Psychologists, particularly psychodynamically-oriented psychologists, view defense mechanisms as allowing people to distance themselves from unpleasant feelings, thoughts, or behaviors. Defense mechanisms are typically categorized on how primitive they are; the more primitive defense mechanisms are typically more ineffective and less "mature." Defense mechanisms are typically unconscious in nature; that is they are activated immediately and without awareness when an individual feels threatened (Wijk-Herbrink, Andrea, & Verheul, 2011). The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) is a projective test that has been used to identify three levels of defense mechanisms in individuals: denial, projection, and identification (Cramer, 1991). The TAT has been validated with respect to its use for this task and is a widely used projective test to understand how people view others, their motivations, and other aspects of their personality (Cramer, 1991; Hibbard et al. 1994*).
Individuals that suffer from substance abuse and addiction have been identified…… [Read More]
There is a direct link between the unconscious mind and the ego’s defense mechanisms because defense mechanisms “operate at the unconscious level,” (McLeod, 2009). In fact, it is the ego that is responsible for creating and maintaining defense mechanisms, to defend itself from perceived attacks or to maintain a perceived equilibrium. Typically, people remain unaware that they are using defense mechanisms to react to discomfort. Psychotherapy is in part designed to help a person become aware of their defense mechanisms and to learn how to cope better with stress and anxiety. Defense mechanisms might have originally been designed by the ego as ways to protect itself, but they can have the reverse effect of causing harm because they can evolve into problems like phobias or behavioral disorders.
Almost everyone uses defense mechanisms. One common one is denial. Denial is a defense mechanism that protects the ego from facing…… [Read More]
The politician might also join or align himself with anti-pornography organizations, protest local laws and rules allowing the sales of erotic imagery and material to anyone not of legal age, and even author bills that censor erotic materials. The politician might even engage in an inordinate amount of public speaking engagements or endorsements supporting his reaction formation defense mechanism. This will pose an opportunity for him to denounce pornography and make it known to people how much of a social problem pornography is and how this needs immediate attention and action.
The politician might also be obsessed in proving his decency. Consequently, he might associate himself with people who are known to be celibate therefore publicly denouncing their sexual instincts such as priests, nuns, monks, etc. He might fight for the causes of these people. Innocence is also in stark opposition with eroticism which is why the politician might publicly…… [Read More]
Firstly, a married person with an individualist view will put their own needs ahead of the needs of the family group. If this person is not having their individual needs met, they may consider the marriage unsuccessful. However, a person with a collectivist view will put the needs of the family overall ahead of their own individual needs. At the same time, they will view the success of the marriage based on how everyone in the family is doing, not just on how they are doing. Secondly, people with individualist views will tend to think that what a person does in a marriage is their own business. This includes that the person should have the right to end or leave the marriage and should be free to make this decision for themselves. In contrast, a person with a collectivist view is likely to see marriage as a social institution that…… [Read More]
Psychodynamic and Psychoanalytic theory suggest that early stages of human development have a significant impact on our relationships and our ego throughout the life span. According to Freudian theories, manifested behavior is based on latent problems of the past. The therapeutic process of psychoanalysis is designed to help the client become aware of past problems or latent desires that have been suppressed during the process of psychological development. Key themes that emerge in the literature on psychoanalytic theory include the role of the unconscious mind in shaping self-concept and behavior, dreams as the language of the unconscious mind, and the development of ego defense mechanisms as psychological coping mechanisms.
Dream analysis is one of the hallmarks of Freudian theory and central to psychoanalysis. In this article, Hebbrecht (2013) presents several case studies from clinical practice to illustrate some of the ways dream recollection can be stimulated during therapy, and how…… [Read More]
, 2007) Finally, "projective identification involves projecting an affect, impulse, or thought onto someone else as if it were really that other person who originated the affect or impulse" (Drapeau et al., 2007).
Looking at the different defenses used by pedophiles, when compared to those used by the control group, it is easy to see how those defenses would be characterized as immature. The id, the ego, and the superego are considered the three levels of development for the individual psyche. The id is considered the most basic level of the psyche. It is where the libido resides, and it encompasses both constructive and destructive impulses. The ego is often cast as the mediator between the id and reality. It is an organized personality structure, and the ego is where many defense mechanisms are thought to reside. The ego is the id, as modified with direct contact with the outer…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the strategy still relies on the fact that the country is set to get a transition beyond the war on terror activities. This comes so early that the nation will not be ready to abandon some of the activities being done to counter terrorist attacks. Nonetheless, the U.S. is still experiencing numerous serious threats from its enemies like the al-Qaeda and other terrorist actors in the world. The strategy will serve as a good idea but a serious threat to the general existence of peace and stability in the country. The basic mechanisms of counterterrorism will be eradicated when the nation is facing serious certainties of attacks from the wounded enemies.
