAACTE (25) NOT NULL,
CITY CHAACTE (25) NOT NULL,
STATE CHAACTE (10) NOT NULL,
EMAIL CHAACTE (25) NOT NULL,
"PHONE NUMBE" CHAACTE (15) NOT NULL );
SQL FO Book_Information
CONNECT TO LIBAY;
CEATE TABLE "USE";
CEATE TABLE BookInformation (
"BookISBN" CHAACTE (10) NOT NULL;
"AUTHO" CHAACTE (25) NOT NULL;
"TITLE" CHAACTE (50) NOT NULL;
"PICE" CHAACTE (10) NOT NULL;
SQL STATEMENT FO CD
CONNECT TO LIBAY;
CEATE TABLE "USE";
CEATE TABLE CD (
"CD-Id" CHAACTE (25) NOT NULL;
"AUTHO" CHAACTE (25) NOT NULL;
"TITLE" CHAACTE (25) NOT NULL;
"PICE" CHAACTE (25) NOT NULL;
Experience Gained from this Assignment
The assignment has enhanced my greater understanding on the method to use IBM DB2 Express to develop database. Although, it takes me…
Allen, S. And Terry, E. (2005), Beginning Relational Data Modeling. Chapter 2. Introducing Relational Theory . Springer. USA.
Johnson, R. (2011).Functional dependencies, decompositions, normal forms. University of Toronto.
Litwin, P. Getz, K. & Gunderloy, M. (2002).Fundamentals of Relational Database Design. Microsoft Access 2 Developer's Handbook. USA. Sybex Inc.
Orr, N.(2007). Understanding and using the Database Design Report - Part 1. Goya Pty Ltd.
Database Administrator for Department Store
The department store has expanded in the local region by opening five more bookstores, and the bookstore has launched a series of marketing campaign to increase sales and attract new customers. The objective of this technical report is to develop a plan to create and maintain an enterprise-wide database system that will assist the bookstore to hold the inventory and sales data. The database design will assist the organization to support the new marketing strategy, and align with the product initiatives.
Identification of the Potential Departmental and Sales Transaction to be Store within the Database
In the United States, the enterprise-wide relational database is very critical for the retail bookstore envisaging increasing sales within the contemporary business environment. To design a database to support the accuracy of the business information for the departmental store, there is a need to identify the potential sales transaction.…
Database Design for Spa/Hotel Booking System
The W (Woodlands etreat) is a medium sized organization currently intending to build a database system to integrate modern IT (information systems) in its business operation to enhance its dynamic and innovative business operations. Although, the Woodlands etreat has an IT system, however, the current systems are not capable of keeping book records as well as not capable of managing all data for the company new added facilities.
Objective of this project is to build a relational database for the Woodlands etreat using a SQL database methodology. The project provides the important assumption, and business constraints related to the project.
: Assumptions and Business Constraints
The document provides the assumption and business constraints on the baseline up which the project will be accepted. The methodology used to complete the project is SQL methodology. Moreover, the database will be designed to enforce the restriction and…
Caprita, D.A. & Mazilescu, V.(2005). Web-Based Database Distributed Systems. Economy Informatics.127-131.
Connolly T & Carolyn B, (2010). Database Systems (5th Edition), Addison Wesley. UK.
Hellerstein, J.M. Stonebraker, M. & Hamilton, J.(2007). Architecture of a Database System, Foundations and Trends in Databases.1,(2): 141 -- 259.
Hernandez, M.J. (2003), Database Design for Mere Mortals: A Hands-on Guide to Relational Database Design, Chicago, Addison-Wesley Professional,
These factors further accelerate the value and TCO of databases over time.
Describe the features, tools, and utilities of Structured Query Language (SQL). How can tasks be automated with SQL?
SQL has specifically been designed with features, tools and utilities to enable programmers to support nth-tier data architectures in addition to legacy client-server computing scenarios. The development and continual improvement of the features, tools and utilities of SQL for automating tasks have also been augmented to include auditing of programming tasks as well (Dadashzadeh, 2003). The functionality, features, tools and utilities of SQL have also been specifically designed to measure and improve performance as well (Mercioiu, Vladucu, 2010). The specific tools included in nearly all SQL language platforms include support for data migration via the ODBC interface (Melton, 1996), support for enhanced multi-table and data modeling support, and enterprise-wide migration of databases across diverse computing platforms (Melton, 1996). In addition…
Ahlswede, R., & Aydinian, H. (2011). On security of statistical databases. SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics, 25(4), 1778-14.
Dadashzadeh, M. (2003). A simpler approach to set comparison queries in SQL. Journal of Information Systems Education, 14(4), 345-348.
Jadhao, P.P., & Bamnote, G.R. (2012). Query translation from sql-xml environment. Software Engineering, 3(1), 14-16.
Kinsley, K.C., & Hughes, C.E. (1988). Evaluating database update schemes: A methodology and its applications to distributive systems. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 14(8), 1081-1089.
Today, nearly everyone in across the world would love to store their information in the database to keep track of everyday activities. Organizations are also not left behind in operating their businesses by storing their information on databases. Databases are designed in a way they offer organized mechanisms for storage, managing and retrieving information. The data are stored and organized in different tables by the use of Microsoft Excel or using Structured Query Languages (SQL). Most people have implemented systems that are integrated with databases since they have recognized databases to be the best method of storing and retrieving information that may be of help in the future. For that case, this paper will analyze how energy auditing database can be created and how it will keep track of personal workout history for fitness focused individual using Visio or Entity relationship assistant to create Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD).…
Database Modeling and Normalization
Entity elationship Model (EM) Diagram is a data model used to describe the database in an abstract method. The relational database stores data in table. The entity in the database could point to several entries. For example, employee is an entity in the relationship database, and a diagram used to create the entity in the database is called entity-relationship diagrams or E diagrams. (Silberschatz, Korth, 2006).
Objective of this report is to develop an entity relationship diagram for a consulting firm that offers information technology and database services. The firm attempts to create a relationships database to optimize and offer streamline solution efficiently in order to satisfy the government's requirements. The firm will create an EM database to optimized data repository that will allow the firm to perform human resources (H) functions effectively, which include as policy enforcement, benefits management, hiring, promotions, and training.
Silberschatz, A. Korth, S. (2006). Database System Concepts (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill. USA.
Rob, P. & Corone, C.(2009). Database Systems: Design: Design, Implementation, and Management. Cengage learning.
Databases and Data Management
Every day, nurses health care practitioners challenged managing large quantities data information. Unless data information translated knowledge, meaningful . Databases data management techniques, designed effectively, present health care organizations
Epic database is designed for large health care organizations. The database captures data related to patient care in a health care organization. The database facilitates patient registration, treatment scheduling, lab test results, radiology information, and billing. The database is able to schedule for any tests that a patient needs in the course of treatment. The information is used across the health care facility to assist in decision making. Having a centralized system for capturing and storing patient information and records is vital for a quick decision making especially for the nurses. This is because the nurses are able to follow up on a patient's treatment from a central place Burton, Anderson, & Kues, 2004.
