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Regading feedom of association, the same concens itself with pemitting people in a given society to collectively defend, pusue as well as expess those inteests they egad o conside common. This feedom by vitue of inclusion into vaious human ights instuments as well as constitutions is consideed one of the basic feedoms. Sometimes used synonymously with feedom of assembly, feedom of expession could also entail the feedom to gathe fo the pupose of expessing, defending o pomoting those inteests consideed common. Fo counties that have neve enjoyed basic feedoms, this paticula feedom effectively gives citizens the powe to collectively influence both elected and appointed leades. In such a case, this feedom could be execised by way of eithe mass action o potests. Fo such counties, this feedom could be used by the citizeny as a symbol of displeasue with the uling class. Thus when an issue is consideed unpopula,…… [Read More]
Democracy / Liberty
Is direct democracy desirable and/or possible today?
Is direct democracy desirable and/or possible today? The question is addressed first theoretically, with reference to Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws, which actually categorizes direct democracy as one of the corruptions into which a democratic system can descend, by an insistence on too much egalitarianism. Direct democracy is considered as an ideal, which is desirable insofar as it offers a critique of contemporary politics, but whose possibility is limited by whether or not it can be feasibly implemented. Two contemporary case studies are brought in to examine the question further: the experiment with internet-organized direct democracy in Estonia, and the experiment with social-media-inspired direct democracy in the Occupy all Street movement. The Estonian model is critiqued for its heavy reliance on a highly vulnerable technological infrastructure, suggesting that direct democracy in Estonia is only possible for as long as Vladimir…… [Read More]
In some quarters, democracy has been regarded one of mankind's greatest institutional achievements. With that in mind, democracy as a concept has been subject to extensive research over time and in a way, these studies have helped us understand the very nature of democracy and democratization. In this text, I will briefly explore the British and the American constitution with an aim of finding out which of the two is more democratic. Further, I will amongst other things come up with a clear and concise definition of democracy and in so doing highlight the idea of Beetham in regard to necessary democratic goods and rights (civil).
The American and the British Constitution: Which of the Two is more Democratic?
It should be noted that to determine which of these two constitutions is more democratic, there is a need to highlight some key differences between the two countries in terms…… [Read More]
Democracy in Ancient Greece
Class XXXX, Section XXXX, Fall, 2012
The term democracy was invented by ancient Greece, and it came about through the system of involving all the people in ruling of their land. The ancient Athenian Greeks have been credited with developing democratic rule. Though their governing system may not have been very democratic as present day democracies, it allowed participation of diverse social class of people. This paper will attempt to answer the following questions, what are the conditions underlying the rise and fall of democracy in ancient Greece. At what point in the decline of Greek democracy do Socrates and Plato come in, and why were they advancing a return to aristocratic elitism rather than enthusiastic supporters of direct democracy?
Conditions underlying the rise and fall of democracy in ancient Greece
Ancient Greece was a made up of loose small independent states that were known as…… [Read More]
Democracy in Tunisia
Democratization is a process that involves a transition advocated by either people, or political leaders who eliminate authoritarian systems and created democratic systems of government. However, in most cases, the people initiated the change, which the political leaders had no, option, but join the people (Huntington 109). Owing to the many forms of democratic regimes, variations are inevitable. Some of the regimes include parliamentary and presidential regimes. Some are a combination of presidential and parliamentary which further create two-party and multiparty systems (Huntington 109). Notably, all democratic systems are central to an election, which allows people to choose their leaders. Therefore, they have similar institutional elements (competitive elections that establish their identity) unlike authoritarian regimes, which lack an institutional element.
Although Huntington (109) suggests that presidential and parliamentary systems are forms of democratic regimes, Horowitz (73) suggests that both systems are capable of causing potential conflict. This…… [Read More]
In a fair and free election, the resultant outcome comes from the majority ruling of votes. In an ideal democratic environment, such votes are the consequence of all participant voters -- the legitimate populace as allowed for such voting -- and thus officials are elected in service of the majority of the peoples. However, this utopic democracy is limited in that not all participant voters are knowledgeable in decisions affecting themselves and affecting the government. The other branch of democracy -- one of polyarchy -- calls for the distribution of power within a selective few branches, with which to run government. This is only a minimal progression out of the term "monarchy." Why not, then, a view of democracy that encompass both types of governance -- one in which the population is allowed election of those numerous knowledgeable representatives with the proper background into voting for the electoral democracy?…… [Read More]
" That aspect of military or naval service brought every soldier / sailor into a similar consciousness of service, no matter what socioeconomic class he had come from in the thenian society of that era.
However, Raaflaub is quick to point out (142) that universal military service notwithstanding, there was a pecking order on board Greek warships; the hoplites (heavily armed infantry soldiers) certainly had a higher level of respect and responsibility than the oarsmen and archers. The hoplites and horsemen were seen as "much more noble and important and take far more seriously" than citizens who were trained to shoot the bow and row the boats (Raaflaub 142). nd a telling fact when reviewing the level of respect that hoplites received vs. The level of respect awarded oarsmen and archers is in the list of those who were killed in action.
Thucydides, an thenian aristocrat who was exiled and…… [Read More]
With this approach in mind, it is impossible to consider a viable implementation of Western democracy in the conditions in which there are few, if any, common points to relate moral values and norms to.
