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Karl Popper who argued that a hypothesis is best proved through a process that includes falsification or disproof is known as the chief architect of the scientific methodology called the hypothetico-deductive method of reasoning. This method involves iterations of the four steps of characterization, hypothesis, prediction or logical deduction from the hypothesis, and test of the first three stages (wordIQ.com). Philosopher Karl Popper's work was also based on the premise that it is impossible to prove a scientific theory by means of inductive reasoning alone since no amount of evidence may prove sufficient to assure that contrary evidence will not be found (Pidwirny, 1999-2004).
Thus, the hypothetico-deductive method advocates careful characterization of the subject under investigation, which involves meticulous measurement of observations as well as the use of operational definitions of relevant concepts. This step is followed by the formulation of a hypothesis that attempts to provide a…… [Read More]
San Miguel & Kim
Did the studies use inductive or deductive research methods? Explain.
It was clearly an example of deductive reasoning.
Why did the researcher choose induction or deduction for the study?
The study's authors clearly wanted to focus on Latina scientists and engineers and what leads to them being successful. As noted in abstract, the authors sough to reveal the mentoring and positive experiences of Latinas in the STEM field.
Do you think the choice of induction or deduction was correct for the study?
Absolutely. If the desired data and things to check are known in advance, the deductive reasoning path is the way to go. If this was a situation where the author was looking for something else and came across the Latina STEM mentorship and such, then inductive would be the expected result.
What data collection methods, instruments, samples, or settings were NOT used?
They used…… [Read More]
inductive and deductive reasoning skills to answer hypothetical propositions. Specifically within my proposal, I am searching to correlate the use of technology within schools and their affect on the performance and behavior on the student. My inductive or qualitative reasoning employment is based upon my experimental success with my own personal family and my son's dramatic increase in his understanding levels due to the use of computer technology. Qualitatively, I would like to expand this question in order to find a general pattern that may be applied to all schools and help more children in the way that technology has assisted my own.
The initial problem with any research question deals with the ability to understand exchangeable terms. Ideas such as eagerness, success, accreditation, performance, excellence and failure are all relative terms that invoke different meanings for different people depending on their circumstances within their environment. itner (2003) agreed: "…… [Read More]
Deductive vs. Inductive
The author of this report is given a test case example of a sociologist that is conducting research. The author is being asked to discern whether the sociologist in question is engaging in deductive reasoning or if the sociologists is instead using an inductive approach. The author of this report will first define and quantify what each of those terms means along with examples of each. The author will then summarize the test case that was offered and clearly define which method the sociologist is using. While the two methods of research are similar in some ways, the way in which they start and finish is clearly different.
As defined by Alina Bradford on the Live Science website, there is a clear difference between the two types of reasoning. Bradford explains that deductive reason is a "basic form of valid reasoning." She explains that deductive reasoning, also…… [Read More]
deductive and empirical strategies used in the construction of structured personality instruments, it is important to denote just what the terms deductive and empirical mean and how they relate to tests specific to psychological purposes. Empirical evidence is that which can be demonstrated or proven, and which ultimately exists in the world. Deductive reasoning is a form of logic wherein individuals establish a basic premise or truth, combine it with others for which there is empirical evidence to validate, and then draw conclusions. This type of reasoning determines conclusions based on a top-down approach to reasoning. These respective strategies, then, which frequently are applied in congruence with one another, are highly important for the makeup of structured personality tests. One may even posit the viewpoint that without such strategies, the results of personality instruments would be virtually useless or inconclusive at best.
Define and Describe Deductive
Therefore, when examining the…… [Read More]
Deductive Logic and Theory Building
Poverty is often a significant element influencing individuals to take on a life of crime, taking into account that organized crime leaders tend to recruit their subordinates from underprivileged environments. Poor persons have lesser options in comparison to others and gradually come to consider that committing criminal acts is the only solution they have in order to survive. From the perspective of organized crime leaders poor areas are thus perfect recruitment spots. There is a complex relationship between poverty and organized crime and by analyzing a series of organized crime communities from around the world one is likely to observe that many tend to focus on recruiting underprivileged individuals.
hat the theory will address
hen considering the idea of organized crime, one needs to gain a better understanding of why people resort to joining such groups in order to understand their dynamics. Many organized…… [Read More]
2006, p. 1054). I said to myself 'if I had a new ca, I would have less ca poblems.' While my paents had always judged the value of a ca based upon its pice and esale value, my intepetation of my own memoy and expeiences was slightly diffeent, which coloed my decision-making about puchasing a new ca: I ecalled having to have my used ca towed late at night, because it had boken down on a highway.