The nurses are…
Burton, L.C., Anderson, G.F., & Kues, I.W. (2004). Using Electronic Health Records to Help Coordinate Care. The Milbank Quarterly, 82(3), 457-481. doi: 10.2307/4150507
Kidd, M.R. (2008). Personal Electronic Health Records: MySpace or HealthSpace? BMJ: British Medical Journal, 336(7652), 1029-1030. doi: 10.2307/20509688
Laxmisan, A., Sittig, D.F., Pietz, K., Espadas, D., Krishnan, B., & Singh, H. (2012). Effectiveness of an Electronic Health Record-based Intervention to Improve Follow-up of Abnormal Pathology Results: A Retrospective Record Analysis. Medical Care, 50(10), 898-904. doi: 10.2307/41714592
Pagliari, C., Don, D., & Singleton, P. (2007). Potential of electronic personal health records. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 335(7615), 330-333. doi: 10.2307/25690019
The objective of this study is to recommend three specific tasks that could be performed to improve the quality of datasets using the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) methodology and to recommend the actions that could be performed to optimize record selections and to improve database performance from a quantitative data quality assessment. Finally, this work will suggest three maintenance plans and three activities that could be performed in order to improve data quality. The second part of this study involves the evaluation of which method would be efficient for planning proactive concurrency control methods and lock granularities and assessment of how the selected method can be used to minimize the database security risks that may occur within a multiuser environment. Secondly, this work will analyze how the verify method can be used to plan system effectively and ensure that the number of transactions do not produce record-level…
Development Methodologies. ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 40, No. 1, Article 3, Publication date: February 2008.
Even, A. And Shankaranarayanan (2009) Dual Assessment of Data Quality in Customer Databases. ACM Journal of Data and Information Quality, Vol. 1, No. 3, Article 15, Pub. date: December 2009.
Locks and concurrency control (2013) IBM. Retrieved from: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/db2luw/v9r5/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.ibm.db2.luw.admin.perf.doc%2Fdoc%2Fc0005266.html
Loshin, D. (2013) Five Fundamental Data Quality Practices. Pitney Bowes. Retrieved from: http://www.pbinsight.com/files/resource-library/resource-files/five_fundamental_data_quality_practices_WP.pdf
Part 1: Concurrency Issues in the Database
1. Considering that these various transactions use some of the same tables and fields in the database, explain why it is important for the changes made by each of these transactions to be atomic. (2 pts)
Answer: The necessity of an atomic transaction, in this case, is to maintain state consistency in the database system. Since various transactions require the use of the same fields/data within the database, a sequential update to each field (prioritized based on order of transactions conducted) could lead to an imbalance in the overall system. For example: assuming a few items are sold to a customer and the sales information is updated. There is a need for an immediate update to the “QuantityOnHand” field (a reduction, since a certain unit of items have been sold), along with an update to the “total sales”, “Profit” and other relevant fields.…
Design citeia exist at the levels of the technical, system integation aspects of the database to othe systems though XML. This integation is citically impotant to ensue that the applications ceated can be effectively used ove time and not have any scalability issues. Thee is also the need fo designing the databases at the pesentation laye to povide fo scalability and flexibility of being able to ceate applications elatively quickly at the potal level. This is especially impotant fom a Business Pocess Management (BPM) standpoint as databases must be able to suppot the vaious pocess wokflows as defined as pat of business pocess e-engineeing effots ove time. Thee is also the need fom a design standpoint to have a continued development initiative going to captue use needs ove time and include them into the next geneation of database updates. The use of councils to ceate update plans and define the…
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Ji Ma, Mehmet A Orgun. (2008). Formalising theories of trust for authentication protocols. Information Systems Frontiers, 10(1), 19-32.
Reagan, J., & Rowlands, I.. (2007, January). Key Technologies Enabling a Seismic Shift in Enterprise Data Management. Business Intelligence Journal, 12(1), 17-25.
Databases and egulatory Compliance Challenges
The advent of technology has increased the popularity of database usage in firms, yet the legislation regulating the field has yet to be finalized. The changing nature of the IT sector, coupled with the legislative traits, creates several situations in which the companies find it difficult to comply with the regulations. This paper recognizes some of those difficulties, and also proposes some solutions.
egulatory challenges for databases
No sector in the modern day society evolves as rapidly as the technologic domain. And the innovations developed at this level come to impact all aspects of life, from the spending of the leisure time to the completion of the most challenging professional tasks.
The applications of technology within the contemporaneous society are numerous and complex, one specific example in this sense being represented by superior capabilities for data management. The management of the information integrates the…
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(2006). Regulatory compliance and database management. Sandhill Consultants. http://www.sandhillconsultants.com/whitepapers/regulatory_compliance_and_database_management_whitepaper.pdf accessed on October 26, 2012
(2012). Database regulatory and compliance issues. Altius IT. http://www.altiusit.com/files/articles/articlewpdatabase.htm accessed on October 25, 2012
Microsoft supports distributed component objects via distributed COM (DCOM). DCOM use remote procedure calls to organize data between processes and computers so that components appear to have the same word size, bit orientation, and address space. DCOM is a direct competitor to CORA, discussed next.
V. Common Object Request roker Architecture (CORA)
CORA is OMG's open, vendor-independent architecture and infrastructure that computer applications use to work together over networks (CORA asics). Using a standard protocol, a CORA-based program from any vendor, on almost any computer, operating system, programming language, and network, can interoperate with a CORA-based program from the same or another vendor, on almost any other computer, operating system, programming language, and network.
The core foundation of CORA is the Object Request roker (OR) that provides an interface between requesting objects and receiving objects (CORA, TechTarget). OR support in a network of clients and servers on different computers means…
Chand, M. (2000, June 25). What is ADO? Retrieved from Web site: http://www.mindcracker.com/mindcracker/c_cafe/ado/ado1.asp
Comparing OLE DB and ODBC. SAS. Retrieved October 11, 2004 from Web site: http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:SG8oogJgknEJ:ftp.sas.com/techsup/download/v8papers/odbcdb.pdf+ODBC+and+%22OLE+DB%22+differences&hl=en
CORBA, TechTarget. Retrieved October 11, 2004 from Web site: http://searchdatabase.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,sid13_gci213865,00.html
CORBA Basics. Object Management Group. Retrieved October 11, 2004 from Web site: http://www.omg.org/gettingstarted/corbafaq.htm
Database Administrator, Manager of IT, and the value of a college education
As a result of swift distribution of computers and information technology, a necessity for well trained workers to design and promote new hardware and software systems and to integrate new technologies. These workers comprises of computer systems analysts, database administrators, and computer scientists. Based on the choices and procedures of employers and on development of new areas of specialization or alterations in technology, the job responsibilities and professional titles relating these workers change quickly. An ever-increasing level of talent and education from the employees is demanded by the speedily shifting technology. Organization's expectation on professionals is broadening from wholesome technical knowledge to communication and other interpersonal skills. Hence, workers who can manage various tasks are in great need.
Though employers favor workers with technical degrees, persons with degrees in a range of majors also get employment in these…
Allen, Gemmy. (1998) "Managerial Roles" retrieved from http://ollie.dcccd.edu/mgmt1374/book_contents/1overview/managerial_roles/mgrl_roles.htm Accessed on 7 May 2005
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"Computer Systems Analysts, Database Administrators, and Computer Scientists" (May 18, 2004) U.S. Department of Labor: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos042.htm Accessed on 7 May 2005
Databases and their relational file structures have also progressed to the point of being open in architectural structure enough to allow for real-time updates via XML calls and integration points throughout individual and shared files (oth, Hernandez, Coulthard, Yan, et al., 2006). This open architecture-based approach to XML integration is also making databases ideally suited for transaction-intensive environments throughout e-commerce websites and throughout complex transactions involving multiple selling partners through a supply chain as well (Smyrlis, 2005). As a result, databases are the foundation of distributed order management, enterprise content management, enterprise resource planning (EP) and Customer elationship Management (CM) systems.