Despite this current inability of Western countries to export democracy, there are certain underlying factors that could be taken into account in future attempts. Failure notwithstanding, it is clear that the future of the world lies in an international society that will eventually refuse war as means of conducting politics. Having this in mind, it can be said that there is no singular factor which determines the failure of establishing a democratic system in countries such as Iraq or African nations. There is more the issue of a mix of factors which determine a negative result.
On the one hand, there are cultural differences between western countries and the rest. Taking the Muslim world as…… [Read More]
According to Marc Plattner, in the beginning of the 20th century, most democratic countries were found in North America and, with some exceptions, Western Europe. oday, after much of the world has shed its colonialist past, democracy has appeared to be more widespread. Yet, with democracy comes a great responsibility for a fair form of government and a liberal state, which allows for many freedoms and various forms of opinion, or what we know here as inalienable rights. his paper will argue from Platter's point-of-view, and will agree that liberalism is essential to democracy and vice versa because one facet feeds of the other and must thus exist concomitantly. [1: Plattner, M.F. (1998). "Liberalism and Democracy: Can't Have One Without the Other." Foreign Affairs. Retrieved April 15, 2011, . ]
Plattner first states that liberal democracy means both democracy and liberalism. Democracy, according to the author, means rule for…… [Read More]
The fall of the
Berlin all would show the genuine commitment to that goal as those
recently liberated coalesced to the democratic orientation of the larger
nation. For Russia, by contrast, a public's absence of exposure to the
systems and conditions of democracy has rendered a people today deeply
susceptible to exploitation, with the current Russian leader, former chief
of the Soviet KGB, Vladamir Putin, imposing suppression of political
opposition, journalistic freedom and social liberties. Here, democracy has
proven less-than-feasible due to an absence of internal will to or resource
to seize on the opportunity. A history of oppression has rendered
democracy abstract and unattainable, even in the face of charades such as
Russian free elections.
In an article by Dahl, we are presented with an argument recommending
certain ground rules for the effective adoption of democratic order. Among
them, the author makes a strong case in favor of the…… [Read More]
DEMOCRACY IN IRAQ & AFGHANISAN
Democracy in Iraq and Afghanistan
he equal and free practice of political self-determination is enabled by the cultural, economic and social conditions which are encompassed by democracy. his paper will address the democracy in Afghanistan and Iraq. he historical changes passed by the Iraqi society, the last democracy produced by the military invasion, the role of religion in the enhancement of conditions of Afghanistan, and the role of religion in the enhancement ofconditions of developing countries are the other topics that will be reflected within the paper.he eviction of two of the most repressive regimes of the world, that of the aliban and that of Saddam Hussein has been resulted by the invasions of both Iraq and Afghanistan. For each, the stated goal was the democracy promotion. In Iraq, the democracy emerged in limited significant ways, after the U.S.-led invasion.Iraq is ranked poorly by the…… [Read More]
The fact is, people vote outside of their party regularly. Consider the Reagan Democrats or the Clinton Republicans, who crossed party lines to support presidential candidates. Gov. George Pataki, a Republican, has been repeatedly re-elected in New York, one of America's most liberal states, and Michael Bloomberg has twice been elected mayor of New York City, one of the country's most liberal cities. These types of scenarios play out at the national, state and local levels across the country. But such anomalies would be impossible if people completely identified ideologically with their own political parties, which would seemingly preclude voting for another party.
If many people are not ideologically committed to their political parties, why do they register as members of those parties at all? The answer is that the financial power of the Republican and Democratic parties give them a stranglehold on the American elections process. For example, it…… [Read More]
Democracy and Military Intervention
Democracy may be a way of life in the United States but elsewhere in the world it is a foreign concept. As democracy spreads around the globe there are many places where its development has been impeded by the intervention of the military and the establishment of a military dictatorship. But what factors are likely to produce military intervention? Brian Clive Smith, in his book "Understanding Third World Politics: Theories of Political Change and Development" discusses these factors and includes among many such factors as GNP per capita, size of military and/or defense expenditures, and social or religious instabilities. (Smith, 2003) The first factor describes the percentage of the Gross National Product each person receives, the poorer the people, the likelier military intervention seems. Next, because the military often plays a role in politics in third world nations, if the military feels they are being…… [Read More]
(Gutman, n.d, pp. 18 -- 24) (Fishkin, n.d, 25 -- 28)
The biggest weakness of the deliberative process is: that many minorities will often have major issues that are overlooked. This is problematic, because these kinds of groups inside a community will have their own special needs. In some cases, they want to address past injustices that have occurred. While at other times, they are seeking to gain advantages that can help members of their community.
In a deliberative democracy, the views of the different minorities can often be ignored by the influences of the majority. Where, they (the majority) could force these minority groups to give up more, based upon the influence they have in the process. Once this occurs, it means that you will see policies and laws enacted, that will give advantages to one particular group over the other. (Gutman, n.d, pp. 18 -- 24) (Fishkin, n.d,…… [Read More]
org)"none of the men had actually served on the Swift boats that Mr. Kerry commanded." There is much more in the way of empirical evidence to show that this attack campaign was false, but the point is made that lies wrapped in glossy TV commercials during election time can be effective. In Kerry's case, he chose not to lash out at the lies, but many now feel he should have. Ironically, it was Bush himself who should have come under investigation; he got out of going to Vietnam by having his father get him assigned to the Air National Guard, and he failed to complete his required service there.