The moe I thought about the subject, the moe inductive athe than deductive easoning came to dominate my decision-making. I used data fom the immediate maket envionment and my pesonal expeiences. 'Anchoing' is maket phenomenon that descibes the tendency to make the same o simila decisions, based upon pevious decisions that yielded positive ewads, but in my case, the anchoing effect was elatively low egading a used ca (Hoeffle et al. 2006, p.216).…… [Read More]
The recent rash of unexpected emergencies to rattle the nation, from the Boston Marathon Bombings to the Oklahoma City Tornado, has demonstrated the power of instinctive action in times of crisis, as onlookers and passersby have sprung into action at a moment's notice, caring for the wounded, administering medical assistance, and managing recovery efforts. While these widely publicized incidences of catastrophe causing the human instinct to intuitively make sound decisions are indeed convincing, it is important to remember the often overlooked role that logic and reasoning also play in such endeavors. When a person witnesses an explosion and immediately acts to tourniquet a victim's wounded limb, the action may appear to be purely instinctual, but in reality, the human brain's immense capacity for logical thought has provided the framework for these actions to be undertaken. Throughout this person's life, the fundamental knowledge of blood loss and its associated risks, impromptu…… [Read More]
He jumps up on the rail of the yacht with no one around, running completely on instinct (Connell, 1924). Taking time to reason this out would have told him that he could fall and, since he was the only person on deck at that time of night, that no one would be around to see that he had fallen and rescue him. His instinct also took over when he dropped his pipe while standing on the rail (Connell, 1924). eaching for the pipe was pure instinct. When a person drops something, more often than not he or she reaches for the dropped object in an effort to catch it (Carlson & Heth, 2009; Gray, 2011). While that makes complete sense from an instinctual standpoint, reason would say that ainsford was putting himself far too much at risk because he was leaning out over an open ocean with no one around.…… [Read More]
Daily Mail, and mostly details the arguments made in a book about MH370 that is being released shortly. There are some interesting claims made this book that the article reports on.
One such claim is made with the use of deductive reasoning. This goes as follows. The flight data transmitter only transmitted minimal information. There was an upgrade to the software package available, but Malaysian Airlines did not purchase this upgrade. The logic goes that if they had purchased this upgrade, it would have transmitted more data, and searchers would therefore have been able to find the plane with this data.
This logic is not valid. There are a few issues with it from a deductive reasoning perspective. The first issue is that it cannot be tested, because each flight problem is unique. The author of the premise is attempting to use deductive reasoning, but the uniqueness of the situation…… [Read More]
diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).
Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…… [Read More]
In the last fifteen or so years the concerns about vaccinations, and particularly the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccination (MMR) have come to the forefront of societies debates from a limited connection to autism that is most likely associated to the correlation between onset of symptoms of autism and autism spectrum disorders and standard immunization practices. The fear created a general public that was afraid to allow their children to get the life saving MMR and in turn many parents have denied their children vaccinations at all. Parents' fears of some connection between the vaccination and/or its ingredient makeup cause or trigger autism and an accompanying serious bowel disease is related to a single, very limited research study conducted in the UK (n 12). There has been a substantial increase in incidents of autism over the last 20 or so years and the extreme social, physical, emotional, financial and…… [Read More]
Chess and Cognitive Ability Revision
Does Chess Enhance Cognitive Ability?
PSYC 317, Fall 2012
Psychologists and cognitive researchers have long suspected a link between the ability to play chess proficiently and superior intelligence levels. By conducting a thorough review of the prevailing research concerning chess and the enhancement of cognitive abilities, as well as studies which fail to establish conclusive links between the two, it is possible to form a more fully informed conclusion. Research studies focused on deductive reasoning, mathematics, and logical analysis and their use in the game of chess will be compared and examined for error or bias, in an effort to synthesize the findings of several researchers over a period of decades into a coherent conclusion.
Does Chess Enhance Cognitive Ability
Chess is a complex game of strategy, the best practitioners of which excel at deductive reasoning, visualization and memorization of concrete events that transpire on…… [Read More]
forming judgments, and the development of sound, persuasive arguments. Inquiry helps eliminate first impressions, preconceived notions and biases through a process of investigation of issues. The investigation itself could be either an inquiry into facts or an inquiry into opinions. Given the widespread availability of information, a key aspect to conducting inquiry is the ability to be realistic about how final the answers are likely to be. One good way to determine this is to evaluate when the evidence is sufficient to permit the making of a judgment with certainty or if the evidence gathered is enough to demonstrate that one view of the issue being investigated has the force of probability. Points that need to be borne in mind while forming judgments include the need to distinguish between: typical and atypical personal experiences; the person and the idea; what is said and how it is said; why…… [Read More]
My work as a research assistant in a cognitive psychology lab added to my theoretical knowledge by giving me practical experience in encoding and analyzing data. This experience provided me with the opportunity to use analytical tests and interpret statistical data. Bookkeeping of participants' demographic information also further developed my organizational skills. Having been a research assistant, I have gained a reasonable understanding of research design and the statistics needed to conduct research. For my senior major project, I wrote a research paper on an empirical study that investigated the role of change detection in studies of visual attention in the field of cognitive psychology. This paper was awarded the Sharon Borine award for the best major project in Psychology because of its successful presentation of research and adherence to American Psychology Association guidelines. I strongly believe my research experience will help me attain success in conducting graduate research as…… [Read More]
Treating the whole patient and the patient's family, social, and economic environment was essential, rather than merely regarding diabetes as a medical problem. I also referred her to a nutritionist who could provide additional assistance, as well as other local and community resources devoted to helping people eat more healthfully on a budget.