Databases and Security
Databases in organizations and governments often hold the most confidential data that exists and therefore need to be protected extremely well. The dominant standard for database security is ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability) compliance (Dolgicer, 1993). When an ACID test of compliance is completed on a…
Dolgicer, Max (1993, June). The ACID test for distributed transactions. Data Communications, 22(9), 25.
Araby Greene (2008). Managing subject guides with SQL Server and ASP.Net. Library Hi Tech, 26(2), 213-231.
Margo Hanna (2004). Data-mining algorithms in Oracle9i and Microsoft SQL Server. Campus - Wide Information Systems, 21(3), 132-138.
Ken Krizner. (2002, May). Turning inventory into profits. Frontline Solutions, 3(5), 16-20.
Oracle supports stored programs such as stored procedures and packages. This enables the developers to centralize application logic in the database. Oracle provides powerful functions and sub-queries in its SQL statements. Developers can distribute systems by database links, materialized views and distributed queries. This feature saves much cost for developing distributed systems and applications. And there's a lot of features integrated with Oracle, compare to other database it is very expensive but it is extremely powerful and fast.
D2 is a relational database system developed by IM Corporation. It has been designed for use on large mainframe computer systems running on a variety of platforms including SunOS, Solaris, Linux, Windows 95/98/NT/2000 and HP-UX. D2 supports many variety of platforms, standards and packaging options to deliver the needs of every business D2 database delivers a flexible and cost-effective database platforms achieving demand on business applications. It further leverages the resources with…
Microsoft Online. Retrieved 20 Nov 2004, from Microsoft.Com.
Web site: http://www.microsoft.com
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I will have access to this database so that I can correctly and quickly inform clients or vendors about the status of their products. The products inventory database should include item/SKU number; date of acquisition; quantity in stock; item description; number of pending orders from clients; number of pending orders from vendors; cost; selling price; and weight, for the purposes of shipping and receiving. If we maintain the products inventory database, we will not risk running out of items prematurely, or overstocking our shelves. e would also ensure that our pricing accurately reflects our costs.
2. I also recommend creating a database to maintain client and vendor records. Because we are a small and new company, the use of databases in this area has had limited use. However, our vendor list currently tops fifteen, and we have over twenty-five clients. It is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain accurate records of…
Chappele, Mike. "Choosing a Database Product." About.com. Online at http://databases.about.com /od/administration/a/choosing.htm.
Chappele, Mike. "Database Fundamentals." About.com. Online at
This would also mean that the shadowing process goes on behind the scenes, and one need not even be aware that the process is in fact going on at any point of time; it can go on without creating any sort of disturbance to the user of the application, at any point of time. (Shadow Files)
Another important advantage of using the shadowing of a database is that data would be immediately available, even when the primary database has failed due to some reason or another. Non-exclusive usage of the primary database is also permitted, and this means that the database will not be locked, and this in turn means that it can be updated and changed during the process of its creation. Computer resource can be conserved, and this is because of the fact that shadowing does not use any separate process; the database process gives the shadow database…
Database Shadowing System with data tags that select an operation of the save command"
Retrieved at http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5230075.html . Accessed 4 October, 2005
Data Recovery without data loss" Retrieved at http://www.enet.com/enet.com.nsf/PAGES_RRDF_Recov.html?OpenPage&charset=iso-8859-1Accessed 4 October, 2005
Eng, Audra. (July, 2004) "Sygate Secure Enterprise, 4.0" Retrieved at http://www.sygate.com/solutions/datasheets/wp/WP-Sygate-Secure-Enterprise.pdf. Accessed 4 October, 2005
Compare and contrast Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, DB2, and Oracle database programs
Providers: Microsoft Corporation provides Microsoft Access and SQL Server, Oracle by Oracle Corporation and DB2 is a product of IBM.
Brief about each:
MS Access: Microsoft Access is a database, which comes bundled in Microsoft Office Products. Access is fully compatible with Active Server Pages (ASP) scripting. Database programs such as Access (sometimes called Relational Database Management systems or RDBMS) are used to store information, often large amounts of information. It can be used as a flat-file database (using a single table) or a relational database (using more than one table linked together). Access database applications can be produced for a large number of database situations including financial and scientific data - with excellent results. Access comes equipped with Wizards, which help the novice to create tables, forms, queries and reports. A complicated relational database…
The longest SQL statement in Oracle is of 16,777,216 bytes, 65,536 bytes (Network packet size 4 KB, by default) in SQL Server, approximately 64,000 bytes in MS Access whereas in DB2 it is of 65535 bytes. Microsoft Access 2000 falls into the desktop category and works best for individuals and workgroups managing megabytes of data. In comparison with SQL Server 2000, Access uses file-server architecture, rather than client-server architecture. Access 2000 has many restrictions in comparison with SQL Server 2000 and cannot be used in the case you want to build stable and efficient system with many concurrent users
It is very difficult to compare all the four on a same platform. It is not true that Oracle 9i Database is better than DB2 Universal Database v8.1 or vice versa. Both products can be used to make stable and proficient systems and the stability and effectiveness of your applications and databases depend rather upon the experience of the database developers and database administrator than the database's provider. It all depends on the use and requirements. If the need is to make a scalability, security, and robustness system, you should use SQL Server instead of Access. Because Access 2000 does not support atomic transactions, it does not guarantee that all changes performed within a transaction boundary are committed or rolled back. SQL Server is integrated with Windows NT security, but Access is not. Access 2000 databases cannot be restored to the point of failure, when SQL Server databases can be. This makes administering Access 2000 databases more expensive than administering SQL Server 2000 databases. So, you should use Access 2000 database, only when you need to store a small amount of data in a single user (or few users) environment, or when you have very low resources, such as memory or disk. In other case, use MSDE or SQL Server. Similarly we can't compare SQL Server 2000 with DB2 Universal Database v8.1 or vice versa. Both products can be used to build stable and efficient system and the stability and effectiveness of your applications and databases depend rather from the experience of the database developers and database administrator than from the database's provider. But SQL Server 2000 has some advantages in comparison with DB2 Universal Database v8.1 and vice versa.
These personal productivity systems also tend to be islands of customer data that need to be integrated into larger customer information systems to be effective (Zahay, 2008). Enterprise-class DBMS are capable of integrating to broader process workflows due to their underlying technical design. In addition, these DBMS are often used for more advanced customer strategies including data mining, business analytics of customer bases, and the development of long-term loyalty campaigns. All of these types of analysis are not possible on the personal productivity class of databases. The limitations of enterprise DBMS however are the their cost for implementing in larger companies, and the need for training users how to use the many functions in these databases.
Daniel E. O'Leary (2008). Supporting decisions in real-time enterprises: autonomic supply chain systems. Information Systems and eBusiness Management, 6(3), 239-255. etrieved May 8, 2008, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 1475085461).
Daniel E. O'Leary (2008). Supporting decisions in real-time enterprises: autonomic supply chain systems. Information Systems and eBusiness Management, 6(3), 239-255. Retrieved May 8, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1475085461).
Debra Zahay (2008). Successful B2B customer database management. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 23(4), 264-272. Retrieved May 8, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1464150941).
y grouping related database queries into transactions, DMS systems can guarantee that each transaction satisfies the ACID properties: Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability. However, if a database application is decomposed into transactions in an incorrect manner, the application may fail when executed concurrently.