Meanwhile, many younger voters are not getting their election information from TV or from newspapers; they are going online. A PE report ("Young high-speed users flock to internet for campaign news") shows that about 21% of Americans now see the Internet…… [Read More]
Democracy and Education
Summary for Shiva, V. (2005). Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability, and Peace. Boston: South End Press.
Vandiana Shiva defines Earth Democracy as the opposite of corporate capitalist globalization, and embraces local economics, environmental sustainability, democracy, and grassroots activism on the local level. These ideals are similar to those of Chief Seattle and other indigenous leaders who resisted European colonialism in that they are organic, communal, based on a linkage between human beings and the earth as well as between past, present and future generations. They do not regard the world and other species as raw materials and natural resources to be exploited for profit, but rather holistically. Corporate globalization is based on irrational greed, speculation, corruption and destruction of the entire biosphere, and regards the plant as the private property of the wealthy elites. Its origins are in the enclosure of the common lands of England in the…… [Read More]
Democracy, Multiple Intelligence, Art
Project Site and Participants
The project that this research is based on took place at Pantera Elementary School in Diamond ar, California. The school population comprises approximately 200 students and twelve teachers. The ethnic make-up of Pantera is as follows: 36.8% Asian, 19.8% Hispanic, 35.9% White, 2.9% Filipino,.5% Pacific Islander and.4% American Indian/Alaskan. Neighborhoods within Pantera's boundaries are middle- and upper-middle class, with some new, upscale housing. Pantera has 2.2% of its students identified as limited English proficient students who collectively speak 13 languages other than English. Eleven percent of the students in grades 4 and 5 have been identified for the Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) program.
The fifth-grade class targeted in this research is typical of the school population in terms of ethnic diversity and class standing. Two students have been identified as limited English proficient students and seven are identified as GATE students.…… [Read More]
" hen they shook hands with visitors at the reception, they used "...the mechanical action of toy dolls" (86). Madeleine said to Mr. French, who was accompanying her, "I had no conception how shocking it was!" To witness such phony, mechanical people going through mindless motions.
On page 87, Adams explains to the readers that besides Madeleine, there was not one person "...who felt the mockery of this exhibition." Everyone else thought the reception ("...the deadly dullness") was "natural and proper" but to Madeleine is was more like "a nightmare," or the twisted vision an opium addict might see. She felt a "sudden conviction" that this boring, mechanical scene represented "the end of American society." think this was Adams' way of showing his distaste for politics and for the way important powerful people go about their lives. Adams' father, after all, was a congressman and so Adams knew what the…… [Read More]
The Soviet Union established a Communist society throughout Russia and the former Eastern-Bloc nations while the United States expanded the concept of democratic government and respect for human rights in the U.S. And throughout Western Europe by promoting democratic ideals, largely, by linking the much needed financial assistance from the U.S. In the postwar period to a commitment to democratic governmental rule. For the rest of the 20th century, human rights and respect for the equality of all persons continued to grow in the Western Hemisphere. Meanwhile, Communist societies typically featured repressive regimes, harsh punishment for any political speech that contradicted the government line, and virtually no recognition of human rights from the perspective of race, gender, religion, or alternate lifestyle choice. Since the collapse of the former Soviet Union, repressive Communist regimes such as that evident in North Korea exemplify ignorance of human rights in the modern era.
The…… [Read More]
Briefly describe the concepts of federalism and separation of powers
Federalism is when there is a separation of powers between the federal and state governments. This is designed to ensure that no form of government would undermine the civil rights of the general public. The basic idea is to reserve specific powers for them and help to address issues which are most important to select areas of the country. This will allow everyone to determine what is best for them, based upon exerting a certain amount of influence in the process. (Drake, 1999) (Krane, 2005)
The separation of powers is when there is a division of authority between the different branches of government. Most notably: the executive, legislative and judicial. Each one has the ability to check the authority of the other. In this case, there is a focus on limiting these powers through having them place checks and…… [Read More]
Democracy for the Few
Parenti (151), in the book Democracy for the Few, outlines his views of the U.S. And the world. At the heart of his view is that the United States is ruled by corporations, specifically a corporate plutocracy. At the outset of Chapter 10, he writes "the corporate-dominated state," essentially confirming his views with respect to this. He notes several instance where he believes that corporate interests have passed laws that place them above citizens (Parenti 119). His logic is certainly debatable at times -- Lloyd Corporation v Tanner simply affirms what had already been written in the First Amendment and noting a lack of such speech protections under the Civil ights Act of 1964 and similar human resources acts -- the Supreme Court doesn't make the laws; the evidence is in the fact that there have been no changes to the First Amendment passed, and that…… [Read More]
In Latin America, Ecuador has been one of the most corrupt nations, unable to overcome corruption and form a democracy. Although, for a time, Ecuador was able to operate as a democracy, this quickly ended when three successive presidents were thrown out of office due to unrest. Today, Ecuador lies in the hands of current president Rafael Correa. While Correa, who was educated in Economics in the United States, has emphasized his commitment to democracy, some have argued that he is simply another Hugo Chavez, trying to gain power for himself and establish a dictatorship. Other factors that cause some to worry about Correa's intentions are his revision of the constitution, his defaulting on international loans, and his clashes with the United States. Still, some would say that the people in Ecuador, the ordinary citizens, will be what eventually bring the country to democracy. Clearly through their protests, radio stations,…… [Read More]
“Where Do We Go From Here?”