Asia in the balance: Transforming U.S. military strategy in Asia
After the Second World War, the United States has been at a forefront in ensuring the security of its allies and commodities found in China. The interests bestowed…… [Read More]
Allowing for such access necessarily creates a point of weakness, and this must be carefully guarded against through many levels of protection (Stuttard & Pinto 2007). Many of the same steps that are employed in access differentiation as described above can also be employed here -- multiple levels of access that is password protected, strict compartmentalization of data and of processes, and other features such as the recognition and removal of malicious input can all protect the opening that is created by administrative access to application information and code (Stuttard & Pinto 2007). Password-protected access to a web application's source code is one common example of this type of core defense capability, which grows more complex as both the complexity of the system and needs for security increase.
Direct Attacks and Unauthorized Use: A More Detailed View
Direct attacks on applications, especially web-based applications, are becoming increasingly common as programming…… [Read More]
he duties as also rights have led to directors and managers owing fiduciary duties to the shareholders, particularly loyalty, duties relating to care as well as condor. he failure to these duties enables the shareholders to sue the directors and managers to "stop certain actions from occurring or for damages stemming from actions that were not in the interests of shareholders. State corporate law, therefore, attempts to better align the interests of managers and directors with those of shareholders by imposing various obligations on managers and directors and then penalizing them if they fail to meet those obligations." (Edwards; Burns, 2003)
he third mechanism relates to the executive compensation. Here shareholders or the elected board of directors decides the structure of compensation. In addition to that the compensation is to be based on the stock performance of the company. hese mechanisms are supported by two concepts commonly known as the…… [Read More]
Strategic Defense in the Plant Kingdom
The purpose of this literature review is to detail the different ways plants protect themselves from predators. Knowledge of plant defenses can help boost understanding of more effective means of minimizing pesticide and herbicide use in agriculture or alternatively, to help develop more effective and targeted chemical pesticides and herbicides. Understanding plant defenses requires knowledge of plant biology and their role in their respective ecosystems. Moreover, their defenses ensure the survival not only of individual plants, but of whole ecosystems.
Plants have no immune system, in the same way animals do (Freeman & Beattie, 2008). Instead, they boast "a stunning array of structural, chemical, and protein-based defenses designed to detect invading organisms and stop them before they are able to cause extensive damage," (p. 1). The defenses plants have evolved to ward off predators can be loosely grouped into three categories: surface-based protections…… [Read More]
Active defense is a real defense and passive defense is a spurious defense by Mao Zedong
Active defense can be simply explained as a defense launched with an objective of counter attacking the enemy.
Passive defense can be defined as defending for the sake of it.
Mao Zedong, in explaining active defense, referred it to as offensive defense, or defending through resolute engagements (Mao, 1965). In referring to passive defense Mao (1965) referred to it as pure defense or defensive defense. Mao (1965) noted that passive defense is a spurious or an inauthentic type of defense. According to Mao Zedong the only real defense was active defense. Active defense according to Zedong was defending with the intention of launching a counter attack and taking on the offensive. The difference between active and passive defense is in the reaction (Mao, 1965).
Mao contrasted passive defense with…… [Read More]
aytheon's SWOT Analysis Detailed
One of the fundamental strengths of aytheon is its history. The company has been around since the early decades of the 20th century, and has regularly worked with different governmental agencies in both a covert and overt capacity since. As such, the company (which adopted its present name during 1959) (CorpWatch, 2007) is one of the more notable companies in the defense and aerospace industries. Its history adds to its reputation and, at this point, one can argue that its reputation influences its present regard in the business world.
Another definite strength of this company is its employees. The company has less than 100,000 employees. Moreover, it also has holdings and facilities in a worldwide capacity, which helps to keep its employment rates high. The primary boon associated with that number of employees is that the company has the manpower to keep pace with a…… [Read More]
National strategy is the art and science of development and usage of informational, diplomatic and economic powers of a country in union with its armed forces for purposes of securing national objectives during war and peace times. National strategies are a key delivery mechanism for several new and existing nations. It was first introduced in the year 1998 with the aim of assisting in developing educational settings to improve the standards and life expectancy of children. Troops in the Air Force have today become experienced exceptional at applying space, air and cyber powers to achieve operational and tactical objectives (Bush, 2002). The Air Force plays a big role in national security. Some of the critical capabilities that determines what the Air Force is able to provide for a nation include: action freedom in air, space and cyberspace; power projection; air diplomacy; global situational awareness; and military support to civil…… [Read More]
They also cannot be arbitrarily sold by users as an individual in a pure market economy, for instance, can, when he wishes to sell his good another.
Further, in a pure market economy all goods and services are produced by business and forces of supply and demand inevitably and conclusively determine prices. In a mixed economy, on the other hand, government purchases land or housing (for instance), requiring others to pay for these purchases, and then uses these purchases to produce further goods which it makes accessible to the public. Prices, rather than being implemented by forces of supply and demand, are charged by government to businesses and households often at rates below market price.
