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Delegation Essays (Examples)

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Importance of Empowerment
Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36668839
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Delegation and Empowerment Approaches Used in Organizations

Delegation is the process that facilitates the management processes and practices within the context of an organization. In the development of an organization, the manager should be able to provide effective communication methods to enhance interaction with the subordinate staffs. Delegation refers to the process of managing and coaching employees who possess the required level of competence to execute the responsibilities at hand. The coaching and management of the employees offers the needed empowerment to the officials thus developing skills to survive on their own. The employees would develop significant skills to tackle and execute obligations and duties in the absence of their managers and supervisors. In the contemporary world, organizations adopt numerous delegation and empowerment approaches to enhance the performance and productivity levels of the business entity. The empowerment and delegation approaches aim at enhancing the level of decision-making, adoption of…


Hardina, D. (2006). An empowering approach to managing social service organizations. New York: Springer.

Daft, R.L. (2010). Organization theory and design. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage


Bennis, W.G., & Townsend, R. (2005). Reinventing leadership: Strategies to empower the organization. New York: Harper Collins.

Current Best Practices for Nursing
Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91199204
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How can nurses recognize their own accountabilities and responsibilities when delegating aspects of care to others?
It is a difficult task for nurse to understand precisely what to do in the delegation process as there are many conflicting guidelines and opinions on the subject. The only sure way for registered nurses to properly fulfill their responsibilities of delegation, is to maintain a relationship with the nurses they delegated and be available for them when necessary. At the same time, nurses need to be sure to give trainees space in order for them to learn independently. Patience, observance, and guidance are the techniques essential to registered nurses attempting to provide quality delegation.
How can nurses delegate and supervise others consistent with legislation and organizational policy?
In order to delegate and supervise their trainees, registered nurses need to strictly comply with the current legislation and organizational policies existing in their place of…

Reference List
Corazzini K. N., Anderson R. A., Rapp C. G., Mueller C., McConnell E. S., & Lekan D. (2010). Delegation in Long-term Care: Scope of Practice or Job Description? The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15.
Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (2007). National framework for the development of decision-making tools for nursing and midwifery practice. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council.

Republic Manages Its Imperial Reach 1900-1914
Words: 1078 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14447204
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International Peace Conference

The purpose of this work is to examine the First International Peace Conference and identify the background, or what led to the meeting of delegations, the factors, actors and what was as stake. Further to explore the decisions and interactions that took place as well as the outcomes of the conference. Finally to evaluate the outcome and examine what might have been done differently as well as how the effect of a different outcome may have demonstrated itself historically.

The spring and summer of 1899 was witness to the gathering of twenty-six nations of the world for the First International Peace Conference which was held at the "House in the Woods" at The Hague by generous offer of The Netherlands Queen, Wilhemenia. Although the gathering failed to effectively address disarmament the adoption of other important agreements and conventions paved the way for collective efforts to follow.



Low, S. "The International Conference of Peace" The North American Review 516 (Nov. 1899) 626 Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at: 

Mahan, Captain A.T. "The Peace Conference and the Moral Aspect of War. The North American Review 515 (Oct. 1899) 439-440. Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at

Paterson, T. (2000) "American Foreign Relations" V.1. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company 239

Low, S. "The International Conference of Peace" The North American Review 516 (Nov. 1899) 626 Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at http://cdl.library.cornell.educgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABQ7578-0169-53

Subdomain 724 7 Professional Roles and Values
Words: 811 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96799947
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Professional oles and Values

Steps to promote interdisciplinary care in the clinic to improve quality and continuity of care for clients

As a nurse supervisor, I would break down the walls at the clinic's working environment by enforcing teamwork before nurses embark on their work. I would expand interdisciplinary working programs and opportunities to assist in fostering collaboration among healthcare professionals at the clinic. This will lead to more effective and improved communication across inter-disciplines. Evidently, this will ultimately result in a higher quality, more affordable and safer care. I would implement various strategies in fostering inter-disciplinary working environment. This will include inter-professional social events, inter-professional days, inter-disciplinary clinic activities, appointments of joint faculties and social sites for networking including healthcare professionals from various fields related to healthcare (Parcells & Coplon, 2011).

How to approach Ms. W about delegation and teamwork in a positive manner

As the supervisor in charge…


Dhar, R.L. (2009). Strategic human resource management. New Delhi, India: Excel Books

Lipe, S.K., & Beasley, S. (2008). Critical thinking in nursing: A cognitive skills workbook.

Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Parcells, B., & Coplon, J. (2011). Finding a way to win: The principles of leadership, teamwork, and motivation. New York: Doubleday

Team Organization Models for Team Behavior Within
Words: 1425 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22748598
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Team Organization

Models for team behavior within the organization

Teams have become an increasingly ubiquitous part of complex, modern organizations. One survey of 962 H leaders found that fifty-four percent of respondents spent up to 30% of their day in team settings (Blanchard 2012). No longer are individual employees solely appraised in terms of their individual usefulness: their ability to function as part of a team is essential. "Organizations are more networked, more flexible, and more dynamic than ever before. Outsourcing, globalization, and competitive pressures are forcing organizations to rely more on work teams comprised of not only of employees, as well as outside experts or counterparts from allied organizations" (Blanchard 2012). Teams may composed of a combination of external or internal employees and they are invariably diverse and multifaceted.