Democracy was meant to be government by the rule of the people. Athens is most famous for being the ancient city-state to represent democratic government and in a way the city-state was best situated for democracy: the people were educated and keen on performing their civic duty—at least for a generation or two. By the time the playwright Aristophanes came along, some Athenians were shirking their civic duty to the extent that the satirist penned his most attack on Athenian complacency. The point is that democracy is only as effective as the people within the community are at performing their civic duty. When the very concept of civic-mindedness is lost or when the community becomes so large that it is impossible for people to govern directly, the concept of democracy can become a screen hiding a much more nefarious system of power like what…… [Read More]
Democracy and Clientelism:
Political clientelism is basically considered as the distribution of discriminatory benefits to people or groups in exchange for political support. Clientelism is a form of personal exchange that is always characterized by uneven balance of power between those involved and a sense of compulsion. Throughout history, this term has continued to create confusion and controversy due to the broad and varied range of political exchanges that it contains. Since it's a way with which the uneven and hierarchical exchanges of a feudal society are described, clientelism is also a means of describing the relationships between patrons and clients. The theory of democracy explains that voters have the right of making their choices freely, particularly during political elections. This concept has created new platforms for representation and political accountability as well as the benefits for sustaining and cultivating clientelistic bonds (Szwarcberg, 2009). In places with weak democracies, clients…… [Read More]
Democracy in U.S. And Scotland
Democracy in the United States
Different countries with widely disparate forms of government all lay claim to being a democracy. Many European parliamentary-style governments, for example, call themselves democracies. In contrast, more centralized, presidential governments claim to be democracies as well.
hat these forms of government have in common, however, are key basic ideals. Democracy is a form of government that is based on aggregative concepts of a "common good." This concept has its roots in philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau's "social contract theory," which states that a general will of the people gives rise to an unstated social contract. In a democratic form of government, decisions are made based on a "rationally identified common good" (Shapiro 2003: 3).
The United States has three main structures of government. The judiciary is tasked with interpreting and upholding the country's laws. The legislature, composed of the Lower House…… [Read More]
Surrounding Islamic countries might foster unrest if nothing else to demoralize the West and decrease this influence. Since most of these countries are kingdoms or ruled by despots, these nations have a hidden agenda to create unrest and present the U.S.-led invasion and its aftermath as a failure.
Having been identified a failure in the eyes of the world would prevent any possible invasion of the other Islamic kingdoms or fiefdoms.
Another cause of a possible long-term failure of U.S. attempts at bringing democracy to Iraq would be because of the Islamic mindset. There are two primary sects within Islam (among others): Sunni and Shiite. Mr. Hussein was a Sunni. Sunnis in the country were preferentially treated. The Sunnis would therefore not want the removal of Saddam Hussein because of the fear of transfer (or sharing) of power with the Shiites. Many have averred that centuries of generations of having…… [Read More]
Democracy, Culture and the Voice of Poetry
At some point, all of us must have asked ourselves: Does poetry still have a place in the contemporary democratic society? Other questions arise from here of course: Does poetry play different roles in the different democracies? What is the difference between the role poetry plays in the American society and the role it plays in the European one? And from here on it may start the debate.
In the book, Democracy, Culture and the Voice of Poetry, by Robert Pinsky, we may find some answers to these questions.
Robert Pinsky starts in the first chapter "Culture" considering the "voice of poetry"..."within the culture of American democracy." He remarks that the human society fears the most often since its early ages from the important things: the uniformisation, by globalization, centralization, loss of diversity and the possibility of disappearing from the collective memory. An…… [Read More]
They couldn't protect themselves with diversification, as an investor-shareholder would in corporate-capitalism. All their eggs would be in one basket. This could result in the firm's stagnation from lack of creativity, innovation, and willingness to take a risk.
Dahl's issue is how to extend democracy and its values, especially equality, into the workplace and thus create a better economic system. He concludes that self-governing enterprises where the workers were responsible for the success of their firms, is the answer. Because every worker would have an interest in the well-being of the firm, greater participation, harder work, and more attention to duty would be the result. Greater economic equality would lead to more harmonious relationships in the workplace and in the greater community as well. He avoids discussing the issue of social ownership. It is not clear who would actually own these enterprises. Would the public own them? Would the workers?…… [Read More]
He argues that there is a duty resting on convention, which he considers in a deep and morally weighty sense, based on an implied but nonetheless binding contract between the individual and the state:
It is a fact, then," they would say, "that you are breaking covenants and undertakings made with us, although you mad them under no compulsion of misunderstanding, and were not compelled to decide in a limited time; you had seventy years in which you could have left the country, if you were not satisfied with us of felt that the agreements were unjust (Plato, 1993, p. 89).
In other words, Socrates has enjoyed the benefit of the laws all his life and cannot now break them without breaking an implicit agreement he has made with the state based on his acceptance of the law over his lifetime.