Different roles for the Advanced Practical Nurse (APN)
This is one example of how the program has influenced my development as an Advanced Practical Nurse (APN). I had to act as an educator, as well as merely a caregiver and dispenser of medical knowledge. As well as a practitioner who identifies areas of patient need, such as future health problems in need of correction along the lines of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and poor lifestyle choices that could lead to heart disease, a nurse must teach the patient about lifestyle changes that the patient can…… [Read More]
Karl Popper and Falsification
Karl Popper's Nontraditional Views on Science: Is Falsification Correct?
Falsification, also called refutability, is the logical possibility that an assertion, hypothesis, or theory can be contradicted by an observation made or by the outcome of a physical experiment. Made popular by philosopher of science, Karl Popper, falsification provided a method in which scientists start with a current scientific theory and use the usual methods of deductive reasoning to derive specific conclusions, some of which are "predictions" (Kenyon 1). This prediction could then become falsifiable if some observation or experiment had the ability to produce a result that would consistently reproduce a result in conflict with that earlier prediction. For example, the notion that "all birds can fly" is falsifiable, as empirical evidence has been found to disprove this notion. In essence, such a scientific standpoint appears not only valid but logical at first glance. However, in…… [Read More]
As activists in women's liberation, discussing and analyzing the oppression and inequalities they experienced as women, they felt it imperative to find out about the lives of their foremothers -- and found very little scholarship in print" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3). This dearth of scholarly is due in large part to the events and themes that are the focus of the historical record. In this regard, "History was written mainly by men and about men's activities in the public sphere -- war, politics, diplomacy and administration. Women are usually excluded and, when mentioned, are usually portrayed in sex-stereotypical roles, such as wives, mothers, daughters and mistresses. History is value-laden in regard to what is considered historically 'worthy'" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3).
In what Kessler (1994, p. 139) describes as "the all-too-common historical exclusion or devaluation of women's contributions," the male-dominated record of human history has either diminished the…… [Read More]
Pattern of inductive reasoning is as follows: Theory ?Tentative Hypothesis ?Pattern ?Observation. While inductive approach is concerned with the open-ended explanatory, deductive reasoning chooses a narrow perspective by testing or confirming the hypothesis. (Trochim, & Donnelly 2007). Typically, inductive reasoning chooses qualitative approach to test the hypothesis. However, the deductive approach employs quantitative method to test hypothesis before arriving at confirmation. In qualitative research, it is not necessary to generate hypothesis to begin research, however quantitative studies make use of hypothesis to begin research. One of the advantages of deductive approach is that the researcher is able to test the hypothesis by using data. The limitation of quantitative approach is that the hypothesis could only be tested when there is enough data. (Ali, & Birley, 1998).
In accounting research, testing the hypothesis with the use of the statistical analysis is the common method to arrive at confirmation. The validity of…… [Read More]
Elder and Paul (2002) point out an inference is the conclusion that "something is true in light of something else being true." An assumption is something taken for granted. In the case of ExtraVert, the first inference is that the communication and cooperation problems that exist between the home company and its overseas branch are a resulted of the cultural differences.
There are several arguments given in support of this inference. The branch is overseas and, given the fact that cost factors make it an attractive destination, the facility could be in China or in other parts of Asia. From this starting point, there is a logical reasoning that is based on different studies that reflect cultural differences, particularly when it comes to China.
This reasoning points out that Chinese managers have a particular view about their role in the global organization, especially about the decision making process and the…… [Read More]
Watchmaker Argument by William Pailey he states that because a watch most evidently has to have had a maker, that due to the complexity of nature as compared to the complexity of the watch, that our world must also have had a maker as well. Pailey concludes that based on the Watchmaker argument that the "atheist position is an absurdity of the weakminded" (para 4).
This is an interesting argument, and certainly one that is without a certain amount of strength. There are a number of questions that are left hanging in the wind however, with Pailey's premise. Pailey surmises in paragraph four that for every indication of contrivance, every manifestation of design for the watch, an equal amount of works exists in nature except that nature's design is greater and more, and that in a degree which exceeds all computations. In other words, Pailey argues that no matter how…… [Read More]
From that, he says, "This cynical attitude is strong these days on campus, where postmodern theory erodes basic truthfulness by holding that facts and truth don't really exist." He then tries to support that argument by quoting Two University of Pennsylvania professors who claim, "We are all engaged in writing a kind of propaganda. Rather than believe in the absolute truth of what we are writing, we must believe in the moral or political positions we are taking with it." According to Leo, this means that "Feelings and political stances count. Facts and truth don't." The non-sequitur is his conclusion that there is a cynical attitude on campus, with postmodern theory eroding basic truthfulness. That conclusion does not necessarily follow from his example of the dishonest Nobel Prize winner or the two university professors. This is a sweeping condemnation of universities that is not warranted by the examples he cites.…… [Read More]
Two attribution theories applied to marketing include the correspondent inference theory and self-perception theory. The first applies causal attribution to determine the nature of a customer's behavior based on behavioral cues. The cues are derived from a single behavior in a particular situation. Therefore, information on its generalizability can be inferred from the behavior (Wang, 2008). Self-perception theory operates on the premise that behavioral cues emerge from both the observer and the person being observed. Two sets of causal attribution are therefore possible and can be synthesized on the basis of both sets of observations.