There is also a differnce between the categories of services offered by a mixed market enterprise and that of pure market where the mixed market sectors offer both transfer payments where government provides benefits to…… [Read More]
Driving hile Impaired in Canada
Tough new laws have been enacted in Canada in response to the problem of driving while impaired. In this case "impaired" means driving while intoxicated on alcohol -- being over the limit on blood alcohol (driving under the influence, DUI / driving while intoxicated, DI) -- or on drugs. This paper describes the issue, reviews the relevant legislation and laws, reviews the history of laws pertaining to impaired driving sanctions, and offers analysis of the contemporary legal situations regarding impaired driving laws in Canada.
hat is Impaired Driving?
The Ministry of Transportation in Ontario defines impaired driving as driving "while you ability is affected by alcohol or drugs… a deadly combination" (www.mto.gov.on.ca). The fact is that one drink can reduce a driver's ability to concentrate on the road and the traffic. Even one drink can affect a driver's reaction time, the MTO explains. The MTO…… [Read More]
Establishing ASEAN Defence Interaction Programmes
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Charter was formally adopted by the leaders of the ten Member States on 20 November 2007. Although the general original idea of an ASEAN Charter was proposed by Malaysia in 2004, it was not until 2005 that the decision to formulate the Charter was formally adopted at the Eleventh ASEAN Summit. In order to successfully transform the ASEAN Member States into an ASEAN Community, though, a number of structural changes are needed in its institutional framework.
More specifically, the idea to propose the establishment of various Defence Interaction Programmes by the (ASEAN) ten Member States is based on the recognition that that most ASEAN Member States already have their own interaction programmes undertaken at bilateral level. Having noted that ASEAN Member States have established their own interaction programmes at bilateral level, it is therefore necessary to elevate these…… [Read More]
Mandatory Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPS) and Major Automated Information System (MAIS) Acquisition Programs
Overview of DOD 5000.2-R
DOD Regulation 5000.2-R of 1996 specifies "Mandatory Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPS) and Major Automated Information Systems (MAIS)"
Its stated purpose is "to establish a simplified and flexible management framework for translating mission needs into stable, affordable, and well-managed programs" (DOD 5000.2-R). The regulation is organized into six parts with six appendices and contains thousands of specific requirements pertaining to acquisition programs. In contrast to DOD 5000.2-R, which defines an overarching DOD acquisition management process and mandatory procedures, the FAR regulates acquisition planning and contracting.
Analysis of DOD 500.2-R in Relation to Systems Engineering
Mandatory procedures for acquiring major systems are prescribed in DOD 5000.2-R
. These requirements will influence choices in acquisition planning for product lines. Despite the comprehensive size of DOD 5000.2-R, there are only a…… [Read More]
Since this control stems from the highest chain of command, a company's policies and procedures are usually directed by this authority (Droege, n.d.). Eisner took various actions in efforts to revive the company such as changing the organizational structure, hiring new management, controlling movie budgets and adopting a new company name.
This control mechanism not only depicts the extent of the suitable product but also influences the final product provided to customers. In Walt Disney Company, this control mechanism is evident in the company's decision to enter into film production after the failure of its initial cartoon business. The focus of the film production business is to maintain wholesome entertainment for the family.
Functions of these Control Mechanisms:
The major similarity between these four types of control mechanisms is that they have a significant effect on planning and organization of the company. These four control mechanisms are also…… [Read More]
(Combating Terrorism: FEMA Continues to Make Progress in Coordinating Preparedness and esponse: Participation in Interagency and Intra-agency Groups and Committees)
CIMS: The Office of Emergency Management --OEM who has been collaborating with NYPD & FDNY and other City agencies to develop the CIMS, the adoption of which was declared by Mayor Bloomberg in March, 2004. CIMS makes a uniform incident management structure for every City agency that is broadly based on the Incident Command System model. The setting up of CIMS ensures a system for management of emergencies with a universal understanding of terminologies and roles and responsibilities among all agencies. CIMS makes use of the combined lead agency/unified operations section. In case of the majority of the incidents where multiple agencies are needed to act on several emergency situations, a unified operations post is made. The core competencies of the primary agencies will establish command of authority for immediate…… [Read More]
Department of Defense Analysis of Parrott's The usiness Of War
It has come my attention that superiors at the Department of Defense (DOD) have requested my input on the historical role of played by private defense contractors, and the following report is intended to provide a synthesis of the work published by perhaps the most respected and recognized sources on this subject. Dr. David Parrott is the author of the seminal treatise on private military contracting throughout history -- titled The usiness of War: Military Enterprise and Military Revolution in Early Modern Europe -- and by adapting his thorough and comprehensive research on the influence of military enterprisers, mercenaries, and other segments of the private defense contracting industry, the DOD can formulate a more informed strategic foundation with which to shape future policy. As Parrott's writing style and logical construction can often be extremely obscure, the following biographical account and…… [Read More]
Thus while the father is meant to be resting from a difficult work week, he is instead caring for his family.