Plato's ideal state is not a democracy, and…… [Read More]
Democracy is the accepted forms of governance of people throughout the world and is divided into direct and indirect democracy. Direct democracy is a system of democracy in which power is placed directly in the hands of people. The strengths of direct democracy include it provides direct responsibility, enhances transparency, increases political participation, and facilitates the creation of a well cooperative community. However, its weaknesses include difficulties in decision making, ignoring the opinions of the minority, and needs for extremely high costs. On the contrary, indirect democracy is a system of governance where leaders and officials are elected by the people and mandated with the responsibility of making decisions, formulating policies, lawmaking, and running the country. Its strengths include well balanced decisions, effective legislative body, and well balanced policies whereas the weaknesses include under representation of minorities and increased likelihood of inefficiency and corruption. The most effective democracy is indirect…… [Read More]
Opposition to same-sex marriage is strong and vocal, while support for same sex marriage is equally strong and vocal. An understanding of constitutional arguments will be helpful in determining whether or not federal or state government should have the right too define marriage.
The overturn of a statute prohibiting homosexual sodomy, in Lawrence vs. Texas, opened the constitutional debate over same sex marriage in the United States. Lawrence vs. Texas, however, left prohibitions on same-sex marriage. At the same time, Lawrence vs. Texas may "the door wide to challenges of the same-sex ban on due process and equal protection grounds" (Thomas, 2003). In time, suggests Thomas (2003), arguments of due process and equal protection will likely make their way to the Supreme Court.
Given this eventuality, opponents of same-sex marriage are proposing a constitutional amendment to limit marriage to same sex couples (Thomas, 2003). Gerstmann (2004) argues that such an…… [Read More]
democracy in detail. It discusses different forms of democracy. The difference between liberal democracy and democracy has also been analyzed in this paper. It puts light on the seven institutional guarantees of liberal democracy and examines each of the institutional guarantees in detail.
Most of the people around the globe are familiar to the word democracy but its meaning is often misunderstood by many at occasions when marshal law administrators, single-party governments and military groups acquire the support of millions of people by claiming that they are a democratic government. The word democracy has been derived from the Greek word 'demos' which means people. Democracy can be defined as a form of government in which the supreme power belongs to the people of the nation. In some forms of democracy, this power is exercised, directly, by the people of the nation. In other forms, however, this power is being exercised…… [Read More]
Democracy in the United States [...] what type of democracy is the U.S. What are the most democratic and least democratic features of American national government? Do you believe that the U.S. presently embodies the core values of a democracy or do you believe that the U.S. has yet to attain the essence of democratic ideals? Democracy is one of the most sought after forms of government, and some form of democracy reaches far back into history, as far back as early Greece. American democracy is a model for the world.
First, to discuss democracy it is better to define democracy. "Democracy" comes from the Greek work "demos" which means "the common people," and "kratia" which means, "power" (O'Neil 149). Thus, democracy means the power actually lives in the people. However, this is too simply a definition of the word. Author O'Neil maintains the word means "political power exercised either…… [Read More]
South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011, but has been embroiled in civil conflict ever since. This instability has hampered the ability of the country to lay the groundwork for developing its economy. The evidence shows that there is a pathway to economic development, even for the least-developed country, and this paper will elaborate on what those steps might be.
South Sudan is a landlocked country of 12.5 million people that split off from the Sudan in 2011. South Sudan is a multiethnic society, with different tribal groups living in the basin of the White Nile, which flows from Lake Victoria until it meets with the Blue Nile. The split of Sudan came after years of civil war. The north of Sudan was Muslim, the south Christian, and that is largely the fault line along which the border between Sudan and South Sudan is presently split. The country is…… [Read More]
In these very conservative Islamic countries, and even those less conservative like Jordan and Egypt, we see symbols of capitalism. This gives rise to the question of whether or not these countries can in fact be a part of a world economy without surrendering their theocratic rule to more liberal forms of democratic rule; or whether they reject - as Iran has done - Westernization completely.
At this point the outcome is unknown, but this does help explain the conditions in the Middle East today, and why the situation in Iraq has become so violent. The question becomes one of whether or not the fundamental principles of Islam can survive against the fundamental principles of democracy; the answer is predictably no. This is what has given rise to Islamic fundamentalism in the region; those Muslims who - and perhaps rightfully so - under stand the threat of over exposure to…… [Read More]
democracy and representative government central inspirations for European feminists in the 19th and early 20th centuries? Were there other issues that inspired the feminists?
urning in the heart of each person is the desire to be free and to be recognized as a valuable part of society while at the same time receiving recognition as an individual. This desire is not trained into us by our society, because regardless of the social organization, or culture, all men and women feel this burning desire equally. The desire to be free, independent and recognized as valuable is a part of what separated men and women from animals. We are important, and our contribution to the social order is an important process by which we make carve out our own identify, and self-worth.
However, this desire for identity and recognition should not be confused with, nor forcibly molded into a desire for sameness…… [Read More]
If the context, nation, or order centers on a group of people who have either lost interest in political ideology, or desire to share in the common decision process, then they are not truly represented. This could result in the lack of an appeal of voting, to be involved in litigation, or the lack of proper representation. "In societies where some form of elitism is institutionalized, there democracy cannot breathe easily," (Lane & Ersson 10). This can be common in industrialized societies where a family, a system, or socioeconomic presence of a class is evidenced. Democracy can create a depressed economy, environment, or nation, if the common members feel as though the elitist individuals are using the form of government to benefit those within certain classes or families in society. This was seen historically when the stock market crashed in 1929. Nash states, "The search was to dominate Americans throughout…… [Read More]
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…… [Read More]
In author Jacques Ranciere's book On the Shores of Politics, he discusses what he believes are the important concepts in understanding democracy and how it is used by people. Most importantly in the chapter "The Uses of Democracy" is his belief that true democracy has yet to be envisioned. In the United States and other countries, as time progresses the nations which are built upon democratic systems of government move further away from the principles of that government's founding. After the fall of Communist regimes, the supremacy of the democratic viewpoint seems to have been strengthened but in reality the situation is only becoming more divisive, at least according to Ranciere's perspective. The differences between democracy as ideal and democracy in practice is growing with the advent of "liberal democracy" which itself demands a reorganization and reprioritizing of democratic ideals based on growing concern for individuals.