Concurrency control deals with the issues involved with allowing multiple people simultaneous access to shared entities (Ambler, 2004). A collision occurs when two activities, which may or may not be full-fledged transactions, attempt to change entities within a system of record. A database administrator can either devise ways to avoid collisions or detect and then resolve them. Transactions are collections of actions that potentially modify two or more entities. The easiest way for an application to implement transactions is to use the features supplied by the database. Transactions can be started, attempted, then committed or aborted via SQL code. Also, database APIs such as Java Database Connectivity…
Ambler, S. (2004, April 1). Concurrency Control. Retrieved November 27, 2004 from Agile Data Web site: http://www.agiledata.org/essays/concurrencyControl.html#Collisions
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Databases in the Work Place
We are in the information age and the effective management of data is paramount in almost all aspects of our life. All businesses today thrive on the availability of vast pool of data pertaining to their domain and thus databases constitute an indispensable aspect of all businesses. Having access to a huge database and the intelligent interpretation of the data therein holds the key to business success. I am working as a database engineer for "Intelligent Email Solutions," a company which specializes in offering email based intelligent customer relationship management solutions. Let us have a brief overview of the use and the importance of databases in our company.
Our clientele are big corporations like Nike, Citibank, ANZ Grindlays, Jc penny etc. We provide automated email-based customer relationship management using our novel 'semantic engine' which scans through thousands of customer emails and categorizes them and…
For example, a straightforward database of customer names for a company is searched with relative simplicity. The names may be retrieved according to beginning letters or other important data (such as item purchased). But for a database of full-text magazine articles, the user will need to search according to name, title, publication, and keywords, among other features. The database will not be able to perform adequately without such usability factors. Even if a database is 'fast' in terms of how it returns queries, the queries must be of use to the searcher.
When developing the infrastructure, a data management system is required to operate the databases, store the information, back up the data, and enforce security. If users are entering sensitive information, password protection and encryption is also essential. The hardware and software used must be adequate to support the needs of the system. And the ease of data entry…
Application performance factors. (2010). MSDN. Retrieved October 5, 2010 at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa266496%28VS.60%29.aspx
Factors affecting performance. (2010). Dev2Dev. Retrieved October 5, 2010 at http://otndnld.oracle.co.jp/document/products/wlp/docs81/perftune/2pfactors.html
Lambert, Diana. (2010, September 23). California's ailing $34 million student database. The San
Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 5, 2010 at http://www.sacbee.com/2010/09/23/3050167/californias-ailing-34-million.html#ixzz11Vt57bmq
Database Data Warehouse Design
Our company, Data Analytic Limited, specializes in collecting and analyzing data for various organizations. Over the years, we have assisted various companies to turn raw data into valuable information that assists the companies in making effective decision profitable in the short and long run. Our research and data analytics are geared towards giving extra edge to various companies. Our services include processing and analyzing terabytes of data to provide customer meaningful information for business decision and enhance competitive market advantages. ecent growth of our company necessitates the needs to design and develop data warehouse that will accommodate large volume of customer data.
Objective of this project is to design and develop the data warehouse for our company.
Importance of Data Warehousing for our Organization
Comprehensive portfolios of our business include Business, Market, and Financial research, Data processing services and Domain based analytics. While the relational database…
Hillard, R. (2010). Information-Driven Business. UK. Wiley.
Microsoft (2012).Data Warehousing | Microsoft SQL Server 2012. Microsoft Corp.
Patil, P.S., Srikantha, R., Suryakant, B.P. (2011). Simplification in the Reporting and Analysis Optimization of the Data Warehousing System:, Foundation of Computer Science, 9 (6): 33 -- 37.
Rostek, K. (2010). Data Analytic Processing in Data Warehouses. Foundations of Management, 2(1), (2010), 99-116.
These laws also emphasize that obtaining such personal information and how it will be used should be made with the individual's knowledge and consent. Moreover, individuals also have the additional rights of viewing, correcting, and deleting the information pertaining to them. ut do we really have access to all information that is being taken from us? We can never tell and we might end waking up one day being accused by actions we haven't taken or worst waking up with a different identity.
II. Security of the Data Gathered
Database Systems are designed and programmed by no less than humans. Securing these databases involves the protection against unauthorized disclosures, alteration and destruction. Security that focuses on stopping people without database access from having any form of access at all and stopping people with access to perform any data manipulation that are not part of their duties or not included in…
ALR (Feb 06, 2006) Regulation of Data Brokerage Retrieved June 03, 2006 at http://courseblog.cs.princeton.edu/spring06/wws528f/?author=15
Computer Underground Digest #6.27 (Mar 27, 1994). Retrieved June 03, 2006 from "Ethical issues in hacking and piracy"
Data Protection Act 1998. Retrieved June 03, 2006 at http://www.opsi.gov.uk/ACTS/acts1998/19980029.htm
Right of self-decision, self-control on one's own personal information" Retrieved June 03, 2006 at http://rights.jinbo.net/english/privacy.html
Database Management Systems
What are the levels of data within a database and how are they used?
Microsoft's online tutorials clearly define the levels of data within a database, explaining how each are used in managing data, creating applications and designing taxonomies for managing complex data sets. The most fundamental component or element in a database is defined by Microsoft as an object. Microsoft's tutorials show how objects can be organized into data structures and tables. The foundational aspect of any database application is the development of data structures that can quickly be integrated together and defined from a contextual intelligence and workflow standpoint (Post, Kagan, 2001).
After going through the entire series of tutorials it is also very clear how queries are used for getting reports completed and applications also developed. Microsoft uses an extensive amount of examples to explain forms, reports and advanced query strings in their databases…
Post, G., & Kagan, A. (2001). Database management systems: Design considerations and attribute facilities. The Journal of Systems and Software, 56(2), 183-193.
Walsh, M.E. (1983). Database management systems: An operational perspective. Journal of Systems Management, 34(4), 20-20.
Database System in a Retail Environment
We are in a world of information boom and efficient management of data holds the key for success in this new business environment. The world of Internet has opened new vitas for corporations to take their business into a global level. Data management is at the center of all business applications and database systems are the very core of this new business perspective. Database systems have helped us take a huge stride in our ability to collect, interpret, and even assist in our decision making process. In short we can say that database management systems have bought a paradigm shift to our mode of business and have evolved from being simple store houses of data to more complex and highly efficient business decision making tools. Let us take Wall-Mart, the giant retailer as our case study and how the company profited from the implementation…
Author not available, "Wal-Mart Deploys Data Mining Software." Accessed on 4th March, 2003
Phillip Greenspun, "Data Warehousing," Accessed on 4th March 2003, http://philip.greenspun.com/sql/data-warehousing.html
Tom Chester, "Database Sizes," Accessed on 4th March 2003. http://sd.znet.com/~schester/facts/database_sizes.html
What essentially is required of the DBAs and project managers involved with any project together is the need for sharing accountability, responsibility, and above all, transparency of how their own activities will impact each others' ability to attain departmental and corporate goals. It is essential that both of these professional teams establish a clear definition of how each can assist in attaining shared objectives. As project managers are taught to manage resources, people and tasks to ensure their attainment, it is critical for them to develop a database use map that provides DBAs a definition of what is required across the entire duration of the project. By coordinating and collaborating with one another, DBAs and project managers can actually accomplish more than their own departments could produce on their own.
Tim Goles, Stephen Hawk, Kate M. Kaiser. (2008). Information technology workforce skills: The software and it services provider perspective.…
Tim Goles, Stephen Hawk, Kate M. Kaiser. (2008). Information technology workforce skills: The software and it services provider perspective. Information Systems Frontiers, 10(2), 179-194. Retrieved May 7, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1451821611).