Although every team is different, certain genetic rubrics have been developed to assess how teams function, the most famous of…


Blanchard, K. (2013). Critical role of teams. Retrieved: 

Chapman, Alan. (2009). Bruce Tuckman: Storming, norming, and performing. Retrieved:

Own Scope of Competence
Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22157002
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XXXXX University (Place of Research)

In nursing, one is expected to be accountable and responsible for one's own actions. This is also true for anyone the nurse delegates a task to. A nurse has the right to delegate or not delegate, depending on the circumstances surrounding the patient, but a nurse always has the responsibility of patient care foremost. Responsibility, accountability and delegation were expectations set in place for nurses in order to provide the best care for any patient. In most cases, a licensed nurse is held accountable for any student nurse working under their supervision, and the student nurse's actions. This does not give student nurses a free pass to make mistakes, and student nurses are expected to uphold the nursing standards just as licensed nurses would. The level of accountability and responsibility is dependent on a nurse's professional level.

Accountability in nursing is continuing education after…

Nursing According to the Joint Statement on
Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58695806
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According to the Joint Statement on Delegation produced by the American Nurses Association (ANA) and the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) "the N assigns or delegates tasks based on the needs and condition of the patient, potential for harm, stability of the patient's condition, complexity of the task, predictability of the outcomes, abilities of the staff to who the task is delegated, and the context of other patient needs" (Joint Statement).

In this particular case, it is easy to determine the frustrating aspects affecting Ms. W. It can also be a relatively simple matter to correct the situation in order to ensure effective care for Ms. . The nursing supervisor in this case would sit down with Ms. W. And map out a strategy for the patient's care, remembering of course that the key to successful delegation "depends on the quality of N and NAP working…


Joint Statement on Delegation, American Nurses Association and the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN).

Potter, P.; Deshields, T.; & Kuhrik, M.; (2010) Delegation practices between registered nurses and nursing assistive personnel, Journal of Nursing Management, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp. 157-165

Leadership Discussions First Half Conflicting Obligations Identify
Words: 1899 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47061301
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Leadership Discussions First Half

Conflicting Obligations

Identify at least two ethical dilemmas that occur when you are in a position of leadership. What makes the dilemmas ethical? Would you expect each person to react to the dilemma in the same way?

People have different ways of reacting to dilemmas. In my position as a leader, I have encountered a situation where I had to choose tow rights. In this case, I was entangled in a dilemma because I value both student achievement and teacher autonomy when I pursue to enact policies that lower expectations. This was a heightened conflict because all school heads are public officials obligated to various people with competing interests and values. My position comes with dilemmas such as deciding whether to report teachers with questionable grading decisions. This dilemma is ethical because it puts pressure on the need to make ethical decisions. Further, in my response,…


Anthony, M. (2004). Shared governance models: the theory, practice, and evidence. Online Journal Of Issues In Nursing, 9(1). Retrieved from 


Bittner, N., & Gravlin, G. (2009). Critical thinking, delegation, and missed care in nursing practice. Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(3):142 -- 146

DeSilets, L., & Dickerson, P. (2008). SWOT is useful in your tool kit. Journal Of Continuing

Leadership in the Public Sector
Words: 2524 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97046283
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Leadership is a challenging endeavor in any sector. In the public sector, however, leadership tends to be particularly more challenging. Public sector leaders often have to work with fewer resources to address increasingly complex challenges. In addition, effective leadership in the public sector is vital for not only driving employee motivation and performance, but also ensuring efficient performance of government agencies and the government in general (McCarthy, 2015). Indeed, leadership is important for effective public governance -- transparency, accountability, planning, efficiency, and so forth (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD], 2001). Another challenge stems from the fact that public sector leaders operate within a conundrum of bureaucratic rules, processes, and processes, which affect processes such as communication, delegation, and teamwork (Teelken, Ferlie & Dent, 2012). In essence, leaders in the public sector face different challenges compared to their counterparts in the private sector, making public sector leadership an especially…

Teams Over the Last Several Years the
Words: 2447 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63124348
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Over the last several years, the role of leadership delegation has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because of the continuing need to use these skills sets in achieving critical objectives. According to Lussier (2010) this is an essential tool that is utilized as a part of their position with him saying, "To execute both roles effectively is a challenge. It is not an easy task, given the high potential for conflicts and ambiguities. Leaders are held responsible for everything that happens in work unit. Yet, they are also required to delegate considerable responsibility and authority to their followers to empower them in resolving problems on their own. In effect, leaders are asked to train and develop followers, who may eventually want the leader's job." (Lussier 2010)

Over the long-term, this allows organizations to train other individuals who can easily fill these roles. This makes them stronger…


Bass, B, 1990, 'From Transactional to Transformational Leadership', Organizational Dynamics, vol. 20, no 3, pp. 19 -- 31.

Blanchard, K, 1996, 'How to get your group to perform like a team', Training & Development, vol. 50 no. 9, pp. 34-37.

Chong, E, 2007, 'Role balance and team development: A study of team role characteristics underlying high and low performing teams', Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, vol. 8 no. 3, pp. 202-217.

Girrard, B, 2009, The Google Way, No Scratch, San Francisco.

Nurse Australia Registered Nursing in
Words: 559 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12250154
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The legal and professional authority to delegate certain medical responsibilities and to supervise the administering of care by other healthcare workers is conferred to registered nurses upon their licensing and registering with the appropriate government and professional entities, which is itself dependent upon the completion of an accredited academic and professional training program in nursing (Meadley 2009; GDU 2011). Enrolled nurses, on the other hand, retain responsibility for their own actions but are only authorized to perform those tasks that are delegated to them by registered nurses, and enrolled nurses due not serve in any supervisory capacity themselves (CN 2004; Meadley 2009).

The strategies for maintaining appropriate delegation methods and practices are relatively simple and straightforward. All healthcare workers should be entirely aware of their position and the level of their authority in regards to deciding care practices and simply by holding themselves to these standards and limitation these healthcare…


GDU. (2011). Enrolled v Register Nurses. Accessed 31 January 2011. 