It is important to note the two places in the poem where the reader can see that the narrator has the benefit of hindsight in evaluating his father's good deeds. The first is at the end of the first stanza, where the narrator states "No one ever thanked him" (Hayden). The narrator now recognizes the flaws in his own actions. Yet it is not simply "I never thanked him," but "No one." The narrator recognizes that there was not only a flaw in their relationship, but in the way his father was treated by his family as a whole, and perhaps the world. The poem as a whole sets a tone of lower- or working-class people (the reference to hands weary from labor provides the best clue) who struggle,…… [Read More]
system of MANPAD mitigation and an outlook of what it ought to be today?
The United States secretary of states, Colin Powell, addressing the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation round-table, gave a warning that the most dangerous menace to aviation safety is the man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS). MANPADS are quite easy to use and are easily accessible in the black market. It, however, poses an urgent threat to both civilian and military aircrafts (Liams, n.d). Since the late 50s, when the American edeye was developed, several hundreds of thousands of these MANPADS have been produced around the world. The most popular and most numerous are the ussian (SA-7 and SA-14), Igla (SA-16 and SA-18) as well as the United States produced FIM-92 Stinger.
Since the September 11 terror attacks, the obvious menace terrorism poses to commercial aviation became the focus of great attention. The risk of shoulder-fired missile attacks on Man-Portable…… [Read More]
Australian Criminal Justice System
Formal mechanisms are required to make certain there is no bias or discrimination against the people. With informal mechanisms there was unfair treatment of the accused even to the point of receiving unjust sentencing. Those who had the power within the informal mechanisms often received the property or other goods once held by the accused, withhold evidence for personal benefit, or acted as vigilantes exacting their own justice (Lincoln and obinson, 2010).
Social control is best managed by those that have been elected to oversee the management of the changing formats of punishment for criminal behavior. The formal mechanisms work best when connected with matters of state within society (oach Anleu, 1998). One theory that demonstrates the interconnected relations is the Behaviorists Concept. This theory asserts that social control lies within governmental administration of what is considered a normal lifestyle through
Legislation, legal action and negotiation…… [Read More]
secondary literature and a survey of practitioners concerning the fact that Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) acquisition costs are often excessive because first article testing (FAT) requirements are often misapplied to DLA contracts. This study was guided by three objectives: (a) to determine the frequency of misapplication of First Article Testing requirements to Defense Logistic Agency contracts; (b) to determine Engineering Support Agency and Defense Logistics Agency employee interpretations of First Article Testing requirements; and, (c) to provide Engineering Support and Defense Logistics Agency employees with First Article test requirement discriminators that will assist with appropriate First Article Test requirement application to Defense Logistics Agency contracts. This study was also guided by the following research questions: (a) what major factors do Engineers and Defense Logistics Agency employees consider prior to applying First Article Test requirements to contracts?, and (b) what specific discriminators can be applied to First Article Test requirement decision…… [Read More]
Portfolio: Patients who express suicidal ideation should always be taken seriously. I have read that the greatest risk factor for suicide in previous attempts. Sometimes suicide can be considered a cry for help, and everyone who expresses some time of suicidal ideation deserves evaluation.
The form of psychotherapy I find the most appealing is the cognitive behavioral approach. It appeals to me since the focus if reparative and based on a desire to change one's behaviors which contribute to the problem which prompted therapy in the first place. Patients who engage in cognitive behavioral therapy require a certain degree of insight into how their behaviors contribute to their own emotions or feelings. The interaction of mind and body can be especially telling; many psychological disorders have physical manifestations and conversely, many chronic medical problems can also manifest emotional symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy allows the individual to recognize patterns…… [Read More]
This leads one to believe that they are not very well off financially and the mother has not real education in order to obtain employment since she is currently attaining administrative assistant training. Antonio also has issues with controlling his behavior when in the daycare environment, as he frequently has violent outbursts and crying spells.
If one were to assess Antonio from an Eco-Feminist perspective one would be better able to understand Antonio and his present behavior. Ecofeminism is the social movement that regards the domination of women and nature as unified. It is one of the few movements and analyses that in fact connect the two movements. Lately, ecofeminist theorists have extended their analyses to reflect on the interconnections flanked by sexism, the domination of nature, and also racism and social dissimilarities (What is Ecofeminism, n.d.). Daniel spent a lot of time suppressing Hilda in his behavior that he…… [Read More]
His overactive super-ego demands rigid acceptance of social conformity, including a set of standards that are applicable to him being a role model to others. He might ask himself the question, " that if he, as a conservative role model, cannot control his physical urges what then would a less "public" and conservative individual do if he or she were exposed to such materials? His response with regard to reaction formation might tell him that despite ample scientific evidence that arousal from erotic imagery is normal and even healthy and that the majority of people who view such material still remain within the confines of acceptable adult morality, that the average lesser individual might react to erotic material by committing adultery, raping or acting sexually aggressive toward someone, turn deviant (i.e. gay), or the worst case scenario inappropriately touch a child. All of these fears are aspects of reaction formation,…… [Read More]
Consumer Behavior for Marketing
Understanding Consumer Behavior
Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…… [Read More]
e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations" (DSM-IV, 2000));
d) has no empathy for those he has taken advantage of, such as family members (asking for a loan), landlords (failure to pay rent on time), investors (when the company goes "belly up" (DSM-IV, 2000)).