Harold Smith III, Debra Smarkusky, Elizabeth Corrigall. (2008). Defining Projects to Integrate Evolving Team Fundamentals and Project Management Skills. Journal of Information Systems Education, 19(1), 99-110. Retrieved May 8, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1465593601).
Databases and Privacy: An Ethical Issue for Marketers
The continuing debate between consumers, consumer rights' groups and marketers as to who actually owns consumers' data is becoming more divisive and debated. Marketers attest that once a customer purchases a product or service, opts in with their personal information either to complete a transaction or request services, the information becomes the company's asset as part of their Customer elationship Management (CM) system and databases (Milne, Bahl, 2010). Consumers and consumer advocacy groups claim that the management of this data jeopardizes not only their identities but their financial standing with credit reporting agencies as these systems are often breached (Dolnicar, Jordaan, 2006).
The Ethics of Managing Personal Data
The ethical debate over how best to use customer data in marketing databases has progressed from the use of opt-in to gain useful information for serving customers (Connon, 2002) to reselling it without the…
Debbie A Connon. (2002). The ethics of database marketing. Information Management Journal, 36(3), 42-44.
Dolnicar, S., & Jordaan, Y.. (2006). Protecting Consumer Privacy in the Company's Best Interest. Australasian Marketing Journal, 14(1), 39-61.
Freeman, G.. (2011, July). Will Facebook's Privacy Missteps Tarnish Your Brand? Target Marketing, 34(7), 8.
Milne, G., & Bahl, S.. (2010). Are There Differences Between Consumers' and Marketers' Privacy Expectations? A Segment- and Technology-Level Analysis. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 29(1), 138.
Finally, the company uses Microsoft applications for expanding its business opportunities by providing quick information about customer requests.
ight now, the company is growing and it finds itself overwhelmed with growing information needs from customers and their increasing transactions. The company is realizing that to meet the needs they will need to update their software to meet the future needs of the business. The company is also recognizing that presently the applications that the company is using are full of security holes. Anyone can browse and download confidential data about customers and their transactions (McFadden, Hoffer, and Prescott, 1999). The company is taking adequate steps to improve these security gaps. For example, the company has featured Microsoft Access on a LAN rather than the personal computers. By doing so, the company makes it sure that before anyone can look customer and their transaction data, they need to use a password…
Kroenke, D. (2003). Database Concepts. NJ: Prentice Hall.
McFadden, F., Hoffer, J., and Prescott, M (1999), Modern Database Management, NJ: Addison-Wesley.
What's becoming the collaborative catalyst of making teams work more efficiently together has been the transparency and immediacy of information now available in these collaborative workspaces, creating increased trust throughout groups in the process. evelopment teams no longer have to rely on just a single team person to gain access to a drawing or document, these collaborative workspaces or portals can provide check-in/check-out functionality for any document a team chooses to share. Further, these integration of databases, not possible before, makes it possible for teams to gain greater insights into how their teams' efforts can be augmented and increased by better data and information. The use of taxonomies that are specifically designed to support the processes that teams use to complete tasks is now also possible within groupware applications, a feature not available in previous applications. The bottom line is that groupware is augmenting the collaboration necessary to ensure global…
D. Keith Denton (2006). Using intranets to make virtual teams effective. Team Performance Management, 12(7/8), 253-257. Retrieved May 8, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1153212221).
Kai Riemer, Frank Frbler. (2007). Introducing Real-Time Collaboration Systems: Development of a Conceptual Scheme and Research Directions. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 20, 28. Retrieved May 7, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1331500401).
Hao Lou, Richard Scamell, Jaymeen R. Shah. (2006). USE of a GROUPWARE PRODUCT: A TEST of THREE THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 46(4), 35-45. Retrieved May 9, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1103867861).
Database Feasibility Study
Databases are in existence for numerous reasons, but principally the purpose is to enhance and advance record-keeping and to institute a dependable and value-added medium for the exchange of information within the organization. In addition, the database can be utilized for vetting employees, an aspect that is problematic in its practice (Tupman, 2003).
In particular, the storage of this database would be done on an independent, dedicated online server. This is to administer the system in a centralized manner. The database could be utilized for tracking any sort of information. Every user will have a user login and a corresponding password once signing up for the system, and the user will only gain access to his or her own individual list. This is to ensure there is not only personal control but also privacy in the recordings made. In addition, an actual individual…
Office of the Commissioner for Public Employment. (2015, September 21). Performance Management Systems. Retrieved from Office of the Commissioner for Public Employment: http://www.ocpe.nt.gov.au/working_in_the_ntps/people_management/people_management/performance_management_systems
SQA. (2007). Outcome 1:Fundamentals of Database Design. Retrieved from SQA: http://www.sqa.org.uk/e-learning/MDBS01CD/page_04.htm
TLN Technology Committee. (2003). Project Proposal: My Reading Log.
Tupman, B. (2003). Feasibility Study on the creation of a database on investigations and prosecutions. Department of Politics, University of Exeter.
Databases and Data Communications
Understanding whether or not the need for a database exist occurs within several types of businesses at all levels. Several professionals have taken time to determine this need in order to improve operations within their operations. These professionals include educational institutions and doctors, as well as insurance companies. Databases are becoming a part of everyday living. There are several things a database can bring to a company which includes, efficiency and the ability to manipulate, input and use information. These benefits provide organizations with powerful decision making tools that aid in onscreen delivery and printed reports. Possessing a database management system is an essential tool in the ability of an organization to retrieve and store mass amounts of data at command. Although the possibility of a database being nothing greater than a time consuming expense, when used properly, a database can be an asset to any…
Business Dictionary, (2012), Decision Support System (DSS), Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/decision-support-system-DSS.html
Kroenke, D.M. (2012). MIS Essentials (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice
Analysis and Overview of Database ystems in the Enterprise
The pervasive adoption of databases for aggregating, analyzing, parsing, reporting and storing data continues to exponentially increase over time, as the information needs of companies continued to increase. The foundation fo nearly every enterprise-wide system and computing platform includes integration to databases of many types, from object-oriented to relational (Lungu, Velicanu, Botha, 2009). Every Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system today relies on databases for product, pricing, costing, production scheduling, service coordination and manufacturing execution task coordination as well (Bremer, Carey, 1987). Databases have become an essential component of every enterprise system in use today, from coordinating supply chains, sourcing, production and tracking customer activity and sales through Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems (Madduri, hi, Baker, Ayachitula, 2007). Object-oriented databases are pervasively used in Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD) applications as well, given their speed and accuracy in managing geographic and graphic primitives…
Sarkar, S.S. (1989). Architecture and language for a layered relational database. The University of Texas at Dallas). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 145
Toth, K.C. (1980). Distributed database architecture and query processing strategies. Carleton University (Canada)). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,,
Worboys, M. (1989). Relational databases: A theoretical primer. Information and Software Technology, 31(3), 115-115.