Meadley, L. (2009). Definitions and qualifications for registration as a nurse. Nursing in general practice. Accessed 31 January 2011.

RNC. (2004). The Enrolled or Division 2 Nurse. Royal College of Nursing.

Hybrid Rulemaking
Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40534821
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Administrative Law and Procedure Act Delegation Doctrine

Administrative law is a subtype of the public legal framework. Administrative law developed as a legal setup to govern the actions of administrative bodies in the country. Governmental agencies have the power to create new laws, and they have the authority to enforce a specific piece of legislation as well. The core objective behind operationalization of administrative agencies is to provide safety to public. The same set of laws works to provide legal service to the people, so that their conflicts can be managed in a civilized way. Administrative law covers the important sectors of the judiciary, environmental management, production, corporate actions, and broadcasting. Additionally, administrative law covers the public policy about taxations, immigrations, and transport (Stewart, 1975). The volume of administrative law increased in the past century. Governments all around the world created an increasing number of agencies in order to regulate…


Bevan, C. (2013). Interpreting Statutory Purpose -- Lessons from Hemshaw v London Hounslow Borough. Modern Law Review Vol 76 (4), 735-756.

Stewart, R.B. (1975). The Reformation of American Administrative Law. Harvard Law Review Vol 88 (8), 1667-1813.

Williams, S.F. (1975). "Hybrid Rulemaking" under the Administrative Procedure Act: A Legal and Empirical Analysis. The University of Chicago Law Review Vol 48 (3), 401-456.

Diversity of Employees and Business Constraints
Words: 1474 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77053924
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diversity of employees and the increased constraints on businesses such as international competition and an increasingly fast-paced environment, it is more important than ever that companies have a strong management team in place that promises the results required for success. This necessitates employees that are motivated and satisfied with their work.

All personnel are motivated by a desire to fulfill key specific needs that are essential to the well being of humans in general. It is important that these needs be met for the employees to accomplish their work in the best way possible. According to theorist Abraham Maslov, who designed a needs hierarchy in the mid-1940s, it is necessary to satisfy both physiological and safety needs to fully motivate a person.

Maslov (1968) grouped human needs into five separate categories, from bottom to top: Physiological needs that include the basic human physical requirements such as warmth, shelter, food and…

References Cited

Chawla, S. & and Renesch, J. (Eds.) (1995) Learning organizations: Developing cultures for tomorrow's workplace. Portland: Productivity Press.

Heller, R., & Hindle, T. (1998) Essential manager's manual. New York: DK Publishing.

Herzberg F., Mausner F. & Snyderman B. (1959) The motivation to work New York:


RN's and Lpn's Similarities and Differences
Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17249398
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RN vs. LPN


Differences in Scope of Practice for RN and LPN

The Nurse Practice Act

Definitions and Practice Differences

Statute 65-1113 of this document defines a registered or professional nurse or RN as one possessing a license to practice professional nursing for free or for pay (KSN, 2014). She has acquired substantial specialized knowledge in the biological, physical and behavioral sciences for the care, diagnosis, treatment, counsel and education of those in their care. Care covers treatment or prevention of disordered conditions or the administration of a medical plan by a licensed health professional (KSN). Her duties are often expansive, including the ability to perform critical thinking at work, often in hospitals (Nursing Licensure, 2014).

The statute also defines a licensed practical nurse or LPN as one who is licensed to practice practical nursing. Her assigned tasks and responsibilities are determined by acceptable or established educational…


Greenwood, B. (2014). RN duties vs. LPN duties. Chron: Hearts Newspapers. Retrieved on October 21, 2014 from

KSBN (2014). Nurse practice act -- statutes and administrative regulations. Kansas Board of Nursing: Retrieved on October 21, 2014 from

NCBon (2014). Delegation and assignment of nursing activities. NC Nursing Board.

Retrieved on October 21, 2014 from

Wal-Mart Assessing External and Internal
Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20736897
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Wal-Mart is also a highly delegative culture in terms of its subsidiaries, with in-store managers in all regions they operate in responsible for performance. The Wal-Mart approach to delegation also requires in-store associates to assist with the unloading of trailers when they arrive with merchandise at Superstores as well. Wal-Mart strongly holds efficiency and delegation in the same context (Appelbaum, Lichtenstein, 2006).

Diversity and Ethics

Wal-Mart has often been criticized for their lack of diversity and for a lack of ethics in managing part-time workers. In response to these claims and to practices that proved to be unethical, the company has created a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) program that is global in scope. Wal-Mart's efforts to ensure diversity and ethics have in turn been delegated to the store manager level (Spangler, Britt, Parks, 2008) where individual performance is measured and evaluated over time. The framework of planning, organizing, leading and…


Appelbaum, R., & Lichtenstein, N.. (2006). A New World of Retail Supremacy: Supply Chains and Workers' Chains in the Age of Wal-Mart. International Labor and Working Class History, 70(1), 106-125.

Bateman, Snell. (2009). Management: Leading and Collaborating in a Competitive World. New York: McGraw Hill

Cherie Blanchard, Clare L. Comm, & Dennis F.X. Mathaisel. (2008). Adding value to service providers: benchmarking Wal-Mart. Benchmarking, 15(2), 166-177.

Krotov, V., & Junglas, I.. (2008). RFID as a Disruptive Innovation. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 3(2), 44-59.

Agricultural Firm the Goal of
Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38888341
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As a recommendation, I would suggest a ways to improve, first of all, the communication between the top management and the employees. This may include seminars once a week where the general directions are traced and a survey of the past week is presented. This is also an excellent moment for the employees to present any ideas or complaints they may have. Further more, intensive training where the role of decentralization and delegation would be explained should be organized for a reasonable period of time.