Other theories include the brand personality dimensions framework, which operates to compare measured brand personalities, and the hierarchy of effects models, which help marketers to determine the effect of specific advertising techniques on consumers (Marketing Journal, 2005).
Both propositions and hypotheses are statements; the content of these statements, however, differ significantly. A proposition, for…… [Read More]
temptation of the uneducated to believe that psychology and other philosophical sciences involve no more than common sense and logical thinking. While these are certainly part of psychology, the profession is also a science. This means that the scientific study of phenomena is involved, and conclusions are drawn based on the results. Psychology as a direction of study therefore involves much more than only common sense.
According to Bluedorn (2005), logic can be explained by two methods of reasoning: inductive and deductive reasoning. Reasoning can run in two opposite directions. Deductive reasoning moves from a general premise to a more specific conclusion. Inductive reasoning moves from specific premises to a general conclusion. These two methods of reasoning will produce two different kinds of results. Inductive reasoning uses as its basis particular observations from which it derives a general conclusion. The limit to this form of reasoning is that the observations…… [Read More]
The use and control of one's own mental faculties is of the utmost importance when involved in the serious and important business of government work. The word "government" itself literally translates to "controlling the mind" in Latin. Mind control is thus the most important aspect any individual who wishes to earn success and garner respect within governmental agencies may attain. Personal experience is the one true measure of the capability of thought, where the endgame is understanding these experiences and incorporating them into a practical, effective and efficient lifestyle approach both personal and professional.
As a Department of Defense (DOD) Special Agent, the ability to suppress emotion and employ rational and reasonable thought patterns is a skill that must be fully developed and tempered to allow for a suitable outlet for such activities. The purpose of this essay is to explore some personal experiences within my own career…… [Read More]
Please see "Stake Holder: The Taliban" for more information regarding virtue ethics.
The farmers who are growing poppy plants have a logical stake in this moral dilemma as well. If their crops are destroyed they will have no alternative but to join the Taliban to help settle their debts. They are in a precarious position where they are often forced to grow poppies because they are a very lucrative and traditional cash crop. Their history and culture will be severely affected if their livelihood is destroyed as well. If they functioned as utilitarians, the farmers would look for another alternative to growing poppies or perhaps request a government subsidy since their poppy production kills millions worldwide who abuse their drugs. The farmers likely do not have access to this information however, which makes their position even harder to justify.
The Afghan People
Utilitarianism- Principle. See "Stakeholder: The United States…… [Read More]
Defense of Traditional Marriage by yan T. Anderson
The article is based on a topic that is widely discussed in both the political, legal and even the religious fronts. It looks into the issue of marriage and what really defines marriage in the context of the contemporary society. The author also looks into the various arguments that are put forth by other people and groups concerning the issue of marriage. He also opens up on his personal belief of what the purpose of marriage is. The author of the article also looks into the legal threats that there are against the traditional institution of marriage in its traditional form and also highlights the dangers of redefining marriage within the society and allowing it to divert from the traditional concept of marriage that is universally known by most societies in the world.
b. Issues argued out and conclusions
The…… [Read More]
On the lowest tier "Knowledge" from Bloom's taxonomy was changed to "remembering." The two upper tiers were also adjusted synthesis was changed to evaluating and evaluation to creating. Anderson's work privileges the creative ability. This is a consistent reflection of the contemporary need for creative thinking to be applied to complex and complicated problems.
The structural changes moved the original one dimensional taxonomy to a two dimensional construct. There is an expression of the types of knowledge that can be learnt as well as the processes that can also be learnt. This change advocates that the cognitive experience involves not only the apprehension of knowledge but also an understanding of accompanying processes. It also alludes to the possibility that individuals could have knowledge but be unaware of processes. This is a logical improvement over the original Bloom formulation and provides greater analytical tools for identifying and expressing learning outcomes.
The…… [Read More]
The fact of the matter that people place power and belief in the pyramid itself proclaiming that the pyramid itself is a cure all for their problems
The impossibility to either prove or deny many of these instances of miracle does misplaces the causality of their happening. Mystery contributes to the human mind's desperate attempt to make sense of things that have no logical or obvious cause. Perhaps this is the case in many worshippers of the pyramid. The previous arguments suggesting that power of the pyramid is in fact real and causes humans to react in special or abnormal ways confuses the situation about casualty and result.
Blanket statements that either support or deny the use of pyramid power will both most likely be incomplete and unmoving. Scientific experiment demands that these effects be both repeatable and with certain cause. This is very difficult due to both the esoteric…… [Read More]
My accepting of the test hypothesis will be preceded by my rejecting of the null hypothesis.