The word democracy…… [Read More]
Critically assess the extent to which deliberative democracy, neo-conservatism and/or neo-liberalism promote and/or restrict democratization for groups that are excluded and marginalized. Please refer to the debates presented in the attached readings to make your points and cite your sources.
Civil society may make up a place for democratization, owing to its ability to enable individuals to decide on living their public life and resolving common issues. Individuals who consider deliberation to be the soul of democracy ought to be drawn to a broad form of public domain. Postmodernists, who hold rather divergent views, conceptualizing democracy with regard to agonistic regard formed via identity and difference negotiations, ought to similarly be drawn to pluralism. Democrats ought to support, in general, a state complete in key elements, as appropriately organized exclusion may prove beneficial to democratization and democracy, even from excluded parties' standpoint. All historical decisions taken by governments to ensure…… [Read More]
democratic system for governing a group of people, small or large, must maintain the best interests of all the individuals involved. This general criterion must be upheld regardless of whether specifically what these best interests are cannot be unanimously agreed upon. Ideally, a democracy allows everyone involved an equal voice and vote regarding every decision that concerns that organization. Robert Dahl identifies the five primary components of the ideal democracy: "1. Effective participation. 2. Equality in voting. 3. Gaining enlightened understanding. 4. Exercising final control over the agenda. 5. Inclusion of adults." (Dahl 38). Essentially, along every step of the decision-making process each member of this association must have an equal opportunity to voice their opinions, vote, learn about the issues, choose what matters are to be considered, and everyone of age must be involved.
These somewhat rigid requirements can be difficult for even small organizations to uphold, and nearly…… [Read More]
Ibsen's "An Enemy of the People" focuses on the meaning of truth from the perspective of the majority ruled by its democratically elected leadership versus the individual's rights. Dr. Thomas Stockman plays the role of the individual who intends to use his democratic right of freely expressing his opinion, especially when this opinion is based on scientific facts and concerns the health of his fellow humans. ovstad, the editor at the newspaper "The People's erald," "freethinker" inside and a radical at heart, who has the instruments to support the free expression of such opinions, political vocation and enough shrewdness to be able to manipulate and adapt to people and situations like a chameleon.
ovstad is as representative for the discussion involving democracy and its flaws now as it was a century ago. Ibsen may have played with philosophical principals and ideas when he wrote the play, but the dilemmas he…… [Read More]
Democracy: Ancient Athens and Today
The democratic process of ancient Athens as compared to today was much different. The most obvious difference is simply the scale of the process. Ancient Athens was a relatively small city-state compared to the enormous country that is the United States. There are many millions more people in today's U.S. than there were in ancient Athens. Today's elections are also much less direct than they were in Athens. The U.S. uses an electoral and representative system of democracy -- but Athens practiced direct democracy: every participating citizen was able to vote directly for or against a law or policy. In today's world, citizens are very far removed from the process for the most part and must rely on their elected representatives to represent them fairly. Given the sheer number of people in the U.S. and the many differences of our people, fair representation…… [Read More]
Dahl's Theory Of Democracy
The two articles have defined Dahl as the role model in democracy research and the most eminent figure in the field of modern science. The articles reveal that Dahl has adequate knowledge in democratic issues specializing in empirical and normative aspects. He has pioneered in arguments regarding democracy concerns. Aspects of the democratic theory induced by Dahl are based on an analytical approach comprising of three elements. The first component includes values that constitute the objectives of a democratic government. The second component comprises of individual premises while the third is the required institutions for the implementation of democratic values. Besides knowing that democracy goes line in line with individuals, most leaders tend to ignore the individuals they are leading and their reactions. From the articles, the author argues that we cannot analyze how to produce democracy by ignoring to observe individuals making up democratic governments.…… [Read More]
This really depends upon which actor is selected as the begining point, the responses to the following questions will not be the same. hy is there so much beef with this website leaking information? ikiLeaks -- as it talks about on the website -- 'bring[s] significant news and info to those in the community. They give an groundbreaking, protected and anonymous way for sources to leak material to journalists' (Thomas 2012).
EMEA government organizations with no documented security. (2010). International Journal of Micrographics & Optical Technology, 28(6), 8-8.
OMB issues first report on federal information technology security. (2002). The Journal of Government Financial Management, 51(2), 8-8.
Bajaj, a., & Ram, S. (2007). A comprehensive framework towards information sharing between government agencies. International Journal of Electronic Government Research, 3(2), 29-44.
Batley, S. (2007). The I in information architecture: The challenge of content management. Aslib Proceedings, 59(2), 139-151.