The second issue that was raised in our hypothesis referred to the selection and maintenance of the managerial personnel and the reward system. It was quite simple to determine whether there was an adequate scheme of reward in the company. The bonuses that the managers and employees had received were compared to the density of their activity in the respective period of time. It was…

Collaborative Nursing Evidence and Expert
Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66627416
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Expert Interview:

Certainly, in my interview with a professional nurse educator, I would gain further reinforcement for the findings outlined above. Specifically, the subject of my interview would state unequivocally that the difficulty of being a nurse educator is today greater than it has ever been. I spoke at length with the Unit Nurse Educator in a local university hospital ward and learned a great deal about the specific daily challenges that come with the role.

First, she explained that one of the biggest challenges she faces every day concerns how best to channel and utilize the labor at her disposal. She explained that "our hospital, like a lot of other hospitals in the region, has been effected by a nursing shortage. Many of the people that work here must work long, hard hours, which has an effect on morale and on turnover. Because of this, one of the biggest…

Works Cited:

Kramer, M., Schmalenberg, C., Maguire, P., Brewer, B., Burke, R., Chmielewski, L., Meeks-Sjostrom, D. (2009). Walk the talk: Promoting control of nursing practice and a patient-centered culture. Critical Care Nurse, 29(3), 77-93.

Motacki, K., & Burke, K. (2011). Nursing delegation and management of patient care. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Parker, V., Giles, M., & Higgins, I. (2009). Challenges confronting clinicians in acute care. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(6), 667-78.

Microsoft's Growth Led to Control Problems the
Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88262134
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Microsoft's Growth Led to Control Problems

The objective of this work in writing is to relate Microsoft's problems with its control and evaluation systems to each of the stages of growth in Greiner's model and to consider with Microsoft being most likely in the growth through collaboration stage how it could be recommended to changes in its structure, culture, and control systems to solve its problems at this stage.

Greiner's Model for Organizational Development

The work of Greiner holds that there are five key dimensions that are essential for constructing a model of organizational development. Those five key dimensions are: (1) the organization's age; (2) the organization's size; (3) stages of evolution; (4) stages of revolution; and (5) growth rate of the industry. (Mainiero and Tromley, 1994, p. 1) According to Greiner, there are also five phases of growth: (1) creativity; (2) direction; (3) delegation; (4) coordination; and (5) collaboration.…


Mainiero, L. And Tromley, C. (1994) Developing Managerial Skills in Organizational Behavior. Exercises, Cases, and Readings. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall) 2d ed. pp.322-329. Retrieved from:

Basic Elements of a Contract
Words: 1084 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 59240068
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Contracts, Contract Law, And Society

Contract Law

Contracts are legally-binding agreements between two or more self-regulating parties for the purpose of furthering their commercial goals (Eisenberg, 1994). The elements of contracts, together with the laws that provide protections for the parties involved, are theoretically straightforward and appeal to common sense principles, but in practice the forging of contracts and their enforcement can at times be complex. The theories and principles that underlie contract law also remain somewhat controversial and refractory to unequivocal definitions (Schwartz & Scott, 2003). To gain a better understanding of why contracts are so important to society this essay will review the essential element of contracts and the theories supporting their use, from a social, economic, and legal perspective.

Elements of a Contract

The four basic elements of a contract are: (1) mutual assent, (2) consideration, (3) capacity, and (4) legality (Legal Information Institute, 2010). Mutual assent…


Contractors State License Board. (2012). What should I look for in a contract and binding agreements? California Department of Consumer Affairs. Retrieved from: .

Eisenberg, M.A. (1994). Expression rules in contract law and problems of offer and acceptance. California Law Review, 82(5), 1127-1180.

"Legal Elements of a Contract." (n.d.). Kansas State University. Retrieved from .

Legal Information Institute. (2002). U.C.C. -- Article 2 -- Sales (2002). Retrieved from: .

Tale of Two Cultures the
Words: 1986 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64883975
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Rather than attempting to increase the diversification of product offerings, management at Best Buy have found small and subtle ways to adjust the retail experience, making stores (or more specifically, certain areas of each store) more tailored to specific classes and types of consumers. Sales staff have also been trained to use different language styles and sales efforts when dealing with different consumers, again tailoring each individual consumer's experience to their own personal needs and preferred methods of conducting business. By simply presenting and describing the largely technological offerings available at Best Buy stores in different manners to different consumers, sales have increased and the store's profitability has risen, as well. The continued success of the company depends on its ability to continue this process of incremental innovation, adjusting and developing as new consumer trends come to the fore.

Encouraging managers and employees to become intrapreneurs, making profitable incremental innovations…

Kosovo War
Words: 2552 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27675563
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strategy executed by the United States (U.S.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met the criterions for a just war as defined below. Both the U.S. And NATO did not fight this war in order to overthrow the Yugoslavian government nor to give the Kosovo Albanians a country of their own. ather, the war was fought to stop the needless ethnic violence against the Albanians living in Kosovo and allow the return of all refugees, and that is just what both the U.S. And NATO did during this military operation. The U.S. And NATO had no intention of any major military operation, they only wished to use the minium force required in order to achieve their stated goals. This paper examines the strategy formulation, coordination, and execution, that lead to NATO's war to save Kosovo. How the U.S. And NATO reached their goal could not be described as perfectly…


Yugoslavia: Travel Guide, n.d. [cited 12 December 2004] Available from World Wide Web:  / history.html

Elshtain J.B. "The third annual grotius lecture: Just war and humanitarian intervention." American Society of International Law: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting.( 2001) 1-12

Please replace this with the proper citationr, e.g. (W.U. 1987 4)

Need reference for W.U.

Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1
Words: 1139 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: Array
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This relationship between the executive and legislative branches in North Carolina is similar to that of Texas, which also has a bicameral legislature made up of representatives elected every two years to its house of representatives and senate. Texas also has elected Texas Supreme Court Justices, Appeals Courts, and District Court Divisions with justices elected to six-year terms. The longer term is presumably intended to isolate the justices somewhat from the need to please the populace. The governor is also elected every four years in Texas. (Texas Online, 2006)

The delegation of authority to local governments: hat structure and powers do the cities, counties, and other forms of local government have in the state?

In North Carolina the state has the authority to exercise its police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare on both a local and state level. Local governments have been delegated the authority to regulate…

Works Cited

How a bill becomes a law." North Carolina Research Division. 2006. [14 Oct 2006] 

How a judge becomes a judge." North Carolina Research Division. 2006. [14 Oct 2006]

Lt. Governor says all schools need automatic defibrillators." Texas State Senate Press

Release. Texas State Senate Webpage October 9,2005. [14 Oct 2006]

Burzotta L & Noble H 2011 The
Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 80295875
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Burzotta, L. & Noble, H. (2011). The dimensions of interprofessional practice. British Journal of Nursing, 2011, 20(5): 310.

This article uses the Gibbs reflective cycle to analyze a specific case confronted by a nurse in the field of practice. The cycle includes "description of the event, feelings encountered, the positive and negative aspects of the experience, an analysis of the event, and a conclusion of the overall experience" (Burzotta & Noble 2011: 310). The Gibbs reflective cycle is intended for both nurses and patients to understand the full social and emotional implications of healthcare decisions that are made. The subject of the article, Mrs. Jones, was diagnosed with late-stage breast cancer and was entering into the palliative care process. Mrs. Jones had a small child as well. Despite the severity of her diagnosis, the treatment team focused on addressing Mrs. Jones' psychological, social, and physical needs in a holistic fashion,…

Characteristics of a Nurse
Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23304487
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Nurses are considered the backbone of the medical care-giver community. Good quality patient care centers on having a competent educated nursing labor force. There is a wealth of empirical evidence that has demonstrated Baccalaureate (BSN) nurses are associated with fewer medication errors, lower mortality rates, and greater overall positive patient outcomes than nurses at lower levels of educational achievement. For example, Brady, Malone, and Fleming (2009) performed an extensive literature review and found that BSN nurses made fewer medication errors than their less educated counterparts. Aiken and associates (2003) found a strong link between N education level and patient outcomes. Their findings indicated that for every ten percent increase in the proportion of BSN nurses in a surgical unit there was a four percent decrease in the risk of death to patients. In a large study of nearly 47,000 patients conducted at the University Toronto it was found that hospital…


Aiken, L.H., Clarke, S.P., Cheung, R.B., Sloane, D.M., & Silber, J.H. (2003). Educational levels of hospital nurses and surgical patient mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 1617-1623.

Brady, A.M., Malone, A.M., & Fleming, S. (2009). A literature review of the individual and systems factors that contribute to medication errors in nursing practice. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(6), 679-697.

Friese, C.R, Lake, E.T., Aiken, L.H., Silber, J.H. & Sochalski, J. (2008). Hospital nurse practice environments and outcomes for surgical oncology patients. Health Services Research, 43(4), 1145-1163.

Profetto-McGrath, J. (2003). The relationship of critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions of baccalaureate nursing students. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(6), 569- 577.

Voter Through Congressional District Research the Bipartisan
Words: 1599 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85845345
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Voter Through Congressional District esearch

The bipartisan structure which defines the American system of democratic governance is premised on the notion that informed voters, when provided with an opportunity to select their own leadership, will invariably alternate between candidates with whom they identify closely, and members of the opposing party who offer meaningful reform. This maxim of American politics has resulted in a pattern of Presidential ascendency whereby neither party has captured the White House in three consecutive elections since the four consecutive campaign victories notched by Franklin Delano oosevelt more than a half-century ago. Nonetheless, there are still pockets of provincial loyalty which still exist throughout the national electorate, with family histories and cultural touchstones serving to elevate one party above its competition in the hearts and minds of voters. In the second congressional district of Tennessee -- an area which spans the metropolitan borders of Knoxville, as well…


Barone, M., & Cohen, R.E. (2005). The Almanac of American Politics, 2006. Washington, DC:

National Journal Group.

Bill, T. (2010, January 17). Alexander among most bipartisan of gop senators. The Leaf

Chronicle. Retrieved from

Future of the Concepts of Public Interest and Administrative Responsibility
Words: 1078 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43537761
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Public administration is one of the constructs upon which every government functions. It incorporates the concepts of administrative responsibility and public interest upon which the idea of ethical obligation and the dilemma brought about by the privatization of government functions ride. Anytime the electorate cast their votes and express their preference for one candidate over another, they do so in the expectation that the candidate will work towards satisfying the public's interests, rather than their own, and that they will use their positions to help people, rather than dominate them. This expectation is, however, not often given the significance it deserves, despite the fact that it advances from the party that stands to either benefit or lose directly from a public administrator's actions.

The Concept of Public Interest

Although it is difficult to give an explicit definition of the constituents of public interest, experts have repeatedly referred to it as…


CAPAM Featured Report. (2010). Ethical Dilemmas in the Public Service. CAPAM. Retrieved from 

Holland, D., Nonini, D.M., Lutz, C., Bartlett, L. & Frederick-McGlathery, M., Guldbrandsen, T. & Murillo, E. (2007). Local Democracy under Siege: Activism, Public Interests, and Private Politics. New York: New York Press.