In the research question given in question 5, two variable types can be identified. These include the dependent and the independent variables. According to Hughes & Hayhoe (2007), the independent variable includes the intervention to be tested while the dependent variable essentially comprises of the result to be measured. In the research question outlined in question 5, the independent variable is caring for a pet. On the other hand, we have the dependent variable being the lifespan of a person over 65 to 75. According to McBurney and White (2009), the effects of the independent variable are reflected or mirrored on the dependent variable. In our case, caring for a pet which is the dependent variable can be said to be a measure of the behavior of the subject.
Question 7…… [Read More]
This study focuses on the rise and significance STEP-NC as the most efficient model to transfer knowledge and communication on different CAD and CAM structures to improve the product design and overall project management. The paper will be divided into six chapters: 1) ntroduction chapter which will include the statement of the problem, significance of the problem, purpose and scope of the study, the relevant definitions, the assumptions of the study as well as its limitations; 2) Literature Review chapter which will present an analysis of all the prior studies done on similar topics; 3) chapter variables and hypothesis creation where all the variables (dependent and independent) will be listed; 4) methodology chapter which will include data collection processes and the qualitative procedures used; 5) results and presentation of data chapter which will include all statistical calculations and the regression analysis; 6) conclusion chapter which will includes discussion…… [Read More]
Hume's Problem Of Induction
David Hume is known as one of the foremost skeptics and humanists of his time, who exalted in mankind's ability to transform the world through science. Somewhat ironically, then, one of his most far-reaching philosophical contributions was to phrase the problem of induction which today is often thought to deny scientific knowledge. Just a couple chapters of a single book, Hume posed a question which has yet to be satisfactorily answered, despite the great intervening time. In its most simple form, Hume's problem merely asked what evidence there was to support the instinctive understanding that the future would resemble the past, and then pointed out that since he could see no logical reason why this should be the case, then he could not with reasonably say that it must be so. And despite attempts to dismiss his challenge, it seems no one has yet come up…… [Read More]
Trading ehavior Study
Sam used the Survey Method of Correlation to perform the study between the two variables of emotional responses and trading performance for the first hypothesis and emotional stable introverts and new experiences for the second hypothesis. (Cherry). The correlation method is used to look for relationships between variables and uses different underlying methods, such as the survey method. Sam used surveys to conduct his study after he had researched the problem of the company losing money when traders got emotional over the market changes.
Purposiveness is research conducted for a purpose. (Hallmarks of Scientific Research). The goal of Sam's research was to determine if personality and emotions played a role on trading performance. Testability is based on testable hypothesis developed after careful study of the problems involved. It is logically developed hypothesis to determine if the data supports the hypothesis. The first hypothesis is testable because it…… [Read More]
A learning culture is an organizational practice, system and values that encourage and support individuals and organizations to increase performance levels, competence and knowledge. It promotes continuous support and improvement for an achievement of goals. Adjustment of current strategies can be done by adjusting to a trend, business model, capital model, launch strategy and making a great plan.
There are several ethical principles and professional standards of learning and cognition in the workplace. Some of them are; encouraging contact between faculty and student, developing cooperation between students, encouraging active learning and respecting adverse talents and learning techniques. Some implications that should be considered when working with others are; demonstrating respect at work, providing feedback with an impact, showing appreciation and overcoming fear of conflict.
WEEK 3 DISCUSSION
Memory Suppression in Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s diseases is chronic degenerative disease of the neurons. It causes about 60-70% of dementia cases. The…… [Read More]
Theory of Knowledge
Without the assumption of the existence of uniformities there can be no knowledge.
One of the presumptions of acquiring knowledge, particularly knowledge in a scientific or mathematical context, is that there must be causal relationships that can be observed or intuited between different phenomena. Human beings base their behaviors on this presumption on a regular basis. We wake up in the morning to the sound of an alarm clock and assume we can shut off that alarm using that particular button because we did so on previous occasions. We do not assume that every experience with an alarm clock is a new encounter. Similarly, we assume that the laws of gravity will secure ourselves in place to the earth and we will not go flying off into space. In science and math, the presumption that natural and mathematical laws have a…… [Read More]
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…… [Read More]
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…… [Read More]
fulfil two primary aims; first, it aims to present the methodology that will be employed to collect the data and structure the study; and second, it will also justify the choices of the chosen methods. The sub-categories thus tackled in this section include: listing the research question that identifies one experimental design method; justification of choice of non-experimental design; describe the methods to be used to conduct experiment (esearch Approach, esearch type and Time line, Data Collection Methods, The Interviews Process, Sampling Strategy and Data Analysis)
The reason that this section is divided in the aforementioned categories is so that the researcher can accurately present all the concerns and challenges that surface and tackle them accordingly so that the study can prove to be realistic, viable and possible to practically carry out. Also, the division helps in converting the aims of the research into different logical and investigative areas for…… [Read More]
The intellectual standards of critical thinking
Critical thinking is described as the ability of an individual to think in a rational and clear manner with the aim of improving the quality of the reasoning process (Moore, 2007). It requires mastery of the application of different intellectual standards to elements of reasoning in various scenarios or problems. Although there are many applicable intellectual standards, some of the most important are: clarity or understandability of points, accuracy of information, how exact or precise the details are, relevance of a specified subject or even topic area, the depth in handling complex issues, the breadth of the train of thought, the logic and sense behind a thought, and the fairness or biasness of the thinker in regard to an issue (Moore, 2007).