Brito, Jerry. "Improving…… [Read More]
Autocracy and Democracy
There are different forms of government throughout the world. Each nation decides how it will govern its people and in whom the power will be vested. It is expected that when the nation is established, either the citizens or those who led the efforts to create the new nation will find a system of governance that works for all considered. There are many different forms of government, perhaps as many different forms as there are governments to adopt them. Some nations have kings and queen who rule their monarchy, others are theocracies where the rulers are the clergy, and still others are meritocracies where those who are put in positions of power have been granted the honor based on their value to the rest of the society. Two nearly diametrically opposed systems of government are democracies and autocracies. In the former government type, the people are the…… [Read More]
This is designed to help support individuals who are dealing with financial challenges. The problem is that select amounts of recipients will use as a way to live off of the government. (Wolf, 2005)
How might a socialist and a capitalist government differ in its treatment of the problem of unemployment?
Socialists want to see massive amounts of government spending to create new jobs, training programs and provide unemployment benefits. A capitalist is opposed to these kinds of programs and believes that charities / private enterprises can address these issues.
In your opinion, should the government have the responsibility of providing health care for every citizen? Why or why not?
Yes, the government should provide health care. The reason why is because prices are increasing exponentially and the number of uninsured is rising. These factors are a sign that there is very little competition inside the sector. To address these…… [Read More]
limits to democracy in the early republic, as its first president George ashington reflected the elitist view of the federalists in his approach to the executive branch of government. As Patrick Henry stated in 1788, "The Constitution is said to have beautiful features, but when I come to examine these features…they appear to me horridly frightful…it squints towards monarchy," (p. 146). According to Henry, the "President may easily become King," a fact that should "raise indignation in the breast of every American," (p. 146). Henry was himself not concerned with issues related to race, class, or gender, but he did understand the ideals of the democracy when he lamented, "hither is the spirit of America gone? hither is the genius of America fled?" (146). This question can easily be posed to point out the gross hypocrisy in denying Constitutional rights to more than half the population living in the borders…… [Read More]
assumes the notion that it would be best to have "a system of economic
enterprises collectively owned and democratically governed by all the
people who work in them," meaning that he differs from the notions of Okun
and the Friedman's by proposing something radically different to promote
the ultimate goal of democracy (Dahl 92). Neither equality nor freedom is
necessary to fix the relationship between the economy and democracy, but
rather a completely different and even radical outlook on the relationship
between the economy and government can solve the dilemma. Furthermore Dahl
argues to how it is possible to retain the democratic principle within
firms, and prevent problems such as oligarchy. These notions in which the
economy becomes compatible with the political notions are completely
different than the Friedman's and Okun's notion that there lies a problem
with democracy. Dahl is even casting serious doubt on Tocqueville's long…… [Read More]
This rationale may prove correct to some degree, but only in those areas where the villagers have no means of communication between villages and thus no way of exchanging opinions and finding out about irregularities and breaking of the law. Kolhammer is pointing out that the declared official role of the organic law of Village Committees is only going to be put in practice after the villagers will be aware of the right they have according to it and act accordingly.
There is no possibility that one can draw the conclusion that peasants in most villages in China are not aware of their rights in terms of electing their village leader and Village Committee. The degree of knowledge in this sense may vary, but a country that has experienced huge economic changes after the death of Mao could not have remained immobile to significant social and political changes. The political…… [Read More]
21st Century American 'Democracy': The Best Government that Money Can Buy
ithin polarized, interest group-dominated 21st century United States life, most Americans still cling to the idea, despite abundant evidence to the contrary, that we live in a democracy. In today's America, however, that idea is more quaint than accurate. Instead, as the article suggests, America is more a pseudo-democracy than a real one, in which special interest groups (and, as their representatives, high-priced lobbyists they can afford to hire) shape national political, social, economic, health, environmental, and most, if not all, other national agendas for us (although definitely not on our behalf). Meanwhile, a destructive combination of voter apathy (especially among, but not limited to, working-class individuals and minority group members, who feel especially detached) gives us, instead of democracy, the best government money can buy.
ebster's New American Dictionary defines "democracy" as: "1: government by the people; esp:…… [Read More]
Constitutional Democracy / Presidential or Parliamentary System
Social and Economic Sources of Democracy
For the successful development of a democracy, two major factors come into play regarding the sources of said democracy. Of course, some of the factors are also indications of other regimes -- fascist and communist -- though as argued by the various papers, there is a distinct difference in the political structures that determine democracies over fascist and communist regimes. Because of the major results created by such factors, the most important sources of democracy would have to be the economic, industrialized, and educational values within the nation.
"The level of economic development, as measured by per capita income, is by far the best predictor of political regimes" (Przeworski). While there appears to be a similarity between the development of economic countries in dictatorships and democracies, Przeworski maintains that a dictatorship eventually dies and paves the way…… [Read More]
Robert A. Dahl's On Democracy believe we are on an irreversible trend toward more freedom and democracy - but that could change.
Dan Quayle (1947 -), 5/22/89
The term, democracy, means many things in popular discourse. One has only to turn on the television to hear presidential speeches, public discussion, or news commentators espousing its virtues -- "goodness," "virtue," and "liberty," almost as if the term has become synonymous with freedom itself. In fact this trend is becoming so prevalent, that I find myself checking with each new release of Microsoft Word, if ther term "democracy" might yield "freedom" in its thesaurus.