Today Selectica's logic for managing Microsoft SQL Server is also built into the IBM WebSphere product, making my company's level of integration all the more reliable and scalable. With pricing in SQL Server and the many processes of order management dependent on a variety of oracle databases, and our content management system based in Documentum/EMC our company is concerned about having too many databases to support over the long-term. Despite the fact that special pricing requests can specifically be managed electronically, giving our company a competitive advantage, there needs to be greater levels of system integration to allow for higher performance of this specific process (Columbus, 2003)
As a result, the CIO has talked of moving to a Services-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and creating a database standard to minimize potential performance, compatibility and integration issues in the future. The SOA initiative in our company is looking at Oracle Fusion, Microsoft.Net and…
AMR Research (2003) - Configuration is the Heart of Customer Fulfillment for Complex Product Manufacturers. AMR Research Report. Monday March 31, 2003. Retrieved from the Internet on September 3, 2007 at http://lwcresearch.com/filesfordownloads/ConfigurationIstheHeartofCustomerFulfillmentforComplexProductManufacturers.pdf
Askegar and Columbus (2002) - Channel Management Best Practices: It's All About Orders. AMR Research Report. Monday September 9, 2002. Retrieved from the Internet on September 3, 2007:
Columbus (2003) - Squeeze the revenue out of your Special Pricing Requests. AMR Research Alert. Tuesday November 11, 2003. Retrieved from the Internet on September 3, 2007:
Comparing Microsoft Access, SQL, IBM DB2 and Oracle databases is presented in this analysis, taking into account the key features of ACID Compliance, Data partitioning, interface options, referential integrity, operating systems supported, and support for transactions and Unicode. Each of these factors is initially defined followed by a table comparing them across the database types.
Definition of Comparison Factors
At their most fundamental level, all databases have support for relational data models and the ability to index data through the use of a wide variety of taxonomies or organizational structures (Basumallick, Wong, 1996). elational Database Management Systems (DBMS) however all have the ability to manage transactions with the greatest efficiency given the design of these systems to support multiple transactions at once, running concurrently from each other. The characteristic of an operating system being able to manage thousands of concurrent transactions at the same time is often referred…
Basumallick, Swagato, & Wong, Johnny SK. (1996). Design and implementation of a distributed database system. The Journal of Systems and Software, 34(1), 21.
Tony Politano. (2008). Structured and Unstructured: The What, Why and How of Convergence. DM Review, 18(6), 20.
Stonebraker, M.. (2010). In Search of Database Consistency. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(10), 8.
In the contemporary business environment, the accounting profession has undergone a fundamental change, and the traditional accounting systems are no longer adequate to satisfy a recent accounting domain. Thus, a call has been made to expand the scope of accounting information systems. In response to the call, the REA data model was launched to support the accounting information systems. The REA data model is identified as the conceptual modeling tool that assists in designing the AIS (accounting information system) database. The REA model is specifically good to develop an invoicing and billing process.
The objective of this project is to use the REA data model to develop the database for the billing and invoicing process.
Entity Relation Diagram
The entity relation diagram is required for the database of the billing and invoicing process. The entity relation diagram is a graphical illustration to portray the database schema. The ER diagrams show…
ocial Web and You
Explain how social media/web is changing or has changed the ways you, your family, and colleagues find information. Also, how has social media/web changed the ways you interact in your personal and professional life as well as within academic spheres? What functionalities do you think will be invented in the future? Make sure you support your argument with facts, figures, and intelligent analysis. Also, consider any opposing arguments. (One page).
When social networking was just getting started, critiques were concerned that it would lead to isolation -- that people would only connect online and would increasingly neglect their real time friends and family (Putnam, 2000). The Pew Foundation has been conducting a longitudinal study called the Internet & American Life Project that examines how people use the Internet and how that use is changing communication, social interactions, and political activism, among other dynamics. As…
Croucher, S.L. (2004). Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Friedman, T. (2005, April 5). The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (1st ed.). New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Taibbi, M. (2005, April 21). The peculiar genius of Thomas L. Friedman. New York Press. Retrieved http://rolocroz.com/junk/friedman.html
Recording health data of recruits in an Access database would also eliminate potential errors in medication administration or other critical issues.
Another potential use for database systems at the U.S. Navy Recruit Training Command includes inventory upkeep. We should be keeping better records of our supplies, including food and medical supplies as well as gear, uniforms, and other essentials. The Recruit Training Command center would avoid costly wait times if databases were more effectively employed.
Finally, all officer data, including data from commanding officers, should be maintained in a database in our office here in Great Lakes. Furthermore, we need to maximize our information technology power by linking to other U.S. Navy databases on a secure network. This way, we will be more in touch, better organized, and operate more efficiently.
If the Navy Recruit Training Command wants to begin including photographs of its recruits in the central database, we…
To implement this algorithm, it is essential to simulate locking of what the books mentions as an item X that has been transcribed by transaction T
is either committed or aborted. This algorithm is not what would turn into deadlock, for the reason that T. waits for T
only if TS (T) > TS (T
) (Elmasri, 2011).
According to the book, strict timestamp ordering differs from basic timestamp ordering because basic timestamp ordering is utilized whenever some transaction T. attempts to subject a read item (X) or a write item (X) operation, the basic to algorithm is the one that compares the timestamp of T. with read_TS (X) and write_TS (X) to ensure that the timestamp where as the strict timestamp does not. Another difference is the fact that the basic lets us know that if the proper order is violated, then transaction T. is the one…
Elmasri, R. & . (2011). Fundamentals of database systems (6th ed). Boston, MA:.: Addison-Wesley.
Current Employment Trends and Certification Options for Database Professionals. Monaco Vs US
Current Job Markets and Future Trends Analysis
The current job trends for database professionals indicate that in both countries employment is projected to grow by about 11 percent in the coming 5 years (Kline). This is faster than the average in any other occupation. The driving factor is the ever-increasing data needs of companies within the economy. Data has been seen as the next currency and every company wants to invest heavily in the management and processing of data. According to the (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), DBA professionals are ranked amongst the top 10 professions for the past several years. According to a survey carried out by (U.S. News & World Report), a majority of the current database professionals intend to retire in the next ten years since they are over 55 years. This means that there…
In the United States, manual method had been the primary method to store employee data for several decades before the advent of information technology. However, analysis of manual method reveals that it is both time consuming and prone to errors. Moreover, manual method of keeping employees' data make organizations to incur enormous amount of financial resources. Manual method also requires large office space to store the paper. However, a rapid development of Information Technology has made increasing number of organizations globally to escalate from using manual data storage to database system because computer has advantages of maintaining consistence and accurate data. (Patrick, & Felix, 2013). Moreover, computer has the advantages of processing data rapidly with lowest costs and time. Different benefits database offers to organizations and employees. First, the database system is cost and time effective. Organizations can store and retrieve employee data at a fast rate. Moreover, the…
Patrick, O. & Felix, O. (2013). Assessing Manual and Online Course Registration in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions. World Journal of Education.3(6):8-14.
Visual Basic Scripting Edition, also known as VB Script is a common and popular scripting language based on Microsoft's Visual Basic. VB script is considered lightweight, and easy to use and is interpreted at very rapid speeds. The language of VB Script is mostly not dependent on case or syntax, making working with tool very easy. The use of VB Script and scripting in general is very beneficial in many computing applications, especially for databases, as the rest of this summary will focus on to highlight the repetitive tasks that can be handled with a well written script.
Adding and deleting raw data into a database can be significantly enhanced with a useful script that assists in the immediate sorting and filing of the data. The more complex and complicated the data, the more valuable the scripting comes into play. This same idea can be used when it is necessary…
companies such as credit card systems have their backend offices (databases) in India. What are the benefits and risks?