The benefits of critical thinking
Critical thinking enables an individual to solve problems in a systematic way in any area of…… [Read More]
Psychology is an ever evolving science. While some still feel it is a pseudoscience, many researchers have shown the benefits of applied psychology and the effects mental health can have on an individual. However, because problems of the mind are not so easy to measure as they would be in biology, there tends to be a lot of guessing and misinterpretation. Businesses, schools, and the government use personality tests to understand a person and their motives. First developed in the 1920's personality tests have grown in popularity, giving rise to debunking the validity of such tests. Are personality tests like orschach Inkblots, MMPO-2, and brief anxiety scales valid? No, they are not valid. This essay will show why these kinds of tests are not valid and reliable measures of personality and psychopathology through studies revealing accuracy rates from personality test results.
Personality tests first originated in the 1920's and are…… [Read More]
Hip rotation, base stability, and the efficient transfer of weight are the primary determinants of ball velocity, not arm strength.
That soft-tissue injuries should be immediately treated with ice, elevated, and compressed. The sooner first-aid is applied, the less the injury will swell and the less recovery time will be necessary, everything else being equal. Heat therapy in any form and anti-inflammatory drugs containing aspirin should be avoided for at least 48 hours because they increase bleeding and the corresponding swelling.
That there are more members of my communities in need than I was aware and that I may take certain advantages in my life for granted because so many people do not have them.
That certain behaviors and attitudes that I previously associated with my culture are actually quite common to other cultures. They reflect the way cultural identity manifests itself in general rather…… [Read More]
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]
Nietzsche often identified life itself with "will to power," that is, with an instinct for growth and durability. This concept provides yet another way of interpreting the ascetic ideal, since it is Nietzsche's contention "that all the supreme values of mankind lack this will -- that values which are symptomatic of decline, nihilistic values, are lording it under the holiest names" (Kaufmann 1959). Thus, traditional philosophy, religion, and morality have been so many masks a deficient will to power wears. The sustaining values of estern civilization have been sublimated products of decadence in that the ascetic ideal endorses existence as pain and suffering. Some commentators have attempted to extend Nietzsche's concept of the will to power from human life to the organic and inorganic realms, ascribing a metaphysics of will to power to him (Kaufmann 1959).
The insidious process by which we ascribe attributes to our fictitious consciousness has…… [Read More]
These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. (History of Economics Society, 25)
It has to be accepted that such a method has been used to arrive at various conclusions. A lot of dedication is required by thinkers to derive the facts out of the information available. This concept of economics is not drawn out of nothing, but it has been derived from facts, and scientists have toiled to put together the casual details into formal approaches. Formal methods reduce the details in a systematic manner and so this is preferred than the informal method. However those is favor of the scientific method were against the formal method and argued that formal methods were not reliable since it was not sure whether the important aspects of the fact would be retained while reducing the information available. (History of Economics Society, 25)
History…… [Read More]
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke each formulated notions regarding human liberty in nearly the same social, political, and provincial circumstances. Although their most famous works were separated approximately forty years from one another, they were both wealthy members of seventeenth century English society during a period of particular social and religious turmoil. Similarly, both Hobbes and Locke sought to use reasoning to determine the most appropriate form of political and social organization. It should be anticipated, therefore, that their fundamental conceptions regarding freedom also possess many similarities; however -- aside from their initial premises -- Hobbes and Locke vary wildly in both their approaches to the topic of freedom and the consequences they believe these lines of reasoning hold for society. Locke has come to be thought of as one of the founders of modern political philosophy in the West, and rightly so. Hobbes, on the other hand, has continued…… [Read More]
Theory vs. Ideology
What is ideology?
Ideology is a belief system that supports and promotes personal or a group's social or religious agenda. In some cases its nature will be obvious to most people, but in other cases an ideology will be disguised as scientific fact based on nonexistent or reinterpreted empirical evidence. Ideologies are invariably supported by personally- or collectively-held religious or political beliefs, rather than extant empirical evidence or objective observation. Concepts within the ideology are typically framed in a black and white manner, such as right vs. wrong, just vs. unjust, and Evil Empire vs. God's Country. The use of such terminology has the effect of erasing the inherent complexity common to most social issues. From the perspective of a social scientist the most important characteristic is that ideologies are refractory to scientific inquiry and may go so far as to attack opposing beliefs to preserve its…… [Read More]
This, he says, is a big challenge considering the fact that all team members along with the top management come from different cultural backgrounds.
Polley and ibbens (1998) in their pioneering research assert that team wellness has got to be tackled in order to create high performance teams. The challenges that need to be over come have been thoroughly researched. The most commonly found problems are: lack of commitment and consideration from top management; probability of sharing enhanced productivity; creation and sustenance of trust (Polley and ibbens, 1998); and skills to deal with conflicts; both within tasks and amongst people (Amason et al., 1995).