Starling, G. (2007). Managing the Public Sector (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Stillman, R. (2009). Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Managing and Identifying Barriers
Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82817892
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Managing Barriers

Barriers encountered in the Capstone project revolved around the idea that the staff felt it was not there job to read rhythm strips, and did not make the time to get off the floor for any continuing education. Good leadership can help eliminate these kinds of problems, as the problems have to be addressed from the standpoint of people who will insist that everyone does his or her job and makes the time to get involved with things like continuing education. As can be seen, there are generally a number of barriers that are encountered when trying to implement a change in practice. Even if that change will resolve a problem or address a concern, many people are still going to be resistant to it. The main barriers can include resistance to change from staff, lack of leadership, lack of resources (both financial and fiscal), environment, communication, and…


American Nurses Association. (2001). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements (Publication no. CEN21 10M 08/03). Washington, DC: Author.

Finkelman, A., & Kenner, C. (2010). Professional nursing concepts. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Funk, S.G., Tornquist, E., & Champagne, M.T. (1991). BARRIERS: The barriers to research utilizations scale. Applied Nursing Research, 4, 39-45.

Pexton, C. (2005). Overcoming the barriers to change in the healthcare system. Retrieved from

Inter-Parliamentary Union and Its Role
Words: 16130 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43330627
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Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (owett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to owett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (owett, 1970).

In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…


Armstrong, D., L. Lloyd and J. Redmond. 2005. International Organization in World Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black and Joseph A. Scimecca. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 2004. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bell, Lynda S., Andrew J. Nathan and Ilan Peleg. 2001. Negotiating Culture and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.

Identifying Opportunities to Improve Managerial Skills
Words: 3701 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11341580
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Personal Skills Assessment and Analysis Report

Developing optimally effective managerial skills can be a challenging enterprise in any industry, and it is axiomatic that it is essential to measure individual strengths and weaknesses in order to identify strengths to build on as well as opportunities for improvement. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning effective management practices in general and how these practices can be leveraged to contribute to the creation of a high-performance organization. In addition, a self-assessed personal assessment of management skills questionnaire developed by Whetton and Cameron (2010) is used to translate the insights these results in order provide to determine what steps are needed to optimize management skills in the future. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning effective managerial skills and the need for ongoing personal assessment of management skills are provided in the conclusion.

Management and Leadership Strategies Were
Words: 5635 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38896307
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Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).

The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…

Book Questions in Nursing
Words: 2694 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Data Analysis Chapter Paper #: 83696536
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Nursing Leadership

Thinking Critically, Making Decisions, Solving Problems

LO1: Response

The critical-thinking process can be used by answering 4 questions related to practical experiences. They are:

the underlying assumptions, interpretation of evidence, evaluation of arguments and the possible alternative perspectives.


LO 2: response

Creativity can be fostered by preparing, incubation, insight and verification.


LO 3: response

Decision-making and problem-solving skills can be improved by defining the problem, gathering of information, analyzing of the information, developing solutions, making a decision, implementation and evaluations of the solution.

Ref: page 11 and 112

LO 4: response

The major difference between individual and collective decision making process is the possibility of the exchange of ideas in the latter through brain storming sessions.


LO 5: response

For a leader, the stumbling blocks to making decisions and problem solving are the personality traits of the leaders, the experience, lack of adaptability and ideas…

Drucker 21st Century Drucker's Management
Words: 2466 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1765916
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Quality is the essence of the output. In judging the performance of a teacher, one does not ask how many students there can be in his or her class. Instead, one asks how many students learn anything -- and that is a quality question. In appraising the performance of a medical laboratory, the question of how many tests it can run through its machines is quite secondary to the question of how many test results are valid and reliable. This is true even for the work of the file clerk. Productivity of knowledge work therefore has to aim first at obtaining quality -- and not minimum quality but optimum if not maximum quality. Only then can one ask: "hat is the volume, the quantity of work?" This not only means that we approach the task of making more productive the knowledge worker from the quality of the work rather than…

Works Cited

Byrne, John a., and Gerdes, Lindsey. "The Man Who Invented Management: Why Peter Drucker's ideas still matter." Bloomberg Businessweek (2005). Web. 22 Apr 2012.

Drucker, Peter. (1954). The Practice of Management, New York: Harper & Row.

Drucker, Peter. (1969). The Age of Discontinuity, New York: Harper & Row.

Drucker, Peter, and Shaker a. Zahra. "An Interview with Peter Drucker." The Academy of Management Executive (1993-2005) 17.3 (2003): 9-12. JSTOR Arts & Sciences VI. Web. 22 Apr. 2012.

Master in Quality & Safety
Words: 6426 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 5751190
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This particular aspect is what most medical trainers miss when dealing with interns or newly appointed nurses. They found that oxygen use, if below the necessary requirement can be damaging, so can its overuse. In another study, it has been found that using oxygen below the prescribed level can instigate damage in the organs, respiratory structures and can be especially damaging for patients who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Danchin et al., 2009). Hence, the training and instructions that are given must follow be thorough enough to let the health caretakers realize that the monitoring is not merely a game of reading and recording, but it can have serious repercussions if handled carelessly.

Some of the common mistakes, which can be avoided through proper and accurate transference of instructions and training, occur in different medical circumstances. Sometimes nurses tend to miss the monitoring deadline. For instance, if a patient is…

Employees Retirement Income Security Act
Words: 3409 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 34186328
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Participants are also protected by prohibiting employers from deducting costs from their tax liability of not complying with ERIA6.

Both ERIA and the Prudent Investor Rule prohibit certain types of transactions. According to Laura Jordan6, the U.. labor secretary has the power to grand exemptions from prohibitive rules under ERIA. When such exemption is not granted and fiduciaries engage in prohibitive activities regardless, the result could be liability to repay losses, return profits, and IR penalty taxes.