American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Desk Reference. (ashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association).
Assumptions held by BPD Sufferers." BPD Central ebsite. Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.bpcentral.com/resources/basics/assumptions.shtm
Bardi, Jason Socrates. "Molecules on the Mind." News & View section. Vol. 3, Issue 5, Feb. 10, 2003. The Scripps Research Institute eb site retrieved November 24, 2003 at http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20030210/sutcliffe.html
Borderline Personality Disorder - Fear: A Roller-Coaster Ride." Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.borderlinepersonality.ca/borderrollercoaster.htm
From the Inside Out by a.J. Mahari)
Diagnostic Criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Dysthymia Symptoms." Retrieved…… [Read More]
Snow hite has a low sense of self-efficacy. She dreams of a prince making her life better, not of making her life better through her own initiative She does not leave her cruel stepmother's home, rather she waits until she is literally forced out in a life or death situation, even though she was being abused and used as a scullery maid. This behavior may also tie into her strong superego as a character -- she does not openly disobey her stepmother, ever, and works hard to earn her keep for the dwarves. However, her superego's strength is inconsistent -- she breaks into a home rather than takes refuge somewhere else, and allows herself to eat an apple from a stranger.
Snow hite is the subject of her stepmother's projections -- all of the woman's fears about aging and her loss of beauty are projected onto the girl, and the…… [Read More]
personality - Sigmund Freud.
In a healty person, parts interact? 3) In unhealthy person, interact? Give a faulty interaction lead problems a person? 4) In ur words Defense Mechanisms? 5) Give 2 examples Defense Mechanism: Repression Displacement Rationalization Regression Projection Reaction Formation Sublimation.
Sigmund Freud's personality theory describes the three parts of the personality as the id, the ego, and the superego. The Austrian psychoanalyst considered that people are born with an id, a feature that assists them in getting them whatever pleasures them. The Id will stop at nothing from accomplishing an individual's basic needs and does not allow him or her to express any interests in things other than his or her own well being. As a child's understanding of the world evolves, the ego starts to govern his or her thinking as he or she starts to notice that other people's interests are also important. The ego…… [Read More]
Charlie Fineman who is played by actor Adam Sandler in the 2007 movie Reign Over Me, is a man who, following the 9/11 attacks, has lost his wife and daughters. Unable to confront the trauma consciously, he develops an unusual behavior, choosing to cut himself off from the life he used to know before the tragic events occurred. He becomes withdrawn and non-communicative, his behavior reflecting a vegetative state. He feels unable to let go of the past and develops an obsessive, non-dangerous attachment that determines him to remodel his kitchen regularly. Because of the last words he had said to his wife, remodeling the kitchen became Fineman's response to the guilt he was feeling. He thus developed a survivor's guilt to which he responded. He also cannot respond positively to social interactions because he has implanted himself with the belief that people would only remind him of the loss…… [Read More]
First, when he becomes depressed because ita rejects him, he becomes depressed and even tries to commit suicide numerous times. He isolates himself, and thinks only about his own problems. Later, he reacts to what is happening and uses reaction formation to recreate his life and thereby change the outcome of each Groundhog Day. He goes through several stages, and uses defense mechanisms to cope with each stage as he makes it through to the next stage.
One of the coping mechanisms Phil used was suicide as a way out of his problem. That did not work so he had to find another way to deal with his dilemma and his stress. He also uses manipulation as he tries to get to know ita and make her fall in love with him. He manipulates her day after day to learn everything about her and become the "perfect" man for her.…… [Read More]
Many fellow psychoanalysts, mostly men who were several years her senior, courted her, the most notable of whom was Ernest Jones, the British analyst who is best remembered for being Sigmund Freud's biographer. The budding romance between the nineteen-year-old Anna and Jones was, however, nipped in the bud by Freud's suspicions and hostility toward Jones' interest in his daughter. (Gardner and Stevens, 1992)
Her Major Contribution
Anna Freud's contribution in the fields of 20th century psychiatry and psychoanalysis is second, perhaps, only to that of her father. Her genial nature apart from the quality of her work made her popular among her colleagues despite her professional differences with psychoanalysts such as Melanie Klein. (Fine 1992)
Anna Freud started her writings by translating her father's works into English and helped him to articulate his current works. She, however, had too much intellect to remain under her illustrious father's shadow all her…… [Read More]
Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality
The three major psychoanalytic theories and approaches to personality could not be more different. Freud, who focuses on early childhood and sexual urges, differs from Jung who focuses on the unconscious, who differs from Adler who focuses on human motivation and superiority (Weiten, 2005). Of course, what they all have in common is trying to tease out an understanding of human personality. This paper will compare and contrast each of Freud's, Jung's, and Adler's psychoanalytic approaches, as well as two characteristics in which this author agrees or disagrees with the theories presented. Then the focus will mainly be on Freud and his structure to personality, and finally using real world examples for his defense mechanisms. Overall, this paper strives to present a well-rounded view of Freud's theory, and the theories of his time.