Polley and ibbens (1998) assert that emergence of these problems can be either (1) persistent; and/or (2) immediate and/or intense. Extending the team wellness concept, Beech and Crane (1999) outlined a five dimensional strategy to overcome the problems most event managers might face when creating high…… [Read More]
multicultural workplaces face when competing in the current market. As multiculturalism begins to have more of a presence in management and leadership positions, organizations will need to address issues unique to them and modify their leadership strategies. Implementing cultural programs would be one such strategy, and it would require organizations to evolve, look inward, and make transformational change in order to create and improve multicultural employee retention. Such a strategy would create 'grooming' or succession processes for proteges; preparing employees from within the corporate structure for career advancement into leadership positions. Studies show that the benefits would be mutually beneficial in that the employee would feel appreciated which could translate into long-term gains for the organization. This will be a theoretical paper addressing the many factors contributing to the lack of ommunication clarity in multicultural workplaces and whether managers in global organizations have a greater tolerance for ambiguity.
1. Do…… [Read More]
This study analyzes outsourcing trends in the next decade. The study assesses this by focusing on the past and current trends, problems and issues in outsourcing via semi-structured interviews. Major trends and processes will be revealed and assessed for their relevancy, depth and breadth.
Companies belonging to most industries are very much considered to be the units that are vertically integrated, or so-called usual industrial firms (Stigler, 1951), where activities in all links in value chain have been internally conducted. For example, gasoline of its own is delivered by 7-Eleven and it is also used to make ice and candy, also it had cows for producing milk which it previously used to sell (Gottfredson et al., 2005). At present, it is not delivering gasoline and ice or candy is not being made by it neither does it posses any cows. Contrarily, IBM used to make the computers containing their…… [Read More]
ole-based EP systems are critical for the siloed, highly inefficient architectures of legacy EP systems to be made more relevant, contribute greater financial performance, and lead to higher levels of overall customer satisfaction.
c. Purpose of the study
The purpose the study is evaluate how enterprises who adopt role-based EP system implementations are able to attain higher levels of financial and operations-based performance vs. those that rely on silo-based, more functionally defined EP structures. ole-based EP systems have been proven to lead to greater order accuracy, velocity and customer satisfaction as a result. The ability to gain greater visibility throughout supply chains, better manage pricing, discounts, implement and maintain contract management systems, and also deliver consistently high customer service have all been attributed to role-based EP systems. Conversely siloed EP systems that are managed strictly to functional areas have been shown to severely limit the ability of enterprises to be…… [Read More]
These suppositions allow the researcher to view the world from a certain perspective while ignoring other perspectives. The researcher in this study assumes that his subjects are logical human beings who have a rationale point-of-view. Their thinking is valid and reasonable and their approach is more or less along the lines of scientific thinking. In addition, we assume that commonsense thinking and scientific thinking are more or less identical in nature. With these assumptions in mind, we take a post-positivism philosophical foundation; as in line with Trochim (2000) post-positivism is the outright denial of positivism (which argues that the laws of the nature are perfunctory and therefore deductive reasoning can be the only suitable approach to comprehend nature) and presupposes that day-to-day human and scientific reasoning are more or less the same and in order to understand reality, researchers have to use not only deductive but also inductive reasoning (Trochim,…… [Read More]
Creative thinkers lead the way in nearly every field because they are willing to take intellectual risks, according to Kanar and Hopper. Risk-taking involves a leap of faith and even a willingness to fail. The creative thinker has an insatiable hunger for knowledge and understanding, and "does not take no for an answer," (Kanar and Hopper 51). However, creativity alone is insufficient for developing the type of mind that excels in fields like science and technology. Critical thinking is also crucial, because it provides the toolbox for analysis, learning, and intelligent comprehension. Ideally, analysis and invention combine in the dynamic individual.
According to Bloom's Taxonomy, there are six levels of learning including knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. These six levels of learning suggest that there are multiple approaches to solving a problem. A creative thinker knows that if one angle of thinking is not yielding results, that another…… [Read More]
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…… [Read More]
Where, he is taking an actual example by: showing the immediate problems facing the school system and how this approach is creating positive changes. These different elements are important, because they are underscoring the way that the cause and effect approach, is used in combination with deductive reasoning. (Will, 2008)
The Impact of this Method in Supporting the Different Ideas
The impact of this approach is that Will is making very sound arguments, as he is discussing how these ideas could improve the quality of education that is being provided. This was effective at helping to illustrate how this approach is addressing one aspect of: the problem and should be embraced in the future. As a result, the information that was presented is relevant, because it helps the reader to see how other ideas could have an impact on education. Once this occurs, it means that other ideas and approaches…… [Read More]
emotional positioning stategies. Maketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(1), 9-29.
Philip Kotle, & David Getne. (2002). County as band, poduct, and beyond: A place maketing and band management pespective. Jounal of Band Management, 9(4/5), 249-261.