ERIA includes considerably more prohibitive rules than the Prudent Investor Rule. ome of these include a prohibition from engaging in transactions that are a direct sale of property between the plan and interested party; a loan or credit extension; furnishing of goods, services or facilities; or a transfer to a party of interest that will result in benefit to such a party. Among others, further prohibitions include any form of self-interest in the…


Aalberts, Robert J. & Poon, Percy S. 2006. Derivatives and the Modern Prudent Investor Rule: Too Risky or Too Necessary? Ohio State Law Journal, Vol 67, No. 3. 

Jordan, Laura. 1999. Comparison of ERISA and State Pension Protection Provisions. OLR Research Report, Dec. 10.

Poon, Percy S. 1996. The New Prudent Investor Rule and the modern portfolio theory: a new direction for fiduciaries. American Business Law Journal, Sept 22. 

Prudent Investor Act.

HR Portfolio Project Human Resource
Words: 3313 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 87264248
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Essential Mental Functions: the new senior developers are expected to reveal fair behavior towards their colleagues, subalterns, supervisors and clients. Among the most important mental functions that need to be possessed are: the ability to discern between what is right and what is wrong and what is ethical and what is unethical; empathy and kindness; the ability to make and enforce decisions; a good and reliable memory; originality, creativity and a sense for innovation (extremely important within the it community); the ability and desire to engage in cognitive efforts; the ability to be reasonable and communicative; the ability to rely on his/her own power and skills to resolve a task or a problem (such as a conflict in the workplace); the function of being temperate

Essential Physical Functions: considering that the candidate possesses the necessary mental functions, the necessities regarding physical functions are less comprehensive. Given the rather sedentary nature…

Micromanagement Causes Employee Stress Micromanagement
Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5856632
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For instance a summary graph of question one resulted in a split response overall.

As one of the main components of micromanagement is the over communication of details when assigning tasks, as if basic instruction were not enough, often leaving the individual with the feeling that they are not trusted or viewed as capable, the above graph shows that almost half of the employees responding felt that their supervisor communicated in this way. This is telling of the fact that there may really be a problem and that supervisors need to take note. On a last note, the final graph demonstrates that there are many individuals in this survey who feel strongly that their ideas will not be listened to, and again these answers correspond with those who have high stress and further characterize their supervisor as having micro tendencies.

The responses to this survey clearly indicate that at least…


Brown, M.R. (1998, February). Management by Delegation: Don't Be a Micro Manager Share the Responsibility. Black Enterprise, 28, 76. "Micromanagement," 2008, Retrieved January, 10 2008 at 

Eadie, D. (2005, February). Board Committees as the Governing Engines. School Administrator, 62, 8.

Frase, L.E., English, F.W., & Poston, W.K. (2001, November). Enter Micro-Managers. Goodbye Macro-Management. School Administrator, 58, 44.

Healthcare Leadership and Management in Healthcare Effective
Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10516037
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Healthcare Leadership

Leadership and Management in Healthcare

Effective Leadership and Management

Leadership is much like communications in regards to the complexity inherent in these concepts. There are many different perspectives that are used to examine these issues and researchers study leadership and management from such disciplines includes Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Social Psychology, Business, and Sociology. There have been somewhere in the neighborhood of six to eight major approaches, depending on the vantage point, to leadership theory produced in the scientific literature over the last sixty years and even more have emerged from outside academia (Kilburg & Donohue, 2011). Competing theories include such perspectives as trait theory, situational theory, behavioral theory, competencies theory, network theory of leadership and many more.

Much of the work that a nurse-leader engages in on a daily basis rests in their ability to communicate with others; including clients, colleagues, superiors, and subordinates. Therefore, since this…

Works Cited

Judge, J., & Bono, J. (2000). Five factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 751-765.

Kilburg, R., & Donohue, M. (2011). Toward a "Grand Unifying Theory" of Leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal, 6-25.

Marquis, B., & Huston, C. (2011). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Straker, D. (2011). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved February 6, 2011, from Changing Minds:

Corporate World Recently Has Evolved
Words: 3857 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: SWOT Paper #: 47677395
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When I am leading a team, I never take all the credit of the success and I make sure that every member of my team has played an equally important role in achieving our goal. Similarly, when my team experiences a failure I take personal responsibility for that (Mind Tools, 2011).

As a member of the society, I am passionate about serving the society and being a valuable asset to it. I try to serve the community in every way, be it physically, intellectually, and financially. When I have to take up certain decisions, I critically analyse all the pros, cons, best case, and worst-case scenarios and then take up my decision. Again, I never let myself be caught in what is called "analysis-paralysis." This is because I believe that although a leader should not make impulsive decisions, however, he should always be prepared for making spontaneous decisions. Furthermore, he…


Weinberger, G. (1994). Can Personality Change?. Washington, American Psychological Association.

Allan, J. & Brock, S. (2003). Health Care Communication using Personality Types. London, Routledge.

Levine, J. (1999). The Ennegram Intelligences. Westport, Bergin & Garvey.

Hare, S. & Hare, a. (1996). SYMLOG Field Theory. Westport, Praeger Publishers.

Perceived Effect of Culture on
Words: 14190 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 64453060
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This, he says, is a big challenge considering the fact that all team members along with the top management come from different cultural backgrounds.

Polley and ibbens (1998) in their pioneering research assert that team wellness has got to be tackled in order to create high performance teams. The challenges that need to be over come have been thoroughly researched. The most commonly found problems are: lack of commitment and consideration from top management; probability of sharing enhanced productivity; creation and sustenance of trust (Polley and ibbens, 1998); and skills to deal with conflicts; both within tasks and amongst people (Amason et al., 1995).