The structural model for Freud's psychoanalytic theory is based on three different levels…… [Read More]
psychological trauma, and how does she relate it to repression? What evidence does she supply in support of her claim? Do you agree with her stance on this basic issue?
Slater, in her usual creative style, believes the current methods of dealing with psychological trauma to be ineffective in regards to the identifying a root cause. In fact, Slater believes the act of talking about a traumatic occurrence in an individual's life actually exacerbates the problem. Recollecting past events through constant conversation, Slater believes, does nothing to address the root cause of the problem. Further, by talking incessantly about this traumatic experience, patients may actually become more ill than they otherwise were. This is particularly important when patient are asks to revisit controversial areas in their lives in order to rid themselves of the traumatic event altogether. Slater is very quick to point out that conversation actually, emblazon fear within…… [Read More]
Freud, Jung and tar Wars
The tar Wars movies, especially the first three, are clearly a type of myth written to demonstrate archetypal personalities. The characters are driven by their behavior, so what they do and why they take the actions they take can be used to analyze their characters in terms of Jungian and Freudian theories.
In the Empire trikes Back, many of the characters are acting out of great personal need or personal striving, and many of them fit fairly well into Jung's theory or archetype personalities.
The "elf" is the highest form a personality can take, well integrated and centered. To become a self-actualized elf is Luke kywalker's goal and the final achievement of his mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobe. In an interesting twist, Darth Vader also sees himself that way. He believes self-actualization can be either good or evil, and finds evil more powerful and rewarding.
Most viewers…… [Read More]
Psychology Movie elation
A ose for Emily
Diagnosing a psychological complication are a daunting task and one that requires immense responsibility of the concerned health professionals who examine the patient and decide the appropriate diagnosis (APA, 2001). Among the many variables that a psychological professional observes, are the patient's past life history. For Emily, an examination of the setting and characters in the plot, and an assessment of some of the themes in Faulkner's short story, A ose for Emily and the occurrences involving Emily's father aids the reader to comprehend the pressures with which Emily tried coping and how she might have suffered from schizophrenia. Emily came from a family of high stature and affluence in their southern community and always had a burden of enormous expectations that people had for her. Her community anticipated her to have a hereditary obligation to uphold traditions, norms that her ancestors had…… [Read More]
Grey with a way to accommodate the needs of their Ids and their Superegos. Their Superegos imposed the societal constraints on sexual relationships, which would drive both Lee and Mr. Grey to enter into monogamous sexual relationships. Their Ids drove Lee and Mr. Grey to seek immediate gratification of their aggressive urges through sexual behavior. By entering into a relationship with each other that allows them to fulfill both needs, Lee and Mr. Grey allow their Egos to reconcile the needs of their Ids and Superegos.
Furthermore, the Secretary addresses the issue of sexuality, and highlights the intimate relationship between sexuality and aggression. The unusual thing about the Secretary is that it demonstrates that a relationship that might be viewed as deviant was actually helpful to both members of the relationship. Prior to becoming involved with one another, Lee and Mr. Grey are both in pretty bad shape. Lee was…… [Read More]
.. provide nourishment for the small organisms on which jellyfish feed. In waters where there is eutrophication, low oxygen levels often result, favoring jellyfish as they thrive in less oxygen-rich water than fish can tolerate. The fact is that jellyfish are increasing is a symptom of something happening in the ecosystem."
Researchers have been the ones that have as well contended that in some arias, such as the Gulf of Mexico or the Adriatic Sea, jellyfish have taken the role of fish, the former animals' number being far greater than the one of the latter's, and this can be as well put on the intensity with which the human intervene in the nature's life. Moreover, it has been observed that in the above-mentioned areas jellyfish have formed a sort of "gelatinous cover" of the water. In my opinion, this might be the reason for which during many years, Jelly researchers…… [Read More]
Mold Spore Trapping
Current Scientific Knowledge
People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.
Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.
Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…… [Read More]
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'
A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…… [Read More]
In retrospect it is incredible how much time and energy went into this endeavor and how little came out of it.. Hull perhaps added somewhat more to our knowledge of the behavior of the rat than Titchener did to our understanding
Clark Hull 7 of human consciousness, but not much. His basic approach turned out to be, to use a precisely appropriate metaphor in his world of rats and mazes, a blind alley.
One of Hull's starting points was in noting that conditioning theory failed to deal convincingly with motivation. He was astute enough to recognize that motivation may be viewed as either a learned aspect of behavior (as Guthrie viewed it) or as a behavioral determinant independent of learning (as Tolman viewed it). Either way, it needed to be given greater importance. Hull drew on Freud's "instincts" as motivating forces, but changed the word to "drives" in his own…… [Read More]
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…… [Read More]
When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).
Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…… [Read More]
The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.
Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The…… [Read More]
Mead and Freud
One of the most fundamental questions for the field of psychology - indeed of all human questing for knowledge - is how it is that we come to be the way that we are. What is it that makes us human? And to what extent is human nature shared and to what extent are we each unique? Two of the founding scholars of the discipline of psychology - Sigmund Freud and George Herbert Mead - both created models to explain how fundamental and arguably universal human psychic structures developed. Their models do not entirely refute each other, but they do propose distinctly different interior roadmaps of the human psyche as well as very different pathways by which core psychic structures develop.
We may begin by examining Mead's model, which was an Interactionist one. Interactionism was one of the most important developments in psychological (as well as educational…… [Read More]
The 2012 movie, Silver Linings Playbook, provides a rather correct view of numerous mental health-related aspects and the impact it has on families and relationships. Bipolar disorder-diagnosed Patrick Solitano Jr. is enrolled in an eight-month court-commanded psychiatric hospital intervention after viciously assaulting a man his wife was cheating on him with. This mood disorder is accompanied by manic episodes (discrete minimum-seven-day-long periods of uncharacteristically and continually cantankerous, elevated, or expansive moods). Symptoms include escalated self-esteem, reduced need to sleep, impulsiveness, and quick speech, accurately portrayed by Pat in the movie. This results in vacillating extremely good and extremely bad moods together with acute impairment and distress, necessitating rigorous, steady medications (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Also, bipolar disorder patients typically have highly intense and charismatic personalities, as seen in Pat Jr. The character is quick to form an emotional bond with Tiffany, an unusual lady who is herself burdened by mental…… [Read More]
Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared with Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents
I Situations Faced by Children of Alcoholic Parent(s)
II ehavior of Children with Alcoholic Parent(s)
II Hypothesis #2
I The Possibility of Developing Alcoholism on ACOA's
II ACOA's have Lower Self-Esteem Compared to Non-ACOA's
Comparing the Differences etween ACOAs and Non-ACOAs in Terms of Social and Intimate Relationships
IV Protective Factors For Resiliency
Children of Alcoholics Screening Test
Are You an Alcoholic?
Intimate ond Measure
Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale
The family is one of the most important institutions in our society today. It is from our family where we are able to develop ourselves and start the journeys we take in life. Usually, the upbringing of each family member depends on the psychological nature of the other members who are able to provide influence or may have cause effects…… [Read More]
It was a compilation of all her lectures, and a straight assault at Melanie Klein's theories. (Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society) The contradicting theoretical and technical differences between Melanie Klein's and Anna Freud's approaches resulted in the formation of two parallel groups by The British Psychoanalytical Society to avert a major separation in the institution. (Anna Freud: (http://www.geocities.com)
As Anna continued her analysis on children, it turned out to be obvious that her analysis of children varied from her father's analysis of adults. She disproved her father's Little Hans analysis and employed separate techniques with the children. Her father's statement that symptoms give a basis for diagnosis was not acceptable as children's symptoms are not the same as those of adults as per Anna. They are linked to specific developmental phases, and they are frequently temporary in subject. At the time her practice was rising,…… [Read More]
The is also based on drive-defence model which was advanced by Freud.
The second topology one includes the less common dreams whose meaning are different and should therefore be treated and handled in the light of latest theoretical frameworks as advanced by Kohut Self-psychology. He referred to these dreams as "Self-state dreams" which are experienced when the patient's psychological structure stability is in jeopardy .Such crisis or threat usually occur in different pathological states, the states can however vary from being hyper-stimulation (maniacal), to tension reduction in approach of a depressed state. This might lead to a serious problem related to the of the psychic structure's disintegration .
Kohut in (1977) stated that the act of exhibiting the elements of a dream makes up the attempt by the unconscious to tackle the psychological dangers that are related to the actual processes portrayed in the visual images in the dream
Through…… [Read More]
..Dad was an impatient man, any display of weakness made him squirm. Mom smiled at his words of criticism but rarely contradicted, not quick or bold enough, to match wits with him" (77).
Another symbolic illustration of suppression within Oates' family in "We were" is the apparent conflict that Bim experiences for his father. He tries to suppress both love and hate for his father, for expressing love would mean "weakness" on Bim's part, not to mention his fear of being rejected when he shows his love for his father. Bim's hate is also suppressed mainly for fear of retribution from his father. It is evident that as a child, Bim is limited to express his feelings -- thus, suppression operates as his way of not acknowledging and hiding the existence of feelings of love and hate, which, at the same time, protects him from feelings of hurt and embarrassment.…… [Read More]
Accepting Client Assignments
Outstanding client service begins with a full understanding of the client organization, its business needs and the position to be filled. An AESC member should:
Accept only those assignments that a member is qualified to undertake on the basis of the member's knowledge of the client's needs and the member's ability to perform the specific assignment.
Disclose promptly conflicts of interest known to the AESC member and accept assignments only if all affected parties have expressly agreed to waive any conflict.