The databasing industry in India is a growing and thriving IT market with credit care companies including Diners Club and Citibank storing their client and potential client information in Indian databases (Vandrevala 15). Clearly, there are extensive benefits from databasing this information offshore. The costs in India are much cheaper, to both develop and maintain complex databases, saving the company finances and labor. In addition, the copyright laws in India have been modified to protect the data, and maintaining ownership of the parent company, rather than the IT company providing services in India. This was a major hurdle to widespread databasing in India, and when the laws were changed, more companies such as credit card companies took advantage of the lower costs in India, and moved their databases offshore. Moreover, the…
Vandrevala, Phiroz. "A Study on the Impact of Protection of Unoriginal Databases on Developing Countries: Indian Experience." WIPO.org. 2002. 9 Feb. 2004. http://www.wipo.org/documents/en/meetings/2002/sccr/doc/sccr7_5.doc
dropping" is actually occurring. This process will involve reviewing 24 months of historical data. A trend analysis will confirm if the downturn in profit is abnormal.
The second step is to break down the sources of profit in order to understand which subgroups are increasing and which are decreasing. When the subgroups that have shown decreasing profits have been identified, an examination will be done to determine the causal factors. Some possible causal factors that will be explored are overall quantity, margins, cycle time, total balance per account, and the acquisition cost. The most likely factor swill be explored first.
If the evidence is inconclusive with respect to the most likely factors, then other factors will be investigated. These secondary potential factors include delinquency rates, default rates, and finally penalties or other unusual expenses, such as those pertaining to regulatory issues.
Scenario #2. A reconciliation process between the two reports…
Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, DB2, and Oracle are four of the most important and widely used database management systems (DBMS) in use in today's information technology field. This paper compares the four DBMS in terms of ten major factors: 1) price, 2) platform compatibility, 3) support services, 4) support for ERP and CRM high-end systems, 5) open or proprietary, 6) Ease of integrating information with other databases 7) support for data requirements for mobile and embedded devices, 8) reputation, 9) stability and backup, 10) recommended users.
All in all, this analysis shows that SQL and other open-source databases are excellent for providing support for medium-load business applications and ebsites. In contrast, proprietary databases like DB2 and Oracle seem to be much better suited to heavy-load business applications (Biggs). Despite this assertion, Microsoft's SQL Server 7.0 marked its aggressive and largely highly effective move towards heavier applications in government, finance,…
Biggs, Maggie. Finding an opening: Open-source databases are worth watching as they near the big time. Infoworld, September 20, 2002.
Darrow, Barbara. Oracle To Slice Price On Standard Edition One, Weighs RAC Bundle. CRN,
2:55 PM EST Fri., Jan. 30, 2004. 08 February 2004.
hat It Takes To Be A Database Administrator
A database can be defined as an organized collection of data, most probably in digitized form. Data is organized within such databases primarily in such a way that it displays and supports the processing of the relevant aspects of the information as it is required by those who use the database. Databases are usually software management systems that are quite complex. The complexity is embedded in these databases to ensure the presence of security, and is also inherent due to the nature or quality of the information they carry, i.e., large amount of important data. [1: Microsoft. "Database Basics." Microsoft Office. March 2012 .]
Nowadays, the utilization of databases is so widespread amongst every sector of the business, that almost every other product, whether small or large, and technology, whether existing or latest, is dependent upon the usage of databases…
Work CitedSpeciss College. ."Database Administrator." 19 March 2010. .Microsoft. "Database Basics." Microsoft Office. March 2012 .Prakken Publications. "Database Administrator?" (n.d.).SFIAPlus. "Database Administrators." British Computer Society (Retrieved 2012-02-06).Staff, Yahoo! Education. "Telecommuting Careers." Yahoo! Education. March 2012 .]
Nevertheless, the role of a Database Administrator is a vital one for his or her employers, as most of the functions in these organizations heavily rely on the successful performance of the duties of a DBA. Although a tough job, this makes them one of the most sought after professionals by enterprises all over the economy, rewarding them accordingly with heavy pay checks for the nature of the work they perform.
Databases and Information Management
Use of Databases in an organization
The evolution of databases in business and organizations has created subtle and substantial changes in the business environment. From the introduction of PC-based contact management software, to integrating complete sales and contact information on company intranets, the availiability of information has made customizable solutions to individual customer problems possible. No longer is a business limited to a one size fits all approach to meeting their customer needs. The most effective way to illustrate how databases have affected business operations is to draw an organizational outline for a typical small business. The;business described below is fictional, but the interdependency of business operations and database applications can be clearly seen.
A small marketing and engineering firm in the Midwest has 3 offices in one state, and one office in another state, and designs and markets high performance automobile parts to the aftermarket…
PeopleSoft. (2002) CRM Products. Retrieved 7 August 2003 from Peoplesoft.com. Website: http://www.peoplesoft.com/corp/en/products/line/crm/index.jsp
L'Allier, James J. (2001) NETg Effective Training Transfer The NETg Difference. Retrieved 7 August 2003. from NETg.com Website: http://www.netg.com/DemosAndDownloads/Downloads/effective_training.pdf
Foote, Kenneth E. (2000). Ethical Issues in Electronic Information Systems, Department of Geography, University of Texas at Austin. Accessed: 13 August 2003. Website: http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/ethics/ethics_ftoc.html .
System Transformation. (2002). Tactical Strategy Group
Database Development and Its Documentation
Wild Wood Apartments
Major topics for the database
The major topic for the database are as follows:
Wild Wood Departments has the total number of 20 different apartments located in Oregon, Washington and California.
Each apartment complex contains between 10 and 60 apartment and consists of varying sizes.
All apartments are put to lease for a period of one year or six months.
The company business practice is to hire one of the apartment's tenants to manage each of the apartment complexes.
The manager collects rents from tenants and admits new tenants into the building.
The manager also closes the lease if necessary.
The manager's responsibility is also to carry out a repair, renovation, and maintenance of the apartment.
As a manager, he or she gets a stipends and free rent.
Moreover, each manager is expected to the entire report to the company headquarter in…
Conger, S. (2014). Hands-on Database: An introduction to Database Design and Development (2nd Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Database Deliverables: Wild Wood Apartments
Wild Wood Apartments has relied on individual apartment managers tracking the maintenance, repairs, and renting of the respective units in their assigned buildings. Every quarter, managers are expected to fill out lengthy reports by hand to submit to the central headquarters in San Francisco. However, the process is tedious and often riddled with mistakes, making it clearly inefficient. Managers have been complaining about the inefficiencies of the system, asking the parent company to address their concerns with preparing a centralized database that makes it easier to track and record maintenance and leasing events in real time, thus making data available as events occur and avoiding the lengthy quarterly process of reporting multiple events in a single sitting.
The apartment database will manage maintenance and leasing events in real time. Apartment managers will be able to upload changes to leases, maintenance expenses and events, and…
Building a Database for Use in Scheduling Process
The scheduling of various activities can at the moment be with the help of computer programs that implement the methodology of the critical-path method (CPM) (Choo et al.,2008). The requirements for building a database for use in scheduling process are numerous. For instance, each scheduler must have a separate database for storing information persistently. The server administrator and the application scheduler have the choice as well as location of database to be used. The performance of a scheduler is largely affected by the performance of the chosen database. If more tasks per second are needed then the scheduler daemons can be run on larger and faster systems.