Polley and ibbens (1998) assert that emergence of these problems can be either (1) persistent; and/or (2) immediate and/or intense. Extending the team wellness concept, Beech and Crane (1999) outlined a five dimensional strategy to overcome the problems most event managers might face when creating high…


Adair, J.E. And Thomas, N. (2004). The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation. Thorogood. London.

Amason, A.C., Thompson, K.R., Hochwarter, W.A. And Harrison, A.W. (1995). Conflict: an important dimension in successful management teams. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 20-35.

Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing leadership effectiveness. New York: Wiley.

Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6 (2), 199±218.

Organizational Leaders Produce Results Through
Words: 9447 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 24430626
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According to the authors, this can be done if employees are given a sense of importance in the organizations. Knowledge workers are already short in supplies and most competing rivals also compete to get the best human resource in terms of knowledge workers. It is therefore essential for any organization to retain this highly skilled part of their workforce and in order to do that organizations must eliminate the autocratic elements and give the employees more say in the organization.

The shortage in supply of specialized knowledge workforce has not only made this type of labor more expensive but also more immobile and difficult to acquire. High employee turnovers with this type of labours can therefore be threatening to organization's sustainable management and long-term success. The company should be more flexible with its bureaucracy. It should allow more decentralization as far as functional and regional departments are concerned (Ireland &…


Macht, J. (1993). Special education's failed system: A question of eligibility. United States of America.

Kalat, J. (2007). Introduction to Psychology. United States of America: Thomson

Kaufman, A. (2009). IQ testing one hundred one. New York: Springer Publishing Company

Kline, P. (1991). Intelligence: The psychometric view. London: Routledge.

Managerial Skills the Identification of
Words: 1806 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10953957
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Employees that display potential for advancement to the managerial rank may qualify them for certain opportunities as identified from their career map. For example, having an employee observe interviewing techniques is a powerful tool for teaching and helping employees prepare for advanced positions.


There are so many skills that a manager needs in order to be effective that the notion of training a person to be a manager can seem overwhelming. Yet, the fact that so many individuals perform managerial responsibilities and rise to the occasion is illustrative of the dynamic character of the human being. In this paper there have been a few of the key skills that managers should know in order to display minimal competence. Beyond these skills is a vast array of additional skills that not only enable a manager to be competent but to excel within his/her position. But like a child that must…

Works Cited

Hambrick, Ralph S. The Management Skills Builder: Self-Directed Learning Strategies for Career Development. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991.


Henderson, George. Human Relations Issues in Management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1996.


Kronstadt Rebellion at the Beginning
Words: 1644 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58139404
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And this is why Kronstadt symbolized not only tragedy, but also absolute necessity (Baken, 2007).

Kronstadt was revived with the new life. Revolutionary enthusiasm rose to a level of the October days when the heroism and devotion of the sailors played such a decisive role. For the first time since the Communist Party assumed exclusive control of the Revolution and the fate of Russia, Kronstadt considered itself free. A new spirit of unity and brotherhood brought the sailors, the soldiers of the garrison, the factory workers, and the nonpartisan elements together in united effort for their common cause. Even Communists were affected by the fraternalism of the whole city and joined in the work preparatory to the approaching elections to the Kronstadt Soviet (Berkman, 2000).

The conspiracy and the victory were necessary for the Communist Party in order to save it from a threatening inner decomposition. Trotsky, who during the…

Works Cited

18 March 1921 -- 18 March 2001: The Kronstadt Uprising. (2001). Retrieved November 17,

2009, from Web site: 

1921: The Kronstadt rebellion. (2006). Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Libcom Web site:

Management Time Oncken W &
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 26223855
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Effectively, time management in the opinion of Imundo (1993) boils down to activity management. For this reason, the better an individual is able to manage his or her own activities, the more effective the said individual is likely to be when it comes to time management. Managers must therefore ensure that monkeys do not keep being transferred to their backs. In the words of Oncken and Wass, "managers should try to increase the discretionary component of their self-imposed time by minimizing or doing away with the subordinate component." This way, they can get all the time they require to better manage their other more pressing duties.

It is important to note that in most cases, managers as Lussier and Achua (2009) note believe that they can accomplish tasks more effectively than their subordinates and for this reason, they refuse to delegate. Indeed, effective delegation of tasks has always been a…


Imundo, L.V. (1993). The Effective Supervisor's Handbook (2nd ed.). New York, NY: AMACOM.

Lussier, R.N. & Achua, C.F. (2009). Leadership: Theory, Application, and Skill Development (4th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Leadership Training the Leader Is Interested in
Words: 2067 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21689841
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Leadership Training

The Leader is interested in aligning the beliefs and values of people with the overall goals and vision of the organization. In the Leadership role one can bring about change by providing direction, by setting an example, by motivating through inspiration, and by building teams based on respect and trust. A leader is focused on results rather than methods, systems and procedures. Leaders ask themselves "For what purpose?" And "What are the consequences for the system as a whole?" (Chait, 1997)

Different organizations offer various training programs for developing leadership skills in relation to planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. The following paper analyzes the subject matter of these leadership trainings from various training writings and programs, in the light of the aforementioned human resource and management functions within an organization.


Planning is concerned with the future impact of today's decisions. It is the fundamental function of…


Altbach, P.G., Berdahl, O., Gumport, P.J. (1998). American higher education in the twenty- first century. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Angelo, T.A. (1997) The campus as learning community: Seven promising shifts and seven powerful levers. AAHE Bulletin.

Chait, R. (1997) Contradictions of leadership and application of common sense. Speech delivered at the Leadership Conference of the California State University System, Long

Beach, California.