Develop an understanding with the client that, among other things, makes clear the organizational entity that is defined as the client organization, the fees and expenses to be charged, and any ongoing assurances or guarantees relating to fulfillment of the assignment.
Agree with the client concerning any "off-limits" restrictions or other related policies that govern when and how the member may recruit from the defined client…… [Read More]
Basic Concepts of Human Interaction
Conformity & Obedience
Human interaction is the phenomenon which takes place when two humans have a tendency to have an effect over one another. Individuals are mainly unaware of the fact that they are responding to the external factors and are adapting to the surroundings. Every situation requires the humans to react differently and thus demands a different mannerism altogether. A simple example of such behavior is individual's behavior which shows professionalism in the work-related settings whereas the same individual will exhibit different behavior when found with friends or family. Hence, every situation requires individual to consider the external factors requiring thorough analysis of what to say and how to respond. The two fundamental examples of such behavior are conformity and obedience. These two terms may sound the same however individuals exhibit these two sets of behavior differently in different situations.
Human behavior…… [Read More]
relationship and development of child's personality -- developmental theories in Integrative psychotherapy and their use by working with clients
The foundation of our daily lives is created on the relationships that we have with other people. This contact with others, a feeling of reverence it produces and the relational needs it satisfies are all the requirements for us. Our capability to make complete contact with others is frequently disturbed as we confront the unavoidable sufferings of life, either large or small. Psychological dysfunction will result if contact decreases and relational needs get curtailed. Through a method called Integrative Psychotherapy, people can revive their capability to uphold real relationships and improved psychological health. The integrative psychotherapy is based on oger's client-centered therapy, Berne's transactional analysis, Perls Gestalt therapy, Kohut's self-psychology, and also the contributions of British object-relations theorists. (Erskine; Moursund; Trautmann, 1999)
Integrative psychotherapy involves a practice of psychotherapy…… [Read More]
The fog is actually generated by two painful experiences in Chief's past: first, the fog in his mind is a recurrence of the brain treatments ordered by Nurse Ratched, and secondly, the fog is a direct reference to the actual fog machine of World War II operated by military intelligence in order to obscure what was occurring on the airfield (Lupack 70) as Chief recalls: "Whenever intelligence figured there might be a bombing attack, or if the generals had something secret they wanted to pull -- out of sight, hid so good that even the spies on the base couldn't see what went on -- they fogged the field" (Kesey 116).
Generally speaking, the themes of a particular novel cannot be fully understood outside the social context of the plot. This also largely applies to "One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest" whose plot is set in the 1950s which also…… [Read More]
Anna Freud: Psychoanalyst and Pioneer
Anna Freud is considered a pioneer in the development of child psychoanalysis. Her work focused on how the ego functions in averting anxiety and painful ideas, impulses and feelings. Many credit her as being one of the primary ego psychoanalysts that stepped 'outside of the block' and delivered a fresh and new perspective on the psychology of personality.
Among her more memorable works included" The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence" which challenges traditional psychoanalytic thought. Her contributions are primarily in the realm of child therapy. Anna Freud is credited with developing a theory that helps explain among other things, communication patterns and personality/behavioral development in children.
An Austrian-British psychoanalyst, Anna Freud was the youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha (Wesley, 1992). She is most well-known for her work with children. Born in Vienna in 1895, Freud first worked as…… [Read More]
Narcissist Personality Disorder
Examining narcissistic personality disorder (NPD)
What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is commonly termed as 'a continuous pattern of magnificence (fantasies and illusions), desire for praises and lacking compassion'. It is notably described by five key elements as mentioned below:
Illusions of self-importance
An obsession with illusions of huge success, fame, love, beauty and wealth
Faith in being unique / special
Desiring constant praise
Having a sense of entitlement
Jealous of others
Increasingly arrogant / ego-maniac / having attitude problem (Skodol, Bender & Morey, 2014).
Features and symptoms of NPD
NPD (Narcissistic Personality Disorder) are typically indicative of susceptible self-esteem where attention seeking and desiring constant praises are a given, whilst having overt and covert illusions of grandeur. There are troubles in having an identity, intimacy, compassion, self-direction and lastly, certain maladaptive characteristics of antagonism (Skodol, Bender & Morey, 2014).…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]
Defense mechanisms, the unconscious, coping mechanisms, self-actualization and archetypes are other examples. The ultimate and most useless example is the "little person," that resides in everyone and explains his behavior. These include ideas like soul, mind, ego, will, self and personality. Skinner, instead, suggests that psychologists should put their energies on what is observable, such as the environment and human behavior occurring in the environment (oeree).
This therapy states three core conditions under which growth may occur (Mulhauser,
2011). These core conditions proceed from the assumption that a person naturally possesses the inner resources for growth. He is the best authority on his own experience. He also believes in his capability to realize his own potential for growth. The therapy, however, recognizes that the realization depends on favorable conditions. Under adverse conditions, a person is often denied unconditional acceptance and positive regard. He then fails to apprehend the…… [Read More]