Although today's average rabid patriot (a species won't to exclaim statements like, "Our boys are over there in eye-rak fighting for our freedom!") may see nothing amiss with this notion, there remains the issue of the tremendous disservice that results from the simplistic coupling of the two terms,…… [Read More]
Salvaging Democracy consent of the governed) then one is not in a democracy, though democratic elements may exist. America, for example, was founded as a republic and not as a democracy (though with time it has shifted towards being more ogliarchical in some aspects and more democratic in others). The more traditional definition of democracy needs to be understood if one is to approach the philosophy of the classical Greek philosophers. Ancient Greece, one must understand, is one of the few places in the world or in history where democracy has actually been practiced in a state setting. The polises of Greece such as Athens were frequently democratic, and all citizens had a right to vote on issues ranging from laws to criminal trials. True Democracy has only thrived in classical Greece, yet the greatest Greek philosophers condemned it in favor of a more Republican or even Aristocratic regime that…… [Read More]
In addition, he notes that the Chinese and ussians somehow "choose" to be continuing autocracies, and then acknowledges the power of their leaders. Thus, the people are under the thumb of their leaders, and may be "settling" for autocracy because they see democracy as unattainable and out of reach. Take the ussians, for example, who had a real shot at democracy when the Soviet Union fell, and have instead allowed Putin to create another autocracy not unlike much of the Soviet regime before the fall. Indeed, people may choose autocracy, or they may be bullied into it, or they simply may be more comfortable with it, because it is so ingrained in their lives.
Gee does make valid points throughout his essay, including the notation that most large, successful countries fail without democracy. ome and Greece are two of the dominant democratic cultures that notoriously fell from power and crumbled…… [Read More]
At the same time, democracy allows people ith different views come together on a particular subject they share an opinion, state their mind and make a positive change.
Q6. What does De Tocqueville mean by 'artificial solidarity'?
Artificial solidarity resembles a tailored feeling of solidarity based on a foundation that is not real and one which was applied to a society without real background that would support it in a true manner. It resembles an individual that is pious in clothes and behavior, but his house is full of luxurious belongings.
Q7. Why should democrats remember the 'utility of forms'?
Forms are tools through which barriers are set and rules are created. In a system that allows people to use their rights to freedom, it is important to have such forms and to respect them.
Q8. What is 'self-interest rightly understood'? Where does De Tocqueville derive this idea from? Why…… [Read More]
Islamic and democracy existing side by side in Pakistan. The research proposal will revolve around factors and evidences which shows connection between the Islam and democracy. Muslims have been denied there democratic rights by their leaders claiming to follow Islamic religion thereby creating public interest of ways in which Muslims democracy in Pakistan can be upheld.
Justification of the research
It has been widely portrayed that Pakistani Islamist parties have since enjoyed widespread support only after joining pro-democracy movements, (Nadeem F. Paracha, 2013). This was evidenced in 1980s when the Jamaat-I Islamic, Maududi's party joined Benazir Bhutto in fighting dictatorship; another case is the recent one when members of the Jamaat joined Imran Khan's Movement for Justice (PTI), (Daniel Jacobius Morgan, 2013). Therefore political parties who advocates for democracy should be given much support by the Muslim and Western democrats in their quest to fight for this democracy in Pakistan…… [Read More]
Terrorism and Democracy
Terrorism is by its very nature is anti-democratic as it seeks to achieve political ends by violence. It has no interest in any of the bedrocks of democracy such as building consensus, stimulating debate or protecting the rights and interests of minorities. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks on the TC twin towers, the 'clear and present' danger to democracy, freedom and liberties has become even more pronounced. There is consensus among all those who cherish democracy that urgent steps are necessary to counter the threat of terrorism. The key question is: how to accomplish this? In this essay we shall examine how terrorism undermines democracy and whether setting up an international committee can help to fight terrorism. e shall also look at short definitions of democracy and terrorism.
Definition of Democracy
Democracy (Greek demos, "the people"; kratein, "to rule") is a political system in which…… [Read More]
Political Philosophy II: Theories of Freedom
To answer the questions of why De Tocqueville and Mill think that democracy is a threat to the liberty of the individual and whether they are right, this paper will show that both De Tocqueville and Mill viewed democracy as a mechanism that could easily become tyrannical and thus overwhelm one's individual liberty. Considering that democracy in its various forms (direct, representative, constitutional) is capable of being corrupted (voters and/or representatives may be bribed, coerced, misinformed, misled, subjugated, harassed, mobbed, and so on), it is not difficult to see that both Tocqueville and Mill are correct in their arguments: democracy can be a threat to the liberty of the individual -- precisely because it is not necessarily predicated on truth, rightness, or goodness. Is there any system of government that does not represent a potential threat to the liberty of the individual when it…… [Read More]
The media has been referred to as the fourth estate, a bedrock element of democratic society. The term has its origins referencing the critical role that media plays in society. The first three estates are taken to be the clergy, the nobility and the commoners. This concept derives from England, in particular attributed to something that Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1841 about there being three estates in parliament, but the reporters in the gallery were the fourth estate." Carlyle had written that they were the most important of all (Crichton et al, 2010).
When applied to a country's media, the terms "free" and "independent" reference privately-owned media that operate without undue interference from the government. The media is considered to be a bedrock of democracy because they are responsible for the flow of information to the populace. More specifically, this refers to organized media companies, prior to the digital…… [Read More]