Matin, Bidget, & Simintias, Antonis C. (1995). The impact of geen poduct lines on the envionment: Does what they know affect how they feel? Maketing Intelligence & Planning, 13(4), 16.
Keith Naughton. (2007, Octobe). An Electic Deam: THE $98,000 Tesla Roadste aims to be the ultimate geen ca. Will it succeed?. Newsweek, 150(18), E6.
Jason D. Olive, & Seung-Hee Lee. (2010). Hybid ca puchase intentions: a coss-cultual analysis. The Jounal of Consume Maketing, 27(2), 96-103.
Potheo, A., McDonagh, P., & Dobscha, S.. (2010). Is Geen the New Black? Reflections on a Geen Commodity Discouse. Jounal of Macomaketing, 30(2), 147.
Sangkapichai, M., & Saphoes, J.. (2009). Why ae Califonians inteested in hybid cas? Jounal of Envionmental Planning…… [Read More]
The items are coded form 1= not at all to 7= a great deal. Two of the questions are:
In general, I consider myself not a very happy person (running the gamut to) a very happy person.
Compared to most of my peers, I consider myself: less happy (running the gamut to) more happy.
In order to most accurately and scientifically evaluate the effect of the differing variables, I will also closely scrutinize effects of other conditions in my life so as to ascertain that no stressors are occurring at the moment that may contaminate the study and raise or lower my happiness mood.
Being that this is a qualitative study, and that it will be difficult to bracket surrounding variables, I will use the phenomenological method to conduct this study. The phenomenological approach is best for understanding description of lived experience in regards to methods that include observation, interviews,…… [Read More]
break out of war in Afghanistan and Iraq propelled alarming forecasts about its most likely psychiatric effects. he chief of recuperation or readjustment therapy services at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) asserted that as high as 30% of soldiers deployed to Iraq may establish posttraumatic tension ailment (PSD) (Dentzer, 2003), a disorder that can arise following experience of gruesome, dangerous occasions, such as battle, natural catastrophes, and rape. PSD patients do not simply remember their injury; they reexperience it as vibrant sensory recollections (flashbacks), horror stories, and invasive ideas. hey feel reduced or small and mentally detached from the family, friends and loved ones, yet likewise stressful, cranky, and hyper-vigilant as if risk were permanently present.
Psychiatry ratified the PSD medical diagnosis in 1980, mainly in feedback to the belated awareness of its signs in Vietnam veterans whose troubles had actually long been improperly comprehended and dealt with. Undoubtedly,…… [Read More]
Autistic Childen Being Bon Inceasing o Wee They Always Thee?
Autism Spectum Disode (ASD) is a neuological disode which is defined by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (2015) as "the name fo a goup of developmental disodes. ASD includes a ... spectum, of symptoms, skills, and levels of disability." The spectum of conditions include a ange of potential common chaacteistics, including unusual and/o epetitive behavioual taits, poblems associated with communicating and inteacting with othe people, and symptoms which may advesely impact on an individual's ability to function socially (NIMH, 2015). The condition appeas to manifest in childen fom all ethnic backgounds, although eseach of Kogan et al. (2009), indicates that pevalence of the condition has a high incidence in cetain populations. Fistly, gende with epots that boys ae fou times moe likely to have ASD compaed to gils (Kogan et al., 2009). The National Institute of Neuological Disodes…… [Read More]
KATHAINE KOLCABA'S COMFOT THEOY
Evaluation of K. Kolcaba's Comfort Theory
Are the concepts in the theory explicitly and/or implicitly described in the theory?
(including the four concepts of the metaparadigm of nursing; nurse/nursing; person/patient; health; environment)? The descriptions of the theoretical concepts of comfort theory are provided below:
Nurse/nursing: According to Kolcaba (2003), "The term [nursing] can mean the discipline (noun) or what nursing does (the verb)" (p. 68);
Person/patient: Likewise, Kolcaba (2003) notes that "the concept [person] has been utilized as client, patient, family, community, region, or nation" (p. 68).
Health: "Health Care Needs" include those identified by the patient/family in a particular practice setting (Kolcaba, 2016, para. 3);
Environment: Generally, Kolcaba (2003) describes this concept as "where ever nurses practice" (p. 68).
b. Are the relationships of the theory concept relationships explicitly and/or implicitly described in the theory? According to Kolaba (2003), her definition characterizes comfort "as…… [Read More]
Nurse-headed telephone triage has increasingly been employed for managing physician consultation demands in British general practice. Prior research works are vague when it comes to delineating the association between nurse triage call results and practical clinical experience. A majority of studies are restricted to scrutinizing out-of-hours nurse phone triage. This particular study has been performed within the framework of current knowledge, thereby contributing a solution angle highly relevant to the nursing profession. This study's key purpose was investigating whether or not primary care nursing staff's (who undertake digital decision-backed software phone triage) professional traits are associated with call disposition (Varley, et al., 2016).
Telephone triage application is an approach utilized for tackling increasing nurse workloads. Nursing staff offer an effective and safe triage service within various settings such as primary care, in which they may prove efficient in terms of managing doctors' workload in out-of-hours and…… [Read More]