According to Johnson (2004), the requirements for building a database for use in scheduling process include ensuring the following;
The scheduler database and service must be configured have a high level of availability by…
Blaha, M (2005). Referential Integrity Is Important For Databases. Available online at http://www.odbms.org/download/007.02%20Blaha%20Referential%20Integrity%20Is%20Important%20For%20Databases%20November%202005.PDF
Choo, HJ and Tommelein, ID (2008). Requirements abd barriers to adoption of last planner computer tools. Available online at http://cic.vtt.fi/lean/singapore/chooandtommeleinfinal.pdf
Johnson, C (2004). IBM WebSphere Developer Technical Journal: WebSphere Enterprise Scheduler planning and administration guide. Available online at http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/websphere/techjournal/0404_johnson/0404_johnson.html
SQL Concepts and Database Design
Objective of this technical pape is to povide the database design and documentation fo a finance industy to meet the Sabanes-Oxley (SOX) compliance. The epot aims to pepae the documentation of the sales database of the oganization. Howeve, data dictionay is vey citical to enhance pope functioning of a database since it holds infomation about the database as well as the data it stoes. This pape pepaes the database dictionay fo Employee, Invoice, InvoiceLine, Poduct, Depatment and Job.
DATA DICTIONARY FOR THE ORGANIZATION
Column Size in Bytes
This section povides seveal queies fom the database
a) This quey identifies the numbe of days that exist between the fist invoice and last invoice fo each month:
SELECT * FROM INVOICE_TBL;
SELECT* FIRST INVOICE
SELECT* LAST INVOICE
COMPARE * DateDiff FROM FistInvoice and LastInvoice
b). A quey showing…
references salesperson on delete cascade on update cascade);
The next stage is to design the database as presented below.
The last stage is to implement normalization of the database from the First normal form (1NF) to the third normal form (3NF) and BCNF
Goals of normalization
All databases comprise of records described by search engines used in searching these records or data. While search engines appear to differ, the underlying principles of database searching and strategies are common. The first principle argues that before an individual begins to search for any information, he/she should develop a search strategy. This involves brainstorming about the keyword to be used (Ullman, 2011). It is imperative to take into account possible synonyms such as automobile and car, alternative spelling like labor and labor, organization and organization, and plurals. The second principle applies to people searching for older materials. This principle requires researchers to consider changes in terminologies. This could be because of developing complex vocabularies and modifying them into appropriate languages.
The Boolean principle stems from the George Boole who focused in writing about a principle designed to elicit better search results through the formulation of precise queries. This…
Shasha, D., & Bonnet, P. (2012). Database Tuning: Principles, Experiments, and Troubleshooting Techniques. Burlington: Elsevier.
Ullman, J.D. (2011). Principles of database and knowledge base systems. Rockville, Md: Computer Science Press
Strategy Using Databases
Basic Strategy Formulation using Databases
One significant challenge that any organization faces has to be is strategizing all the aspect and conditions that it up holds. Organizations depend on past information and actions to formulate on the steps that they may take to improve on their situation. For any strategy formulation, an organization depends on the information they have collected from the past. However, the main challenge is obtaining the most precise information to use. This is because of the unreliable sources that are available to the organization. With recent advancements, the organizations are shifting towards new methods. Databases have become common mainly due to their reliability and user-friendly attributes. Organizations are now intent on using decision support systems (DSS) to set a basis for their formulation process (Vriens 2004). Consequently, this software turns the databases into suitable information for those who make decisions. With a perfect…
Asian Conference on Intelligent Information and Database Systems, Pan, J.-S., Chen, S.-M., & Nguyen, N.T. (2012). Intelligent information and database systems: 4th Asian
Conference, ACIIDS 2012, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, March 19-21, 2012, Proceedings. Berlin:
Blischke, W.R., Karim, M.R., & Murthy, D.N.P. (2011). Warranty data collection and analysis. London: Springer Verlag.
Design a data model that will conform to the following criteria:
• Propose an efficient data structure that may hold the tour operator's data using a normalization process. Describe each step of the process that will enable you to have a 2nd Normal Form data structure.
The database in question provides sufficient data for operational consistency but the redundancy of certain data impedes the general efficiency of the system in place. Therefore, normalization is a major priority for the tour operating company. Specifically, the database is overburdened by duplicate customer records, each of which is created at the time that a new tour is booked. This denotes that the system is decidedly inefficient in presenting data on the whole of our customer base.
First, we propose the use of framing as a data structure as a way of refining the representation of data. According to the text…
Chapple, M. (2009). Normalizing Your Database: First Normal Form (1NF). About Databases.
Minksy, M. (1974). A Framework for Representing Knowledge. MIT-AI Laboratory Memo 306.
Business Database Technology
The focus of this project is to design a database program for a company called Home Sweet Home that specializes in the management of properties on behalf of owners. The company offers a complete rental service for customers willing to rent furnished properties. The services delivered by the Home Sweet Home include advertising of properties in then local and national press. The company also carries out the interview and organize visit to prospective renters as well as negotiating the lease agreement. Once a customer rent a property, the company assumes the responsibilities of carrying out the regular property inspection.
Entities are the object used to track the database, and each entity is stored in the database. The entity assists in designing the ED (entity relation diagram). This paper identifies the entities that need to be used in the database design for the Home Sweet Home. The…
Hoffer, J.A. Ramesh, V. & Hiekki Topi, H.(2012). Modern Database Management (10th Edition) . Prentice Hall.USA.
Hence, along with database security, it is important that the operating system is also secured from unauthorized access.
Data Security Policy
There are instances when not all information in a database is open for access to a user. Hence, there is the data security policy that controls the level of access a user has. According to Oracle Corporation Online,
Data security includes the mechanisms that control the access and use of the database at the object level. Your data security policy determines which users have access to a specific schema object, and the specific types of actions allowed for each user on the object.
Generally data security is based on how sensitive information is (Oracle Corp.). Important and confidential information is always necessary to be accessible only to a limited number of users.
User Security Policy
This policy defines how users will be allowed to access a database. The most…
Jucan, George. Database Security: Beyond the Password.
Retrieved on June 06, 2005, from Oracle Technology Network. http://www.oracle.com /technology/pub/articles/jucan_security.html
Establishing Security Policies.
Retrieved on June 05, 2005, from Oracle Corporation Online. http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/doc/oracle/server803/A54641_01/ch19.htm
There are many databases that I encountered in my work. Some are databases related to the projects I handle and concerns the clients' needs while there are also databases that concern the entire company. One example of this database is the payroll database.
The payroll database contains all the important information that relates to the employees' salary. This includes the number of hours an employee had work, his benefits and incentives, his pay rate, and others. Some of the files that are necessary for this database to properly function are the attendance file (which is also a database) and employee information file. It is a must that the payroll database must contain all the right information. Otherwise, negative consequences may affect the entire company, including the financial tracking and salary of employees. Some of the important fields in the payroll database are the following.
Cloud computing applications often need to have a 99.999% uptime as customers use them directly over the Internet, and there is little chance of solving problems from a remote location (McAfee, 2011). As a result, databases used in cloud computing must have a very high level of reliability and be capable of managing small errors that would cause other databases to stop working or need to be rebooted. The requirement from cloud computing users for databases to be able to manage these higher levels of reliability is leading to a completely different level of research and development today (Limbasan, Rusu, 2011). Taking into account all of these factors it is clear that cloud computing is having a very disruptive effect on database research, development and use today. Cloud computing is forcing many enterprise software vendors who create databases to focus more on how their applications can be used as more…
Malcolm Chisholm. (2009). The Dawn of Big Data: Are we on the cusp of a new paradigm that goes beyond what we can do with traditional data stores?. Information Management, 19(8), 45.
Limbasan, A., & Rusu, L.. (2011). Implementing SaaS Solution for CRM. Informatica Economica, 15(2), 175-183.
Andrew McAfee. (2011, November). What Every CEO Needs to Know About the Cloud. Harvard Business Review, 89(11), 124-132.
Upson, S.. (2011). Cloud Computing. IEEE Spectrum, 48(1), 43.